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The following Useful Introductory Lines 17.

The act of the accused in is of no


are mostly taken from the article of Atty. moment.
Rey C. Tatad, Jr. with the same title. 18. The assertion lacks substance.
19. The (i.e. respondent) cannot rely on
ANSWERING IN THE POSITIVE (i.e. mere alibis) to aid his cause.
1. The petition is meritorious. 20. The court cannot countenance the (i.e.
2. The contention has legal basis. inconsistent postures of the petitioner)
3. The case will prosper. 21. The testimony that, cannot be given
4. The argument is proper. credence.
5. The provision is perfectly applicable. 22. The evidence presented has no
probative value.
6. The action is tenable.
23. The allegation is belied by the fact
7. The motion should be granted.
that
8. The Judge is correct.
24. To put it otherwise would be to render
9. The petition is impressed with merit. the law on _____________
10. Yes. It is a (i.e. patent violation) of the
11. There is merit in the petition. useless/futile.
12. The petitioners contention is 25. The actuations of the accused in (i.e.
sustainable. fleeing and hiding) negates (i.e.

ANSWERING IN THE NEGATIVE innocence)


1. The decision is not in accord with law 26. While it is true that _______________ is
and jurisprudence. a (i.e. constitutional guaranteed right
2. The decision is erroneous.
of a person), it does not, however mean
3. The contention is totally misplaced.
27. It is not correct to say that
4. The doctrine of.. does not apply in
this case. 28. It is not proper to state that
5. The petition is not meritorious. 29. It is not accurate to conclude outright
that
6. The evidence presented deserves scant
consideration. 30. A contrary conclusion would erode the
rule that provides in part that
7. The contention has no legal basis.
31. To sustain the contention would be to
8. The argument is bereft of merit. render the law on ____________
9. The petition is devoid of merit.
nugatory.
10.Petitioners/Respondents/Complainant 32. It would be absurd and incongruous to
s/Plaintiffs/Defendants/Accused reliance sustain the argument that
on the (i.e. doctrine of) is inappropriate.
33. It is not enough that
11. It is a futile gesture on the part of the
respondent to invoke the rule on 34. The fact that is immaterial since
12. The theory/argument has no ground 35. The fact that is irrelevant since
to stand upon. 36. In itself, mere is not sufficient (i.e.
13. The contention has no leg with which to warrant conviction).
to stand on. 37. The petitioner cannot give any
14. The position of the petitioner runs additional meaning to the clear and
counter with the doctrine of plain
15. The case will not prosper.
language of the law.
16. The case is not tenable.

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38. The Supreme Court, in several cases, 12. Worth remembering is the rule on
has struck down the (i.e. defense of _______________ which provides in part
alibi) that
39. The attendant circumstances of the 13. Decisive on the matter is the pertinent
case are contrary to the petitioners provision of the (i.e. Law on

assertion. Property)
40. The evidence does not support the 14. The law prescribes certain rules on
theory of the petitioners. 15. By legislative fiat
41. There is no cogent reason to disturb
the ruling of the (i.e. Court of Appeals) QUOTING SUPREME COURT DECISIONS
42. The claim for (i.e. moral damages) 1. The Supreme Court in one case, had
must necessarily fail. the occasion to rule that
2. In a long-line of cases decided by the
ANSWER THAT REQUIRES Supreme Court, it has always been
QUALIFICATION
(consistently) held that
(But if the facts are complete in itself, do
not attempt to add facts or assume 3. In a litany of cases decided by the
anything.) Supreme Court,

1. We must distinguish. If (or As far as 4. In a long-string of cases decided by the


the __________ is concerned) highest court of the land,

2. It depends. If(or As far as the 5. According to several cases decided by


__________ is concerned) the Supreme Court,
3. The question requires a qualified 6. In a series of cases decided by the
answer. If Supreme Court,

4. I will qualify. If
* Do not use the words series, litany or
5. On the assumption that long-line if there is only one
6. My answer must be qualified.
decision/jurisprudence for that topic.
CITING LAW PROVISIONS 7. In one case decided by the highest
1. No less than the (i.e. 1987 court of the land, it was held that
Constitution) provides for the 8. In one case, the Supreme Court ruled
2. The (i.e. Rules of Court) substantially that
provides in part that 9. It has been said that
3. Under the broad principles of (i.e. due 10. In a recent case, the Supreme Court
process clause) has laid to rest the issue of whether or
4. Under the all-encompassing doctrine not
of (i.e. incontestability clause) 11. It is well settled in this jurisdiction
5. Under the law 12. It is well settled in this country
6. According to the (i.e. Family Code) 13. The Supreme Court has steadfastly
7. The law is explicit on the matter. adhered to the doctrine which states
8. The law explicitly expresses in part
that that
9. By express provision of law, 14. In a case with similar facts, the
Supreme Court ruled that
10. By operation of law
11. As a matter of law

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15. In several notable Supreme Court deprived of life, liberty or property
decisions, the highest court declared without due process of law)
that 15. Consonant with the rule on
16. The Supreme Court has often stressed 16. It is a recognized doctrine in (i.e. Civil
that law) that
17. In the landmark case of _____________, 17. It is a basic tenet in (i.e. Commercial
(if the case is so famous) the Law)
18. Consistent with current jurisprudence
Supreme Court laid down the doctrine
which substantially provides that 19. It is a legal presumption, born of
wisdom and experience, that
18. In the leading case of
20. It is an oft-repeated rule that
19. As enunciated by the Supreme Court
in one case, 21. The Philippines adhere to the principle
of
20. The court has repeatedly ruled
21. A case in point is a case already REFERRING BACK TO THE CASE
decided by no other than the highest
court of the land, where the Supreme
(correlating the facts with the
Court held that
law/jurisprudence)
22. There is likewise an array of cases in
1. Applying the said law/doctrine in the
this jurisdiction where the Supreme
instant case,
Court has consistently declared that
2. From the facts given, noteworthy is the
23. Deeply rooted is the jurisprudence

which provides that
3. From the facts of the case, it is readily
24. In one case, the Supreme Court was
observable that
emphatic when it ruled that.
4. In the instant case, it may be observed
EMPHASIZING CASE DOCTRINES / that
JURISPRUDENCE 5. It is crystal clear from the facts
1. It is hornbook doctrine in (i.e. Civil presented that (i.e. the crime of
Law) that treason) is present (or was committed).
2. Immortal is the rule that 6. In the present case, it is immediately
noticeable that the element of
3. Well settled is the rule
4. Well entrenched is the principle that.. __________ is wanting (or lacking).
5. Elementary is the rule that.. 7. Under the circumstances, the proper
6. The cardinal rule in (i.e. labor law) is remedy would be
that 8. The case obtaining indicates a case of
7. It is a familiar canon in (i.e. political (i.e. B.P. 22)
law) that 9. It logically follows
8. By well settled public law 10. It goes without saying
9. Basic is the rule in (i.e. Criminal 11. Even assuming arguendo, for the sake
Law) of argument that
10. It is an elementary principle in 12. The situation in the case at hand
11. It is a fundamental doctrine in 13. The situation presented evinces a case
12. Well accepted is the rule that of
13. It is axiomatic in (i.e. Civil Law) that 14. The facts sufficiently indicated
14. Enshrined in the 1987 Constitution is 15. In the given facts, it is immediately
the rule that (i.e. no person shall be apparent that

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16. It is evident that 23. This being the case
17. In the same token 24. Clearly therefore, applying the
18. Under the facts stated in the aforecited ruling in the case at hand,
problem, 25. In light of the foregoing, it is beyond
19. In the case under consideration, cavil (doubt) that,
20. Worth stressing is the fact that 26. There is no doubt that
21. Worth emphasizing is the fact that 27. To the unprejudiced mind, the
actuations of the three, when analyzed
22. The facts would reveal that and taken together, leads to no other
23. A careful perusal of the facts of the conclusion except that (i.e. conspiracy
case would reveal that
24. A careful scrutiny of the actuations of among them existed)
the accused would reveal that 28. Inescapably, therefore,
25. A careful reading of the (i.e. Deed of 29. All things considered,
Absolute Sale) would reveal that
30. It follows therefore that
26. A cursory examination of the
31. As a logical result
CONCLUDING WORDS 32. In sum,..
1. From the gamut of evidence on hand, 33. In view of the fact that,
it can be gathered/deduced that, 34. All told,
2. Taken all together, 35. Given the prevailing facts
3. Finally, 36. Having stated the foregoing
4. Hence, premises,
5. Therefore, 37. One final point,
6. From the foregoing, it can be deduced 38. Accordingly,
that there is really (i.e. a violation of)
7. From the foregoing, it is now safe to Using the outline and the first liners
conclude that. above, make a format or model of your
answer and use what you deem is
8. Lastly, applicable in a given question. You may
9. Consequently, make your own models as many as you
10. As a necessary consequence want but it is suggested to have at least 10
models. Here are some examples (taken
11. The logical implication is that from my 2007 Bar Tips to NEU and INC Bar
12. At any rate, Examinees):
13. In view of the foregoing,
14. As an inevitable conclusion, No/Yes. He can/cannot..,
15. In the light of the circumstances,
The law provides that/The Supreme Court
16. Undoubtedly, has held in a line of cases
17. Indubitably,
18. Clearly, the case at hand falls squarely In the case at bar..
within the purview of
19. Verily, he/she has committed Hence..
20. For this/these reason/s, it is
Xs claim is not meritorious, hence the case
unavoidable to conclude that
should be decided against him
21. Based on the facts obtaining,
22. In this light, According to the law/The Supreme Court,
in many cases, has ruled that.

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Based on the facts of the case 1. In capsule form, the following are the
elements of the crime of _______
Therefore/Consequently . . . 2. In a nutshell, the following are the
elements of the crime of _________
The. . . . is proper/tenable/untenable 3. The following elements are generally
considered in the determination of
It is a well settled rule/As provided for
under the the presence of (i.e. employer-employee
relationship)
Moreover . . ..Hence/Therefore 4. Among the (i.e. defenses/remedies)
available to (i.e. Mr. X) as provided for
Under the provisions of by/in the (i.e. Civil Code) are:
RA/Constitution/Law/Statute. . . .
(1)
On the problem at hand..,..Consequently
(2)
On the other hand.
5. The following are the requisites for
6. In order that a case for (i.e. B.P. 22) to
As such it should be ruled
prosper, the following elements must

be attendant/present:
ENUMERATION 7. To constitute (i.e. homicide), the
following requisites must concur:
The real secret in remembering the matters 8. (i.e. Legal compensation) requires the
contained in an enumeration is the use of concurrence of the following
keywords. Make your keywords on conditions:
enumerations you consider important. 9. To establish a persons culpability
Never leave a blank in an enumeration! under (i.e. estafa), it is indispensable
However, if you use the letters a, b, c, etc.
for numbers in the enumeration, so much that
the better. Ten to one, the examiner may
not count his fingers. Make the first four in
DISTINCTION
the enumeration definitely good.
When being asked to distinguish, do not
If you can enumerate all, write it in bulleted
state its definition. If you give its definition,
or numbered form to highlight the fact that
you are in effect asking the examiner to
you know all of them and for more
extract out the differences of the two [or
convenient-reading
more] from your definition. Do not also give
their similarities. You are asked to
purposes. differentiate and contrast, so similarities
are not included. The number of
1. distinctions you will give must also be
proportionate on the points allotted for
2. such. If it is only worth two points, do not
give 8 distinctions. The examiner cannot
3. give you 8 points for that. For a two point
distinction question, perhaps, three would
be enough (four is not too much).
If you cannot enumerate all, write it in
paragraph form so that it would not easily 1. The (i.e. two) may be distinguished
be noticeable that you missed something. from each other in the following

ways:

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a. ADDITIONAL TIPS ON HOW TO
APPROACH BAR ESSAY QUESTION
b. 1. Finishing is the key. Many fail the Bar
2. In the first, it is necessary that there exam because they dont finish the
be.., whereas in the second it is exam. They spend so much time on an
sufficient that there be . early question that they cant finish
the later ones. Or they work on all of
3. In the former, while in the latter
the questions at once, but without
4. The former requires while the finishing some or all of them. Either
latter way, these Bar candidates are writing
5. on the other hand ______________ too slowly, and it costs them their
is ticket to a law license. Focus on one
question at a time. Dont bother or
DEFINITION think of another question while
answering one.
1. ________________ is a comprehensive
term used to describe _______. 2. Budget your time according to the
number of questions and length of
2. _________________, in its generally problems. Check the point percentage
accepted sense, refers to . allocation for each question. This will
3. It is a safeguard and guarantee be your guide on how much time you
provided by the 1987 Constitution.. will spend for a question. Of course,
4. It is a kind of relief granted to a you will devote more minutes to
______________ by the questions with a big or higher
percentage (i.e. 5%; 10%) than
5. ________________ is a branch of public
questions with a minimum point
law (or private law) which deals with..
percentage (i.e. 1%; 2%).
6. It pertains to
3. Set a time schedule. Its easy to waste
7. It connotes a . time by getting carried away by a
8. is a doctrine in (i.e. Civil Law) which single question or by getting stuck on
refers to a question thats giving you trouble.
Make a general allocation for each
9. is a principle in (i.e. Criminal Law)
question and adjust the time
which states that
depending on their percentage weight.
10. It presupposes Monitor your pace so that you stay
11. Its principal identifying feature is.. calm and will be able to answer all
12. It is akin to questions on the exam.
13. The function of which is to 4. If the question is lengthy, read first
what is required at the bottom of the
14. The office of which is to question. By doing this, you will be
able to determine what facts do you
REASON BEHIND THE need and what facts are immaterial.
LAW/CONCEPT/PRINCIPLE This will save you time from re-reading
1. The purpose of the law is the question. You can also start
formulating your answer in mind while
2. The law is designed to
reading the question, thus, it will be
3. It is intended to shield easier and faster for you to write your
4. It is primarily aimed at protecting answers since you are already guided
____________ from unwarranted ____ by your earlier analysis. It will also
5. The rationale behind the law is minimize errors and erasures.

6. The spirit of the law is to the effect 5. Be reminded that one of your tasks
that while preparing for the Bar exam is to
become an expert fact pattern
reader. So what do you do if you arent

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very good at reading facts? You need to smart guess. With this, you may be
experiment with different ways to get able to show or convince the examiner
better at reading facts. Practice that you know something about the
answering past Bar questions as many issue but you were merely incorrect in
as you can. Analyze the suggested your conclusion, you may get a credit
answers and take note how the for your answer.
answers used the facts in the problem. 9. Number your answer accordingly.
Remember, you wont get all the Dont make the Examiner search for
possible points if you dont understand your answers. Make your answer look
what the Bar examiners are asking professional. Dont use textspeak and
you. You must become an expert fact dont abbreviate. Answers which look
reader in order to write a complete professional, are well organized and
exam answer. which use paragraphs and indenting
6. Before answering, formulate on your where appropriate make the
mind what will be placed on your first, Examiners job easier.
second and third paragraphs. Mentally 10. An answer to one question in one
apply your outline. The first paragraph problem requires a separate page.
normally contains a one-sentence Answers to sub-questions may be
direct to the point answer to the presented continuously in a page
question. The second paragraph separated by space/s. It is suggested,
commonly contains legal basis however, that even answers to sub-
(provision of law in point, questions be presented on separate
jurisprudence, co-relation of the page, unless your answer is very short,
jurisprudence/provision with the facts so that in case you want to change any
of the case and application). Third or in case you have missed a sub-
paragraph normally contains the question, you can still insert your
conclusion. When you are already answer in the remaining spaces of the
decided of your answer, write it page.
according to your thoughts. In this
approach, you will not only be avoiding 11. Dont submit your test booklet too
unnecessary revisions and erasures, early. Theres no prize for early
you will also maintain the cleanliness finishers. Budget and utilize all the
of your booklet. Bear in mind that, a time allocated for you to: (a) compose
dirty booklet is irritating to the eyes of good answers; (b) review your answers;
the person checking the same. and (c) write legibly.

7. Use logic or common sense when you 12. Practice, practice, practice. Practice is
do not know the answer. Ask the vital to your success in the Bar exam.
question, What is the best solution or You must get used answering Bar
resolution for this case? or If I were essay questions. The only way to know
the examiner how do I want the if you can (or if you know the law) is to
question answered? Do not just practice. Answering Bar questions
guess, make a smart guess. Your best regularly will help you learn the law as
guide is to think what is most just and well as become a better tester. There
equitable since these are the purpose are many sample bar exam essay
any law seeks to achieve. questions and answers available on
the internet. You may also find the
8. If you really have no idea on how to Q&A published by the UP Law Center
answer a really difficult question, or a helpful.
borderline case, or you do not know
what the answer is, the use of inverted 13. The key to success in any endeavor is
pyramid of answering question may be preparation. Familiarity with the
helpful. This may be done by inverting structure of the essay questions and
the usual answer format. Initially, how you respond to them will go a long
present your knowledge of the law way in alleviating your anxiety on test
and/or jurisprudence, then make your day. You job is to practice the

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approach weve just outlined so that it
becomes so automatic by exam day
that you move from one step to the
other without missing a beat.
14. At least twice during your bar prep
(ideally four), do a simulated Bar exam
day. Do a mock version of it. The key is
to practice under conditions similar to
the actual Bar examinations. This will
make you mindful of time constraints
and more comfortable when you
approach the real test, the Bar exam.
15. Finally, PRAY!