ANSYS Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide
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Release 18.1
April 2017
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Table of Contents
1. Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide Overview 
1 

2. Explicit Dynamics Workflow 
3 

2.1. Introduction 
3 

2.2. Create the Analysis System 
4 

2.3. Define Engineering Data 
4 

2.4. Attach Geometry 
4 

2.5. Define Part Behavior 
6 

2.6. Define Connections 
7 

2.6.1. Spot Welds in Explicit Dynamics Analyses 
8 

2.6.2. Body Interactions in Explicit Dynamics Analyses 
9 

2.6.2.1. 
Properties for Body Interactions Folder 
11 
2.6.2.1.1. Contact Detection 
11 

2.6.2.1.2. Formulation 
13 

2.6.2.1.3. Sliding Contact 
14 

2.6.2.1.4. Shell Thickness Factor and Nodal Shell Thickness 
14 

2.6.2.1.5. Body Self Contact 
15 

2.6.2.1.6. Element Self Contact 
15 

2.6.2.1.7. Tolerance 
15 

2.6.2.1.8. Pinball Factor 
16 

2.6.2.1.9. Time Step Safety Factor 
16 

2.6.2.1.10. Limiting Time Step Velocity 
16 

2.6.2.1.11. Edge on Edge Contact 
16 

2.6.2.2. 
Interaction Type Properties for Body Interaction Object 
17 
2.6.2.2.1. Frictionless Type 
17 

2.6.2.2.2. Frictional Type 
17 

2.6.2.2.3. Bonded Type 
18 

2.6.2.2.4. Reinforcement Type 
22 

2.6.2.3. 
Identifying Body Interactions Regions for a Body 
23 
2.7. Setting Up Symmetry 
23 

2.7.1. Explicit Dynamics Symmetry 
23 

2.7.1.1. General Symmetry 
24 

2.7.1.2. Global Symmetry Planes 
24 

2.7.2. Symmetry in an Euler Domain 
24 

2.8. Define Remote Points 
25 

2.8.1. Explicit Dynamics Remote Points 
25 

2.8.2. Explicit Dynamics Remote Boundary Conditions 
26 

2.8.3. Initial Conditions on Remote Points 
27 

2.8.4. Constraints and Remote Points 
27 

2.9. Apply Mesh Controls/Preview Mesh 
28 

2.10. Establish Analysis Settings 
29 

2.10.1. Analysis Settings for Explicit Dynamics Analyses 
33 

2.10.1.1. Explicit Dynamics Step Controls 
34 

2.10.1.2. Explicit Dynamics Solver Controls 
38 

2.10.1.3. Explicit Dynamics Euler Domain Controls 
41 

2.10.1.4. Explicit Dynamics Damping Controls 
43 

2.10.1.5. Explicit Dynamics Erosion Controls 
44 

2.10.1.6. Explicit Dynamics Output Controls 
45 

2.10.1.7. Explicit Dynamics Data Management Settings 
48 

2.10.1.8. Recommendations for Analysis Settings in Explicit Dynamics 
48 

2.11. Define Initial Conditions 
52 
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Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide
2.12. 
Apply Loads and Supports 
52 
2.12.1. Impedance Boundary 
54 

2.12.2. Detonation Point 
57 

2.13. 
Solve 
60 
2.13.1. Solving from Time = 0 
61 

2.13.2. Resume Capability for Explicit Dynamics Analyses 
61 

2.13.2.1. Load and Constraint Behavior when Extending Analysis End Time 
62 

2.13.3. Explicit Dynamics Performance in Parallel 
62 

2.14. 
Postprocessing 
63 
2.14.1. Solution Output 
63 

2.14.2. Result Trackers 
64 

2.14.2.1. Point Scoped Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics 
64 

2.14.2.2. Body Scoped Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics 
67 

2.14.2.3. Spring Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics 
69 

2.14.2.4. Viewing and Filtering Result Tracker Graphs for Explicit Dynamics 
69 

2.14.2.5. Force Reaction Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics 
70 

2.14.3. Review Results 
71 

2.14.4. Eroded Nodes in Explicit Dynamics Analyses 
72 

2.14.5. Euler Domain in Explicit Dynamics Analyses 
73 

2.14.6. User Defined Results for Explicit Dynamics Analyses 
76 

3. Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics 
83 

3.1. When Implicit Models Can be Run in Explicit 
83 

3.2. When to Consider an Explicit Analysis 
84 

3.2.1. Incorrect Model Setup 
84 

3.2.2. Large Deformations 
85 

3.2.3. Large Contact Models 
86 

3.2.4. Rigid Body Deformations 
87 

3.3. Setting up the Explicit Dynamics Analysis 
88 

3.3.1. Attaching an Explicit Dynamics System to an Existing Static Structural System 
88 

3.3.2. Materials 
89 

3.3.3. Meshing 
89 

3.3.3.1. Uniform Mesh Works Best 
90 

3.3.3.2. Midside Nodes not Used 
90 

3.3.3.3. Hex/Rectangular Mesh Elements most Effective 
91 

3.3.4. Contact/Connections 
91 

3.3.4.1. Contacts Tab 
91 

3.3.4.2. Body Interactions Tab 
92 

3.3.5. Boundary Conditions 
92 

3.3.5.1. Adjusting Load Cases for Reasonable Run Times 
92 

3.3.5.2. Missing Boundary Conditions from Explicit Dynamics 
93 

3.3.5.3. Application of Boundary Conditions Using Steps 
93 

3.3.5.4. Avoiding Conflicting Boundary Conditions 
93 

3.3.5.5. Initial Conditions 
93 

3.4. Analysis Settings 
94 

3.4.1. Analysis Setting Preference 
94 

3.4.2. Step Controls 
94 

3.4.2.1. End Time 
94 

3.4.2.2.Timestep Controls 
95 

3.4.2.3. Restarting an Analysis 
97 

3.4.3. Solution Stability 
97 

3.4.3.1. Mass Scaling 
97 

3.4.3.2. Erosion 
98 
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Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide
3.4.3.3. Damping 
99 

3.4.4. 
Output Controls 
99 

3.5. Solution Information 
100 

3.6. Postprocessing 
101 

3.6.1. Result Trackers 
102 

3.6.2. Result Sets 
102 

3.6.3. Improving your Simulation 
103 

4. Applying PreStress Effects for Explicit Analysis 
105 

4.1. Recommended Guidelines for PreStress Explicit Dynamics 
105 

4.2. PreStress Object Properties 
107 

5. Using Explicit Dynamics to Define Initial Conditions for Implicit Analyses 
109 

5.1. 
Transfering Explicit Results to MAPDL 
109 

6. Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide 
113 

6.1. Why use Explicit Dynamics? 
113 

6.2. What is Explicit Dynamics? 
113 

6.2.1. The Solution Strategy 
114 

6.2.2. Basic Formulations 
114 

6.2.2.1. Implicit Transient Dynamics 
115 

6.2.2.2. Explicit Transient Dynamics 
115 

6.2.3. 
Time Integration 
116 

6.2.3.1. Implicit Time Integration 
116 

6.2.3.2. Explicit Time Integration 
116 

6.2.3.3. Mass Scaling 
118 

6.2.4. 
Wave Propagation 
118 

6.2.4.1. Elastic Waves 
119 

6.2.4.2. Plastic Waves 
119 

6.2.4.3. Shock Waves 
119 

6.2.5. 
Reference Frame 
120 

6.2.5.1. Lagrangian and Eulerian Reference Frames 
120 

6.2.5.2. Eulerian (Virtual) Reference Frame in Explicit Dynamics 
122 

6.2.5.3. Key Concepts of Euler (Virtual) Solutions 
124 

6.2.5.3.1. Multiple Material Stress States 
124 

6.2.5.3.2. Multiple Material Transport 
126 

6.2.5.3.3. Supported Material Properties 
126 

6.2.5.3.4. Known Limitations of Euler Solutions 
126 

6.2.6. 
Explicit Fluid Structure Interaction (EulerLagrange Coupling) 
126 

6.2.6.1. Shell Coupling 
128 

6.2.6.2. Subcycling 
128 

6.3. Analysis Settings 
129 

6.3.1. Step Controls 
129 

6.3.2. Damping Controls 
130 

6.3.3. Solver Controls 
134 

6.3.4. Erosion Controls 
142 

6.4. Model Size Limitations in Explicit Dynamics 
143 

6.5. References 
144 

7. Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis 
147 

7.1. Introduction 
147 

7.2. Explicit Material Library 
149 

7.3. Density 
155 

7.4. Linear Elastic 
155 

7.4.1. Isotropic Elasticity 
155 

7.4.2. Orthotropic Elasticity 
156 
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Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide
7.4.3. Viscoelastic 
156 

7.5. Test Data 
157 

7.6. Hyperelasticity 
157 

7.7. Plasticity 
162 

7.7.1. Bilinear Isotropic Hardening 
163 

7.7.2. Multilinear Isotropic Hardening 
163 

7.7.3. Bilinear Kinematic Hardening 
164 

7.7.4. Multilinear Kinematic Hardening 
164 

7.7.5. JohnsonCook Strength 
164 

7.7.6. CowperSymonds Strength 
166 

7.7.7. SteinbergGuinan Strength 
167 

7.7.8. ZerilliArmstrong Strength 
168 

7.8. Brittle/Granular 
170 

7.8.1. DruckerPrager Strength Linear 
170 

7.8.2. DruckerPrager Strength Stassi 
171 

7.8.3. DruckerPrager Strength Piecewise 
172 

7.8.4. JohnsonHolmquist Strength Continuous 
173 

7.8.5. JohnsonHolmquist Strength Segmented 
175 

7.8.6. RHT Concrete Strength 
177 

7.8.7. MO Granular 
182 

7.9. Equations of State 
183 

7.9.1. Background 
183 

7.9.2. Bulk Modulus 
184 

7.9.3. Shear Modulus 
184 

7.9.4. Ideal Gas EOS 
184 

7.9.5. Polynomial EOS 
185 

7.9.6. Shock EOS Linear 
187 

7.9.7. Shock EOS Bilinear 
188 

7.9.8. JWL EOS 
190 

7.10. 
Porosity 
192 
7.10.1. PorosityCrushable Foam 
192 

7.10.2. Compaction EOS Linear 
195 

7.10.3. Compaction EOS NonLinear 
196 

7.10.4. Palpha EOS 
198 

7.11. 
Failure 
201 
7.11.1. Plastic Strain Failure 
203 

7.11.2. Principal Stress Failure 
203 

7.11.3. Principal Strain Failure 
204 

7.11.4. Stochastic Failure 
205 

7.11.5. Tensile Pressure Failure 
206 

7.11.6. Crack Softening Failure 
207 

7.11.7. JohnsonCook Failure 
209 

7.11.8. Grady Spall Failure 
210 

7.12. Strength 
211 

7.13. Thermal Specific Heat 
212 

7.14. Rigid Materials 
212 

7.15. References 
212 

8. Using Workbench LSDYNA for an Explicit Dynamics Analysis 
215 

8.1. How to Load Workbench LSDYNA 
215 

8.2. How to use Workbench LSDYNA 
215 

8.3. LSDYNA Keywords used by Workbench LSDYNA 
216 

8.4. Supported LSDYNA Keywords 
216 
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Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide
8.5. LSDYNA General Descriptions 
245 
Index 
247 
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Chapter 1: Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide Overview
ANSYS Explicit Dynamics is a transient explicit dynamics Workbench application that can perform a variety of engineering simulations, including the modeling of nonlinear dynamic behaviour of solids, fluids, gases and their interaction. Additionally, the LSDYNA ACT extension is available to analyze a model using the LSDYNA solver.
A typical simulation consists of setting up the model, interactions and the applied loads, solving the model's nonlinear dynamic response over time for the loads and interactions, then examining the details of the response with a variety of available tools.
The Explicit Dynamics application has objects arranged in a tree structure that guide you through the different steps of a simulation. By expanding the objects, you expose the details associated with the object, and you can use the corresponding tools and specification tables to perform that part of the simulation. Objects are used, for example, to define environmental conditions such as contact surfaces and loadings, and to define the types of results you want to have available for review.
The following sections describe in detail how to use the Explicit Dynamics application to set up and run a simulation:
• Explicit Dynamics Workflow (p. 3)
• Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics (p. 83)
• Applying PreStress Effects for Explicit Analysis (p. 105)
• Using Explicit Dynamics to Define Initial Conditions for Implicit Analyses (p. 109)
• Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide (p. 113)
• Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis (p. 147)
The following section discusses how to solve an Explicit Dynamics analysis using the LSDYNA solver:
• Using Workbench LSDYNA for an Explicit Dynamics Analysis (p. 215)
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Chapter 2: Explicit Dynamics Workflow
To learn how to perform an analysis, see Create Analysis System in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide. Note that the features available may differ from one solver to another.
To perform analyses that are beyond those available using Workbench, you can insert a object in the tree.
This chapter contains the following topics:
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Create the Analysis System
2.3. Define Engineering Data
2.4. Attach Geometry
2.5. Define Part Behavior
2.6. Define Connections
2.7. Setting Up Symmetry
2.8. Define Remote Points
2.9. Apply Mesh Controls/Preview Mesh
2.10. Establish Analysis Settings
2.11. Define Initial Conditions
2.12. Apply Loads and Supports
2.13. Solve
2.14. Postprocessing
Commands
2.1. Introduction
You can perform a transient Explicit Dynamics analysis in the Mechanical application using an Explicit Dynamics system. Additionally, the Workbench LSDYNA ACT Extension is available to analyze a model using the LSDYNA solver. Unless specifically mentioned otherwise, this section addresses both the Ex plicit Dynamics system and Workbench LSDYNA. Special conditions for Workbench LSDYNA are noted where pertinent.
An Explicit Dynamics analysis is used to determine the dynamic response of a structure due to stress wave propagation, impact or rapidly changing timedependent loads. Momentum exchange between moving bodies and inertial effects are usually important aspects of the type of analysis being conducted. This type of analysis can also be used to model mechanical phenomena that are highly nonlinear. Nonlinearities may stem from the materials, (for example, hyperelasticity, plastic flows, failure), from contact (for example, high speed collisions and impact) and from the geometric deformation (for example, buckling and collapse). Events with time scales of less than 1 second (usually of order 1 millisecond) are efficiently simulated with this type of analysis. For longer time duration events, consider using a Transient analysis system.
The time step used in an Explicit Dynamics analysis is constrained to maintain stability and consistency via the CFL condition (p. 116); that is, the time increment is proportional to the smallest element dimension in the model and inversely proportional to the sound speed in the materials used. Time increments are usually on the order of 1 microsecond and therefore thousands of time steps (computational cycles) are usually required to obtain the solution.
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
An Explicit Dynamics analysis typically includes many different types of nonlinearities including large deformations, large strains, plasticity, hyperelasticity, material failure etc.
An Explicit Dynamics analysis can contain both rigid and flexible bodies. For rigid/flexible body dynamic simulations involving mechanisms and joints you may wish to consider using either the Transient Structural Analysis or Rigid Dynamics Analysis options.
Note
The intent of this document is to provide an overview of an Explicit Dynamics analysis. Consult our technical support department to obtain a more thorough treatment of this topic.
2.2. Create the Analysis System
For general information about creating an analysis system see Create Analysis System in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.
From the Toolbox drag an Explicit Dynamics or a Workbench LSDYNA template to the Project Schematic.
Note
You need to load the Workbench LSDYNA ACT extension before you see the template in the toolbox.
Explicit Dynamics analyses only support the mm, mg, ms solver unit system (see Explicit Dynamics Solver Controls (p. 38) for supported units in a Workbench LSDYNA analysis).
The Explicit Dynamics solver is double precision (a Workbench LSDYNA analysis can use single or double precision).
2.3. Define Engineering Data
For general information about defining Engineering Data, see Define Engineering Data in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.
Material properties can be linear elastic or orthotropic. Many different forms of material nonlinearity can be represented including hyperelasticity, rate and temperature dependent plasticity, pressurede pendent plasticity, porosity, material strength degradation (damage), material fracture/failure/fragment ation. For a detailed discussion on material models used in Explicit Dynamics, refer to Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis (p. 147).
Density must always be specified for materials used in an Explicit Dynamics analysis.
Data for a range of materials is available in the Explicit material library.
2.4. Attach Geometry
For general information about attaching a geometry to a system, see Attach Geometry in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.
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Attach Geometry
Solid, Surface, and Line bodies can be present in an Explicit Dynamics analysis.
Only symmetric cross sections are supported for line bodies in Explicit Dynamics analyses, except those using the Workbench LSDYNA ACT extension. The following cross sections are not supported: TSections, LSections, ZSections, Hat sections, Channel Sections. For ISections, the two flanges must have the same thickness. For rectangular tubes, opposite sides of the rectangle must be of the same thickness. For Workbench LSDYNA all available cross sections in DesignModeler will be exported for analysis with the LSDYNA solver. However, there are some limitations in the number of dimensions that the LSDYNA solver supports for the Z, Hat and Channel cross sections. For more information consult the LSDYNA Keywords manual.
To prevent the generation of unnecessarily small elements (and long run times) try using DesignModeler or SpaceClaim to remove unwanted "small" features or holes from your geometry.
Thickness can be specified for selected faces on a surface body by inserting a thickness object. Constant, tabular, and functional thickness are all supported.
Stiffness Behavior
Flexible behavior can be assigned to any body type.
Rigid behavior can be applied to Solid, Surface, and Line bodies.
Coordinate System
Local Cartesian coordinate systems can be assigned to bodies. These will be used to define the material directions when using the Orthotropic Elasticity property in a material definition. The material directions 1, 2, 3 will be aligned with the local x, y and z axes of the local coordinate system.
Note
Cylindrical coordinate systems assigned to bodies are not supported for Explicit Dynamics systems. Cylindrical coordinate systems are only supported to define rotational displacement or velocity constraints.
Cylindrical coordinate systems are not supported with Workbench LSDYNA.
Reference Temperature
This option defines the initial (time=0.0) temperature of the body.
Reference Frame
Available for solid bodies when an Explicit Dynamics system is part of the solution; the user has the option of setting the Reference Frame to Lagrangian (default) or Eulerian (Virtual). If Stiffness Behavior is defined as Rigid, Eulerian is not a valid setting.
The reference Frame is not supported for Workbench LSDYNA.
Rigid Materials
For bodies defined to have rigid stiffness, only the Density property of the material associated with the body will be used. For Explicit Dynamics systems all rigid bodies must be discretized with a Full Mesh
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
or the Rigid Body Behavior must be defined as Dimensionally Reduced. The Full Mesh option will be specified by default for the Explicit meshing physics preference.
The mass and inertia of the rigid body will be derived from the elements and material density for each body.
By default, a kinematic rigid body is defined and its motion will depend on the resultant forces and moments applied to it through interaction with other Parts of the model. Elements filled with rigid materials can interact with other regions via contact.
Constraints can only be applied to an entire rigid body. For example, a fixed displacement cannot be applied to one edge of a rigid body, it must be applied to the whole body.
Note
• 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses are supported for Plane Strain and Axisymmetric behaviors.
2D analyses are Beta in Workbench LSDYNA.
• Only symmetric crosssections are supported for line bodies.
• Flexible and rigid bodies cannot be combined in Multibody Parts. Bonded connections can be applied to connect rigid and flexible bodies.
• The Thickness Mode and Offset Type fields for surface bodies are not supported for Explicit Dynamics systems.
Offset Type is supported for Workbench LSDYNA.
• Initial overpenetrations of nodes/elements of different bodies should be avoided or minimized if sliding contact is to be used. There are several methods available in Workbench to remove initial penetration.
2.5. Define Part Behavior
For general information about defining parts, see Define Part Behavior in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.
Nonlinear effects are always accounted for in Explicit Dynamics analysis.
Parts may be defined as rigid or flexible. In the solver, rigid parts are represented by a single point that carries the inertial properties together with a discretized exterior surface that represents the geometry. Rigid bodies should be meshed using similar Method mesh controls as those used for flexible bodies. The inertial properties used in the solver will be derived from the discretized representation of the body, and the material density and hence may differ slightly from the values presented in the properties of the body in the Mechanical application GUI.
At least one flexible body must be specified when using the Explicit Dynamics solver. The solver requires this in order to calculate the timestep increments. In the absence of a flexible body, the timestep be comes underdefined. The boundary conditions allowed for the rigid bodies with Explicit Dynamics are:
• 
Connections 

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– Contact Regions: Frictionless, Frictional and Bonded.
Define Connections
– Body Interactions: Frictionless, Frictional and Bonded. Bonded body interactions are not supported for Workbench LSDYNA.
– Reinforcement Body Interactions are supported with Workbench LSDYNA.
– In Explicit Dynamics systems, rigid bodies may not be bonded to other rigid bodies.
• Initial Conditions: Velocity, Angular Velocity
• Supports: Displacement, Fixed Support and Velocity.
• Loads: Pressure and Force. Force is not supported for Explicit Dynamics analyses.
For an Explicit Dynamics analysis, the following postprocessing features are available for rigid bodies:
• 
Results and Probes: Deformation only  that is, Displacement, Velocity. 
• 
Result Trackers: Body average data only. 
If 
a multibody part consists only of rigid bodies, all of which share the same material assignment, the 
part will act as a single rigid body, even if the individual bodies are not physically connected.
2.6. Define Connections
For general information about defining connections, see Define Connections in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.
Line body to line body contact is possible subject to the following:
• Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based in the Body Interactions Details view.
• Edge on Edge is set to Yes in the Body Interactions Details view.
• The Interaction Type is defined as Frictional or Frictionless.
• Workbench LSDYNA uses the *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_GENERAL and *CONTACT_AUTOMAT IC_SINGLE_SURFACE keywords when a friction or frictionless Body Interaction is scoped to geometry that contains line bodies. The keywords handle contacts between line bodies only, and line bodies to other body types respectively. In the case where the Body Interaction is scoped to only line bodies, then only the *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_GENERAL keyword is used.
Reinforcement body interaction should be supported in the case when only line bodies are scoped to
a Body Interaction of Type = Reinforcement. The line bodies will then be tied to any solid body that
they intersect. Reinforcement body interactions are not supported for Workbench LSDYNA or for 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses. However utilizing Keyword Snippets under Contact Region objects should
provide a suitable alternative.
Body Interactions (p. 9), Contact and Spot Welds are all valid in Explicit Dynamics analyses. Frictional, Frictionless and Bonded body interactions and contact options are available. Conditionally bonded contact can be simulated using the breakable property of each bonded region. Spot Welds can also be made to fail using the breakable property.
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
Joints and Beam connections are not supported for Explicit Dynamics analyses. Springs are not supported for Workbench LSDYNA analyses. The Contact Tool is also not applicable to Explicit Dynamics analyses.
For Workbench LSDYNA, bonded body interactions are not supported. Also, Contact Region objects with Auto Asymmetric Behavior or just Asymmetric Behavior are treated the same. Symmetric Be havior will create a _SURFACE_TO_SURFACE keyword for the contact and an Asymmetric Behavior will create a _NODES_TO_SURFACE keyword.
For Workbench LSDYNA, contacts between line bodies and solids can be implemented using the Keyword Snippets facility available under the Manual Contact Region objects.
Bonded contact is not supported in an Explicit Dynamics analysis for bodies that have their Reference Frame set to Eulerian (Virtual). A solver warning is shown to let the user know that such bodies will be ignored for bonds. Bonded contact is not support in a 2D Explicit Dynamics analysis.
To avoid hourglassing problems, remote points can be used if there are only a few nodes active in the bond definition.
Bonds are not recommended for joining tetrahedral meshes. Use multibodied parts or remote points instead.
By default, a Body Interaction object will be automatically inserted in the Mechanical application tree and will be scoped to all bodies in the model. This object activates frictionless contact behavior between all bodies that come into proximity during the analysis.
2.6.1. Spot Welds in Explicit Dynamics Analyses
Spot welds provide a mechanism to rigidly connect two discrete points in a model and can be used to represent welds, rivets, bolts, etc. The points usually belong to two different surfaces and are defined on the geometry (see DesignModeler or SpaceClaim help).
During the solver initialization process, the two points defining each spot weld will be connected by a
rigid beam element. Additionally, rigid beam elements will be generated on each surface to enable transfer of rotations at the spot weld location (see figure below). If the point of the spot weld lies on
a shell body, both translational and rotational degrees of freedom will be linked at the connecting point.
If the point of the spot weld lies on a surface of a solid body, additional rigid beam elements will be
generated to enable transfer of rotations at the spot weld location.
Spot welds can be released during a simulation using the Breakable Stress or Force option. If the stress criteria is selected the user will be asked to define an effective cross sectional area. This is used to convert the defined stress limits into equivalent force limits. A spot weld will break (release) if the fol lowing criteria is exceeded:
Where:
f _{n}
S _{n}
and f _{s} 
are normal and shear interface forces 
and S _{s} 
are the maximum allowed normal and shear force limits 
n and s are user defined exponential coefficients
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(2.1)
Note that the normal interface force f
_{n}
is nonzero for tensile values only.
Define Connections
After failure of the spot weld the rigid body connecting the points is removed from the simulation.
Spot welds of zero length are permitted. However, if such spot welds are defined as breakable the
above failure
criteria is used with global forces:
criteria is modified since local normal and shear directions cannot be defined. A modified
(2.2)
Where,
are the force differences across the spot weld in the global coordinate system.
Note
A spot weld is equivalent to a rigid body and as such multiple nodal boundary conditions cannot be applied to spot welds.
2.6.2. Body Interactions in Explicit Dynamics Analyses
Within an Explicit Dynamics analysis, the body interaction feature represents contact between bodies and includes settings that allow you to control these interactions. If the geometry you use has two or more bodies in contact, a Body Interactions object folder appears by default under Connections in the tree. Included in a Body Interactions folder are one or more Body Interaction objects, with each object representing a contact pair.
You can also manually add these two objects:
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
• To add a Body Interactions folder, highlight the Connections folder and choose Body Interactions from the toolbar. A Body Interactions folder is added and includes one Body Interaction object.
• To add a Body Interaction object to an existing Body Interactions folder, highlight the Connections folder, the Body Interactions folder, or an existing Body Interaction object, and choose Body Interaction from the toolbar.
General Notes
Each Body Interaction object activates an interaction for the bodies scoped in the object. With body interactions, contact detection is completely automated in the solver. At any time point during the analysis any node of the bodies scoped in the interaction may interact with any face of the bodies scoped in the interaction. The interactions are automatically detected during the solution.
The default frictionless interaction type that is scoped to all bodies activates frictionless contact between any external node and face that may come into contact in the model during the analysis.
To improve the efficiency of analyses involving large number of bodies, you are advised to suppress the default frictionless interaction that is scoped to all bodies, and instead insert additional Body Inter action objects which limit interactions to specific bodies. The union of all frictional/frictionless body interactions defines the matrix of possible body interactions during the analysis.
For example, in the model shown below:
• Body A is traveling towards body B and we require frictional contact to occur. A frictional body interaction type scoped only to bodies A and B will achieve this. Body A will not come close to body C during the ana lysis so it does not need to be included in the interaction.
• Body B is bonded to body C. A bonded body Interaction type, scoped to bodies B and C will achieve this.
• If the bond between bodies B and C breaks during the analysis, we want frictional contact to take place between bodies B and C. A frictional body interaction type scoped only to bodies B and C will achieve this.
A bonded body interaction type can be applied in addition to a frictional/frictionless body interaction.
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Define Connections
A reinforcement body interaction type be can be applied in addition to a frictional/frictionless body
interaction.
Object property settings are included in the Details view for both the Body Interactions folder and the individual Body Interaction objects. Refer to the following sections for descriptions of these properties. 2.6.2.1. Properties for Body Interactions Folder 2.6.2.2. Interaction Type Properties for Body Interaction Object 2.6.2.3. Identifying Body Interactions Regions for a Body
2.6.2.1. Properties for Body Interactions Folder
All properties for the Body Interactions folder are included in an Advanced category and define the global properties of the contact algorithm for the analysis. These properties are applied to all Body Interaction objects and to all frictional and frictionless manual contact regions.
This section includes descriptions of the following properties for the Body Interactions folder:
2.6.2.1.1. Contact Detection
2.6.2.1.2. Formulation
2.6.2.1.3. Sliding Contact
2.6.2.1.4. Shell Thickness Factor and Nodal Shell Thickness
2.6.2.1.5. Body Self Contact
2.6.2.1.6. Element Self Contact
2.6.2.1.7.Tolerance
2.6.2.1.8. Pinball Factor
2.6.2.1.9.Time Step Safety Factor 2.6.2.1.10. Limiting Time Step Velocity 2.6.2.1.11. Edge on Edge Contact
2.6.2.1.1. Contact Detection
The available choices are described below.
Trajectory
The trajectory of nodes and faces included in frictional or frictionless contact are tracked during the computation cycle. If the trajectory of a node and a face intersects during the cycle a contact event is detected.
The trajectory contact algorithm is the default and recommended option in most cases for contact in Explicit Dynamics analyses. Contacting nodes/faces can be initially separated or coincident at the start of the analysis. Trajectory based contact detection does not impose any constraint on the analysis time step and therefore often provides the most efficient solution.
Note that nodes which penetrate into another element at the start of the simulation will be ignored
for the purposes of contact and thus should be avoided. To generate duplicate conforming nodes across
a contact interface:
1. Use the multibody part option in DesignModeler and set Shared Topology to Imprint.
2. For meshing, use Contact Sizing, the Arbitrary match control or the Match mesh Where Possible option of the Patch Independent mesh method.
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
Proximity Based
The external faces, edges and nodes of a mesh are encapsulated by a contact detection zone. If during the analysis a node enters this detection zone, it will be repelled using a penalty based force.
Note
• An additional constraint is applied to the analysis time step when this contact detection algorithm is selected. The time step is constrained such that a node cannot travel through a fraction of the contact detection zone size in one cycle. The fraction is defined by the Time Step Safety Factor (p. 16) described below. For analyses involving high velocities, the time step used in the analysis is often controlled by the contact algorithm.
• The initial geometry/mesh must be defined such that there is a physical gap/separation of at least the contact detection zone size between nodes and faces in the model. The solver will give error messages if this criteria is not satisfied. This constraint means this option may not be prac tical for very complex assemblies.
• Proximity Based Contact is not supported in 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.
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Define Connections
2.6.2.1.2. Formulation
This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Trajectory.
The available choices are described below.
Penalty
If contact is detected, a local penalty force is calculated to push the node involved in the contact event back to the face. Equal and opposite forces are calculated on the nodes of the face in order to conserve linear and angular momentum.
Trajectory based penalty force,
Proximity based penalty force,
Where:
D 
is the depth of penetration 
M 
is the effective mass of the node (N) and face (F) 
Δ t is the simulation time step
Note
• Kinetic energy is not necessarily conserved. You can track conservation of energy in contact using the Solution Information object, the Solution Output, or one of the energy summary result trackers.
• The applied penalty force will push the nodes back towards the true contact position during the cycle. However, it will usually take several cycles to satisfy the contact condition.
Decomposition Response
All contacts that take place at the same point in time are first detected. The response of the system to these contact events is then calculated to conserve momentum and energy. During this process, forces are calculated to ensure that the resulting position of nodes and faces does not result in further penet ration at that time point.
Note
• The decomposition response algorithm cannot be used in combination with bonded contact regions. The formulation will be automatically switch to penalty if bonded regions are present in the model.
• The decomposition response algorithm is more impulsive (in a given cycle) than the penalty method. This can give rise to large hourglass energies and energy errors.
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
2.6.2.1.3. Sliding Contact
This option is available if Contact Detection is set to Trajectory.
When a contact event is detected part way through a cycle and the contact node has a tangential ve locity relative to the face it has made contact with, the node needs to slide along the face for the re mainder of the cycle. If the node should slide to the edge of the face before the end of the cycle, it is necessary to determine whether the node needs to begin to slide along an adjacent face. Two options described below are available for determining which (if any) face the node needs to slide to.
Discrete Surface
When a node slides to the edge of a face, the next face the node needs to slide on is determined using the contact detection algorithm. This option is the default and will provide the most time efficient solution. However, penetrations of nodes may be seen in situations where the faces that the nodes are sliding on are experiencing large deformations or rotations. When such penetrations occur, it is recom mended the user switches to the Connected Surface option.
Connected Surface
When a node slides to the edge of a face, the next face the node needs to slide on is determined using the mesh connectivity.
2.6.2.1.4. Shell Thickness Factor and Nodal Shell Thickness
These properties are available if the geometry includes one or more surface bodies and if Contact De tection is set to Trajectory.
The Shell Thickness Factor allows you to control the effective thickness of surface bodies used in the contact. You can specify a value between 0.0 and 1.0.
• A value of 0.0 means that contact will ignore the physical thickness of the surface body and the contact surface will be coincident with the midplane of the shell.
• A value of 1.0 means that the contact shell thickness will be equal to the physical shell thickness. The contact surface will be offset from the midplane of the shell by half the shell thickness (on both sides of the shell).
Nodal Shell Thickness is only active when the Shell Thickness Factor value is not zero (0). It allows you to obtain the most accurate shell to shell contact by improving on the Shell Thickness Factor ap proach.
• When set to Yes, contact between shells is improved by eliminating the inherent small overlap that may occur even when the Shell Thickness Factor is set to 1.0. Essentially this setting (along with a thickness factor of 1.0) will provide the most accurate shell thickness contact behaviour.
• When set to No, the contact shell thickness will be determined by the value of the Shell Thickness Factor and the nodal shell thickness will not have any effect.
When set to Program Controlled, the behavior of nodal shell thickness is determined by the Analysis Settings Preference Type (p. 48).
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Define Connections
2.6.2.1.5. Body Self Contact
When set to Yes, the contact detection algorithm will check for external nodes of a body contacting with faces of the same body in addition to other bodies. This is the most robust option since all possible external contacts should be detected.
When set to No, the contact detection algorithm will only check for external nodes of a body contacting with external faces of other bodies. This setting reduces the number of possible contact events and can therefore improve efficiency of the analysis. This option should not be used if a body is likely to fold onto itself during the analysis, as it would during plastic buckling for example.
When set to Program Controlled, the behavior of self contact is determined by the Analysis Settings Preference Type (p. 48).
Presented below is an example of a model that includes self impact.
2.6.2.1.6. Element Self Contact
When set to Yes, automatic erosion (removal of elements) is enabled when an element deforms such that one of its nodes comes within a specified distance of one of its faces. In this situation, elements are removed before they become degenerated. Element self contact is very useful for impact penetration examples where removal of elements is essential to allow generation of a hole in a structure. Element removal through Element Self Contact is only activated when one of the erosion options under Erosion Controls is also set to Yes.
When set to Program Controlled, the behavior of self contact is determined by the Analysis Settings Preference Type (p. 48).
2.6.2.1.7. Tolerance
This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Trajectory and Element Self Contact is set to Yes.
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
Tolerance defines the size of the detection zone for element self contact when the trajectory contact option is used (see Element Self Contact (p. 15)). The value input is a factor in the range 0.1 to 0.5. This factor is multiplied by the smallest characteristic dimension of the elements in the mesh to give a physical dimension. A setting of 0.5 effectively equates to 50% of the smallest element dimension in the model.
Note
The smaller the fraction the more accurate the solution.
2.6.2.1.8. Pinball Factor
This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based.
The pinball factor defines the size of the detection zone for proximity based contact. The value input is a factor in the range 0.1 to 0.5. This factor is multiplied by the smallest characteristic dimension of the elements in the mesh to give a physical dimension. A setting of 0.5 effectively equates to 50% of the smallest element dimension in the model.
Note
The smaller the fraction the more accurate the solution. The time step in the analysis could be reduced significantly if small values are used (see Time Step Safety Factor (p. 16)).
2.6.2.1.9. Time Step Safety Factor
This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based.
For proximity based contact, the time step used in the analysis is additionally constrained by contact such that in one cycle, a node in the model cannot travel more than the detection zone size, multiplied by a safety factor. The safety factor is defined with this property and the recommended default is 0.2. Increasing the factor may increase the time step and hence reduce runtimes, but may also lead to missed contacts. The maximum value you can specify is 0.5.
2.6.2.1.10. Limiting Time Step Velocity
This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based.
For proximity based contact, this setting limits the maximum velocity that will be used to compute the proximity based contact time step calculation.
2.6.2.1.11. Edge on Edge Contact
This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based.
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Define Connections
By default, contact events in Explicit Dynamics are detected by nodes impacting faces. Use this option to extend the contact detection to include discrete edges impacting other edges in the model.
Note
This option is numerically intensive and can significantly increase runtimes. It is recommended that you compare results with and without edge contact to make sure this feature is required.
A model with edge on edge contact cannot be run in parallel.
2.6.2.2. Interaction Type Properties for Body Interaction Object
This section includes descriptions of the interaction types for the Body Interaction object:
2.6.2.2.1. Frictionless Type
2.6.2.2.2. Frictional Type
2.6.2.2.3. Bonded Type
2.6.2.2.4. Reinforcement Type
2.6.2.2.1. Frictionless Type
Setting Type to Frictionless activates frictionless sliding contact between any exterior node and any exterior face of the scoped bodies. Individual contact events are detected and tracked during the ana lysis. The contact is symmetric between bodies (that is, each node will belong to a master face impacted by adjacent slave nodes; each node will also act as a slave impacting a master face).
Supported Connections
Explicit Dynamics
Connection Geometry 
Volume 
Shell 
Line 
Volume 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Shell 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Line 
Yes 
Yes 
*Yes 
*Only for Contact Detection = Proximity Based and Edge on Edge Contact = Yes (This option switches on contact between ALL lines / bodies / edges; that is, there is no dependence on the scoping selection of body interactions.)
Workbench LSDYNA
Connection Geometry 
Volume 
Shell 
Line 
Volume 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
Shell 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
Line 
No 
No 
No 
2.6.2.2.2. Frictional Type
Setting Type to Frictional activates frictional sliding contact between any exterior node and any exter ior face of the scoped bodies. Individual contact events are detected and tracked during the simulation.
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
The contact is symmetric between bodies (that is, each node will belong to a master face impacted by adjacent slave nodes, each node will also act as a slave impacting a master face).
Friction Coefficient: A nonzero value will activate Coulomb type friction between bodies (F = μ R).
The relative velocity ( ν ) of sliding interfaces can influence frictional forces. A dynamic frictional formu lation for the coefficient of friction can be used.
where
friction coefficient
=
dynamic coefficient of friction
=
β = exponential decay coefficient
ν = relative sliding velocity at point of contact
(2.3)
Nonzero values of the Dynamic Coefficient and Decay Constant should be used to apply dynamic friction.
Supported Connections
Explicit Dynamics
Connection Geometry 
Volume 
Shell 
Line 
Volume 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Shell 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Line 
Yes 
Yes 
*Yes 
*Only for Contact Detection = Proximity Based and Edge on Edge Contact = Yes (This option switches on contact between ALL lines / bodies / edges; that is, there is no dependence on the scoping selection of body interactions.)
Workbench LSDYNA
Connection Geometry 
Volume 
Shell 
Line 
Volume 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
Shell 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
Line 
No 
No 
No 
2.6.2.2.3. Bonded Type
Descriptions of the following properties are also addressed in this section:
• Maximum Offset
• Breakable
– Stress Criteria
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→ Normal Stress Limit
→ Normal Stress Exponent
→ Shear Stress Limit
→ Shear Stress Exponent
Define Connections
External nodes of bodies included in bonded interactions will be tied to faces of bodies included in the interaction if the distance between the external node and the face is less than the value defined by the user in Maximum Offset. The solver automatically detects the bonded nodes/faces during the initialization phase of the analysis.
Note that it is important to select an appropriate value for the Maximum Offset. The automatic search will bond everything together which is found within this value.
During the analysis the nodes are kept at the same relative position on the face to which they are bonded. This is done by means of penalty forces which are either dependent on the mass of the nodes/faces or the stiffness of the material. The stiffness is weighted based on materials on either side of the bond. In models with mass scaling the penalty method is chosen based on the mass scaling setting:
• Mass scaling off: Penalty method based on harmonic mass in the bonded pair.
• Mass scaling on: Penalty method based on harmonic stiffness in the bonded pair.
Origin of Model 
Mass Scaling 
Mass Scaling 
Off 
On 

Any Workbench project opened in R18.0 or later 
Harmonic Mass 
Harmonic 
Stiffness 
Note
The stiffness weighted penalty method is typically superior to a mass weighted penalty and increases the robustness of (offset) bonds. By switching on mass scaling and still using a small target timestep (eg 1e20) no mass will be added, but the penalty method will be switched to harmonic stiffness.
When large material stiffness occurs between two materials that are bonded, it is recommen ded that you use an asymmetric definition where the contact scope (nodes to be bonded) refers to the soft material and the target scope (faces to bond to) refers to the stiffer mater ial.
Use the custom variable BOND_STATUS to check bonded connections in Explicit Dynamics. The variable records the number of nodes bonded to the faces on an element during the analysis. This can be used not only to verify that initial bonds are generated appropriately, but also to identify bonds that break during the simulation.
The automatic search algorithm for bonded regions will search for the minimum distance to any of the faces. If this minimum distance falls within the maximum offset value, the bond pair will be established. In order to compute the proper distance to a face the algorithm will determine if the perpendicular projection to the face falls within the face. If that is not the case, the perpendicular projection to the face edges is considered. If that is not the case, the distance to one of the face nodes is considered.
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
This algorithm guarantees that a minimum distance is always found and can be properly compared against the value input for Maximum Offset.
Verification of the initialized bonds can be done by inspection of the prt file. A summary is given which lists the number of candidate nodes for bonding and the actual number of nodes that were bonded.
If the percentage of nodes to be bonded is 0% it means none of the nodes are actually bonded. You
should consider increasing the Maximum Offset in this case.
Maximum Offset defines the tolerance used at initialization to determine whether a node is bonded
to a face.
Breakable = No implies that the bond will remain throughout the analysis.
Breakable = Stress Criteria implies that the bond may break (or be released) during the analysis. The criteria for breaking a bond is defined as:
where
= Normal Stress Limit
n = Normal Stress Exponent
= Shear Stress Limit
m = Shear Stress Exponent
(2.4)
The Behavior option can be used as described in Behavior.
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Define Connections
Auto Asymmetric behavior is dependent on the type of scoping:
• Bonded connections with only faces scoped will behave symmetrically.
• All other bonded connections (if the Contact or Target is scoped to a vertex or edge) will behave asymmetrically.
Note that there are two distinguishing factors during initialization based on behavior:
Internal outofplane tolerance
• For symmetric bond behavior the perpendicular projection of a node to a face has to fall within the face bounds otherwise the bond pair is disregarded a candidate.
• For asymmetric bond behavior the perpendicular projection of a node to a face does not have to fall within the face bounds in order to be considered as a candidate.
• For both types of behavior the Maximum offset is always taken into account.
• If needed, a symmetric bond definition can also be changed to search outofplane by taking the following steps:
– Set the definition to Asymmetric in order to search outofplane
– Duplicate the definition of the bond object (rightclick operation)
– Subsequently "flip" Contact and Target (rightclick operation)
Effectively, you have created a symmetric definition (Contact>Target, Target>Contact) and bonds will be searched out of plane.
Bond definitions referring to a single part
• Symmetric bonds are disregarded for definitions that scope to a single part.
• Asymmetric bonds are considered for definitions that scope to a single part.
The Trim Contact option is ignored by the Explicit solver.
Supported Connections
Explicit Dynamics
See Supported Contact Types for more information.
Note
Bonded body interactions and contact are not supported for 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.
Workbench LSDYNA*
Connection Geometry 
Volume 
Shell 
Line 
Volume 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
Shell 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
Connection Geometry 
Volume 
Shell 
Line 
Line 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
*The above matrix is valid only for Contact Regions. Bonded body interactions are not supported at all.
2.6.2.2.4. Reinforcement Type
This body interaction type is used to apply discrete reinforcement to solid bodies. All line bodies scoped to the object will be flagged as potential discrete reinforcing bodies in the solver. On initialization of the solver, all elements of the line bodies scoped to the object which are contained within any solid body in the model will be converted to discrete reinforcement. Elements which lie outside all volume bodies will remain as standard line body elements.
The reinforcing beam nodes will be constrained to stay at the same initial parametric location within the volume element they reside during element deformation. Typical applications involve reinforced concrete or reinforced rubber structures likes tires and hoses.
If the volume element to which a reinforcing node is tied is eroded, the beam node bonding constraint is removed and becomes a free beam node.
On erosion of a reinforcing beam element node, if inertia is retained, the node will remain tied to the parametric location of the volume element. If inertia is not retained, the node will also be eroded.
Note
Volume elements that are intersected by reinforcement beams, but do not contain a beam node, will not be experiencing any reinforced beam forces. Good modeling practice is therefore to have the element size of the beams similar or less than that of the volume ele ments.
Table 2.1:
Example: Drop Test onto Reinforced Concrete Beam
Note that the target solid bodies do not need to be scoped to this object – these will be identified automatically by the solver on initialization.
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Supported Connections
Explicit Dynamics
Setting Up Symmetry
Connection Geometry 
Volume 
Shell 
Line 
Volume 
No 
No 
*Yes 
Shell 
No 
No 
No 
Line 
*Yes 
No 
No 
*Only the line body needs to be included in the scope. The Explicit Dynamics solver automatically detects which volume bodies that the line body passes through.
Note
Reinforcement body interactions are not supported for 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.
Workbench LSDYNA
Connection Geometry 
Volume 
Shell 
Line 
Volume 
No 
No 
No 
Shell 
No 
No 
No 
Line 
No 
No 
No 
2.6.2.3. Identifying Body Interactions Regions for a Body
See the description for Body Interactions for Selected Bodies in the section Correlating Tree Outline Objects with Model Characteristics in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.
2.7. Setting Up Symmetry
For general information about setting up symmetry see Symmetry in the Mechanical Application in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.
2.7.1. Explicit Dynamics Symmetry
Symmetry regions can be defined in Explicit Dynamics analyses. Symmetry objects should be scoped to faces of flexible bodies defined in the model. All nodes lying on the plane defined by the selected face are constrained to give a symmetrical response of the structure.
Note
• Antisymmetry, periodicity, and antiperiodicity symmetry regions are not supported in Explicit Dynamics systems.
• Symmetry cannot be applied to rigid bodies.
• Only the General Symmetry interpretation is used by the solver in 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.
Symmetry conditions can be interpreted by the solver in two ways:
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
2.7.1.1. General Symmetry 2.7.1.2. Global Symmetry Planes
2.7.1.1. General Symmetry
In general, a symmetry condition will result in degree of freedom constraints being applied to the nodes on the symmetry plane. For volume elements, the translational degree of freedom normal to the sym metry plane will be constrained. For shell and beam elements, the rotational degrees of freedom in the plane of symmetry will be additionally constrained.
For nodes that have multiple symmetry regions assigned to them (for example, along the edge between two adjacent faces), the combined constraints associated with the two symmetry planes will be enforced.
Note
• Symmetry regions defined with different local coordinate systems may not be combined, unless they are orthogonal with the global coordinate system.
• General symmetry does not constrain eroded nodes. Thus, if after a group of elements erodes, a "free" eroded node remains, the eroded node will not be constrained by the symmetry condition. This can be resolved in certain situations via the special case of Global symmetry, described in the next section.
2.7.1.2. Global Symmetry Planes
If a symmetry object is aligned with the Cartesian planes at x=0, y=0 or z=0, and all nodes in the model
are on the positive side of x=0, y=0, or z=0, the symmetry condition is interpreted as a special case
termed Global symmetry plane. In addition to general symmetry constraints:
• If a symmetry plane is coincident with the YZ plane of the global coordinate system (X=0), and no parts of the geometry lie on the negative side of the plane, then a symmetry plane is activated at X=0. This will prevent any nodes (including eroded nodes) from moving through the plane X=0 during the analysis.
• If a symmetry plane is coincident with the ZX plane of the global coordinate system (Y=0), and no parts of the geometry lie on the negative side of the plane, then a symmetry plane is activated at Y=0. This will prevent any nodes (including eroded nodes) from moving through the plane Y=0 during the analysis.
• If a symmetry plane is coincident with the XY plane of the global coordinate system (Z=0), and no parts of the geometry lie on the negative side of the plane, then a symmetry plane is activated at Z=0. This will prevent any nodes (including eroded nodes) from moving through the plane Z=0 during the analysis.
Note
Global symmetry planes are only applicable to 3D Explicit Dynamics analyses.
2.7.2. Symmetry in an Euler Domain
There are additional considerations if an Euler Domain is defined for an analysis. For symmetry to be applied to an Euler Domain, symmetry will have to be defined with the global coordinate system, not
a local one, and it will need to be applied on geometry faces which lie on the global coordinate system planes.
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Define Remote Points
• 
If the symmetry is not defined with the global coordinate system, it is ignored and a warning is shown in the messages window saying that such symmetry will be ignored but the analysis continues to solve. 
• 
If the symmetry is not applied on faces which lie on the global coordinate system planes then an error is shown and the solution is terminated. 
In 
the case where symmetry is valid for use with Euler Domains, if the boundary of the Euler Domain 
which is parallel to the symmetry plane is below the symmetry plane, then that boundary will be moved to lie on the symmetry plane if the following conditions are true:
• The Euler Domain Size Definition option in the Analysis settings is set to Program Controlled.
• The Euler body is on the positive side of the global coordinate axis.
2.8. Define Remote Points
The algorithm in the Explicit Dynamics solver is different from the Implicit solver in the way it handles rigid bodies. For general information about how to use remote points, see Specifying Remote Points in the Mechanical Application and Remote Boundary Conditions in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.
The following topics describe the use of remote points and boundary conditions for the explicit solvers:
2.8.1. Explicit Dynamics Remote Points
2.8.2. Explicit Dynamics Remote Boundary Conditions
2.8.3. Initial Conditions on Remote Points
2.8.4. Constraints and Remote Points
2.8.1. Explicit Dynamics Remote Points
A remote point in Explicit Dynamics consists of a:
• Location  The point in space from which a remote boundary condition can be applied.
• Scoped region  The area of geometry the remote point is scoped to. The nodes of this scoping form a group of rigid body nodes along with a further node created at the remote point location.
• Boundary condition (optional)  The Remote Displacement and Remote Force boundary conditions are currently available as remote boundary conditions.
The Explicit Dynamics solver does not support Deformable Behavior when using remote points.
The group of rigid body nodes which is created is treated as a regular rigid body by the Explicit Dynamics solver. For example, if the scoped region of the remote point consists of two faces from two separate parts, the solver will determine the center of mass and the inertial properties for all the nodes, with all the nodes making up a combined group of rigid body nodes. This calculation creates a rigid connection between the two parts.
In the solution, the forces acting on the group of rigid body nodes are summed at each time step. This
calculation determines the rigid body motion of the nodes belonging to the remote point. Due to the mandatory rigid behavior of Remote Points, the group of rigid body nodes are unable to deform, even
if the elements of the parts used have flexible behavior. The group of rigid body nodes are, however,
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
free to translate and rotate. Due to this restriction it is important to maintain a sufficient number of nodes in the scoped area of a remote point when scoped to a flexible solid part.
Note
When using Remote Points in Explicit Dynamics analyses:
• The Behavior field must be set to Rigid. If it is set to Deformable the solution will terminate and an error will be generated.
• Only the remote displacement and remote force boundary conditions are supported for Remote Points in Explicit Dynamics analyses.
• Commands are not supported for Remote Points in Explicit Dynamics analyses.
• Remote Points and boundary conditions are not supported for 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.
2.8.2. Explicit Dynamics Remote Boundary Conditions
The remote boundary conditions available in the Explicit Dynamics solver are Remote Displacement and Remote Force.
The Explicit Dynamics solver treats a Remote Displacement as follows:
• The geometry that the Remote Displacement boundary condition is scoped to becomes a group of rigid body nodes, determining its mass and inertial properties, and preventing these nodes from deforming. If this group of rigid body nodes spans multiple parts, then these parts will be rigidly connected.
• Displacements and/or rotations at the remote point and the group of rigid body nodes are tracked and converted into velocities and angular velocities for use by the solver.
• The actual translation and rotation of the remote point are a combination of the imposed boundary constraints of the Remote Displacement definition and the forces acting on the group of nodes scoped to the Remote Point. Therefore, the translation and rotation of the Remote Point and the group of rigid body nodes are determined simultaneously and enforced with the use of a single corrective force and moment.
The Explicit Dynamics solver treats a Remote Force as follows:
• The geometry that the Remote Force boundary condition is scoped to becomes a group of rigid body nodes, determining its mass and inertial properties, and preventing these nodes from deforming. If this group of rigid body nodes spans multiple parts, then these parts will be rigidly connected.
• The force specified is applied to the node representing the remote point, which is rigidly attached to the group of rigid body nodes.
• The force is applied to the scoped group of nodes specified by the remote point.
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•
Define Remote Points
The motion of the remote point is determined by a combination of the loads applied to the remote point, the mass and inertial properties of the group of rigid body nodes, and the properties of the parts the group of rigid body nodes are attached to.
Note
Remote Force is not supported for Workbench LSDYNA.
2.8.3. Initial Conditions on Remote Points
Initial conditions are scoped to geometric parts in the model. Effectively this means that the initial condition is scoped to a set of elements. However, remote points are scoped to the underlying nodes in the model. This may result in different initial conditions on the same node in a remote point definition. This section describes the behavior in such instances.
Initial condition on a flexible part:
Initial conditions can be scoped to a subset of or all elements in a flexible part. It is not necessary to scope an initial condition to all the nodes in the remote point definition, as long as there is only one initial con dition defined for the nodes that participate in the remote point definition.
Initial condition on a rigid body part:
The remote point definition will automatically include all the nodes in a rigid part. Therefore the initial condition (or multiple identical initial conditions) should be scoped to all the elements in the rigid part. The scoped nodes of the remote point will follow the initial condition of the scoped rigid body. If the flexible scoped nodes of the remote point contain their own initial condition, this will be ignored.
2.8.4. Constraints and Remote Points
When applying constraints to a model that includes remote points, it is important to ensure that the model is not overconstrained. Since the Explicit Dynamics solver treats the remote point and its scoped region as a single rigid body, the model could be overconstrained in the following two examples:
• Two remote points share common nodes in their scoped regions. This is an overconstraint because each remote point generates its own rigid body and rigid bodies cannot share nodes.
Example of an overconstrained model caused by two remote points scoped to adjacent faces.
• A velocity boundary condition applied to some or all of the nodes in a remote point scoping, and a remote displacement applied to the remote point.
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
Example of an overconstrained model caused by a constraining boundary condition such as a fixed support applied to a face which is adjacent to a remote point scoping with a remote displacement applied.
This list of examples is not exhaustive and a setup error will be issued to the user on solve if any such overconstraints occur.
2.9. Apply Mesh Controls/Preview Mesh
For general information about how to apply mesh controls and preview the mesh, see Apply Mesh Controls and Preview Mesh in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide
All mesh methods available in the Workbench meshing application can be utilized in Explicit Dynamics systems.
• Swept Volume Meshing
• Patch Dependant Volume Meshing
• Hex Dominant Meshing
• Patch Independent Tetrahedral Meshing
• Multizone Volume Meshing
• Patch dependant shell meshing
• Patch independent shell meshing
A smooth uniform mesh should be sought in the regions of interest for the analysis. Elsewhere, coarsening of the mesh may help to reduce the overall size of the problem to be solved. Use the
plicit meshing preference (set by default) to autoassign the default mesh controls that will provide a mesh well suited for Explicit Dynamics analyses. This preference automatically sets the Rigid Body Be havior mesh control to Full Mesh. The Full Mesh setting is only applicable to Explicit Dynamics analyses. Other physics preferences can be used if better consistency is desired between implicit and explicit models.
Ex
Consideration should be given to the number of elements in the model and the quality of the mesh to produce larger resulting time steps and therefore more efficient simulations. A coarse mesh can often be used to gain insight into the basic dynamics of a system while a finer mesh is required to investigate nonlinear material effects and failure. The Mesh Metric option allows you to view mesh metric information
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and thereby evaluate the mesh quality. A very useful mesh metric is the Characteristic Length: it is primarily used to determine the timestep for an element.
Swept/multizone meshes are preferred in Explicit Dynamics analyses so geometry slicing, combined with multibody part options in DesignModeler, are recommended to facilitate hexahedral meshing. Al ternatively, use the patch independent tetrahedral meshing method to obtain more uniform element sizing and take advantage of automatic defeaturing.
Define the element size manually to produce more uniform element size distributions especially on surface bodies.
Midside nodes should be dropped from the mesh (set Element Order to Linear) for all elements types (solids, surface and line bodies). Error/warning messages are provided if unsupported (higher order) elements are present in the mesh.
Pyramid elements are not supported in Explicit Dynamics analyses. Any elements of this type are con verted into two tetrahedral elements, and will warrant a warning in the message window of the Mech anical application.
An Explicit Dynamics model with fewer elements than the number of slave processes specified cannot be run in parallel.
For Workbench LSDYNA, only the element types listed below are supported (partly due to LSDYNA limitations). Any parts with a mesh containing unsupported elements will be excluded from the exported mesh. A warning is displayed specifying excluded parts.
• Shells
– 1st Order: triangles, quadrilaterals
– 2nd Order: none
• Solids
– 1st Order: tetrahedrons, pyramids, wedges, hexahedrons, beams
– 2nd Order: tetrahedrons
Note
Pyramids are not recommended for LSDYNA. A warning is issued if such elements are present in the mesh.
When performing an implicit static structural or transient structural analysis to an Explicit Dynamics analysis, the same mesh is required for both the implicit and explicit analysis and only low order elements are allowed. If high order elements are used, the solve will be blocked and an error message will be issued.
2.10. Establish Analysis Settings
For general information about how to establish analysis settings, see Establish Analysis Settings in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.
The basic analysis settings for Explicit Dynamics analyses (p. 33) are:
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
• Step Controls  The required input for step control is the termination time for the analysis. This should be set to your best estimate of the solution time required to simulate the event being modeled. You should normally allow the solver to determine its own time step size based on the smallest CFL condition (p. 116) in the model. The efficiency of the solution can be increased with the help of mass scaling options. Use this feature with caution; too much mass scaling can give rise to nonphysical results.
An Explicit Dynamics solution may be started, interrupted and resumed at any point in time. For ex ample, an existing solution that has reached its End Time may be extended to continue to review the progression of the mechanical phenomena simulated. The Resume From Cycle option enables you to select which Restart file you would like to use to resume the analysis. See Resume Capability for Explicit Dynamics Analyses (p. 61) for more information. Explicit dynamics analyses are always solved in a single analysis step.
Step Control options:
– Resume from cycle (option not available in Workbench LSDYNA)
– Maximum Number of Cycles in the Explicit Dynamics system is replaced by Maximum time steps in Workbench LSDYNA
– Reference energy cycle (option not available in Workbench LSDYNA)
– The Maximum Element Scaling and Update frequency (options not available in Workbench LS DYNA)
• Solver Controls – These advanced controls allow you to control a range of solver features including element formulations and solution velocity limits. The defaults are applicable to wide range of applications.
– Shell thickness update, shell inertia update, density update, minimum velocity, maximum velocity and radius cutoff options can only be set in the Explicit Dynamics system.
– Full shell integration and a selectable Unit System are available only in Workbench LSDYNA.
• Euler Domain Controls – There are three sets of parameters that are necessary to define the Euler Domain:
the size of the whole domain (Domain Size Definition), the number of computational cells in the domain (Domain Resolution Definition), and the type of boundary conditions to be applied to the edges of the domain.
Note
Euler capabilities are not supported for Workbench LSDYNA.
The domain size can be defined automatically (Domain Size Definition = Program Controlled) or manually (Domain Size Definition = Manual). For both the automatic and manual options, the size is defined from a 3D origin point and the X, Y, and Z dimensions of the domain.
For the automatic option, specify the Scope of the Domain Size Definition so that the origin and X, Y, and Z dimensions are set to create a box large enough to include all bodies in the geometry (Scope = All Bodies) or the Eulerian Bodies only (Scope = Eulerian Bodies Only). The automatically determ ined domain size can be controlled with three scaling parameters, one for each direction (X Scale Factor, Y Scale Factor, Z Scale Factor).
The size of the domain is affected by the scale factors according to the following equations:
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(2.5) 

(2.6) 

(2.7) 
where
l _{x} , l _{y} , l _{z} are the lengths of the unscaled domain in the x, y, and z directions respectively. These para meters are obtained automatically from the mesh.
l' _{x} , l' _{y} , l' _{z} are the lengths of the scaled domain in the x, y, and z directions respectively.
F _{x} , F _{y} , F _{z} are the scale factors for the x, y, and z directions respectively.
For the Manual option of the Domain Size Definition, specify the origin of the Euler Domain (Minimum X Coordinate, Minimum Y Coordinate, Minimum Z Coordinate) and the dimension in each direction (X Dimension, Y Dimension, Z Dimension).
The domain resolution specifies how many cells should be created in the X, Y, and Z directions of the domain. Use the Domain Resolution Definition field to specify how to determine the resolution:
either the cell size (Cell Size), the number of cells in each of the X, Y, and Z directions (Cells per Component), or the total number of cells to be created (Total Cells).
– For the Cell Size option, specify the size of the cell in the Cell Size parameter. The value specified is the dimension of the cell in each of the X, Y, and Z directions. The units used for the cell size follow the ones specified in the Mechanical application window and are displayed in the text box.
The number of the cells in each direction of the domain are then determined from this cell size and the size of the domain with the following equations:

(2.8) 

(2.9) 

(2.10) 
where
N _{x} , N _{y} , N _{z} are the number of cells in the X, Y, and Z directions respectively.
D is the dimension of the cell in each direction (this is the same in all directions).
– For the Cells per Component option, enter the number of cells required in each of the X, Y, and Z directions (Number of Cells in X, Number of Cells in Y, Number of Cells in Z).
– For the Total Cells option, specify Total Cells (the default is 250,000). The size of the cells will depend on the size of the Euler Domain.
The size of the cell is calculated from the following equation:
where
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(2.11)
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
N _{t}_{o}_{t} is the total number of cells in the domain.
If any bodies are defined as Eulerian (Virtual), when Analysis Settings is selected in the outline view, the Euler domain bounding box is displayed in the graphics window. The Euler domain resolution is indicated by black node markers along each edge line of the Euler domain. The visibility of this can be controlled by the Display Euler Domain option in the Analysis Settings.
You can set boundary conditions on each of the faces of the Euler Domain. The faces are labeled Lower X Face, Lower Y Face, Lower Z Face (which correspond to the faces with the minimum X, Y, and Z coordinates) and Upper X Face, Upper Y Face, and Upper Z Face (which correspond to the faces with the maximum X, Y, and Z coordinates). The values of the boundary conditions that can be set for each face are:
– Flow Out
Use the Flow Out boundary condition to flow out material through cell faces. The boundary condition makes the material state of the dummy cell outside the Euler domain the same as that of the cell adjacent to the Flow Out boundary, thus setting the gradients of velocity and stress to zero over the boundary. This approach simulates a far field solution at the boundary, but is only exact for outflow velocities higher than the speed of sound and is an approximation for lower velocities. Therefore, the Flow Out boundary condition is approximate in many cases, and should be placed as far as possible from region of interest and best at a location where the gradients are small.
– Impedance
The Impedance boundary condition acts exactly the same as the Flow Out boundary condition and provides the same results.
– Rigid
Use the Rigid boundary condition to prevent flow of material through cell faces. The cell faces are closed for material transport and act as rigid nonslip walls. The Rigid boundary condition takes the material state of the dummy cell outside the Euler domain as a mirrored image of the cell adjacent to the Wall boundary, thus setting the normal material velocity at the rigid wall to zero and leaving the tangential velocity unaffected.
Euler Tracking is currently only By Body, which scopes the results to Eulerian bodies in the same manner as Lagrangian bodies.
• Damping Controls – Damping is used to control oscillations behind shock waves and reduce hourglass modes in reduced integration elements. These options allow you to adapt the levels of damping, and for mulation used for the analysis being conducted. Elastic oscillations in the solution can also be automatically damped to provide a quasistatic solution after a dynamic event.
For Hourglass Damping, only one of either the Viscous Coefficient or Stiffness Coefficient, is used for the Flanagan Belytschko option  when running an Explicit Dynamics analysis using the LSDYNA solver, LSDYNA does not allow for two coefficients to be entered in *CONTROL_HOURGLASS. Thus the nonzero coefficient determines the damping format to be either "FlanaganBelytschko viscous"
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or "FlanaganBelytschko stiffness", accordingly. If both are nonzero, the Stiffness Coefficient will be used.
Note
Linear Viscosity in Expansion options are not supported for Workbench LSDYNA.
Hourglass damping in LSDYNA is standard by default; in the Explicit Dynamics System the same control is AUTODYN Standard.
• Erosion Controls – Erosion is used to automatically remove highly distorted elements from an analysis and is required for applications such as cutting and impact penetration. In an Explicit Dynamics analysis, erosion is a numerical tool to help maintain large time steps, and thus obtain solutions in appropriate time scales. Several options are available to initiate erosion. The default settings will erode elements which experience geometric strains in excess of 150%. The default value should be increased when modeling hyperelastic materials. Geometric strain limit and material failure criteria are not present in LSDYNA.
• Output Controls – Solution output is provided in several ways:
– Results files which are used to provide nodal and element data for contour and probe results such as de formation, velocity, stress and strain. Note that probe results will provide a filtered time history of the result data due to the relatively infrequent saving of results files.
– Restart files should be stored less frequently than results files and can be used to resume an analysis.
– Tracker data is usually stored much more frequently than results or restart data and thus is used to produce full transient data for specific quantities.
– Output controls to save result tracker and solution output are not available for LSDYNA.
– When performing an implicit to explicit analysis, for a nonlinear implicit analysis, the Strain Details view property must be set to Yes because plastic strains are needed for the correct results.
2.10.1. Analysis Settings for Explicit Dynamics Analyses
The following sections describe the available properties for the Analysis Settings folder in an Explicit Dynamics analysis. In addition to describing each setting, it is noted whether the setting is available for 2D analyses, and whether it is available on restart (applies to 2D and 3D analyses).
2.10.1.1. Explicit Dynamics Step Controls
2.10.1.2. Explicit Dynamics Solver Controls
2.10.1.3. Explicit Dynamics Euler Domain Controls
2.10.1.4. Explicit Dynamics Damping Controls
2.10.1.5. Explicit Dynamics Erosion Controls
2.10.1.6. Explicit Dynamics Output Controls
2.10.1.7. Explicit Dynamics Data Management Settings
2.10.1.8. Recommendations for Analysis Settings in Explicit Dynamics
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
2.10.1.1. Explicit Dynamics Step Controls
Field 
Options 
Description 
2D 
Restart 
Resume From 
Allows you to select the integration cycle from which to start the solution upon selecting Solve. A cycle of zero (default setting) indicates the solution will clear any previous progress and start from time zero. A nonzero cycle, on the other hand, allows you to revisit a previous solution and extend it further in time. A solution obtained from a nonzero cycle is considered to have been "resumed" or "restarted". Note that the list will only contain nonzero selections if a solve was previously executed and restart files have been generated. 
Yes 
Yes 

Cycle 

When resuming an analysis, changes to analysis settings will be respected where possible. For example, you may wish to resume an analysis with an extended termination time. Changes to any other features in the model (geometry suppression, connections, loads, and so on) will prevent restarts from taking place. 

See Resume Capability for Explicit Dynamics Analyses (p. 61) for more information. This field is not available for Workbench LSDYNA. 

Maximum Num ber of Cycles 
The maximum number of cycles allowed during the analysis. The analysis will stop once the specified value is reached. Enter a large number to have the analysis run to the defined End Time. 
Yes 
Yes 

End Time 
(Required input) The maximum length of time (starting from time zero) to be simulated by the explicit analysis. You should enter a reasonable estimate to cover the phenomena of interest. 
Yes 
Yes 

Maximum Energy Error 
Energy conservation is a measure of the quality of an Explicit Dynamics analysis. Large deviations from energy conservation usually imply a less than optimal model definition. This parameter allows you to automatically stop the solution if the 
Yes 
Yes 
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Establish Analysis Settings
Field 
Options 
Description 
2D 
Restart 
deviation from energy conservation becomes unacceptable. Enter a fraction of the total system energy (measured at the Reference Energy Cycle) for which you want the analysis to stop. For example, the default value of 0.1 will cause the analysis to stop if the energy error exceeds 10% of the energy at the reference cycle. 

For Workbench LSDYNA this field requires a percentage to be entered. Thus the field name changes to Maxim um Energy Error (%). 

Reference Energy Cycle 
The cycle at which you want the solver to calculate the reference energy, against which it will calculate the energy error. Usually this will be the start cycle (cycle = 0). You may need to increase this value if the model has zero energy at cycle = 0 (for example if you have no initial velocity defined). 
Yes 
Yes 

This field is not available for Workbench LSDYNA. 

Initial Time Step 
Enter an initial time step you want to use, or use the Program Controlled default. If left on Program Controlled, the time step will be automatically set to ½ the computed element stability time step. The Program Controlled setting is recommended. 
Yes 
Yes 

For Workbench LSDYNA if this field is left on Program Controlled, the initial time step will be determined by the solver. 

Minimum Time 
Enter the minimum time step allowed in the analysis, or use the Program Controlled default. If the time step drops below this value the analysis will stop. If set to Program Controlled, the value will be chosen as 1/10th the initial time step. This field is not available for Workbench LSDYNA. 
Yes 
Yes 

Step 

Maximum Time 
Enter the maximum time step allowed in the analysis, or use the Program Controlled default. The solver will use the minimum of this value or the computed stability time step during the solve. The Program Con trolled setting is recommended. 
Yes 
Yes 

Step 
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
Field 
Options 
Description 
2D 
Restart 
Time Step Safety Factor 
A safety factor limit is applied to the computed stability time step to help keep the solution stable. The default value of 0.9 should work for most analyses. 
Yes 
Yes 

Characteristic Di mension 
Diagonals (default setting) 
The characteristic dimension (p. 116) used to determine the timestep for hex elements will be calculated as the volume of the element divided by the square of the longest element diagonal and then scaled by sqrt(2/3). 
Yes 
No 
This field is not available for Workbench LSDYNA. 

Opposing Face 
The characteristic dimension used to determine the timestep for hex elements will be based on the minimum distance between opposing faces. 

Select this option to obtain the optimal time step for hex solid elements. Experience to date has shown that this option can significantly improve the efficiency of 3D Lagrange simulations. However, in certain circumstances when cells become highly distorted, instabilities have been observed causing the calculation to terminate with high energy errors. The correct choice of erosion strain can reduce these problems. It is therefore recommended that users only utilize this option if efficiency is critical. 

This field is not available for Workbench LSDYNA. 

Nearest Face 
The characteristic dimension used to determine the timestep for hex elements will be based on the minimum distance between neighboring faces. 

Experience to date has shown that this option can significantly improve the efficiency of 3D Lagrange simulations. However, in certain circumstances when cells become highly distorted, instabilities have been observed causing the calculation to terminate with high energy errors. The correct choice of erosion strain can reduce these problems. It is therefore recommended 
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Establish Analysis Settings
Field 
Options 
Description 
2D 
Restart 

that users only utilize this option if efficiency is critical. 

This field is not available for Workbench LSDYNA. 

Automatic Mass 
If set to Yes, activates automatic mass scaling and exposes the following options. 
Yes 
Yes 

Scaling 

Minimum CFL 
The time step that you want to achieve in the analysis. 
Yes 
Yes 

Time Step 

Caution 

Mass scaling introduces additional mass into the system to increase the computed CFL time step (p. 116). Introducing too much mass can lead to nonphysical results. 

Note 

Employ User Defined Results MASS_SCALE (ratio of scaled mass/physical mass) and TIMESTEP to review the effects of automatic mass scaling on the model. 

Maximum Ele 
This value limits the ratio of scaled mass/physical mass that can be applied to each element in the model. This field is not available for Workbench LSDYNA. 
Yes 
Yes 

ment Scaling 

Maximum Part 
This value limits the ratio of scaled mass/physical mass that can be applied to an individual body. If this value is exceeded, the analysis will stop and an error message is displayed. This field is not available for Workbench LSDYNA. 
Yes 
Yes 

Scaling 

Maximum Mass 
This value limits the ratio of scaled mass/physical mass that is applied to the whole model. The ratio is expressed as a percentage. 

Scaling (%) 
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Explicit Dynamics Workflow
Field 
Options 
Description 
2D 
Restart 
This field is only available for Workbench LSDYNA. 

Update Fre 
Allows you to control the frequency at which the mass scaling will be calculated during the solve. The frequency equates to the increment in cycles at which the mass scale factor will be recomputed, based on the current shape of the elements. The default of 0 is recommended and means that the mass scale factor is only calculated once, at the start of the solve. In parallel solutions the update frequency is always set to 0. 
Yes 
Yes 

quency 

This field is not available for Workbench LSDYNA. 

2.10.1.2. Explicit Dynamics Solver Controls 

Field 
Options 
Description 
2D 
Restart 
Solve Units 
All model inputs will be converted to this set of units during the solve. Results from the analysis will be converted back to the user units system in the GUI. For Explicit Dynamics systems, this setting is always mm, mg, ms. 
Yes 
No 

For Workbench LSDYNA this field is termed Unit System and four systems are available for selection: m, kg, s; mm, ton, s; mm, mg, ms; in, lbf, s. 

Beam Solution 
Bending 
Any line bodies will be represented as beam elements including a full bending moment calculation. 
No 
No 
Type 

Truss 
Any line bodies will be represented as truss elements. No bending moments are calculated. 

Beam Time Step Safety Factor 
An additional safety factor you may apply to the stability time step calculated for beam elements. The default value ensures stability for most cases. 
No 
No 

Hex Integration 
Exact 
Provides an accurate calculation of element volume, even for warped elements. 
No 
No 
Type 

1pt Gauss 
Approximates the volume calculation and is less accurate for elements featuring warped faces. This option is more efficient. 
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Establish Analysis Settings
Field 
Options 
Description 
2D 
Restart 
Shell Sublayers 
The number of integration points through the thickness of an isotropic shell. The default of 3 is suitable for many applications; however, this number can be increased to achieve better resolution of through thickness plastic deformation and/or flow. 
No 
No 

The transverse shear in the element 
No 
No 

Shell Shear Cor rection Factor 
formulation is assumed constant over the thickness. This correction factor accounts for the replacement of the true parabolic variation through the thickness in response to a uniform transverse shear stress. Using 

value other than the default is not recommended. a 

Shell BWC Warp Correction 
The BelytschkoLinTsay element formulation becomes inaccurate if the elements are warped. To overcome this, the element formulation has an optional correction to include warping. Setting this correction to Yes is recommended. 
No 
No 

Shell Thickness 
Nodal 
Changes in shell thickness are calculated at the nodes of shell elements. 
No 
No 
Update 

This field is not available for Workbench LSDYNA. 

Elemental 
Changes in shell thickness are calculated at the element integration points. 

This field is not available for Workbench LSDYNA. 

Full Shell Integra tion 
Available only for Workbench LSDYNA. 
N/A 
N/A 

Provides a very fast and accurate shell element formulation. 

Tet Integration 
Average Nodal 
The tetrahedral element formulation includes an average nodal pressure integration. This formulation does not exhibit volumetric locking, and can be used for large deformation, and nearly incompressible behavior such as plastic flow or hyperelasticity. This formulation is recommended for the majority of tetrahedral meshes. 
No 
No 
Pressure 

Constant Pressure 
Uses the constant pressure integrated tetrahedral formulation. This formulation is more efficient than Average Nodal, however 


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