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General Description

General Description General Description All gasoline engines mounted on Toyota automobiles are four-stroke engines.

General Description

All gasoline engines mounted on Toyota automobiles are four-stroke engines. Four-stroke engines operate by continu- ous and regular repetition of the follow- ing sequence:

1. Intake stroke

2. Compression stroke

3. Combustion stroke

4. Exhaust stroke

Basic principle of four-stroke engine In order for an engine to operate smoothly under a wide range of operat- ing conditions, the following three condi- tions must be satisfied:

Good air-fuel mixture

Good compression

Good spark

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Three Elements of Gasoline Engines Air 15 Theoretical air-fuel ratio Fuel 1 10 15 20
Three Elements of Gasoline Engines
Air
15
Theoretical
air-fuel ratio
Fuel
1
10
15
20
Richer
Air-fuel ratio
Leaner

Good Air-fuel Mixture

1. Good air-fuel mixture for automobiles

(1) Gasoline is vaporized and sufficiently mixed with air In order for gasoline to completely burn, it must be sufficiently vaporized and mixed with air.

(2) Proper air-fuel mixture Automobiles are used under various operating condi- tions and there is a change in the engine operating condition, the required air-fuel mixture changes as well.

When the air temperature changes from high to low. When the driving surface changes from flat ground to a steep incline and a heavy load is applied to the engine. When the engine speed changes widely from idling to high speed for acceleration.

2. Air-fuel ratio The air-fuel ratio is the ratio of the mass of air to fuel. When the amount of air is too great or too small, the gasoline does not burn well, resulting in incomplete combustion. There is a minimum of 14.7 parts air required to completely burn 1 part gasoline. This is called the theoretical air-fuel ratio. However, in actual gasoline engines, even though the gasoline is injected to meet the theoretical air-fuel ratio, not all the gasoline can be vaporized and mixed with the air. For that reason, under some conditions a richer air-fuel mixture is necessary.

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- 1

-

Air 15 Theoretical air-fuel ratio Fuel 1 10 15 20 Richer Air-fuel ratio Leaner
Air
15
Theoretical
air-fuel ratio
Fuel
1
10
15
20
Richer
Air-fuel ratio
Leaner

3. Air fuel ratio and driving conditions

(3) At starting:

At starting, the walls of the intake manifold, the cylin- ders and the cylinder head are cold, causing the fuel sprayed by the injectors to adhere to them. In this case, the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber becomes lean. Therefore, the rich air-fuel mixture is required.

(4) Warming-up:

The lower the coolant temperature is, the vaporized condition of the gasoline becomes worse, causing ignition worse. Therefore, the rich air-fuel mixture is required.

(5) When accelerating:

When the accelerator pedal is depressed, a fuel sup-

ply lag occurs by load change, resulting in a leaner fuel mixture. Therefore, an additional amount of fuel is injected to the mixture.

(6) When cruising (constant speed):

After the engine is completely warmed up, the fuel mixture supplied to the engine is very close to the the- oretical air-fuel ratio.

(7) Under heavy loads:

When a higher output of power is needed, a slightly richer fuel mixture is supplied to the engine to lower the burning temperature and ensure that all of the intake air is used in combustion.

(8) When decelerating:

As engine output is not needed, fuel is cut-off in a part of this driving condition in order to clean exhaust gas- ses.

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Compression Volume of combustion chamber (A) + Volume of cylinder (B) = ratio Volume of
Compression
Volume of combustion chamber (A) + Volume of cylinder (B)
=
ratio
Volume of combustion chamber (A)
A
A
B
1 Spark plug 2 Air-fuel mixture
1
Spark plug
2
Air-fuel
mixture

- 3 -

Good Compression

1. Necessity of compressing the air- fuel mixture

When an uncompressed air-fuel mixture

is ignited, it burns slowly due to the low

density of fuel and air. However, when compressed air-fuel mixture is ignited, the high density causes the mixture to suddenly burn (explode).

Even when the fuel mixture is the same,

a compressed mixture will release more

power than an uncompressed mixture when ignited. Furthermore, compressing the air-fuel mixture causes the fuel and air to mix more thoroughly, resulting in a higher rate of vaporization of the gasoline and higher temperature when ignited. The compressed air-fuel mixture also burns more easily than before. The level of compression of the air-fuel mixture is expressed in the compression ratio. Generally, the greater explosive pressure can be attained when the com- pression pressure is higher. However the knocking occurs if the pressure is too high. Therefore, the compression ratio of the gasoline engine is normally designed to be between 9 to 11.

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Good Spark

The gasoline engine converts the com-

bustion of the air-fuel mixture to motive force. In order for the air-fuel mixture to burn well, it is important to have a powerful enough spark with proper ignition timing.

1. Conditions for a good spark

(1) Ability to generate a powerful spark enough for the air-fuel mixture to burn (explode) The spark plug in a gasoline engine generates a spark to burn the air-fuel mixture. If the spark is weak, there will not be enough energy to ignite the air-fuel mixture. For that reason, a powerful spark is essential.

(2) Ability to keep the proper ignition tim- ing for every engine condition The ignition timing changes accord- ing to engine speed or load to ensure that there is always proper ignition timing.

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Engine Proper

Engine Proper Cylinder head Cylinder head gasket Cylinder block - 4 - Description The engine is
Cylinder head Cylinder head gasket
Cylinder head
Cylinder head gasket
Cylinder block
Cylinder block

- 4 -

Description

The engine is made of many compo- nents to help it convert heat energy into mechanical energy efficiently when the air-fuel mixture is burned.

1. Cylinder head

(1) Cylinder head

(2) Cylinder head gasket

2. Cylinder block

Crankshaft Bearing cap
Crankshaft
Bearing
cap
Connecting rod Bearing cap
Connecting
rod
Bearing
cap
Crankshaft bearing Thrust washer Connecting rod bearing
Crankshaft
bearing
Thrust
washer
Connecting
rod bearing

- 5 -

3. Crankshaft

(1) Crankshaft (2) Bearing cap

4. Connecting rods

(1) Connecting rod (2) Bearing cap

5. Bearings

(1) Connecting rod bearing (2) Crankshaft bearing (3) Thrust washer

Piston Piston pin Piston rings
Piston
Piston
pin
Piston
rings
(1) Exhaust camshaft (2) Intake camshaft (4) (10) Timing chain (5) (6) (7) (11) Chain
(1) Exhaust camshaft
(2) Intake camshaft
(4)
(10) Timing chain
(5)
(6)
(7)
(11) Chain
(8)
tensioner
(9) Valve
slipper
(12) Chain
vibration
damper
(13) Timing chain
tensioner
(14) Crankshaft timing sprocket

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6. Pistons

(1) Piston

(2) Piston pin

(3) Piston rings

7. Valve mechanism etc.

(1) Exhaust camshaft

(2) Intake camshaft

(3) Valve lifter

(4) Keeper

(5) Valve spring retainer

(6) Valve spring

(7) Valve stem oil seal

(8) Spring seat

(9) Valve

(10)Timing chain

(11)Chain tensioner slipper

(12)Chain vibration damper (13) Timing chain tensioner

(14)Crankshaft timing sprocket

When these components function cor- rectly, motive force is produced.

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Cylinder head Spark plug Intake Exhaust port port Water jacket Cylinder head gasket Oil hole
Cylinder head
Spark plug
Intake
Exhaust port
port
Water jacket
Cylinder head gasket
Oil hole
Combustion
chamber
Elastic region
Plastic region
Bolt’s rotational angle
Smaller
Larger
Fracture
point
Yield
Bolt
point
tension
Bolt’s rotational angle
Plastic region bolt
Cylinder head
Bolt tension

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Cylinder Head

The cylinder head is located on top of the cylinder block. The bottom of the cylinder head is indented and combines with the piston to form the combustion chamber. Inter- nally, there are a oil hole and a water jacket to cool the valves and the spark plugs. Most gasoline engines have cylinder heads made of aluminum alloy. Aluminum alloy is lighter than cast iron, and it has excellent heat conduction properties. In between the cylinder block and the cylinder head is the cylinder head gas- ket, which acts to seal the junction of the two parts in order to prevent leakage of highly pressurized gasses, combustion gasses, coolant and engine oil.

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Plastic Region Bolt

The plastic region bolt is used in such areas as the cylinder head or bearing cap assembly to provide a steady bolt tension. Normally bolts are tightened to the elas- tic region. In this condition, the bolt is tightened to the specified tightening torque. In the elastic region, the bolt tightening torque and bolt tension becomes greater proportionally. For tightening a bolt in the elastic region, some tolerance will be created through the bolt thread, flange or washer if the bolt tension is controlled at the tighten- ing torque. In the plastic region, there is almost no change in bolt tension from tightening torque. The plastic region tightening method uses the material properties so that the uneven bolt tension from fluctu- ations in tightening torque is reduced. Bolt tension is stabilized as bolt tension itself becomes greater.

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Cylinder block Cylinder liner
Cylinder block
Cylinder liner
Combustion stroke Compression stroke Ridge Cylinder wear Thrust force
Combustion stroke
Compression stroke
Ridge
Cylinder wear
Thrust force

Cylinder Block

The cylinder block acts to maintain the compression pres- sure with the piston and receive the combustion pressure. Recent cylinder block consists of the aluminum cylinder block and the cylinder liner. However, there are engines without cylinder liners (2ZZ-GE engine). Also there are cylinder blocks made of cast iron. The cyl- inder bore is a cylindrical shape. However it becomes inclined for the upper part of the cylinder, which becomes high temperature and high pressure, and the piston thrust side, which is pressurized with the thrust force of the pis- ton to wear. For this reason, the cylind er can become oval shaped or tapered due to partial wear.

Various defective conditions resulting from cylinder wear:

Extreme piston-side knocking

Abnormal engine oil consumption

Compression leakage etc.

HINT:

Abnormal wear and damage inside the cylinder and damage mainly occur for the following reasons:

Insufficient lubrication

Improper maintenance of the engine oil or oil filter

Dust being sucked into the engine

Air-fuel mixture too rich

Overheating

Overcooling

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1. Location of cylinder bore STD size codes (5VZ-FE engine) Front Cylinder bore size Even
1.
Location of cylinder bore STD size codes
(5VZ-FE engine)
Front
Cylinder bore size
Even when brand new, there may be some difference
in cylinder bore size due to unevenness in manufac-
turing precision. For that reason, there are three stan-
dard cylinder bore sizes.
The size code of each cylinder is inscribed on the top
of a cylinder block.
In order to increase the precision of piston clearance,
standard pistons that match the cylinder size are
used.
As the size code increases, bore size increases by
about 0.01 mm.
For some engines, there are four to five standard
sizes.
Further, there are engines where there is only one cyl-
inder bore size, in which case they do not have the
size code inscribed on the cylinder block.
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Bore size code
Cylinder bore size
1
Small
2
3
Large

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Location of main journal bore STD size codes (1NZ-FE engine)

Location of main journal bore STD size codes (1NZ-FE engine)

2.

Crankshaft main journal bore size The crankshaft main journal bore is machine-manu- factured along with the cylinder block and bearing cap. Differences in crankshaft main journal bore sizes occur from unevenness in manufacturing precision. For that reason, there are several standard crankshaft main journal bore sizes. This size code in inscribed on the bottom of the cylin- der block. Use this code when selecting bearings to improve the crankshaft main journal oil clearance precision in order to prevent abnormal noise and seizing and to maintain good fuel economy. As the size code increases, the bore size increases in micron units. Number of standard size, size coding and location of inscription differ according to the engine models.

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Bore size code Crankshaft main journal bore size 0 Small 1 6 Large Crank pin
Bore size code
Crankshaft main
journal bore size
0
Small
1
6
Large
Crank pin
Crank journal
Balance weight
Crankshaft
Oil hole

Crankshaft

The crankshaft acts to convert the linear motion of the pistons into revolving motion. In order to be able to receive great force and revolve at high speed, it needs enough strength and rigidity, along with durability to wear, and to be statically and dynamically balanced to rotate smoothly. The crank pin and the crank journal are attached by a hardening process in order to make it enduring and durable against wear. The balance weight is installed to bal- ance with the crankshaft rotation. The crank pin and the crank journal have an oil hole. The oil travels from the cylinder block, enters into the oil hole of the journal and goes through to the crank pin.

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Combustion pressure Combustion pressure Piston Connecting rod Crankshaft center Offset Offset crankshaft Center
Combustion pressure
Combustion pressure
Piston
Connecting rod
Crankshaft
center
Offset
Offset crankshaft
Center crankshaft

REFERENCE

Crankshaft Offset

Offsetting the crankshaft center and the cylinder bore center serves to raise engine efficiency.

The maximum amount of combustion pressure that the pistons receive can be efficiently transferred to the crankshaft.

By reducing the amount of force in the thrust direction of the piston, friction loss is reduced.

HINT:

Example: Amount of crankshaft offset 1NZ-FE and 2NZ-FE engines: 12 mm (0.472 in.) 1SZ-FE and 2SZ-FE engines: 8 mm (0.315 in.)

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Bearing cap Bearing cap unit with ladder-frame construction
Bearing cap
Bearing cap unit with ladder-frame construction

The numbers for the journal installation position and installation orientation are inscribed on the crankshaft bearing cap. Example: ZZ engine series. Some bearing caps are single unit with ladder-frame construction, which con- sists of the bottom of the cylinder block.

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Location of main journal and crank pin STD size codes

Main journal STD size codes (1NZ-FE engine) Main journal STD size codes (2JZ-GE engine) Crank
Main journal STD
size codes
(1NZ-FE engine)
Main journal STD
size codes
(2JZ-GE engine)
Crank pin STD
size codes
(2JZ-GE engine)

Main journal or crank pin size codes

2

Main journal or crank pin size

1

Large

Small

3

1. Main journal and crank pin size Differences in the main journal and crank pin circum- ference occur from unevenness in manufacturing pre- cision. For that reason, there are several standard sizes for the main journal and crank pin. This size code is inscribed on the crankshaft. There are engines where there is only one size, in which case they do not have the size code inscribed. Use this code when selecting bearings to prevent the crankshaft main journal oil clearance precision or con- necting rod oil clearance precision in order to prevent abnormal noise and seizing and to maintain good fuel economy. As the size code increases, the diameter of the main journal and crank pin decreases in micron units. Number of standard sizes, size coding and location of inscription differ according to the engine models.

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Upper half-bearing Oil groove Oil hole Thrust washer Bearing size code Locking lip Oil groove
Upper half-bearing
Oil groove
Oil hole
Thrust washer
Bearing size code
Locking lip
Oil groove

Lower half-bearing

Bearing size code

Bearing size

1

Thin

2

2
 

Thick

Crankshaft Bearing

When there is an appropriate oil film on the surface of the bearing, it can absorb the heavy load and shock from the rotating parts in the combustion stroke. This oil film pre- vents seizing and reduces output loss due to friction. There is an oil hole and oil groove in the upper half-bear- ing and it supplies oil to the bearing and main journal and lubricates. There is a locking lip to keep the bearing from rotating. The thrust washer absorbs the force applied to the crank- shaft in the axial direction. There is an oil groove on the surface that touches the crankshaft. There is a tab on the bottom side thrust washer to keep it from turning. There are some engines that do not have the bottom side thrust washer.

1. Bearing size There are several standard sizes for crankshaft bear- ings. This size code is inscribed on the back of the bearing. Use this code when selecting bearings to improve the crankshaft main journal oil clearance precision in order to prevent abnormal noise and seizing and to maintain good fuel economy. As the size code increases, the bearing thickness increases in micron units. Number of standard sizes and size coding differ according to the engine models.

2. Undersize bearing When the crankshaft main journal is damaged or the oil clearance becomes larger, the main journal is ground and a thicker undersize bearing can be used. There are some engines that cannot accept an under- size bearing replacement. If this is the case, the crankshaft must be replaced.

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Bearing cap Connecting rod Oil jet Front mark Big end bore size code Big end
Bearing cap
Connecting rod
Oil jet
Front mark
Big end bore
size code
Big end bore

Big end bore size code

Big end bore size

1

Large

2

2

3

Small

Oil hole Bearing size code
Oil hole
Bearing size code

Bearing size code

Bearing size

1

Thin

2

2
 

Thick

Connecting Rod

The connecting rod takes the force, which the piston receives, and transfers it to the crankshaft. Since it is con- stantly affected by compressing and pulling force, it needs to be sufficiently strong and rigid. There is an oil jet attached to the big end of the connect- ing rod for lubrication and cooling. Engine oil is supplied through the crankshaft engine oil hole. The connecting rod attaches to the bearing cap, so check the front mark as not to make a mistake when assembling the two parts.

1. Big end bore size The big end bore is machine-manufactured with the

connecting rod and bearing cap. Due to unevenness

in machine manufacturing precision, differences in big

end bore size can occur. For that reason, there are several standard big end

bore sizes. The size code of each bore is inscribed on

a bearing cap.

Use this code when selecting bearings to improve the connecting rod oil clearance precision in order to pre- vent abnormal noise and seizing and to maintain good

fuel economy. As the size code increases, the big end bore size increases in micron units. Number of standard sizes and size coding differ according to the engine models.

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Connecting Rod Bearing

When there is an appropriate oil film on the surface of the bearing, it can absorb the heavy load and shock from the rotating parts in the combustion stroke. This oil film pre- vents seizing and reduces output loss due to friction. There is an oil hole in the upper half-bearing to channel oil to the oil jet of the connecting rod. (There is also an oil hole in the lower half-bearing as the same part is used for the lower and the upper.)

1. Bearing Size There are several standard sizes for connecting rod bearings. This size code is inscribed on the back of the bearing. Use this code when selecting bearings to improve the connecting rod oil clearance precision in order to pre- vent abnormal noise and seizing and to maintain good fuel economy. As the size code increases, the bearing thickness increases in micron units. Number of standard sizes, size coding and location of inscription differ according to the engine models.

2. Undersize Bearing When the crank pin of the crankshaft is damaged or the oil clearance becomes larger, the crank pin is ground and a thicker undersize bearing can be used. There are some engines that cannot accept an under- size bearing replacement. If this is the case, the crankshaft must be replaced.

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Bearing Oil film
Bearing
Oil film

Oil clearance

No.2 No.1 No.2 No.3 No.4 No.1 No.3 No.4 No.5 No.5 Bearing size cord
No.2
No.1
No.2 No.3
No.4
No.1
No.3
No.4
No.5
No.5
Bearing size cord

Cylinder block main journal bore size code (A)

       

+

0 - 2

3 - 5

6 - 8

9 - 11

Crankshaft main journal size code (B)

Example

       

A = 4, B = 3, A + B = 7

7

Use bearing size code

 

123

 

4

Bearing Selection

The oil clearance for the crankshaft bearing and the con- necting rod bearing is determined by the engine model. Each bearing should be selected to obtain the proper oil clearance with regard to the cylinder block main journal bore size and crankshaft main journal diameter, or the connecting rod big end bore size and crank pin diameter. As the bore size increases or the journal or pin diameter decreases, the thickness of the bearing to be used increases.

Oil clearance Oil clearance is the gap between the bearing and the shaft. Oil covers the parts so that metal parts do not make direct contact with other metal parts. When the oil clearance becomes larger, abnormal sounds occur and oil pressure decreases, leading to seizing.

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1. Bearing selection method Use the following process to determine the correct bearing (size code). A+B=C A: Cylinder block main journal bore size code (or con- necting rod big end bore size code) B: Crankshaft main journal size code (or crank pin size code) C: Total number

Example:

A: Cylinder block main journal bore size code: 4 B: Crankshaft main journal size code: 3 C: A+B=4+3=7

Select the bearing with a size code of 3 from the chart on the left. In this case, the total number is used as is for the bearing size code from the chart. The selecting method varies by the engine model. And there are some engines where the total number becomes as it is for the bearing size code. There are some engine models that do not have a rank

for the crankshaft main journal or crank pin. In this case, select a bearing with the same size code as the cylinder block main journal bore size code or connecting rod big end bore size code.

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B A Oval Circle Small Piston pin boss Piston skirt Large Truncated cone True cylinder
B
A
Oval
Circle
Small
Piston pin boss
Piston
skirt
Large
Truncated cone
True cylinder
Cold
Hot

Piston

1. Description The piston consists of the lowest part of the combus- tion chamber. In order for the pis-ton to move, there needs to be clearance between the piston and the cyl- inder wall. The construction is designed to maintain the proper

clearance when the piston expands due to high tem- peratures during combustion. As the piston boss part is thicker, it is easily affected by heat expansion. Therefore it is made to be slightly oval than the direction of right angle for the piston pin (B) so that the diameter in the direction of the piston pin (A) expands to make a circle during heat expan- sion. The piston head is exposed to high temperature dur- ing combustion, and it is not directly cooled by cool- ant and air. For that reason, the piston head reaches greater temperatures than the piston skirt. Taking into account the heat expansion during combustion, the piston head is slightly tapered when compared to the diameter of the piston skirt.

HINT:

For the piston diameter, measure the area specified in the Repair Manual. Note that the location for measurement is not the maximum diameter. For that reason, keep in mind that the standard oil clearance of the piston in the Repair Manual is not the actual gap between the cylinder and the piston.

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Combustion pressure Compression pressure Major thrust force (Combustion stroke) Minor thrust force (Compression
Combustion pressure
Compression pressure
Major thrust force
(Combustion stroke)
Minor thrust force
(Compression stroke)

2. Thrust force When the pressure during compres- sion or combustion acts on the pis- ton, a part of that force acts on the piston skirt and causes it to push against the cylinder wall. This is called thrust force. Thrust force is divided into two types:

major thrust force and minor thrust force. The former occurs during the com- bustion stroke and the later occurs during the compression stroke.

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- 15 -

Piston slap Offset piston Center of piston pin Center of piston Piston Offset
Piston slap
Offset piston
Center of piston pin
Center of piston
Piston
Offset

3. Piston slap (Side knocking) Piston slap is the noise that occurs when the piston hits against the cylinder wall. This is also called "side knocking". Piston slap occurs when the direction of the thrust force changes from the compression to combustion strokes. Piston slap is affected by the amount of pis- ton clearance. When the piston clearance is large, there is a greater piston slap. In some engines, the centerline of the piston and the centerline of the piston pin are slightly offset in order to reduce piston slap.

4. Operation of offset pistons In engines with offset pistons, the direction of thrust of the piston changes from the minor thrust direction to the major thrust direction near the end of the compres- sion stroke. In this way, the piston slap is reduced because the piston's thrust direction changes before

the piston receives combustion pressure.

- 16 -

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Piston size code and front mark (5VZ-FE engine)

Piston size code Front mark
Piston size code
Front mark

5. Piston size

When the piston and cylinder wear beyond the allow- able limit, it is necessary to replace the cylinder block or piston, or to rebore the cylinder block or cylinder liner and use oversize pistons. The piston and piston pin are usually provided as a piston assembly.

The standard size, which indicates the piston diame- ter, is inscribed.

The piston must be installed facing the correct direc- tion.

The direction is inscribed on the piston head.

The side with the mark represents the front side.

The exact location of the inscription differs according to the engine model.

(1) Standard size piston When the engine is assembled, each standard size piston is set for each cylinder bore size to achieve pis- ton clearance precision. As the number gets larger, the piston diameter increases incrementally by 0.01 mm (0.0004 in.) units. Recently, engines have only one cylinder bore size and one piston size.

(2) Oversize piston The size of an oversize piston is determined by the extent of wear on the cylinder. Normally, only the 0.50 oversize piston is available as supply parts. The 0.50 value in the oversize piston means that it is 0.50 mm (0.020 in.) larger than the standard size pis- ton. Besides the oversize piston written above, there are engines that require supply parts for 0.75 and 1.00 sizes. For some engines, oversize pistons are not available as supply parts.

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Striation finish Resin coating
Striation finish
Resin coating

REFERENCE Striations on the Piston Skirt

The piston skirt has been striation fin- ished to improve the lubrication proper- ties.

The striations on the piston skirt are not

a poor finishing. In some engines, the

striated piston skirt has been coated with

a composite resin to reduce friction.

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- 17 -

Compression ring No.1

Compression ring No.2 Oil ring side rail (upper) Oil rings Oil ring expander Oil ring
Compression ring No.2
Oil ring side rail (upper)
Oil rings
Oil ring expander
Oil ring side rail (lower)

Piston Ring

1. Description The piston ring is designed to pre- vent pressure from leaking out of the gap between the piston and the cylin- der. There are three piston rings that function to keep the combustion chamber airtight as the top two com- pression rings serve to disperse the heat from the pistons to the cylinder. Also they act to scrape off excess oil on the cylinder wall in order to create the minimum film of oil necessary while preventing excess oil from entering the combustion chamber.

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Size Manufacturer No.1 code mark No.2 code mark No.1 compression ring end gap and oil
Size
Manufacturer
No.1 code mark
No.2 code mark
No.1 compression ring end
gap and oil ring expander
end gap
Oil ring side rail (lower) end gap
Oil ring side rail (upper) end gap
No.2 compression ring end gap

2. Marks of ring The name of the manufacturer and the oversize mark are inscribed on the piston ring.

NOTICE:

Pay attention to the following when assembling:

The surface with the mark should face up.

Do not confuse the order of the compression rings. When the No. 1 compression ring does not have the mark, it may be located on the side of the ring. In the case that there are no marks in both locations, consult the Repair Manual to judge the difference in shape.

In order to reduce pressure leakage as much as pos- sible, assemble the piston ring end gap at the sepa- rated position as in the illustration.

Check the ring end gap when using a new piston ring.

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- 18 -

1NZ-FE engine : 110mm (4.33 in.) Ring end gap

1NZ-FE engine :

110mm (4.33 in.)

1NZ-FE engine : 110mm (4.33 in.) Ring end gap

Ring end gap

3. Ring end gap The ring end gap must be from 0.2 - 0.5 mm when at room temperature. If the piston ring end gap is too large, pressurized gasses will leak out through the gap. If the ring end gap is too small, the two ends of the piston ring will touch each other due to heat expansion and cause the ring to expand. This may result in scoring of the cylinder wall or the piston ring itself may break.

NOTICE:

When measuring the ring end gap, insert the piston ring in the piston cyl- inder at the place with the least amount of wear.

The position for measuring the ring end gap differs according to the engine models.

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Cylinder Engine oil Piston Piston ring
Cylinder
Engine oil
Piston
Piston ring

4. Ring pumping effect and ring flutter

(1) Ring pumping effect The piston ring moves up and down inside the piston ring groove while the engine is running. This acts to pump oil on the ring, helping to improve lubrication. If the gap between a piston ring and piston ring groove is too large, the pumping effect will also be large, resulting in an increase in oil consumption.

(2) Ring flutter When the piston ring vibrates up and down or side to side in the piston ring groove, ring performance decreases. When this condition continues, the piston ring or pis- ton ring groove will experience abnormal wear and may eventually result in seizing.

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- 19 -

Camshaft Valve stem Valve guide bushing Oil seal Valve face 44.5° Valve head or 45.5°
Camshaft Valve stem Valve guide bushing Oil seal Valve face 44.5° Valve head or 45.5°
Camshaft
Valve stem
Valve guide
bushing
Oil seal
Valve face
44.5°
Valve head
or 45.5°
Exhaust
Intake
valve
valve
Exhaust valve
Intake valve
Combustion chamber

- 20 -

Valve Mechanism

The valve mechanism opens or closes the intake valve and exhaust valve at the proper timing in order to draw the air-fuel mixture into the cylinder and discharge the combustion gas into the outside.

1. Valve opening and closing system The rotation of the crankshaft is transferred to the camshaft via the timing chain (timing belt), rotating the cam. The number of teeth on the camshaft sprocket (pulley) is double that of the crankshaft so that the camshaft rotates once for every two rotations of the crankshaft. As the camshaft rotates, the cam forces the valve to open or close.

(1/1)

Valve and Related Parts

2. Valve The intake valve opens during the intake stroke to draw the air-fuel mix- ture. The exhaust valve opens during the exhaust stroke to exhaust the com- bustion gas. Both valve closes during the com- pression and combustion strokes to keep the combustion chamber air- tight. Since the valve is exposed to high temperatures and high pressure, it is made of a special metal. Generally, in order to increase the amount of the intake air, the valve diameter of the intake valve is larger than exhaust valve. In order to keep the valve and the valve sheet airtight, the angle of the valve face is generally set at 44.5° or

45.5°.

Valves are pushed to the closing direction by springs and cams opera- tion cause the valve to move down along the valve guide bushing inside the cylinder head.

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a=c<b Uneven pitch spring (symmetrical) Uneven pitch spring (asymmetrical) Top a d b e c
a=c<b
a=c<b

Uneven pitch spring (symmetrical)

Uneven pitch spring (asymmetrical)

Top

a d b e c
a
d
b
e
c

d>e

Double spring

Inner

Outer

3. Valve spring The valve spring is a coil spring that applies tension in the closing direc- tion of the valve. Most engines have one spring per valve, however some engines use two springs per valve. In order to prevent the valve from vibrating when the engine is running at high speeds, uneven pitch springs or double springs are used.

HINT:

Valve springs have the natural fre- quency. When the number of the valve opening and closing and the natural frequency match to vibrate together, the waviness vibration may occur irrelevant to camshaft operation. This condition is called surging and it can be a cause of abnormal engine noise as well as damage to the valve spring or inter- ference between the valve and pis- ton. Asymmetrical type of uneven pitch springs is installed with the wider pitch toward the top.

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Valve contact face 60° 45° 30°
Valve contact face
60°
45°
30°

4. Valve seat The valve seat is press-fitted into the cylinder head. When the valve closes, the valve face and valve seat fit closely together to make the combustion chamber airtight. The valve seat also transfers heat from the valve to the cylinder head, serving to cool the valve as well. Since the valve seat is exposed to high temperature combustion gas, and repeated contact with the valve, it is constructed of a metal that excels in resistance to heat and wear. When the valve seat wears, it can be ground by the carbide cutter or replaced. In recent years, lasers have been used to weld a wear-resistant alloy valve seat layer directly to the cyl- inder head making the valve seat and the cylinder head one unit on some engines. With this type of laser clad valve seat, replacement is impossible.

REFERENCE:

Valve seats are generally shaped like a 45° cone in order to fit with the valve face. The valve seat contact width is generally from 1.0 mm to 1.4 mm. The wider the contact area of the valve seat, the greater the cooling effect will be, however air-tightness may suffer since carbon intrusion is likely. In contrast, the narrower the contact area of the valve seat, the lesser the cooling effect and the lesser the likeli- hood of carbon intrusion will be.

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- 21 -

Oil seal Valve guide bushing Valve stem

Oil seal Valve guide bushing Valve stem
Engine oil
Engine oil

5. Valve guide bushing and oil seal The valve guide bushing is generally made of cast iron and is press-fitted into the cylinder head. It acts to guide the movement of the valve so that it closely fits the valve seat and valve face. The contact surfaces of the valve guide and valve stem are lubricated with engine oil. To prevent excess oil from entering the combustion chamber, a rubber oil seal is fitted on the topside of the valve guide bushing.

SERVICE HINT:

"Valve sticking" occurs when the valve stem in the valve bushing guide stops moving smoothly or stops moving completely. This occurs when the amount of clearance between the valve stem and the valve guide bushing is too small or when they are not sufficiently lubricated. If the valve stem oil seal is broken or hardens, engine oil will enter the combustion chamber and be burned. This can cause excessive oil consumption.

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Valve timing diagram (2NZ-FE engine without VVT-i, leaded gasoline type)

TDC Compression stroke Intake stroke Valve overlap Intake valve 2° 2° opens In. Ex. In.
TDC
Compression stroke
Intake stroke
Valve overlap
Intake valve
opens
In.
Ex.
In.
Ex.
Exhaust
valve closes
Combustion
Exhaust
Exhaust stroke
(power) stroke
valve opens
In.
Ex.
In.
Ex.
Intake
valve
closes
43°
34°
BDC

Valve Timing

The valve timing is the timing of the opening and closing of the intake valves and exhaust valves expressed in terms of the crankshaft angle and it is called "valve timing diagram". Each valve does not alternately open and close at TDC (Top Dead Center) and BDC (Bottom Dead Center). Instead, the intake valve opens just before TDC and closes after BDC and the exhaust valve opens before BDC and closes just after TDC. Therefore the valve timing increase the intake and exhaust efficiency by inertia so that it is set to the timing, which opens and closes the valve early and late with regards to piston position. Recently in some engines, the valve tim- ing can be changed such as the VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) and those that control not only valve timing, but also the amount of lift such as the VVTL-i (Variable Valve Timing and Lift- intelligent). The stability at idling, output improve- ment or EGR efficiency of valve overlap is utilized effectively by making the valve timing changeable.

(1/2)

- 22 -

Valve overlap From the end of the exhaust stroke to the beginning of the intake stroke, the intake valve and the exhaust valve have a moment when they are simultaneously open. This is called valve overlap. Generally, a larger valve overlap gives better high-speed performance, but causes unstable idling.

NOTICE:

The optimal valve timing is predetermined for each engine models. If valve timing is not correct, engine idling will be unstable or there will be a drop in output. If the timing belt is broken or cut off, the rotational movement of the camshaft is stopped, and the piston could inter- fere with valves. Then pistons, valves and valve lifters etc., could be damaged. For that reason, in engines with timing belts, they are replaced every 100,000 km (60,000 miles) or 150,000 km (90,000 miles). In some engines, however, even if the timing belt is cut off, the top surface of the piston is constructed with a valve cut-out to prevent the piston from making contact with the valves. This type of engine requires that the timing belt be replaced when it breaks and is not set as a periodic maintenance item.

HINT:

Timing chains are "maintenance-free" meaning that they do not need periodic replacement

(2/2)

meaning that they do not need periodic replacement (2/2) Valve Clearance Since each engine part (cylinder

Valve Clearance

Since each engine part (cylinder head, cylinder block and valves, etc.) is subject to heat expansion, there must be clearance between the cam and valve lifter (shim) so that the valves can still smoothly operate even when affected by heat expansion. This clearance is called valve clear- ance.

SERVICE HINT:

Excessive valve clearance can be a cause of abnor- mal engine noise and valve mistiming.

Insufficient valve clearance can cause the piston to thrust up into the valve up.

HINT:

There are two types of valve clearance, depending on the construction and materials of the engine. One type increases as the engine heats up while the other type decreases as the engine heats up.

- 23 -

(1/1)

1 Valve lifter 2-(2) Adjusting shim Valve lifter
1
Valve lifter
2-(2)
Adjusting shim
Valve lifter
2-(1) Adjusting shim Valve lifter 2-(3) Rocker arm Adjusting shim
2-(1)
Adjusting shim
Valve lifter
2-(3)
Rocker arm
Adjusting shim

Rocker arm

Adjusting screw Valve lifter
Adjusting screw
Valve lifter

- 24 -

Adjustment of Valve Clearance

1. Type requiring replacement of the valve lifter when adjusting valve clearance With this type, valve clearance is adjusted by replacing the valve lifter.

2. Type requiring replacement of shim when adjusting valve clear- ance With this type, valve clearance is adjusted by replacing the adjusting shim. Within this type, there are several kinds:

(1) Shim is on the inside. (Remove the camshaft and replace the shim.)

(2) Shim is on the outside. (Replace the shim using SST.)

(3) Shim is under rocker arm. (Replace the shim using SST.)

HINT:

As sizes of valve lifter and shim vary according to the engine, please select the appropriate one.

(1/2)

3. Type requiring adjustment of the adjusting screw when adjusting valve clearance This type is for engines using a rocker arm. Adjust the valve clear- ance by turning the adjusting screw, which is mounted in the rocker arm.

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Driven gear Drive gear Sub gear Sub gear Driven gear Drive gear Drive gear Driven
Driven gear
Drive gear
Sub gear
Sub gear
Driven gear
Drive gear
Drive gear
Driven gear
Scissors spring
Sub gear

va,vb : Crankshaft rotational speed Va,Vb : Piston movable speed La,Lb : Piston movable distance va = vb Va < Vb La < Lb

Lb Vb La Va vb O va A B
Lb
Vb
La
Va
vb
O
va
A
B
Inertial forces Balance shaft
Inertial forces
Balance
shaft

Counterweight

- 25 -

Scissors Gear Mechanism (Sub-gear Mechanism)

There is a scissors gear (sub-gear) on the driven gear of the camshaft for the compact DOHC which serves to reduce gear noise associated with changes in torque. The sub-gear is pushed toward the rota- tional direction by the spring at all times and the scissors gear reduces the back- lash of the gear by meshing with the drive gear, in order to prevent the noise.

Backlash Backlash is the gap between the gear contact surfaces and due to this toler- ance in the design and assembly, wear and seizure are prevented.

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Balance Shaft

Balance shafts are included in large dis- placement in-line engines to reduce engine vibration. The balance shaft is equipped with a counter weight, and revolves at two times the speed of the crankshaft. The vibration of the balance shaft serves to cancel out the vibration of the crankshaft by causing vibrations in the opposite direction. The rotational speed of the crankshaft below (va) center line (O) and above (vb) center line (O) are the same. However, with the center line (O) as a base, the distance the piston travels for (Lb) and (La) is different. Since both (Lb) and (La) use the same amount of time for one full trip, the travel speeds (Vb) and (Va) are different. Since the piston travel speed is different above the center line (O) and below the center line (O), a gap in inertia occurs, thus causing engine vibrations. With the in-line four cylinder engine, when cyl-inders 2 and 3 are at BDC and cylinders 1 and 4 are at TDC, there is a 180° difference in position causing vibra- tory movement two times when the crankshaft revolves.

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Chain auto-tensioner (1NZ-FE engine) Chain damper Plunger Spring Check ball Engine oil Timing chain auto-tensioner
Chain auto-tensioner (1NZ-FE engine)
Chain damper
Plunger
Spring
Check ball
Engine
oil
Timing chain
auto-tensioner
Chain
Chain slipper
Cam
Spring

Timing belt auto-tensioner (2JZ-GE engine)

Timing belt auto-tensioner (2JZ-GE engine) Timing belt Piston rod Spring Check ball Spring Idler pulley Timing

Timing belt

Piston rod

Spring Check ball Spring
Spring
Check ball
Spring

Idler pulley

Timing belt auto-tensioner

Timing Chain Auto-tensioner

The timing chain auto-tensioner uses a spring and engine oil pressure to maintain proper tension at all times. It also suppresses noise from the timing chain. Using an internal ratchet device, the tensioner applies tension with a spring when there is no oil pressure at such times as engine starting.

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Timing Belt Auto-tensioner

The timing belt auto-tensioner uses a spring force and sealed silicone oil pressure to maintain proper belt ten- sion at all times.

- 26 -

(1/1)

Lubrication System

Camshaft timing oil control valve Main oil gallery Oil return hole Oil pressure switch Oil
Camshaft timing oil control valve
Main oil gallery
Oil return hole
Oil pressure switch
Oil filter
Oil strainer
Oil pump

Description

The lubrication system supplies engine oil to each engine part, creating a film of engine oil, which reduces the effects of friction and wear by allowing engine parts to slide smoothly and perform opti- mally. There are many rotating and sliding parts in an engine. As the engine oper- ates at high engine speed, if these parts were not lubricated, a great amount of friction would occur, resulting in wear and seizure. To keep the engine rotating smoothly, the friction on each part needs to be minimized.

(1/2)

Oil flow circuit for 1NZ-FE engine

Main oil gallery Crankshaft Oil jet Cylinder head Chain journal tensioner Oil filter Timing Camshaft
Main oil gallery
Crankshaft
Oil jet
Cylinder head
Chain
journal
tensioner
Oil filter
Timing
Camshaft timing
Intake
Exhaust
Connecting
chain
oil control
camshaft
camshaft
rod
valve filter
journal
journal
Oil cooler
Oil jet
Camshaft timing
oil control valve
Piston
Oil pump
VVT-i
controller
Oil strainer
Oil pan

The oil cooler, outlined with a dotted line, basically is not used on the 1NZ-FE engine. Here is listed to understand the position of the oil cooler in the oil flow.

- 27 -

Drive roter Driven roter Relief valve
Drive roter
Driven roter
Relief valve

Oil Pump

The oil pump draws the engine oil from the oil pan and pumps it to each part of the engine. The driven rotor rotates along with the drive rotor, however because the driven rotor is eccentricity, the spacing between both rotors changes with rotation. This change of spacing is used to draw and pump the oil. There is a relief valve built into the oil pump, which releases at the specified pressure controlling the maximum oil pressure.

SERVICE HINT:

When the relief valve sticks, the oil pressure will fail to rise or rise abnor- mally causing lubricated parts to sei- zure or oil leaks to occur. Also, when the sliding parts inside the pump wear out, or the gasket or O-ring is damaged, this causes the oil pressure to drop.

(1/1)

Check valve Element Relief valve Oil flow (in)
Check valve
Element
Relief valve
Oil flow (in)

Oil flow (out)Check valve Element Relief valve Oil flow (in) Oil flow if the relief valve open

Oil flow if the relief valve openCheck valve Element Relief valve Oil flow (in) Oil flow (out)

Oil Filter

All of the oil pumped up by the oil pump passes through the oil filter where metallic particles from wear and carbon sludge are filtered out. The oil pushes open the check valve and enters the outer circumference of the element, where is filtered, and then is discharged from the center of the element. The check valve at the opening of the oil filter is designed to prevent contaminants, which have collected in the outer circumference of the element, from flowing back

into the engine when the engine stops.

If the filter element becomes clogged, the pressure differ- ence occurs between the outer and inner circumference of the element and increases. When the pressure differ- ence becomes the prescribed amount, the relief valve opens so that the oil does not pass through the element and is sent to the lubrication part. This prevents insufficient lubrication from occurring when the element is clogged. However the oil filter is required to be replaced periodically because the dirt oil is sent.

(1/1)

- 28 -

Oil pressure warning lamp Warning lamp Oil pressure switch Oil pressure (Normal) Low engine oil
Oil pressure warning lamp
Warning lamp
Oil pressure switch
Oil pressure
(Normal)
Low engine oil level warning lamp
ECU
Warning lamp
Oil level
(Normal)
Oil
Oil temp. switch
Oil pan
Oil level sensor

Oil Pressure Warning Lamp

The oil pressure warning lamp warns the driver when it detects abnormally low engine oil pressure. The oil pressure switch is mounted in the oil pan or the cylinder block and detects the pressure in the main oil gallery.

1. When the oil pressure is low [19.6 ± 4.9 kPa (0.2 ± 0.05 kgf/cm 2 ) or lower] When the engine is stopped or the pressure is lower than the specified amount, the point inside the oil pressure switch closes and the oil pressure warning lamp turns on.

2. When the oil pressure is high [19.6 ± 4.9 kPa (0.2 ± 0.05 kgf/cm 2 ) or higher] When the engine is started and the oil pressure sur- passes the specified amount, the oil pressure pushes the diaphragm inside the oil pressure switch. As a result, the point opens and the oil pressure warn- ing lamp turns off.

HINT:

Normal oil pressure is between 0.5 and 5 kgf/cm 2 . If the oil pressure goes below 0.2 kgf/ cm 2 , the oil pres- sure warning lamp will turn on. If this lamp turns on, it means that there is some kind of abnormality in the lubrication system. Furthermore, just because the lamp is off, it is no guarantee that the engine has correct oil pressure at high engine speed. For that reason, some engines use an oil pressure gauge to display the oil pressure.

REFERENCE:

The low engine oil level warning lamp turns on when the amount of oil is extremely low.

- 29 -

(1/1)

Water bypass hose Oil cooler Oil filter
Water bypass hose
Oil cooler
Oil filter
Engine coolant Oil cooler Oil filter from Oil pump to Main oil gallery Relief valve
Engine coolant
Oil cooler
Oil filter
from Oil pump
to Main
oil gallery
Relief valve

Oil Cooler

It is best if the temperature of the engine oil does not rise above 100°C. If the temperature rises above 125°C how- ever, engine oil lubrication properties will deteriorate sud- denly. Therefore, to maintain lubrication properties, some engines are equipped with an oil cooler. Normally, all of the oil flows into the oil cooler and then flows to each engine part after it is cooled. At lower temperatures, oil has a higher viscosity and tends to create a higher oil pressure. When the pressure difference between the inlet side and the outlet side of the oil cooler rises above the specified value, the relief valve opens and the oil flowing from the oil pump bypasses the oil cooler and flows on to the other parts of the engine, thus preventing damage from occurring.

(1/1)

of the engine, thus preventing damage from occurring. (1/1) Oil Consumption Even when the engine is

Oil Consumption

Even when the engine is not leaking oil on the outside, some engine oil is con- sumed as it enters the combustion chamber and is burned up. The routes by which oil is lost, are listed below.

1
1

The gap between the cylinder and the piston

2
2

The gap between the valve guide bushing and valve stem

3
3

Loss due to oil contained in blow-by gas

(1/1)

- 30 -

Cooling System to Radiator from Heater core to Heater core to Throttle body from Radiator
Cooling System
to Radiator
from Heater core
to Heater core
to Throttle body
from Radiator
Bypass passage
Cylinder head
Water pump
Heater core
Thermostat
Throttle body
Cylinder block
Radiator

Description

1. Cooling system When the engine heats up, the cooling system trans- fers that heat to the surrounding air lowering the tem- perature of the engine. Conversely, when the engine is cold, the cooling system makes it easier for the engine to warm up. In this way, the cooling system serves to maintain an appropriate engine temperature. There are air-cooled and water-cooled types, however the water-cooled type cooling system is mainly used for automobile engines.

(1) Water-cooled type cooling system In the water-cooled type cooling system, coolant is cir- culated to the water jacket, absorbing the heat gener- ated by the engine and thus maintaining an appropriate engine temperature. The absorbed heat is released through the radiator and the cooled coolant is recirculated to cool the engine. Also the heat of the coolant can be used by the heater. The two types of cooling systems, differentiated by the position of the thermostat are listed below:

<1> Thermostat in water pump inlet side <2> Thermostat in water pump outlet side

Cooling system can also differ in whether or not a bypass valve that controls the bypass circuit is present. In recent years, almost all engine cooling systems are equipped with a thermostat that has a bypass valve.

- 31 -

(1/1)

Flow of Engine Coolant 1. Thermostat in water inlet type (With bypass valve) This type

Flow of Engine Coolant

1. Thermostat in water inlet type (With bypass valve) This type features a thermostat mounted in the water pump inlet. The thermostat is equipped with a bypass valve and regulates the coolant that passes through the main route and bypass route by opening and clos- ing the thermostat according to changes in coolant temperature.

(1) When the coolant is cold:

When the coolant temperature is low, the thermostat closes and the bypass valve opens. The coolant then circulates through the bypass circuit without passing through the radiator. This helps the water temperature rise so that the appropriate engine temperature can be obtained more quickly.

(2) When the coolant is hot:

When the coolant temperature is high, the thermostat opens and the bypass valve closes. All heated coolant flows to the radiator where it is cooled and passes through the thermostat to return to the water pump. In this way the appropriate engine temperature is maintained Compared to engines with no bypass valve, when the coolant temperature is high, it is not circulated to the bypass valve, so the cooling effect is higher. This also serves to sensitively operate the thermostat so that coolant temperature change is lessened, allowing the engine can run at a stable temperature.

NOTICE:

An engine equipped with a thermostat with bypass valve should not be run with the thermostat removed. The bypass circuit is wider in engines with a bypass valve. If the engine is run while the bypass valve (thermostat) is removed, more coolant will flow through the bypass cir- cuit, making it easier for the engine to overheat.

- 32 -

(1/1)

With bypass valve Without bypass valve Jiggle valve Main valve Jiggle valve Main valve Cylinder
With bypass valve
Without bypass valve
Jiggle valve
Main valve
Jiggle valve
Main valve
Cylinder
Wax
Wax
Cylinder
Bypass valve

Thermostat

There are two types of thermostats, one that includes a bypass valve, and the other without a bypass valve. The cylinder in the thermostat is moved by the thermal expansion of the wax in the cylinder. This causes the main valve to open, regulating the amount of cool- ant flowing to the radiator, so that it is maintained at a proper temperature. The bypass valve operates along with the main valve. (When the main valve opens, the bypass valve closes.) After the coolant is drained, air from the engine cannot be released easily and the coolant cannot enter easily because the thermostat is closed when refilling. Therefore, air is released from the jiggle valve, simplifying the coolant refilling process. When the engine is running, the jiggle valve is kept closed by the water pres- sure from the water pump.

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V-ribbed belt Bearing Mechanical seal Cylinder block Swirl chamber Rotor Water pump pully Water drain
V-ribbed belt
Bearing
Mechanical seal
Cylinder
block
Swirl
chamber
Rotor
Water pump pully
Water drain hole

Water Pump

The water pump is driven by a V-belt (V-ribbed belt) and circulates coolant through the cooling system and the heater. The rotor and water pump body use a mechanical seal to prevent coolant leakage. If this seal is defective and coolant leaks out, coolant leakage or stem is dis- charged through a drain hole in the pump body so that coolant does not leak onto the bearing. Therefore, when there is coolant leaking or leakage traces from the drain hole, it is likely that a defective mechanical seal or bearing is the cause.

HINT:

Ordinarily, the water pump cannot be repaired by dis- assembling it and requires a full assembly replace- ment. There are some models, however, where the pump can be disassembled and repaired. There are water pumps that are driven by the teethed side of the V-ribbed belt or water pumps that are driven by the backside of the belt.

(1/1)

- 33 -

Cooling fan Water temperature switch Fan motor
Cooling fan
Water temperature
switch
Fan motor
Fan relay Ignition switch Coolant temp.switch Coolant temperature Low High
Fan relay
Ignition switch
Coolant
temp.switch
Coolant temperature
Low
High

Electric Motor-driven Cooling Fan

1. Outline It is necessary for a large volume of air to pass through the radiator for it to release the heat. Ordinary driving provides an adequate air flow for cooling, however when the vehicle is stopped or is driving at low speeds the volume of air becomes inad- equate. Therefore the engine is equipped with a cool- ing fan to force airflow to the radiator. The electric fan system senses the coolant tempera- ture, and supplies an adequate amount of air only when the temperature is high. At normal temperature, the fan is stopped, which allows the engine to warm up and decreases fuel consumption and noise. Electric fan rotation speed can be switched between three stages or to stageless so that cooling perfor- mance can be adjusted to synchronize with the cool- ant temperature and AC operation.

(1/2)

2. Operation

(1) Low coolant temperature:

The coolant temperature switch goes on and the fan relay is grounded. The magnetic force of the relay coil keeps the points off, stopping electrical current from reaching the fan motor.

(2) High coolant temperature:

The coolant switch goes off and the fan relay circuit is interrupted. Then, the points go on, supplying current to the fan motor and causing the fan to revolve at high speed.

HINT:

Recently, there are some models where the on/off points operation of the coolant temperature switch and the fan relay are reversed.

CAUTION:

Always be sure that the ignition switch is turned off when working near the engine cooling fan or radiator grille. The electrical cooling fan is temperature controlled, so if the ignition switch is turned on, there is the danger of the fan automatically starting to operate when the coolant temperature rises.

- 34 -

(2/2)

Pulley Fluid coupling Cooling fan Air hot Air warm Air cold Bimetal spring Bimetal plate
Pulley
Fluid coupling
Cooling fan
Air hot
Air warm
Air cold
Bimetal
spring
Bimetal
plate
Silicone oil
Front operating
chamber
Rear operating
chamber
Without coupling a2 Air hot b Air warm a1 c Air cold 0 Fluid coupling
Without coupling
a2
Air hot
b
Air warm
a1
c
Air cold
0
Fluid coupling shaft speed
a1
b
a2
c
Fan speed

Temperature-controlled Fluid Coupling

1. Overview The V-belt driven cooling fan increases in fan speed in proportion to the increase in engine speed. For this reason, the fan speed of the cooling fan with the temperature control fluid coupling control the fan speed by sensing the temperature of the air flowing through the radiator. The temperature control fluid coupling contains a fluid clutch with silicone oil. The transfer of revolution to the fan via the V-belt is controlled by the adjustment of the amount of oil in the operating chamber. When the temperature is low, the rate of fan revolution is decreased helping with engine warm-up and pre- venting noise. When engine temperature is high, the fan revolution rate is increased to supply an adequate volume of air to the radiator, thereby increasing the cooling effect.

(1/2)

2. Operation

a1
a1

Air Temperature (HOT) during low speed driving

The fluid coupling shaft revolution is transferred to the fan as is.

Air temperature (HOT) during high speed drivingcoupling shaft revolution is transferred to the fan as is. Fan revolution resistance increases and the

Fan revolution resistance increases and the fluid coupling

slips to make the fan revolve at a rate slightly slower than the fluid coupling shaft.

b
b

Air temperature(WARM) during high speed driving

The bimetal plate switches the oil route and decreases

the operation oil amount. This increases slippage of the operating chamber, resulting in an even further decreased rate of revolution.

c
c

Air temperature (COLD) during high speed driving

The oil route is switched and operation oil level further

decreases. At this time slippage is greatest and the fan revolution rate is the least.

- 35 -

(2/2)

Solenoid ECU valve Hydraulic Hydraulic motor pump Oil cooler Reservoir Water temp. sensor signal ,
Solenoid
ECU
valve
Hydraulic
Hydraulic
motor
pump
Oil cooler
Reservoir
Water temp. sensor signal ,
Air conditioner signal ,
Engine speed signal
Cooling fan
Condenser
Radiator
Inspection
Inspection

Electronically Controlled Hydraulic Cool- ing Fan System The electronically controlled hydraulic cooling fan system uses a hydraulic motor to turn the fan. The computer adjusts the amount of oil flowing to the hydraulic motor, so the fan revolves without stages and the fan speed can always be adjusted to achieve the most appropriate air volume. Compared to the electric fan, the motor is smaller and lighter in weight, and has the ability to supply a greater air volume. However, the oil pump and the control system are more complicated.

(1/1)

Compression Pressure

1. Check compression pressure Allow the engine to warm up and stop. Remove all spark plugs and crank the engine with the throttle valve fully opened in order to measure the compression pressure of all cylinders.

HINT:

Disconnect connectors of all injectors so that fuel can- not be injected.

Remove the igniter or disconnect connectors of the igniter so that a spark is not generated.

The fully charged battery should be used to obtain an engine speed of over 250 rpm.

NOTICE:

This inspection must be performed in as short a time as possible.

Example: 1NZ-FE engine (NZE12#) Compression pressure: 1,471 kPa ( 15.0 kgf/cm 2 ) Minimum pressure: 1,079 kPa ( 11.0 kgf/cm 2 ) Difference between each cylinder: 98 kPa ( 1.0 kgf/ cm 2 ) or less

SERVICE HINT:

If the compression pressure is low, pour a small amount of engine oil in the spark plug hole. Measure the com- pression pressure again.

When the compression pressure rises: A piston ring or cylinder bore may be worn or damaged.

When the compression pressure stays low: A valve may be sticking, a valve seat may be improper, or there may be leakage from the gasket.

(1/1)

- 36 -

Exercise

These are the pre-course study materials for the Frequent Service Job Course. The objective of this course is to learn the work procedure and points of frequent service jobs. In the pre-course study, you will study the basic knowledge needed for repair work, and the basic mechanism and operation of automobiles. After you finish studying all of the chapters, please take the Examination.

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Question- 1

The following statements pertain to the parts of the gasoline engine. From the following word
The following statements pertain to the parts of the gasoline engine.
From the following word group, select the word that corresponds to each of the following statements.
c
d
a
e
b
g
f

1.

This bottom is indented and forms the combustion chamber with the piston.

2.

This receives the combustion pressure with the pis- ton.

3.

This converts the reciprocating motion of the pistons into revolving motion.

4.

This transfers the force that the piston is received to the crankshaft.

a)

Connecting rod

b) Valve mechanism

c) Bearing

d) Cylinder head

e) Piton ring

f) Crankshaft

g)

Cylinder block

 

Answer: 1.

2.

3.

4.

Question- 2

The following statements pertain to three essential elements of gasoline engine. Mark each of the following state- ments True or False.

No.

Question

True or False

Correct Answers

1 Three essential elements of gasoline engine are "good air-fuel mix- ture," "good compression," and "good preheating system".

air-fuel mix- ture," "good compression," and "good preheating system". True False    

True

air-fuel mix- ture," "good compression," and "good preheating system". True False    

False

   

The compression ratio can be calculated in the formula: (Volume of

 

2 combustion chamber + Volume of cylinder) / Volume of combustion chamber.

2 combustion chamber + Volume of cylinder) / Volume of combustion chamber. True False    

True

2 combustion chamber + Volume of cylinder) / Volume of combustion chamber. True False    

False

   
 

3 When the air-fuel ratio is 14.7, it means that the air-fuel volume is 14.7 against 1 of the gasoline volume.

ratio is 14.7, it means that the air-fuel volume is 14.7 against 1 of the gasoline

True

ratio is 14.7, it means that the air-fuel volume is 14.7 against 1 of the gasoline

False

   

4 To burn the compressed air-fuel mixture efficiently, it requires good sparks.

4 To burn the compressed air-fuel mixture efficiently, it requires good sparks. True False  

True

4 To burn the compressed air-fuel mixture efficiently, it requires good sparks. True False  

False

 

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Question- 3

The following statements pertain to the plastic region bolt. Mark each of the following statements True or False.

No.

Question

True or False

Correct Answers

1 A stable bolt tension can be obtained by the plastic region tightening method.

1 A stable bolt tension can be obtained by the plastic region tightening method. True False

True

1 A stable bolt tension can be obtained by the plastic region tightening method. True False

False

   

2 All bolts used in the vehicle are tightened by the plastic region tight- ening method.

2 All bolts used in the vehicle are tightened by the plastic region tight- ening method.

True

2 All bolts used in the vehicle are tightened by the plastic region tight- ening method.

False

 

3 Normally, the bolt tightened to the specified torque is tightened in the elastic region.

3 Normally, the bolt tightened to the specified torque is tightened in the elastic region. True

True

3 Normally, the bolt tightened to the specified torque is tightened in the elastic region. True

False

 

4 The plastic region tightening method is used for assembly of parts such as cylinder head or bearing cap.

plastic region tightening method is used for assembly of parts such as cylinder head or bearing

True

plastic region tightening method is used for assembly of parts such as cylinder head or bearing

False

 

Question- 4

The following statements pertain to the piston. Mark each of the following statements True or False.

No.

Question

True or False

Correct Answers

The piston is oval, which the diameter of the major axis and minor

 

1 axis is different, in consideration of the heat expansion at high tem- perature.

1 axis is different, in consideration of the heat expansion at high tem- perature. True False

True

1 axis is different, in consideration of the heat expansion at high tem- perature. True False

False

   
 

The diameter of the piston head is tapered smaller than that of the

 

2 piston skirt in consideration of the heat expansion at high tempera- ture.

2 piston skirt in consideration of the heat expansion at high tempera- ture. True False  

True

2 piston skirt in consideration of the heat expansion at high tempera- ture. True False  

False

   
 

3 Piston slap is the noise that occurs by the clearance between the connecting rod and the crankshaft.

slap is the noise that occurs by the clearance between the connecting rod and the crankshaft.

True

slap is the noise that occurs by the clearance between the connecting rod and the crankshaft.

False

   

4 When the piston is damaged, replace the piston or rebore the cylin- der block or cylinder liner and use the oversize piston.

replace the piston or rebore the cylin- der block or cylinder liner and use the oversize

True

replace the piston or rebore the cylin- der block or cylinder liner and use the oversize

False

 

Question- 5

The following statements pertain to the piston ring. Mark each of the following statements True or False.

No.

Question

True or False

Correct Answers

1 The piston ring normally consists of three compression rings.

1 The piston ring normally consists of three compression rings. T r u e F a

True

1 The piston ring normally consists of three compression rings. T r u e F a

False

   

2 An extra oil on the cylinder is removed and the minimum oil film is created.

2 An extra oil on the cylinder is removed and the minimum oil film is created.

True

2 An extra oil on the cylinder is removed and the minimum oil film is created.

False

 

3 The compression ring keeps the airtight of the combustion chamber and discharge the piston heat to the cylinder.

ring keeps the airtight of the combustion chamber and discharge the piston heat to the cylinder.

True

ring keeps the airtight of the combustion chamber and discharge the piston heat to the cylinder.

False

 

4 When the ring flutter phenomenon is hard, it causes the engine sei- zure.

4 When the ring flutter phenomenon is hard, it causes the engine sei- zure. True False

True

4 When the ring flutter phenomenon is hard, it causes the engine sei- zure. True False

False

 

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Question- 6

The following statements pertain to the valve mechanism. Mark each of the following statements True or False.

No.

Question

True or False

Correct Answers

1 The rotation speed of the intake or exhaust camshaft is same as that of the crankshaft.

1 The rotation speed of the intake or exhaust camshaft is same as that of the

True

1 The rotation speed of the intake or exhaust camshaft is same as that of the

False

   

The intake valve opens before TDC (Top Dead Center) and closes

 

2 after BDC (Bottom Dead Center), while the exhaust valve opens before BDC and opens after TDC.

2 after BDC (Bottom Dead Center), while the exhaust valve opens before BDC and opens after

True

2 after BDC (Bottom Dead Center), while the exhaust valve opens before BDC and opens after

False

   
 

3 The valve overlap is the period that the intake and exhaust valves open simultaneously.

3 The valve overlap is the period that the intake and exhaust valves open simultaneously. True

True

3 The valve overlap is the period that the intake and exhaust valves open simultaneously. True

False

   

4 If there is a malfunction in the valve clearance, generally replace the cam to ensure the normal clearance.

is a malfunction in the valve clearance, generally replace the cam to ensure the normal clearance.

True

is a malfunction in the valve clearance, generally replace the cam to ensure the normal clearance.

False

 

Question- 7

The following statements pertain to the lubrication system. Mark each of the following statements True or False.

No.

Question

True or False

Correct Answers

1 If the relief valve of the oil pump sticks with opened, it causes the seizure in the lubrication portion.

valve of the oil pump sticks with opened, it causes the seizure in the lubrication portion.

True

valve of the oil pump sticks with opened, it causes the seizure in the lubrication portion.

False

   

The relief valve of the oil filter is released so that the oil is circulated

 

2 even if the filter portion of the oil filter is clogged. Therefore, the oil filter does not require the replacement.

of the oil filter is clogged. Therefore, the oil filter does not require the replacement. True

True

of the oil filter is clogged. Therefore, the oil filter does not require the replacement. True

False

   
 

3 The oil pressure warning lamp is turned on when the oil pressure is abnormally high or low.

3 The oil pressure warning lamp is turned on when the oil pressure is abnormally high

True

3 The oil pressure warning lamp is turned on when the oil pressure is abnormally high

False

   

4 If there is no engine oil leakage, the oil volume never decrease.

4 If there is no engine oil leakage, the oil volume never decrease. T r u

True

4 If there is no engine oil leakage, the oil volume never decrease. T r u

False

 

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Question- 8

The following illustration shows the oil flow. From the following word group, select the word that corresponds to the numbers in the illustration.

Main oil gallery Crankshaft Oil jet 4 Chain journal tensioner 1 Timing Camshaft timing Intake
Main oil gallery
Crankshaft
Oil jet
4
Chain
journal
tensioner
1
Timing
Camshaft timing
Intake
Exhaust
Connecting
chain
oil control
camshaft
camshaft
rod
valve filter
journal
journal
Oil cooler
Oil jet
Camshaft timing
oil control valve
3
Oil pump
VVT-i
controller
2
Oil pan

a) Cylinder head

b) Oil filter

c) Piston

d) Oil strainer

 

Answer: 1.

2.

3.

4.

Question- 9

The following statements pertain to the cooling system. Mark each of the following statements True or False.

No.

Question

True or False

Correct Answers

1 The radiator with electric motor-driven cooling fan is cooled by the cooling fan at all times.

The radiator with electric motor-driven cooling fan is cooled by the cooling fan at all times.

True

The radiator with electric motor-driven cooling fan is cooled by the cooling fan at all times.

False

   

2 If there is a trace that the coolant leaks out from the drain hole, it is likely that a defective mechanical seal or bearing is the cause.

leaks out from the drain hole, it is likely that a defective mechanical seal or bearing

True

leaks out from the drain hole, it is likely that a defective mechanical seal or bearing

False

 

3 When repairing the water pump, normally replace the assembly except some models.

3 When repairing the water pump, normally replace the assembly except some models. True False  

True

3 When repairing the water pump, normally replace the assembly except some models. True False  

False

 

4 Heat expansion of the spring in the thermostat opens and closes the thermostat.

4 Heat expansion of the spring in the thermostat opens and closes the thermostat. True False

True

4 Heat expansion of the spring in the thermostat opens and closes the thermostat. True False

False

 

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