Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 256
ANSYS Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide ANSYS, Inc. Southpointe 2600 ANSYS Drive Canonsburg, PA 15317 ansysinfo@ansys.com

ANSYS Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide

ANSYS Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide ANSYS, Inc. Southpointe 2600 ANSYS Drive Canonsburg, PA 15317 ansysinfo@ansys.com
ANSYS Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide ANSYS, Inc. Southpointe 2600 ANSYS Drive Canonsburg, PA 15317 ansysinfo@ansys.com

ANSYS, Inc. Southpointe 2600 ANSYS Drive Canonsburg, PA 15317 ansysinfo@ansys.com http://www.ansys.com

(T)

724-746-3304

(F)

724-514-9494

Release 18.1

April 2017

ANSYS, Inc. and ANSYS Europe, Ltd. are UL registered ISO 9001: 2008 companies.

Copyright and Trademark Information

© 2017 ANSYS, Inc. Unauthorized use, distribution or duplication is prohibited.

ANSYS, ANSYS Workbench, AUTODYN, CFX, FLUENT and any and all ANSYS, Inc. brand, product, service and feature names, logos and slogans are registered trademarks or trademarks of ANSYS, Inc. or its subsidiaries located in the United States or other countries. ICEM CFD is a trademark used by ANSYS, Inc. under license. CFX is a trademark of Sony Corporation in Japan. All other brand, product, service and feature names or trademarks are the property of their respective owners. FLEMlm and FLEXnet are trademarks of Flexera Software LLC.

Disclaimer Notice

THIS ANSYS SOFTWARE PRODUCT AND PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION INCLUDE TRADE SECRETS AND ARE CONFID- ENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY PRODUCTS OF ANSYS, INC., ITS SUBSIDIARIES, OR LICENSORS. The software products and documentation are furnished by ANSYS, Inc., its subsidiaries, or affiliates under a software license agreement that contains provisions concerning non-disclosure, copying, length and nature of use, compliance with exporting laws, warranties, disclaimers, limitations of liability, and remedies, and other provisions. The software products and documentation may be used, disclosed, transferred, or copied only in accordance with the terms and conditions of that software license agreement.

ANSYS, Inc. and ANSYS Europe, Ltd. are UL registered ISO 9001: 2008 companies.

U.S. Government Rights

For U.S. Government users, except as specifically granted by the ANSYS, Inc. software license agreement, the use, duplication, or disclosure by the United States Government is subject to restrictions stated in the ANSYS, Inc. software license agreement and FAR 12.212 (for non-DOD licenses).

Third-Party Software

See the legal information in the product help files for the complete Legal Notice for ANSYS proprietary software and third-party software. If you are unable to access the Legal Notice, contact ANSYS, Inc.

Published in the U.S.A.

Table of Contents

1. Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide Overview

1

2. Explicit Dynamics Workflow

3

2.1. Introduction

3

2.2. Create the Analysis System

4

2.3. Define Engineering Data

4

2.4. Attach Geometry

4

2.5. Define Part Behavior

6

2.6. Define Connections

7

2.6.1. Spot Welds in Explicit Dynamics Analyses

8

2.6.2. Body Interactions in Explicit Dynamics Analyses

9

2.6.2.1.

Properties for Body Interactions Folder

11

2.6.2.1.1. Contact Detection

11

2.6.2.1.2. Formulation

13

2.6.2.1.3. Sliding Contact

14

2.6.2.1.4. Shell Thickness Factor and Nodal Shell Thickness

14

2.6.2.1.5. Body Self Contact

15

2.6.2.1.6. Element Self Contact

15

2.6.2.1.7. Tolerance

15

2.6.2.1.8. Pinball Factor

16

2.6.2.1.9. Time Step Safety Factor

16

2.6.2.1.10. Limiting Time Step Velocity

16

2.6.2.1.11. Edge on Edge Contact

16

2.6.2.2.

Interaction Type Properties for Body Interaction Object

17

2.6.2.2.1. Frictionless Type

17

2.6.2.2.2. Frictional Type

17

2.6.2.2.3. Bonded Type

18

2.6.2.2.4. Reinforcement Type

22

2.6.2.3.

Identifying Body Interactions Regions for a Body

23

2.7. Setting Up Symmetry

23

2.7.1.

Explicit Dynamics Symmetry

23

2.7.1.1. General Symmetry

24

2.7.1.2. Global Symmetry Planes

24

2.7.2.

Symmetry in an Euler Domain

24

2.8. Define Remote Points

25

2.8.1. Explicit Dynamics Remote Points

25

2.8.2. Explicit Dynamics Remote Boundary Conditions

26

2.8.3. Initial Conditions on Remote Points

27

2.8.4. Constraints and Remote Points

27

2.9. Apply Mesh Controls/Preview Mesh

28

2.10. Establish Analysis Settings

29

2.10.1. Analysis Settings for Explicit Dynamics Analyses

33

2.10.1.1. Explicit Dynamics Step Controls

34

2.10.1.2. Explicit Dynamics Solver Controls

38

2.10.1.3. Explicit Dynamics Euler Domain Controls

41

2.10.1.4. Explicit Dynamics Damping Controls

43

2.10.1.5. Explicit Dynamics Erosion Controls

44

2.10.1.6. Explicit Dynamics Output Controls

45

2.10.1.7. Explicit Dynamics Data Management Settings

48

2.10.1.8. Recommendations for Analysis Settings in Explicit Dynamics

48

2.11. Define Initial Conditions

52

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

iii

Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide

2.12.

Apply Loads and Supports

52

2.12.1. Impedance Boundary

54

2.12.2. Detonation Point

57

2.13.

Solve

60

2.13.1. Solving from Time = 0

61

2.13.2. Resume Capability for Explicit Dynamics Analyses

61

2.13.2.1.

Load and Constraint Behavior when Extending Analysis End Time

62

2.13.3.

Explicit Dynamics Performance in Parallel

62

2.14.

Postprocessing

63

2.14.1. Solution Output

63

2.14.2. Result Trackers

64

2.14.2.1. Point Scoped Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics

64

2.14.2.2. Body Scoped Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics

67

2.14.2.3. Spring Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics

69

2.14.2.4. Viewing and Filtering Result Tracker Graphs for Explicit Dynamics

69

2.14.2.5. Force Reaction Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics

70

2.14.3. Review Results

71

2.14.4. Eroded Nodes in Explicit Dynamics Analyses

72

2.14.5. Euler Domain in Explicit Dynamics Analyses

73

2.14.6. User Defined Results for Explicit Dynamics Analyses

76

3. Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics

83

3.1. When Implicit Models Can be Run in Explicit

83

3.2. When to Consider an Explicit Analysis

84

 

3.2.1. Incorrect Model Setup

84

3.2.2. Large Deformations

85

3.2.3. Large Contact Models

86

3.2.4. Rigid Body Deformations

87

3.3. Setting up the Explicit Dynamics Analysis

88

 

3.3.1. Attaching an Explicit Dynamics System to an Existing Static Structural System

88

3.3.2. Materials

89

3.3.3. Meshing

89

3.3.3.1. Uniform Mesh Works Best

90

3.3.3.2. Midside Nodes not Used

90

3.3.3.3. Hex/Rectangular Mesh Elements most Effective

91

3.3.4.

Contact/Connections

91

3.3.4.1. Contacts Tab

91

3.3.4.2. Body Interactions Tab

92

3.3.5.

Boundary Conditions

92

3.3.5.1. Adjusting Load Cases for Reasonable Run Times

92

3.3.5.2. Missing Boundary Conditions from Explicit Dynamics

93

3.3.5.3. Application of Boundary Conditions Using Steps

93

3.3.5.4. Avoiding Conflicting Boundary Conditions

93

3.3.5.5. Initial Conditions

93

3.4. Analysis Settings

94

 

3.4.1. Analysis Setting Preference

94

3.4.2. Step Controls

94

3.4.2.1.

End Time

94

3.4.2.2.Timestep Controls

95

3.4.2.3.

Restarting an Analysis

97

3.4.3.

Solution Stability

97

3.4.3.1. Mass Scaling

97

3.4.3.2. Erosion

98

iv

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide

 

3.4.3.3.

Damping

99

 

3.4.4.

Output Controls

99

3.5. Solution Information

100

3.6. Postprocessing

101

 

3.6.1. Result Trackers

102

3.6.2. Result Sets

102

3.6.3. Improving your Simulation

103

4. Applying Pre-Stress Effects for Explicit Analysis

105

4.1. Recommended Guidelines for Pre-Stress Explicit Dynamics

105

4.2. Pre-Stress Object Properties

107

5. Using Explicit Dynamics to Define Initial Conditions for Implicit Analyses

109

5.1.

Transfering Explicit Results to MAPDL

109

6. Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide

113

6.1. Why use Explicit Dynamics?

113

6.2. What is Explicit Dynamics?

113

 

6.2.1. The Solution Strategy

114

6.2.2. Basic Formulations

114

6.2.2.1. Implicit Transient Dynamics

115

6.2.2.2. Explicit Transient Dynamics

115

6.2.3.

Time Integration

116

6.2.3.1. Implicit Time Integration

116

6.2.3.2. Explicit Time Integration

116

6.2.3.3. Mass Scaling

118

6.2.4.

Wave Propagation

118

6.2.4.1. Elastic Waves

119

6.2.4.2. Plastic Waves

119

6.2.4.3. Shock Waves

119

6.2.5.

Reference Frame

120

6.2.5.1. Lagrangian and Eulerian Reference Frames

120

6.2.5.2. Eulerian (Virtual) Reference Frame in Explicit Dynamics

122

6.2.5.3. Key Concepts of Euler (Virtual) Solutions

124

 

6.2.5.3.1. Multiple Material Stress States

124

6.2.5.3.2. Multiple Material Transport

126

6.2.5.3.3. Supported Material Properties

126

6.2.5.3.4. Known Limitations of Euler Solutions

126

 

6.2.6.

Explicit Fluid Structure Interaction (Euler-Lagrange Coupling)

126

6.2.6.1. Shell Coupling

128

6.2.6.2. Sub-cycling

128

6.3. Analysis Settings

129

 

6.3.1. Step Controls

129

6.3.2. Damping Controls

130

6.3.3. Solver Controls

134

6.3.4. Erosion Controls

142

6.4. Model Size Limitations in Explicit Dynamics

143

6.5. References

 

144

7. Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

147

7.1. Introduction

 

147

7.2. Explicit Material Library

149

7.3. Density

 

155

7.4. Linear Elastic

155

 

7.4.1. Isotropic Elasticity

155

7.4.2. Orthotropic Elasticity

156

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

v

Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide

 

7.4.3.

Viscoelastic

156

7.5. Test Data

157

7.6. Hyperelasticity

157

 

7.7. Plasticity

162

7.7.1. Bilinear Isotropic Hardening

163

7.7.2. Multilinear Isotropic Hardening

163

7.7.3. Bilinear Kinematic Hardening

164

7.7.4. Multilinear Kinematic Hardening

164

7.7.5. Johnson-Cook Strength

164

7.7.6. Cowper-Symonds Strength

166

7.7.7. Steinberg-Guinan Strength

167

7.7.8. Zerilli-Armstrong Strength

168

7.8. Brittle/Granular

170

 

7.8.1. Drucker-Prager Strength Linear

170

7.8.2. Drucker-Prager Strength Stassi

171

7.8.3. Drucker-Prager Strength Piecewise

172

7.8.4. Johnson-Holmquist Strength Continuous

173

7.8.5. Johnson-Holmquist Strength Segmented

175

7.8.6. RHT Concrete Strength

177

7.8.7. MO Granular

182

7.9. Equations of State

183

 

7.9.1. Background

183

7.9.2. Bulk Modulus

184

7.9.3. Shear Modulus

184

7.9.4. Ideal Gas EOS

184

7.9.5. Polynomial EOS

185

7.9.6. Shock EOS Linear

187

7.9.7. Shock EOS Bilinear

188

7.9.8. JWL EOS

190

7.10.

Porosity

192

7.10.1. Porosity-Crushable Foam

192

7.10.2. Compaction EOS Linear

195

7.10.3. Compaction EOS Non-Linear

196

7.10.4. P-alpha EOS

198

7.11.

Failure

201

7.11.1. Plastic Strain Failure

203

7.11.2. Principal Stress Failure

203

7.11.3. Principal Strain Failure

204

7.11.4. Stochastic Failure

205

7.11.5. Tensile Pressure Failure

206

7.11.6. Crack Softening Failure

207

7.11.7. Johnson-Cook Failure

209

7.11.8. Grady Spall Failure

210

7.12. Strength

211

7.13. Thermal Specific Heat

212

7.14. Rigid Materials

212

7.15. References

212

8. Using Workbench LS-DYNA for an Explicit Dynamics Analysis

215

8.1. How to Load Workbench LS-DYNA

215

8.2. How to use Workbench LS-DYNA

215

8.3. LS-DYNA Keywords used by Workbench LS-DYNA

216

8.4. Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

216

vi

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide

8.5. LS-DYNA General Descriptions

245

Index

247

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

vii

viii

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 1: Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide Overview ANSYS Explicit Dynamics is a transient explicit dynamics

Chapter 1: Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide Overview

ANSYS Explicit Dynamics is a transient explicit dynamics Workbench application that can perform a variety of engineering simulations, including the modeling of nonlinear dynamic behaviour of solids, fluids, gases and their interaction. Additionally, the LS-DYNA ACT extension is available to analyze a model using the LS-DYNA solver.

A typical simulation consists of setting up the model, interactions and the applied loads, solving the model's nonlinear dynamic response over time for the loads and interactions, then examining the details of the response with a variety of available tools.

The Explicit Dynamics application has objects arranged in a tree structure that guide you through the different steps of a simulation. By expanding the objects, you expose the details associated with the object, and you can use the corresponding tools and specification tables to perform that part of the simulation. Objects are used, for example, to define environmental conditions such as contact surfaces and loadings, and to define the types of results you want to have available for review.

The following sections describe in detail how to use the Explicit Dynamics application to set up and run a simulation:

Explicit Dynamics Workflow (p. 3)

Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics (p. 83)

Applying Pre-Stress Effects for Explicit Analysis (p. 105)

Using Explicit Dynamics to Define Initial Conditions for Implicit Analyses (p. 109)

Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide (p. 113)

Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis (p. 147)

The following section discusses how to solve an Explicit Dynamics analysis using the LS-DYNA solver:

Using Workbench LS-DYNA for an Explicit Dynamics Analysis (p. 215)

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

1

2

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 2: Explicit Dynamics Workflow To learn how to perform an analysis, see Create Analysis

Chapter 2: Explicit Dynamics Workflow

To learn how to perform an analysis, see Create Analysis System in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide. Note that the features available may differ from one solver to another.

To perform analyses that are beyond those available using Workbench, you can insert a object in the tree.

This chapter contains the following topics:

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Create the Analysis System

2.3. Define Engineering Data

2.4. Attach Geometry

2.5. Define Part Behavior

2.6. Define Connections

2.7. Setting Up Symmetry

2.8. Define Remote Points

2.9. Apply Mesh Controls/Preview Mesh

2.10. Establish Analysis Settings

2.11. Define Initial Conditions

2.12. Apply Loads and Supports

2.13. Solve

2.14. Postprocessing

Commands

2.1. Introduction

You can perform a transient Explicit Dynamics analysis in the Mechanical application using an Explicit Dynamics system. Additionally, the Workbench LS-DYNA ACT Extension is available to analyze a model using the LS-DYNA solver. Unless specifically mentioned otherwise, this section addresses both the Ex- plicit Dynamics system and Workbench LS-DYNA. Special conditions for Workbench LS-DYNA are noted where pertinent.

An Explicit Dynamics analysis is used to determine the dynamic response of a structure due to stress wave propagation, impact or rapidly changing time-dependent loads. Momentum exchange between moving bodies and inertial effects are usually important aspects of the type of analysis being conducted. This type of analysis can also be used to model mechanical phenomena that are highly nonlinear. Nonlinearities may stem from the materials, (for example, hyperelasticity, plastic flows, failure), from contact (for example, high speed collisions and impact) and from the geometric deformation (for example, buckling and collapse). Events with time scales of less than 1 second (usually of order 1 millisecond) are efficiently simulated with this type of analysis. For longer time duration events, consider using a Transient analysis system.

The time step used in an Explicit Dynamics analysis is constrained to maintain stability and consistency via the CFL condition (p. 116); that is, the time increment is proportional to the smallest element dimension in the model and inversely proportional to the sound speed in the materials used. Time increments are usually on the order of 1 microsecond and therefore thousands of time steps (computational cycles) are usually required to obtain the solution.

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

3

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

An Explicit Dynamics analysis typically includes many different types of nonlinearities including large deformations, large strains, plasticity, hyperelasticity, material failure etc.

An Explicit Dynamics analysis can contain both rigid and flexible bodies. For rigid/flexible body dynamic simulations involving mechanisms and joints you may wish to consider using either the Transient Structural Analysis or Rigid Dynamics Analysis options.

Note

The intent of this document is to provide an overview of an Explicit Dynamics analysis. Consult our technical support department to obtain a more thorough treatment of this topic.

2.2. Create the Analysis System

For general information about creating an analysis system see Create Analysis System in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

From the Toolbox drag an Explicit Dynamics or a Workbench LS-DYNA template to the Project Schematic.

Note

You need to load the Workbench LS-DYNA ACT extension before you see the template in the toolbox.

Explicit Dynamics analyses only support the mm, mg, ms solver unit system (see Explicit Dynamics Solver Controls (p. 38) for supported units in a Workbench LS-DYNA analysis).

The Explicit Dynamics solver is double precision (a Workbench LS-DYNA analysis can use single or double precision).

2.3. Define Engineering Data

For general information about defining Engineering Data, see Define Engineering Data in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

Material properties can be linear elastic or orthotropic. Many different forms of material nonlinearity can be represented including hyperelasticity, rate and temperature dependent plasticity, pressure-de- pendent plasticity, porosity, material strength degradation (damage), material fracture/failure/fragment- ation. For a detailed discussion on material models used in Explicit Dynamics, refer to Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis (p. 147).

Density must always be specified for materials used in an Explicit Dynamics analysis.

Data for a range of materials is available in the Explicit material library.

2.4. Attach Geometry

For general information about attaching a geometry to a system, see Attach Geometry in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

4

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Attach Geometry

Solid, Surface, and Line bodies can be present in an Explicit Dynamics analysis.

Only symmetric cross sections are supported for line bodies in Explicit Dynamics analyses, except those using the Workbench LS-DYNA ACT extension. The following cross sections are not supported: T-Sections, L-Sections, Z-Sections, Hat sections, Channel Sections. For I-Sections, the two flanges must have the same thickness. For rectangular tubes, opposite sides of the rectangle must be of the same thickness. For Workbench LS-DYNA all available cross sections in DesignModeler will be exported for analysis with the LS-DYNA solver. However, there are some limitations in the number of dimensions that the LS-DYNA solver supports for the Z, Hat and Channel cross sections. For more information consult the LS-DYNA Keywords manual.

To prevent the generation of unnecessarily small elements (and long run times) try using DesignModeler or SpaceClaim to remove unwanted "small" features or holes from your geometry.

Thickness can be specified for selected faces on a surface body by inserting a thickness object. Constant, tabular, and functional thickness are all supported.

Stiffness Behavior

Flexible behavior can be assigned to any body type.

Rigid behavior can be applied to Solid, Surface, and Line bodies.

Coordinate System

Local Cartesian coordinate systems can be assigned to bodies. These will be used to define the material directions when using the Orthotropic Elasticity property in a material definition. The material directions 1, 2, 3 will be aligned with the local x, y and z axes of the local coordinate system.

Note

Cylindrical coordinate systems assigned to bodies are not supported for Explicit Dynamics systems. Cylindrical coordinate systems are only supported to define rotational displacement or velocity constraints.

Cylindrical coordinate systems are not supported with Workbench LS-DYNA.

Reference Temperature

This option defines the initial (time=0.0) temperature of the body.

Reference Frame

Available for solid bodies when an Explicit Dynamics system is part of the solution; the user has the option of setting the Reference Frame to Lagrangian (default) or Eulerian (Virtual). If Stiffness Behavior is defined as Rigid, Eulerian is not a valid setting.

The reference Frame is not supported for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Rigid Materials

For bodies defined to have rigid stiffness, only the Density property of the material associated with the body will be used. For Explicit Dynamics systems all rigid bodies must be discretized with a Full Mesh

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

5

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

or the Rigid Body Behavior must be defined as Dimensionally Reduced. The Full Mesh option will be specified by default for the Explicit meshing physics preference.

The mass and inertia of the rigid body will be derived from the elements and material density for each body.

By default, a kinematic rigid body is defined and its motion will depend on the resultant forces and moments applied to it through interaction with other Parts of the model. Elements filled with rigid materials can interact with other regions via contact.

Constraints can only be applied to an entire rigid body. For example, a fixed displacement cannot be applied to one edge of a rigid body, it must be applied to the whole body.

Note

2-D Explicit Dynamics analyses are supported for Plane Strain and Axisymmetric behaviors.

2D analyses are Beta in Workbench LS-DYNA.

Only symmetric cross-sections are supported for line bodies.

Flexible and rigid bodies cannot be combined in Multi-body Parts. Bonded connections can be applied to connect rigid and flexible bodies.

The Thickness Mode and Offset Type fields for surface bodies are not supported for Explicit Dynamics systems.

Offset Type is supported for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Initial over-penetrations of nodes/elements of different bodies should be avoided or minimized if sliding contact is to be used. There are several methods available in Workbench to remove initial penetration.

2.5. Define Part Behavior

For general information about defining parts, see Define Part Behavior in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

Nonlinear effects are always accounted for in Explicit Dynamics analysis.

Parts may be defined as rigid or flexible. In the solver, rigid parts are represented by a single point that carries the inertial properties together with a discretized exterior surface that represents the geometry. Rigid bodies should be meshed using similar Method mesh controls as those used for flexible bodies. The inertial properties used in the solver will be derived from the discretized representation of the body, and the material density and hence may differ slightly from the values presented in the properties of the body in the Mechanical application GUI.

At least one flexible body must be specified when using the Explicit Dynamics solver. The solver requires this in order to calculate the time-step increments. In the absence of a flexible body, the time-step be- comes underdefined. The boundary conditions allowed for the rigid bodies with Explicit Dynamics are:

Connections

6

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Contact Regions: Frictionless, Frictional and Bonded.

Define Connections

Body Interactions: Frictionless, Frictional and Bonded. Bonded body interactions are not supported for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Reinforcement Body Interactions are supported with Workbench LS-DYNA.

In Explicit Dynamics systems, rigid bodies may not be bonded to other rigid bodies.

Initial Conditions: Velocity, Angular Velocity

Supports: Displacement, Fixed Support and Velocity.

Loads: Pressure and Force. Force is not supported for Explicit Dynamics analyses.

For an Explicit Dynamics analysis, the following postprocessing features are available for rigid bodies:

Results and Probes: Deformation only - that is, Displacement, Velocity.

Result Trackers: Body average data only.

If

a multibody part consists only of rigid bodies, all of which share the same material assignment, the

part will act as a single rigid body, even if the individual bodies are not physically connected.

2.6. Define Connections

For general information about defining connections, see Define Connections in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

Line body to line body contact is possible subject to the following:

Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based in the Body Interactions Details view.

Edge on Edge is set to Yes in the Body Interactions Details view.

The Interaction Type is defined as Frictional or Frictionless.

Workbench LS-DYNA uses the *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_GENERAL and *CONTACT_AUTOMAT- IC_SINGLE_SURFACE keywords when a friction or frictionless Body Interaction is scoped to geometry that contains line bodies. The keywords handle contacts between line bodies only, and line bodies to other body types respectively. In the case where the Body Interaction is scoped to only line bodies, then only the *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_GENERAL keyword is used.

Reinforcement body interaction should be supported in the case when only line bodies are scoped to

a Body Interaction of Type = Reinforcement. The line bodies will then be tied to any solid body that

they intersect. Reinforcement body interactions are not supported for Workbench LS-DYNA or for 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses. However utilizing Keyword Snippets under Contact Region objects should

provide a suitable alternative.

Body Interactions (p. 9), Contact and Spot Welds are all valid in Explicit Dynamics analyses. Frictional, Frictionless and Bonded body interactions and contact options are available. Conditionally bonded contact can be simulated using the breakable property of each bonded region. Spot Welds can also be made to fail using the breakable property.

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

7

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Joints and Beam connections are not supported for Explicit Dynamics analyses. Springs are not supported for Workbench LS-DYNA analyses. The Contact Tool is also not applicable to Explicit Dynamics analyses.

For Workbench LS-DYNA, bonded body interactions are not supported. Also, Contact Region objects with Auto Asymmetric Behavior or just Asymmetric Behavior are treated the same. Symmetric Be- havior will create a _SURFACE_TO_SURFACE keyword for the contact and an Asymmetric Behavior will create a _NODES_TO_SURFACE keyword.

For Workbench LS-DYNA, contacts between line bodies and solids can be implemented using the Keyword Snippets facility available under the Manual Contact Region objects.

Bonded contact is not supported in an Explicit Dynamics analysis for bodies that have their Reference Frame set to Eulerian (Virtual). A solver warning is shown to let the user know that such bodies will be ignored for bonds. Bonded contact is not support in a 2D Explicit Dynamics analysis.

To avoid hourglassing problems, remote points can be used if there are only a few nodes active in the bond definition.

Bonds are not recommended for joining tetrahedral meshes. Use multibodied parts or remote points instead.

By default, a Body Interaction object will be automatically inserted in the Mechanical application tree and will be scoped to all bodies in the model. This object activates frictionless contact behavior between all bodies that come into proximity during the analysis.

2.6.1. Spot Welds in Explicit Dynamics Analyses

Spot welds provide a mechanism to rigidly connect two discrete points in a model and can be used to represent welds, rivets, bolts, etc. The points usually belong to two different surfaces and are defined on the geometry (see DesignModeler or SpaceClaim help).

During the solver initialization process, the two points defining each spot weld will be connected by a

rigid beam element. Additionally, rigid beam elements will be generated on each surface to enable transfer of rotations at the spot weld location (see figure below). If the point of the spot weld lies on

a shell body, both translational and rotational degrees of freedom will be linked at the connecting point.

If the point of the spot weld lies on a surface of a solid body, additional rigid beam elements will be

generated to enable transfer of rotations at the spot weld location.

Spot welds can be released during a simulation using the Breakable Stress or Force option. If the stress criteria is selected the user will be asked to define an effective cross sectional area. This is used to convert the defined stress limits into equivalent force limits. A spot weld will break (release) if the fol- lowing criteria is exceeded:

break (release) if the fol- lowing criteria is exceeded: Where: f n S n and f

Where:

f n

S n

and f s

are normal and shear interface forces

and S s

are the maximum allowed normal and shear force limits

n and s are user defined exponential coefficients

8

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

(2.1)

Note that the normal interface force f

n

is non-zero for tensile values only.

Define Connections

After failure of the spot weld the rigid body connecting the points is removed from the simulation.

Spot welds of zero length are permitted. However, if such spot welds are defined as breakable the

above failure

criteria is used with global forces:

criteria is modified since local normal and shear directions cannot be defined. A modified

normal and shear directions cannot be defined. A modified (2.2) Where, are the force differences across

(2.2)

Where,

shear directions cannot be defined. A modified (2.2) Where, are the force differences across the spot

are the force differences across the spot weld in the global coordinate system.

across the spot weld in the global coordinate system. Note A spot weld is equivalent to

Note

A spot weld is equivalent to a rigid body and as such multiple nodal boundary conditions cannot be applied to spot welds.

2.6.2. Body Interactions in Explicit Dynamics Analyses

Within an Explicit Dynamics analysis, the body interaction feature represents contact between bodies and includes settings that allow you to control these interactions. If the geometry you use has two or more bodies in contact, a Body Interactions object folder appears by default under Connections in the tree. Included in a Body Interactions folder are one or more Body Interaction objects, with each object representing a contact pair.

You can also manually add these two objects:

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

9

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

To add a Body Interactions folder, highlight the Connections folder and choose Body Interactions from the toolbar. A Body Interactions folder is added and includes one Body Interaction object.

To add a Body Interaction object to an existing Body Interactions folder, highlight the Connections folder, the Body Interactions folder, or an existing Body Interaction object, and choose Body Interaction from the toolbar.

General Notes

Each Body Interaction object activates an interaction for the bodies scoped in the object. With body interactions, contact detection is completely automated in the solver. At any time point during the analysis any node of the bodies scoped in the interaction may interact with any face of the bodies scoped in the interaction. The interactions are automatically detected during the solution.

The default frictionless interaction type that is scoped to all bodies activates frictionless contact between any external node and face that may come into contact in the model during the analysis.

To improve the efficiency of analyses involving large number of bodies, you are advised to suppress the default frictionless interaction that is scoped to all bodies, and instead insert additional Body Inter- action objects which limit interactions to specific bodies. The union of all frictional/frictionless body interactions defines the matrix of possible body interactions during the analysis.

For example, in the model shown below:

Body A is traveling towards body B and we require frictional contact to occur. A frictional body interaction type scoped only to bodies A and B will achieve this. Body A will not come close to body C during the ana- lysis so it does not need to be included in the interaction.

Body B is bonded to body C. A bonded body Interaction type, scoped to bodies B and C will achieve this.

If the bond between bodies B and C breaks during the analysis, we want frictional contact to take place between bodies B and C. A frictional body interaction type scoped only to bodies B and C will achieve this.

type scoped only to bodies B and C will achieve this. A bonded body interaction type

A bonded body interaction type can be applied in addition to a frictional/frictionless body interaction.

10

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Define Connections

A reinforcement body interaction type be can be applied in addition to a frictional/frictionless body

interaction.

Object property settings are included in the Details view for both the Body Interactions folder and the individual Body Interaction objects. Refer to the following sections for descriptions of these properties. 2.6.2.1. Properties for Body Interactions Folder 2.6.2.2. Interaction Type Properties for Body Interaction Object 2.6.2.3. Identifying Body Interactions Regions for a Body

2.6.2.1. Properties for Body Interactions Folder

All properties for the Body Interactions folder are included in an Advanced category and define the global properties of the contact algorithm for the analysis. These properties are applied to all Body Interaction objects and to all frictional and frictionless manual contact regions.

This section includes descriptions of the following properties for the Body Interactions folder:

2.6.2.1.1. Contact Detection

2.6.2.1.2. Formulation

2.6.2.1.3. Sliding Contact

2.6.2.1.4. Shell Thickness Factor and Nodal Shell Thickness

2.6.2.1.5. Body Self Contact

2.6.2.1.6. Element Self Contact

2.6.2.1.7.Tolerance

2.6.2.1.8. Pinball Factor

2.6.2.1.9.Time Step Safety Factor 2.6.2.1.10. Limiting Time Step Velocity 2.6.2.1.11. Edge on Edge Contact

2.6.2.1.1. Contact Detection

The available choices are described below.

Trajectory

The trajectory of nodes and faces included in frictional or frictionless contact are tracked during the computation cycle. If the trajectory of a node and a face intersects during the cycle a contact event is detected.

The trajectory contact algorithm is the default and recommended option in most cases for contact in Explicit Dynamics analyses. Contacting nodes/faces can be initially separated or coincident at the start of the analysis. Trajectory based contact detection does not impose any constraint on the analysis time step and therefore often provides the most efficient solution.

Note that nodes which penetrate into another element at the start of the simulation will be ignored

for the purposes of contact and thus should be avoided. To generate duplicate conforming nodes across

a contact interface:

1. Use the multibody part option in DesignModeler and set Shared Topology to Imprint.

2. For meshing, use Contact Sizing, the Arbitrary match control or the Match mesh Where Possible option of the Patch Independent mesh method.

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

11

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Explicit Dynamics Workflow Proximity Based The external faces, edges and nodes of a mesh are encapsulated

Proximity Based

The external faces, edges and nodes of a mesh are encapsulated by a contact detection zone. If during the analysis a node enters this detection zone, it will be repelled using a penalty based force.

zone, it will be repelled using a penalty based force. Note • An additional constraint is

Note

An additional constraint is applied to the analysis time step when this contact detection algorithm is selected. The time step is constrained such that a node cannot travel through a fraction of the contact detection zone size in one cycle. The fraction is defined by the Time Step Safety Factor (p. 16) described below. For analyses involving high velocities, the time step used in the analysis is often controlled by the contact algorithm.

The initial geometry/mesh must be defined such that there is a physical gap/separation of at least the contact detection zone size between nodes and faces in the model. The solver will give error messages if this criteria is not satisfied. This constraint means this option may not be prac- tical for very complex assemblies.

Proximity Based Contact is not supported in 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.

Define Connections

2.6.2.1.2. Formulation

This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Trajectory.

The available choices are described below.

Penalty

If contact is detected, a local penalty force is calculated to push the node involved in the contact event back to the face. Equal and opposite forces are calculated on the nodes of the face in order to conserve linear and angular momentum.

Trajectory based penalty force,

Proximity based penalty force,

Where:

based penalty force, Proximity based penalty force, Where: D is the depth of penetration M is
based penalty force, Proximity based penalty force, Where: D is the depth of penetration M is

D

is the depth of penetration

M

is the effective mass of the node (N) and face (F)

Δ t is the simulation time step

Note

Kinetic energy is not necessarily conserved. You can track conservation of energy in contact using the Solution Information object, the Solution Output, or one of the energy summary result trackers.

The applied penalty force will push the nodes back towards the true contact position during the cycle. However, it will usually take several cycles to satisfy the contact condition.

Decomposition Response

All contacts that take place at the same point in time are first detected. The response of the system to these contact events is then calculated to conserve momentum and energy. During this process, forces are calculated to ensure that the resulting position of nodes and faces does not result in further penet- ration at that time point.

Note

The decomposition response algorithm cannot be used in combination with bonded contact regions. The formulation will be automatically switch to penalty if bonded regions are present in the model.

The decomposition response algorithm is more impulsive (in a given cycle) than the penalty method. This can give rise to large hourglass energies and energy errors.

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

2.6.2.1.3. Sliding Contact

This option is available if Contact Detection is set to Trajectory.

When a contact event is detected part way through a cycle and the contact node has a tangential ve- locity relative to the face it has made contact with, the node needs to slide along the face for the re- mainder of the cycle. If the node should slide to the edge of the face before the end of the cycle, it is necessary to determine whether the node needs to begin to slide along an adjacent face. Two options described below are available for determining which (if any) face the node needs to slide to.

Discrete Surface

When a node slides to the edge of a face, the next face the node needs to slide on is determined using the contact detection algorithm. This option is the default and will provide the most time efficient solution. However, penetrations of nodes may be seen in situations where the faces that the nodes are sliding on are experiencing large deformations or rotations. When such penetrations occur, it is recom- mended the user switches to the Connected Surface option.

Connected Surface

When a node slides to the edge of a face, the next face the node needs to slide on is determined using the mesh connectivity.

2.6.2.1.4. Shell Thickness Factor and Nodal Shell Thickness

These properties are available if the geometry includes one or more surface bodies and if Contact De- tection is set to Trajectory.

The Shell Thickness Factor allows you to control the effective thickness of surface bodies used in the contact. You can specify a value between 0.0 and 1.0.

A value of 0.0 means that contact will ignore the physical thickness of the surface body and the contact surface will be coincident with the mid-plane of the shell.

A value of 1.0 means that the contact shell thickness will be equal to the physical shell thickness. The contact surface will be offset from the mid-plane of the shell by half the shell thickness (on both sides of the shell).

Nodal Shell Thickness is only active when the Shell Thickness Factor value is not zero (0). It allows you to obtain the most accurate shell to shell contact by improving on the Shell Thickness Factor ap- proach.

When set to Yes, contact between shells is improved by eliminating the inherent small overlap that may occur even when the Shell Thickness Factor is set to 1.0. Essentially this setting (along with a thickness factor of 1.0) will provide the most accurate shell thickness contact behaviour.

When set to No, the contact shell thickness will be determined by the value of the Shell Thickness Factor and the nodal shell thickness will not have any effect.

When set to Program Controlled, the behavior of nodal shell thickness is determined by the Analysis Settings Preference Type (p. 48).

14

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Define Connections

2.6.2.1.5. Body Self Contact

When set to Yes, the contact detection algorithm will check for external nodes of a body contacting with faces of the same body in addition to other bodies. This is the most robust option since all possible external contacts should be detected.

When set to No, the contact detection algorithm will only check for external nodes of a body contacting with external faces of other bodies. This setting reduces the number of possible contact events and can therefore improve efficiency of the analysis. This option should not be used if a body is likely to fold onto itself during the analysis, as it would during plastic buckling for example.

When set to Program Controlled, the behavior of self contact is determined by the Analysis Settings Preference Type (p. 48).

Presented below is an example of a model that includes self impact.

below is an example of a model that includes self impact. 2.6.2.1.6. Element Self Contact When

2.6.2.1.6. Element Self Contact

When set to Yes, automatic erosion (removal of elements) is enabled when an element deforms such that one of its nodes comes within a specified distance of one of its faces. In this situation, elements are removed before they become degenerated. Element self contact is very useful for impact penetration examples where removal of elements is essential to allow generation of a hole in a structure. Element removal through Element Self Contact is only activated when one of the erosion options under Erosion Controls is also set to Yes.

erosion options under Erosion Controls is also set to Yes . When set to Program Controlled

When set to Program Controlled, the behavior of self contact is determined by the Analysis Settings Preference Type (p. 48).

2.6.2.1.7. Tolerance

This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Trajectory and Element Self Contact is set to Yes.

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

15

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Tolerance defines the size of the detection zone for element self contact when the trajectory contact option is used (see Element Self Contact (p. 15)). The value input is a factor in the range 0.1 to 0.5. This factor is multiplied by the smallest characteristic dimension of the elements in the mesh to give a physical dimension. A setting of 0.5 effectively equates to 50% of the smallest element dimension in the model.

Note

The smaller the fraction the more accurate the solution.

2.6.2.1.8. Pinball Factor

This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based.

The pinball factor defines the size of the detection zone for proximity based contact. The value input is a factor in the range 0.1 to 0.5. This factor is multiplied by the smallest characteristic dimension of the elements in the mesh to give a physical dimension. A setting of 0.5 effectively equates to 50% of the smallest element dimension in the model.

Note

The smaller the fraction the more accurate the solution. The time step in the analysis could be reduced significantly if small values are used (see Time Step Safety Factor (p. 16)).

2.6.2.1.9. Time Step Safety Factor

This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based.

For proximity based contact, the time step used in the analysis is additionally constrained by contact such that in one cycle, a node in the model cannot travel more than the detection zone size, multiplied by a safety factor. The safety factor is defined with this property and the recommended default is 0.2. Increasing the factor may increase the time step and hence reduce runtimes, but may also lead to missed contacts. The maximum value you can specify is 0.5.

2.6.2.1.10. Limiting Time Step Velocity

This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based.

For proximity based contact, this setting limits the maximum velocity that will be used to compute the proximity based contact time step calculation.

2.6.2.1.11. Edge on Edge Contact

This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based.

16

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Define Connections

By default, contact events in Explicit Dynamics are detected by nodes impacting faces. Use this option to extend the contact detection to include discrete edges impacting other edges in the model.

Note

This option is numerically intensive and can significantly increase runtimes. It is recommended that you compare results with and without edge contact to make sure this feature is required.

A model with edge on edge contact cannot be run in parallel.

2.6.2.2. Interaction Type Properties for Body Interaction Object

This section includes descriptions of the interaction types for the Body Interaction object:

2.6.2.2.1. Frictionless Type

2.6.2.2.2. Frictional Type

2.6.2.2.3. Bonded Type

2.6.2.2.4. Reinforcement Type

2.6.2.2.1. Frictionless Type

Setting Type to Frictionless activates frictionless sliding contact between any exterior node and any exterior face of the scoped bodies. Individual contact events are detected and tracked during the ana- lysis. The contact is symmetric between bodies (that is, each node will belong to a master face impacted by adjacent slave nodes; each node will also act as a slave impacting a master face).

Supported Connections

Explicit Dynamics

Connection Geometry

Volume

Shell

Line

Volume

Yes

Yes

Yes

Shell

Yes

Yes

Yes

Line

Yes

Yes

*Yes

*Only for Contact Detection = Proximity Based and Edge on Edge Contact = Yes (This option switches on contact between ALL lines / bodies / edges; that is, there is no dependence on the scoping selection of body interactions.)

Workbench LS-DYNA

Connection Geometry

Volume

Shell

Line

Volume

Yes

Yes

No

Shell

Yes

Yes

No

Line

No

No

No

2.6.2.2.2. Frictional Type

Setting Type to Frictional activates frictional sliding contact between any exterior node and any exter- ior face of the scoped bodies. Individual contact events are detected and tracked during the simulation.

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

17

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

The contact is symmetric between bodies (that is, each node will belong to a master face impacted by adjacent slave nodes, each node will also act as a slave impacting a master face).

Friction Coefficient: A non-zero value will activate Coulomb type friction between bodies (F = μ R).

The relative velocity ( ν ) of sliding interfaces can influence frictional forces. A dynamic frictional formu- lation for the coefficient of friction can be used.

where

friction coefficientlation for the coefficient of friction can be used. where = dynamic coefficient of friction =

=

dynamic coefficient of frictionof friction can be used. where friction coefficient = = β = exponential decay coefficient ν

=

friction coefficient = dynamic coefficient of friction = β = exponential decay coefficient ν = relative

β = exponential decay coefficient

ν = relative sliding velocity at point of contact

(2.3)

Non-zero values of the Dynamic Coefficient and Decay Constant should be used to apply dynamic friction.

Supported Connections

Explicit Dynamics

Connection Geometry

Volume

Shell

Line

Volume

Yes

Yes

Yes

Shell

Yes

Yes

Yes

Line

Yes

Yes

*Yes

*Only for Contact Detection = Proximity Based and Edge on Edge Contact = Yes (This option switches on contact between ALL lines / bodies / edges; that is, there is no dependence on the scoping selection of body interactions.)

Workbench LS-DYNA

Connection Geometry

Volume

Shell

Line

Volume

Yes

Yes

No

Shell

Yes

Yes

No

Line

No

No

No

2.6.2.2.3. Bonded Type

Descriptions of the following properties are also addressed in this section:

Maximum Offset

Breakable

Stress Criteria

18

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Normal Stress Limit

Normal Stress Exponent

Shear Stress Limit

Shear Stress Exponent

Define Connections

External nodes of bodies included in bonded interactions will be tied to faces of bodies included in the interaction if the distance between the external node and the face is less than the value defined by the user in Maximum Offset. The solver automatically detects the bonded nodes/faces during the initialization phase of the analysis.

Note that it is important to select an appropriate value for the Maximum Offset. The automatic search will bond everything together which is found within this value.

During the analysis the nodes are kept at the same relative position on the face to which they are bonded. This is done by means of penalty forces which are either dependent on the mass of the nodes/faces or the stiffness of the material. The stiffness is weighted based on materials on either side of the bond. In models with mass scaling the penalty method is chosen based on the mass scaling setting:

Mass scaling off: Penalty method based on harmonic mass in the bonded pair.

Mass scaling on: Penalty method based on harmonic stiffness in the bonded pair.

Origin of Model

Mass Scaling

Mass Scaling

Off

On

Any Workbench project opened in R18.0 or later

Harmonic Mass

Harmonic

Stiffness

Note

The stiffness weighted penalty method is typically superior to a mass weighted penalty and increases the robustness of (offset) bonds. By switching on mass scaling and still using a small target timestep (eg 1e-20) no mass will be added, but the penalty method will be switched to harmonic stiffness.

When large material stiffness occurs between two materials that are bonded, it is recommen- ded that you use an asymmetric definition where the contact scope (nodes to be bonded) refers to the soft material and the target scope (faces to bond to) refers to the stiffer mater- ial.

Use the custom variable BOND_STATUS to check bonded connections in Explicit Dynamics. The variable records the number of nodes bonded to the faces on an element during the analysis. This can be used not only to verify that initial bonds are generated appropriately, but also to identify bonds that break during the simulation.

The automatic search algorithm for bonded regions will search for the minimum distance to any of the faces. If this minimum distance falls within the maximum offset value, the bond pair will be established. In order to compute the proper distance to a face the algorithm will determine if the perpendicular projection to the face falls within the face. If that is not the case, the perpendicular projection to the face edges is considered. If that is not the case, the distance to one of the face nodes is considered.

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

19

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

This algorithm guarantees that a minimum distance is always found and can be properly compared against the value input for Maximum Offset.

Verification of the initialized bonds can be done by inspection of the prt file. A summary is given which lists the number of candidate nodes for bonding and the actual number of nodes that were bonded.

If the percentage of nodes to be bonded is 0% it means none of the nodes are actually bonded. You

should consider increasing the Maximum Offset in this case.

should consider increasing the Maximum Offset in this case. Maximum Offset defines the tolerance used at

Maximum Offset defines the tolerance used at initialization to determine whether a node is bonded

to a face.

Breakable = No implies that the bond will remain throughout the analysis.

Breakable = Stress Criteria implies that the bond may break (or be released) during the analysis. The criteria for breaking a bond is defined as:

where

The criteria for breaking a bond is defined as: where = Normal Stress Limit n =

= Normal Stress Limit

n = Normal Stress Exponent

as: where = Normal Stress Limit n = Normal Stress Exponent = Shear Stress Limit m

= Shear Stress Limit

m = Shear Stress Exponent

Exponent = Shear Stress Limit m = Shear Stress Exponent (2.4) The Behavior option can be

(2.4)

The Behavior option can be used as described in Behavior.

20

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Define Connections

Auto Asymmetric behavior is dependent on the type of scoping:

Bonded connections with only faces scoped will behave symmetrically.

All other bonded connections (if the Contact or Target is scoped to a vertex or edge) will behave asymmetrically.

Note that there are two distinguishing factors during initialization based on behavior:

Internal out-of-plane tolerance

For symmetric bond behavior the perpendicular projection of a node to a face has to fall within the face bounds otherwise the bond pair is disregarded a candidate.

For asymmetric bond behavior the perpendicular projection of a node to a face does not have to fall within the face bounds in order to be considered as a candidate.

For both types of behavior the Maximum offset is always taken into account.

If needed, a symmetric bond definition can also be changed to search out-of-plane by taking the following steps:

Set the definition to Asymmetric in order to search out-of-plane

Duplicate the definition of the bond object (right-click operation)

Subsequently "flip" Contact and Target (right-click operation)

Effectively, you have created a symmetric definition (Contact->Target, Target->Contact) and bonds will be searched out of plane.

Bond definitions referring to a single part

Symmetric bonds are disregarded for definitions that scope to a single part.

Asymmetric bonds are considered for definitions that scope to a single part.

The Trim Contact option is ignored by the Explicit solver.

Supported Connections

Explicit Dynamics

See Supported Contact Types for more information.

Note

Bonded body interactions and contact are not supported for 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.

Workbench LS-DYNA*

Connection Geometry

Volume

Shell

Line

Volume

Yes

Yes

No

Shell

Yes

Yes

No

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

21

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Connection Geometry

Volume

Shell

Line

Line

Yes

Yes

No

*The above matrix is valid only for Contact Regions. Bonded body interactions are not supported at all.

2.6.2.2.4. Reinforcement Type

This body interaction type is used to apply discrete reinforcement to solid bodies. All line bodies scoped to the object will be flagged as potential discrete reinforcing bodies in the solver. On initialization of the solver, all elements of the line bodies scoped to the object which are contained within any solid body in the model will be converted to discrete reinforcement. Elements which lie outside all volume bodies will remain as standard line body elements.

The reinforcing beam nodes will be constrained to stay at the same initial parametric location within the volume element they reside during element deformation. Typical applications involve reinforced concrete or reinforced rubber structures likes tires and hoses.

If the volume element to which a reinforcing node is tied is eroded, the beam node bonding constraint is removed and becomes a free beam node.

On erosion of a reinforcing beam element node, if inertia is retained, the node will remain tied to the parametric location of the volume element. If inertia is not retained, the node will also be eroded.

Note

Volume elements that are intersected by reinforcement beams, but do not contain a beam node, will not be experiencing any reinforced beam forces. Good modeling practice is therefore to have the element size of the beams similar or less than that of the volume ele- ments.

Table 2.1:

Example: Drop Test onto Reinforced Concrete Beam

Table 2.1: Example: Drop Test onto Reinforced Concrete Beam Note that the target solid bodies do

Note that the target solid bodies do not need to be scoped to this object these will be identified automatically by the solver on initialization.

22

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Supported Connections

Explicit Dynamics

Setting Up Symmetry

Connection Geometry

Volume

Shell

Line

Volume

No

No

*Yes

Shell

No

No

No

Line

*Yes

No

No

*Only the line body needs to be included in the scope. The Explicit Dynamics solver automatically detects which volume bodies that the line body passes through.

Note

Reinforcement body interactions are not supported for 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.

Workbench LS-DYNA

Connection Geometry

Volume

Shell

Line

Volume

No

No

No

Shell

No

No

No

Line

No

No

No

2.6.2.3. Identifying Body Interactions Regions for a Body

See the description for Body Interactions for Selected Bodies in the section Correlating Tree Outline Objects with Model Characteristics in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

2.7. Setting Up Symmetry

For general information about setting up symmetry see Symmetry in the Mechanical Application in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

2.7.1. Explicit Dynamics Symmetry

Symmetry regions can be defined in Explicit Dynamics analyses. Symmetry objects should be scoped to faces of flexible bodies defined in the model. All nodes lying on the plane defined by the selected face are constrained to give a symmetrical response of the structure.

Note

Anti-symmetry, periodicity, and anti-periodicity symmetry regions are not supported in Explicit Dynamics systems.

Symmetry cannot be applied to rigid bodies.

Only the General Symmetry interpretation is used by the solver in 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

2.7.1.1. General Symmetry 2.7.1.2. Global Symmetry Planes

2.7.1.1. General Symmetry

In general, a symmetry condition will result in degree of freedom constraints being applied to the nodes on the symmetry plane. For volume elements, the translational degree of freedom normal to the sym- metry plane will be constrained. For shell and beam elements, the rotational degrees of freedom in the plane of symmetry will be additionally constrained.

For nodes that have multiple symmetry regions assigned to them (for example, along the edge between two adjacent faces), the combined constraints associated with the two symmetry planes will be enforced.

Note

Symmetry regions defined with different local coordinate systems may not be combined, unless they are orthogonal with the global coordinate system.

General symmetry does not constrain eroded nodes. Thus, if after a group of elements erodes, a "free" eroded node remains, the eroded node will not be constrained by the symmetry condition. This can be resolved in certain situations via the special case of Global symmetry, described in the next section.

2.7.1.2. Global Symmetry Planes

If a symmetry object is aligned with the Cartesian planes at x=0, y=0 or z=0, and all nodes in the model

are on the positive side of x=0, y=0, or z=0, the symmetry condition is interpreted as a special case

termed Global symmetry plane. In addition to general symmetry constraints:

If a symmetry plane is coincident with the YZ plane of the global coordinate system (X=0), and no parts of the geometry lie on the negative side of the plane, then a symmetry plane is activated at X=0. This will prevent any nodes (including eroded nodes) from moving through the plane X=0 during the analysis.

If a symmetry plane is coincident with the ZX plane of the global coordinate system (Y=0), and no parts of the geometry lie on the negative side of the plane, then a symmetry plane is activated at Y=0. This will prevent any nodes (including eroded nodes) from moving through the plane Y=0 during the analysis.

If a symmetry plane is coincident with the XY plane of the global coordinate system (Z=0), and no parts of the geometry lie on the negative side of the plane, then a symmetry plane is activated at Z=0. This will prevent any nodes (including eroded nodes) from moving through the plane Z=0 during the analysis.

Note

Global symmetry planes are only applicable to 3D Explicit Dynamics analyses.

2.7.2. Symmetry in an Euler Domain

There are additional considerations if an Euler Domain is defined for an analysis. For symmetry to be applied to an Euler Domain, symmetry will have to be defined with the global coordinate system, not

a local one, and it will need to be applied on geometry faces which lie on the global coordinate system planes.

24

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Define Remote Points

If the symmetry is not defined with the global coordinate system, it is ignored and a warning is shown in the messages window saying that such symmetry will be ignored but the analysis continues to solve.

If the symmetry is not applied on faces which lie on the global coordinate system planes then an error is shown and the solution is terminated.

In

the case where symmetry is valid for use with Euler Domains, if the boundary of the Euler Domain

which is parallel to the symmetry plane is below the symmetry plane, then that boundary will be moved to lie on the symmetry plane if the following conditions are true:

The Euler Domain Size Definition option in the Analysis settings is set to Program Controlled.

The Euler body is on the positive side of the global coordinate axis.

2.8. Define Remote Points

The algorithm in the Explicit Dynamics solver is different from the Implicit solver in the way it handles rigid bodies. For general information about how to use remote points, see Specifying Remote Points in the Mechanical Application and Remote Boundary Conditions in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

The following topics describe the use of remote points and boundary conditions for the explicit solvers:

2.8.1. Explicit Dynamics Remote Points

2.8.2. Explicit Dynamics Remote Boundary Conditions

2.8.3. Initial Conditions on Remote Points

2.8.4. Constraints and Remote Points

2.8.1. Explicit Dynamics Remote Points

A remote point in Explicit Dynamics consists of a:

Location - The point in space from which a remote boundary condition can be applied.

Scoped region - The area of geometry the remote point is scoped to. The nodes of this scoping form a group of rigid body nodes along with a further node created at the remote point location.

Boundary condition (optional) - The Remote Displacement and Remote Force boundary conditions are currently available as remote boundary conditions.

The Explicit Dynamics solver does not support Deformable Behavior when using remote points.

The group of rigid body nodes which is created is treated as a regular rigid body by the Explicit Dynamics solver. For example, if the scoped region of the remote point consists of two faces from two separate parts, the solver will determine the center of mass and the inertial properties for all the nodes, with all the nodes making up a combined group of rigid body nodes. This calculation creates a rigid connection between the two parts.

In the solution, the forces acting on the group of rigid body nodes are summed at each time step. This

calculation determines the rigid body motion of the nodes belonging to the remote point. Due to the mandatory rigid behavior of Remote Points, the group of rigid body nodes are unable to deform, even

if the elements of the parts used have flexible behavior. The group of rigid body nodes are, however,

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

25

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

free to translate and rotate. Due to this restriction it is important to maintain a sufficient number of nodes in the scoped area of a remote point when scoped to a flexible solid part.

Note

When using Remote Points in Explicit Dynamics analyses:

The Behavior field must be set to Rigid. If it is set to Deformable the solution will terminate and an error will be generated.

Only the remote displacement and remote force boundary conditions are supported for Remote Points in Explicit Dynamics analyses.

Commands are not supported for Remote Points in Explicit Dynamics analyses.

Remote Points and boundary conditions are not supported for 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.

2.8.2. Explicit Dynamics Remote Boundary Conditions

The remote boundary conditions available in the Explicit Dynamics solver are Remote Displacement and Remote Force.

The Explicit Dynamics solver treats a Remote Displacement as follows:

The geometry that the Remote Displacement boundary condition is scoped to becomes a group of rigid body nodes, determining its mass and inertial properties, and preventing these nodes from deforming. If this group of rigid body nodes spans multiple parts, then these parts will be rigidly connected.

Displacements and/or rotations at the remote point and the group of rigid body nodes are tracked and converted into velocities and angular velocities for use by the solver.

The actual translation and rotation of the remote point are a combination of the imposed boundary constraints of the Remote Displacement definition and the forces acting on the group of nodes scoped to the Remote Point. Therefore, the translation and rotation of the Remote Point and the group of rigid body nodes are determined simultaneously and enforced with the use of a single corrective force and moment.

The Explicit Dynamics solver treats a Remote Force as follows:

The geometry that the Remote Force boundary condition is scoped to becomes a group of rigid body nodes, determining its mass and inertial properties, and preventing these nodes from deforming. If this group of rigid body nodes spans multiple parts, then these parts will be rigidly connected.

The force specified is applied to the node representing the remote point, which is rigidly attached to the group of rigid body nodes.

The force is applied to the scoped group of nodes specified by the remote point.

26

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Define Remote Points

The motion of the remote point is determined by a combination of the loads applied to the remote point, the mass and inertial properties of the group of rigid body nodes, and the properties of the parts the group of rigid body nodes are attached to.

Note

Remote Force is not supported for Workbench LS-DYNA.

2.8.3. Initial Conditions on Remote Points

Initial conditions are scoped to geometric parts in the model. Effectively this means that the initial condition is scoped to a set of elements. However, remote points are scoped to the underlying nodes in the model. This may result in different initial conditions on the same node in a remote point definition. This section describes the behavior in such instances.

Initial condition on a flexible part:

Initial conditions can be scoped to a subset of or all elements in a flexible part. It is not necessary to scope an initial condition to all the nodes in the remote point definition, as long as there is only one initial con- dition defined for the nodes that participate in the remote point definition.

Initial condition on a rigid body part:

The remote point definition will automatically include all the nodes in a rigid part. Therefore the initial condition (or multiple identical initial conditions) should be scoped to all the elements in the rigid part. The scoped nodes of the remote point will follow the initial condition of the scoped rigid body. If the flexible scoped nodes of the remote point contain their own initial condition, this will be ignored.

2.8.4. Constraints and Remote Points

When applying constraints to a model that includes remote points, it is important to ensure that the model is not over-constrained. Since the Explicit Dynamics solver treats the remote point and its scoped region as a single rigid body, the model could be over-constrained in the following two examples:

Two remote points share common nodes in their scoped regions. This is an over-constraint because each remote point generates its own rigid body and rigid bodies cannot share nodes.

its own rigid body and rigid bodies cannot share nodes. Example of an overconstrained model caused

Example of an overconstrained model caused by two remote points scoped to adjacent faces.

A velocity boundary condition applied to some or all of the nodes in a remote point scoping, and a remote displacement applied to the remote point.

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

27

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Explicit Dynamics Workflow Example of an overconstrained model caused by a constraining boundary condition such as

Example of an overconstrained model caused by a constraining boundary condition such as a fixed support applied to a face which is adjacent to a remote point scoping with a remote displacement applied.

This list of examples is not exhaustive and a setup error will be issued to the user on solve if any such over-constraints occur.

2.9. Apply Mesh Controls/Preview Mesh

For general information about how to apply mesh controls and preview the mesh, see Apply Mesh Controls and Preview Mesh in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide

All mesh methods available in the Workbench meshing application can be utilized in Explicit Dynamics systems.

Swept Volume Meshing

Patch Dependant Volume Meshing

Hex Dominant Meshing

Patch Independent Tetrahedral Meshing

Multizone Volume Meshing

Patch dependant shell meshing

Patch independent shell meshing

A smooth uniform mesh should be sought in the regions of interest for the analysis. Elsewhere, coarsening of the mesh may help to reduce the overall size of the problem to be solved. Use the

plicit meshing preference (set by default) to auto-assign the default mesh controls that will provide a mesh well suited for Explicit Dynamics analyses. This preference automatically sets the Rigid Body Be- havior mesh control to Full Mesh. The Full Mesh setting is only applicable to Explicit Dynamics analyses. Other physics preferences can be used if better consistency is desired between implicit and explicit models.

Ex-

Consideration should be given to the number of elements in the model and the quality of the mesh to produce larger resulting time steps and therefore more efficient simulations. A coarse mesh can often be used to gain insight into the basic dynamics of a system while a finer mesh is required to investigate nonlinear material effects and failure. The Mesh Metric option allows you to view mesh metric information

28

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Establish Analysis Settings

and thereby evaluate the mesh quality. A very useful mesh metric is the Characteristic Length: it is primarily used to determine the timestep for an element.

Swept/multi-zone meshes are preferred in Explicit Dynamics analyses so geometry slicing, combined with multibody part options in DesignModeler, are recommended to facilitate hexahedral meshing. Al- ternatively, use the patch independent tetrahedral meshing method to obtain more uniform element sizing and take advantage of automatic defeaturing.

Define the element size manually to produce more uniform element size distributions especially on surface bodies.

Midside nodes should be dropped from the mesh (set Element Order to Linear) for all elements types (solids, surface and line bodies). Error/warning messages are provided if unsupported (higher order) elements are present in the mesh.

Pyramid elements are not supported in Explicit Dynamics analyses. Any elements of this type are con- verted into two tetrahedral elements, and will warrant a warning in the message window of the Mech- anical application.

An Explicit Dynamics model with fewer elements than the number of slave processes specified cannot be run in parallel.

For Workbench LS-DYNA, only the element types listed below are supported (partly due to LS-DYNA limitations). Any parts with a mesh containing unsupported elements will be excluded from the exported mesh. A warning is displayed specifying excluded parts.

Shells

1st Order: triangles, quadrilaterals

2nd Order: none

Solids

1st Order: tetrahedrons, pyramids, wedges, hexahedrons, beams

2nd Order: tetrahedrons

Note

Pyramids are not recommended for LS-DYNA. A warning is issued if such elements are present in the mesh.

When performing an implicit static structural or transient structural analysis to an Explicit Dynamics analysis, the same mesh is required for both the implicit and explicit analysis and only low order elements are allowed. If high order elements are used, the solve will be blocked and an error message will be issued.

2.10. Establish Analysis Settings

For general information about how to establish analysis settings, see Establish Analysis Settings in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

The basic analysis settings for Explicit Dynamics analyses (p. 33) are:

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

29

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Step Controls - The required input for step control is the termination time for the analysis. This should be set to your best estimate of the solution time required to simulate the event being modeled. You should normally allow the solver to determine its own time step size based on the smallest CFL condition (p. 116) in the model. The efficiency of the solution can be increased with the help of mass scaling options. Use this feature with caution; too much mass scaling can give rise to non-physical results.

An Explicit Dynamics solution may be started, interrupted and resumed at any point in time. For ex- ample, an existing solution that has reached its End Time may be extended to continue to review the progression of the mechanical phenomena simulated. The Resume From Cycle option enables you to select which Restart file you would like to use to resume the analysis. See Resume Capability for Explicit Dynamics Analyses (p. 61) for more information. Explicit dynamics analyses are always solved in a single analysis step.

Step Control options:

Resume from cycle (option not available in Workbench LS-DYNA)

Maximum Number of Cycles in the Explicit Dynamics system is replaced by Maximum time steps in Workbench LS-DYNA

Reference energy cycle (option not available in Workbench LS-DYNA)

The Maximum Element Scaling and Update frequency (options not available in Workbench LS- DYNA)

Solver Controls These advanced controls allow you to control a range of solver features including element formulations and solution velocity limits. The defaults are applicable to wide range of applications.

Shell thickness update, shell inertia update, density update, minimum velocity, maximum velocity and radius cutoff options can only be set in the Explicit Dynamics system.

Full shell integration and a selectable Unit System are available only in Workbench LS-DYNA.

Euler Domain Controls There are three sets of parameters that are necessary to define the Euler Domain:

the size of the whole domain (Domain Size Definition), the number of computational cells in the domain (Domain Resolution Definition), and the type of boundary conditions to be applied to the edges of the domain.

Note

Euler capabilities are not supported for Workbench LS-DYNA.

The domain size can be defined automatically (Domain Size Definition = Program Controlled) or manually (Domain Size Definition = Manual). For both the automatic and manual options, the size is defined from a 3D origin point and the X, Y, and Z dimensions of the domain.

For the automatic option, specify the Scope of the Domain Size Definition so that the origin and X, Y, and Z dimensions are set to create a box large enough to include all bodies in the geometry (Scope = All Bodies) or the Eulerian Bodies only (Scope = Eulerian Bodies Only). The automatically determ- ined domain size can be controlled with three scaling parameters, one for each direction (X Scale Factor, Y Scale Factor, Z Scale Factor).

The size of the domain is affected by the scale factors according to the following equations:

30

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Establish Analysis Settings

(2.5)

(2.5)

(2.6)

(2.6)

(2.7)

(2.7)

where

l x , l y , l z are the lengths of the unscaled domain in the x, y, and z directions respectively. These para- meters are obtained automatically from the mesh.

l' x , l' y , l' z are the lengths of the scaled domain in the x, y, and z directions respectively.

F x , F y , F z are the scale factors for the x, y, and z directions respectively.

For the Manual option of the Domain Size Definition, specify the origin of the Euler Domain (Minimum X Coordinate, Minimum Y Coordinate, Minimum Z Coordinate) and the dimension in each direction (X Dimension, Y Dimension, Z Dimension).

The domain resolution specifies how many cells should be created in the X, Y, and Z directions of the domain. Use the Domain Resolution Definition field to specify how to determine the resolution:

either the cell size (Cell Size), the number of cells in each of the X, Y, and Z directions (Cells per Component), or the total number of cells to be created (Total Cells).

For the Cell Size option, specify the size of the cell in the Cell Size parameter. The value specified is the dimension of the cell in each of the X, Y, and Z directions. The units used for the cell size follow the ones specified in the Mechanical application window and are displayed in the text box.

The number of the cells in each direction of the domain are then determined from this cell size and the size of the domain with the following equations:

(2.8)

(2.8)

(2.9)

(2.9)

(2.10)

(2.10)

where

N x , N y , N z are the number of cells in the X, Y, and Z directions respectively.

D is the dimension of the cell in each direction (this is the same in all directions).

For the Cells per Component option, enter the number of cells required in each of the X, Y, and Z directions (Number of Cells in X, Number of Cells in Y, Number of Cells in Z).

For the Total Cells option, specify Total Cells (the default is 250,000). The size of the cells will depend on the size of the Euler Domain.

The size of the cell is calculated from the following equation:

where

of the cell is calculated from the following equation: where Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc.

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

(2.11)

31

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

N tot is the total number of cells in the domain.

If any bodies are defined as Eulerian (Virtual), when Analysis Settings is selected in the outline view, the Euler domain bounding box is displayed in the graphics window. The Euler domain resolution is indicated by black node markers along each edge line of the Euler domain. The visibility of this can be controlled by the Display Euler Domain option in the Analysis Settings.

You can set boundary conditions on each of the faces of the Euler Domain. The faces are labeled Lower X Face, Lower Y Face, Lower Z Face (which correspond to the faces with the minimum X, Y, and Z coordinates) and Upper X Face, Upper Y Face, and Upper Z Face (which correspond to the faces with the maximum X, Y, and Z coordinates). The values of the boundary conditions that can be set for each face are:

Flow Out

Use the Flow Out boundary condition to flow out material through cell faces. The boundary condition makes the material state of the dummy cell outside the Euler domain the same as that of the cell adjacent to the Flow Out boundary, thus setting the gradients of velocity and stress to zero over the boundary. This approach simulates a far field solution at the boundary, but is only exact for outflow velocities higher than the speed of sound and is an approximation for lower velocities. Therefore, the Flow Out boundary condition is approximate in many cases, and should be placed as far as possible from region of interest and best at a location where the gradients are small.

Impedance

The Impedance boundary condition acts exactly the same as the Flow Out boundary condition and provides the same results.

Rigid

Use the Rigid boundary condition to prevent flow of material through cell faces. The cell faces are closed for material transport and act as rigid non-slip walls. The Rigid boundary condition takes the material state of the dummy cell outside the Euler domain as a mirrored image of the cell adjacent to the Wall boundary, thus setting the normal material velocity at the rigid wall to zero and leaving the tangential velocity unaffected.

Euler Tracking is currently only By Body, which scopes the results to Eulerian bodies in the same manner as Lagrangian bodies.

Damping Controls Damping is used to control oscillations behind shock waves and reduce hourglass modes in reduced integration elements. These options allow you to adapt the levels of damping, and for- mulation used for the analysis being conducted. Elastic oscillations in the solution can also be automatically damped to provide a quasi-static solution after a dynamic event.

For Hourglass Damping, only one of either the Viscous Coefficient or Stiffness Coefficient, is used for the Flanagan Belytschko option - when running an Explicit Dynamics analysis using the LS-DYNA solver, LS-DYNA does not allow for two coefficients to be entered in *CONTROL_HOURGLASS. Thus the non-zero coefficient determines the damping format to be either "Flanagan-Belytschko viscous"

32

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Establish Analysis Settings

or "Flanagan-Belytschko stiffness", accordingly. If both are non-zero, the Stiffness Coefficient will be used.

Note

Linear Viscosity in Expansion options are not supported for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Hourglass damping in LS-DYNA is standard by default; in the Explicit Dynamics System the same control is AUTODYN Standard.

Erosion Controls Erosion is used to automatically remove highly distorted elements from an analysis and is required for applications such as cutting and impact penetration. In an Explicit Dynamics analysis, erosion is a numerical tool to help maintain large time steps, and thus obtain solutions in appropriate time scales. Several options are available to initiate erosion. The default settings will erode elements which experience geometric strains in excess of 150%. The default value should be increased when modeling hyperelastic materials. Geometric strain limit and material failure criteria are not present in LS-DYNA.

Output Controls Solution output is provided in several ways:

Results files which are used to provide nodal and element data for contour and probe results such as de- formation, velocity, stress and strain. Note that probe results will provide a filtered time history of the result data due to the relatively infrequent saving of results files.

Restart files should be stored less frequently than results files and can be used to resume an analysis.

Tracker data is usually stored much more frequently than results or restart data and thus is used to produce full transient data for specific quantities.

Output controls to save result tracker and solution output are not available for LS-DYNA.

When performing an implicit to explicit analysis, for a nonlinear implicit analysis, the Strain Details view property must be set to Yes because plastic strains are needed for the correct results.

2.10.1. Analysis Settings for Explicit Dynamics Analyses

The following sections describe the available properties for the Analysis Settings folder in an Explicit Dynamics analysis. In addition to describing each setting, it is noted whether the setting is available for 2D analyses, and whether it is available on restart (applies to 2D and 3D analyses).

2.10.1.1. Explicit Dynamics Step Controls

2.10.1.2. Explicit Dynamics Solver Controls

2.10.1.3. Explicit Dynamics Euler Domain Controls

2.10.1.4. Explicit Dynamics Damping Controls

2.10.1.5. Explicit Dynamics Erosion Controls

2.10.1.6. Explicit Dynamics Output Controls

2.10.1.7. Explicit Dynamics Data Management Settings

2.10.1.8. Recommendations for Analysis Settings in Explicit Dynamics

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

33

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

2.10.1.1. Explicit Dynamics Step Controls

Field

Options

Description

2D

Restart

Resume From

 

Allows you to select the integration cycle from which to start the solution upon selecting Solve. A cycle of zero (default setting) indicates the solution will clear any previous progress and start from time zero. A non-zero cycle, on the other hand, allows you to revisit a previous solution and extend it further in time. A solution obtained from a non-zero cycle is considered to have been "resumed" or "restarted".

Note that the list will only contain non-zero selections if a solve was previously executed and restart files have been generated.

Yes

Yes

Cycle

When resuming an analysis, changes to analysis settings will be respected where possible. For example, you may wish to resume an analysis with an extended termination time. Changes to any other features in the model (geometry suppression, connections, loads, and so on) will prevent restarts from taking place.

See Resume Capability for Explicit Dynamics Analyses (p. 61) for more information. This field is not available for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Maximum Num- ber of Cycles

 

The maximum number of cycles allowed during the analysis. The analysis will stop once the specified value is reached. Enter a large number to have the analysis run to the defined End Time.

Yes

Yes

End Time

 

(Required input) The maximum length of time (starting from time zero) to be simulated by the explicit analysis. You should enter a reasonable estimate to cover the phenomena of interest.

Yes

Yes

Maximum Energy Error

 

Energy conservation is a measure of the quality of an Explicit Dynamics analysis. Large deviations from energy conservation usually imply a less than optimal model definition. This parameter allows you to automatically stop the solution if the

Yes

Yes

34

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Establish Analysis Settings

Field

Options

Description

2D

Restart

   

deviation from energy conservation becomes unacceptable. Enter a fraction of the total system energy (measured at the Reference Energy Cycle) for which you want the analysis to stop. For example, the default value of 0.1 will cause the analysis to stop if the energy error exceeds 10% of the energy at the reference cycle.

   

For Workbench LS-DYNA this field requires a percentage to be entered. Thus the field name changes to Maxim- um Energy Error (%).

Reference Energy Cycle

 

The cycle at which you want the solver to calculate the reference energy, against which it will calculate the energy error. Usually this will be the start cycle (cycle = 0). You may need to increase this value if the model has zero energy at cycle = 0 (for example if you have no initial velocity defined).

Yes

Yes

This field is not available for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Initial Time Step

 

Enter an initial time step you want to use, or use the Program Controlled default. If left on Program Controlled, the time step will be automatically set to ½ the computed element stability time step. The Program Controlled setting is recommended.

Yes

Yes

For Workbench LS-DYNA if this field is left on Program Controlled, the initial time step will be determined by the solver.

Minimum Time

 

Enter the minimum time step allowed in the analysis, or use the Program Controlled default. If the time step drops below this value the analysis will stop. If set to Program Controlled, the value will be chosen as 1/10th the initial time step.

This field is not available for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Yes

Yes

Step

Maximum Time

 

Enter the maximum time step allowed in the analysis, or use the Program Controlled default. The solver will use the minimum of this value or the computed stability time step during the solve. The Program Con- trolled setting is recommended.

Yes

Yes

Step

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

35

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Field

Options

Description

2D

Restart

Time Step Safety Factor

 

A safety factor limit is applied to the computed stability time step to help keep the solution stable. The default value of 0.9 should work for most analyses.

Yes

Yes

Characteristic Di- mension

Diagonals (default setting)

The characteristic dimension (p. 116) used to determine the time-step for hex elements will be calculated as the volume of the element divided by the square of the longest element diagonal and then scaled by sqrt(2/3).

Yes

No

This field is not available for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Opposing Face

The characteristic dimension used to determine the time-step for hex elements will be based on the minimum distance between opposing faces.

Select this option to obtain the optimal time step for hex solid elements. Experience to date has shown that this option can significantly improve the efficiency of 3D Lagrange simulations. However, in certain circumstances when cells become highly distorted, instabilities have been observed causing the calculation to terminate with high energy errors. The correct choice of erosion strain can reduce these problems. It is therefore recommended that users only utilize this option if efficiency is critical.

This field is not available for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Nearest Face

The characteristic dimension used to determine the time-step for hex elements will be based on the minimum distance between neighboring faces.

Experience to date has shown that this option can significantly improve the efficiency of 3D Lagrange simulations. However, in certain circumstances when cells become highly distorted, instabilities have been observed causing the calculation to terminate with high energy errors. The correct choice of erosion strain can reduce these problems. It is therefore recommended

36

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Establish Analysis Settings

Field

Options

Description

 

2D

Restart

   

that users only utilize this option if efficiency is critical.

     

This field is not available for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Automatic Mass

If set to Yes, activates automatic mass scaling and exposes the following options.

Yes

Yes

Scaling

 
 

Minimum CFL

The time step that you want to achieve in the analysis.

 

Yes

Yes

Time Step

 

Caution

Mass scaling introduces additional mass into the system to increase the computed CFL time step (p. 116). Introducing too much mass can lead to non-physical results.

Note

Employ User Defined Results MASS_SCALE (ratio of scaled mass/physical mass) and TIMESTEP to review the effects of automatic mass scaling on the model.

Maximum Ele-

This value limits the ratio of scaled mass/physical mass that can be applied to each element in the model.

This field is not available for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Yes

Yes

ment Scaling

Maximum Part

This value limits the ratio of scaled mass/physical mass that can be applied to an individual body. If this value is exceeded, the analysis will stop and an error message is displayed.

This field is not available for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Yes

Yes

Scaling

Maximum Mass

This value limits the ratio of scaled mass/physical mass that is applied to the whole model. The ratio is expressed as a percentage.

   

Scaling (%)

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

37

Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Field

Options

Description

2D

Restart

 

This field is only available for Workbench LS-DYNA.

 

Update Fre-

Allows you to control the frequency at which the mass scaling will be calculated during the solve. The frequency equates to the increment in cycles at which the mass scale factor will be recomputed, based on the current shape of the elements. The default of 0 is recommended and means that the mass scale factor is only calculated once, at the start of the solve.

In parallel solutions the update frequency is always set to 0.

Yes

Yes

quency

This field is not available for Workbench LS-DYNA.

2.10.1.2. Explicit Dynamics Solver Controls

 

Field

Options

Description

2D

Restart

Solve Units

 

All model inputs will be converted to this set of units during the solve. Results from the analysis will be converted back to the user units system in the GUI. For Explicit Dynamics systems, this setting is always mm, mg, ms.

Yes

No

For Workbench LS-DYNA this field is termed Unit System and four systems are available for selection: m, kg, s; mm, ton, s; mm, mg, ms; in, lbf, s.

Beam Solution

Bending

Any line bodies will be represented as beam elements including a full bending moment calculation.

No

No

Type

Truss

Any line bodies will be represented as truss elements. No bending moments are calculated.

Beam Time Step Safety Factor

 

An additional safety factor you may apply to the stability time step calculated for beam elements. The default value ensures stability for most cases.

No

No

Hex Integration

Exact

Provides an accurate calculation of element volume, even for warped elements.

No

No

Type

 

1pt Gauss

Approximates the volume calculation and is less accurate for elements featuring warped faces. This option is more efficient.

38

Release 18.1 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Establish Analysis Settings

Field

Options

Description

2D

Restart

Shell Sublayers

 

The number of integration points through the thickness of an isotropic shell. The default of 3 is suitable for many applications; however, this number can be increased to achieve better resolution of through thickness plastic deformation and/or flow.

No

No

   

The transverse shear in the element

No

No

Shell Shear Cor- rection Factor

formulation is assumed constant over the thickness. This correction factor accounts for the replacement of the true parabolic variation through the thickness in response to a uniform transverse shear stress. Using

value other than the default is not recommended.

a

Shell BWC Warp Correction

 

The Belytschko-Lin-Tsay element formulation becomes inaccurate if the elements are warped. To overcome this, the element formulation has an optional correction to include warping. Setting this correction to Yes is recommended.

No

No

Shell Thickness

Nodal

Changes in shell thickness are calculated at the nodes of shell elements.

No

No

Update

This field is not available for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Elemental

Changes in shell thickness are calculated at the element integration points.

This field is not available for Workbench LS-DYNA.

Full Shell Integra- tion

 

Available only for Workbench LS-DYNA.

N/A

N/A

Provides a very fast and accurate shell element formulation.

Tet Integration

Average Nodal

The tetrahedral element formulation includes an average nodal pressure integration. This formulation does not exhibit volumetric locking, and can be used for large deformation, and nearly incompressible behavior such as plastic flow or hyperelasticity. This formulation is recommended for the majority of tetrahedral meshes.

No

No

Pressure

Constant Pressure

Uses the constant pressure integrated tetrahedral formulation. This formulation is more efficient than Average Nodal, however