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Photosynthesis

Autotrophs = producers = perform photosynthesis + cellular respiration


Heterotrophs = consumers = respiration only

Photosynthesis
process that converts solar energy into chemical energy (i.e. energy-rich compounds)
occurs in plants, algae, certain protists, and some prokaryotes
ANABOLIC: synthesising/makes glucose
6CO2 + 6H2O+ Light energy> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light Energy > Glucose + Oxygen + Water
6CO2 + 12H2O+ Light energy> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

Chlorophyll
green pigment in the membranes of thylakoids
light energy absorbed by chlorophyll drives synthesis of organic molec. in chloroplast
CO2 enters and O2 exits the leaf through microscopic pores called stomata
chloroplasts also contain stroma, a dense fluid

The Splitting of Water


Chloroplasts split H2O into hydrogen and oxygen, incorporating the electrons of hydrogen into sugar molecules
water is the SOURCE OF ELECTRONS
photosynthesis is a redox process in which H2O is oxidized and CO2 is reduced
H2O is oxidised
it loses an electron which are found in H+, becomes O2
CO2 is reduced
CO2 is given a hydrogen, which comes from water

*OIL - oxidation is loss of electrons - exergonic (release energy)


*RIG - reduction is gain of electrons - endergonic (absorbs energy)

Original Equation
1. In 1930 C. B. van Niel showed that O2 given off by photosynthesis comes from H2O and not from CO2.
2. The net equation reads:

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Two Stages of Photosynthesis
1. Light reactions (the photo part) i.e light-dependent reactions
solar/light energy converted to chemical energy of ATP and NADPH
occurs in (molecules) of the THYLAKOIDS (membranes)
this is where the pigment chlorophyll is - light strikes the pigments
What happens?
splits H2O (water molecules are split to provide electrons for photosystem I)
releases O2 (as a by product into atmosphere)
reduce NADP+ to NADPH + (H+)
generate ATP from ADP by photophosphorylation (either cyclic or noncyclic)
this is done through chemiosmosis, which powers the addition of a phosphate group to ADP
i.e. two products/energy-rich compounds: ATP and NADPH (+ H+)
ETC, Chemiosmosis is also part of light-dependent reactions
2. Calvin cycle (the synthesis part) i.e. light-independent reactions
using chemical energy to make organic molecules
i.e. uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 to sugar G3P
occurs in the STROMA
Calvin cycle begins with carbon fixation incorporating CO2 into organic molecules
forms sugar (glucose) from CO2, using ATP and NADPH
return ADP, inorganic phosphate, and NADP+ to the light rxns

The Nature of Sunlight


light is a form of electromagnetic energy, also called electromagnetic radiation (travels in rhythmic waves)
visible light consists of wavelengths (including those that drive photosynthesis) that produce colors we can see
light also behaves as though it consists of discrete particles, called photons
act like objects in that each of them has a fixed quantity of energy
the shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy of each photon of light
i.e. a photon of violet light parks nearly twice a much energy as a photon of red light

Photosynthetic Pigments
substances that absorb visible light
different pigments absorb different wavelengths
chlorophyll a - main photosynthetic pigment
accessory pigments (chlorophyll b), broaden the spectrum used for photosynthesis
carotenoids absorb excessive light that would damage chlorophyll

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Absorption Spectrum
an absorption spectrum is a graph plotting a pigments light absorption versus wavelength
chlorophyll best ABSORBS violet-blue and red light while transmitting and reflect/transmit green light
this means green is the least effective color

Action Spectrum
profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving the process

Photosystems
consists of a reaction-center complex surrounded by light-harvesting complexes
Reaction center complex special pair of chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor
a primary electron acceptor in the reaction center accepts an excited electron from chlorophyll a
Light-harvesting complex each with chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids bound to proteins, which
funnel the energy of photons to the reaction center
Uses light energy to generate ATP and NADPH

PS I vs PS II
PS II functions first and is best at absorbing a wavelength of 680 nm
the reaction-center chlorophyll a of PS II is called P680
PS I is best at absorbing a wavelength of 700 nm
the reaction-center chlorophyll a of PS I is called P700

How do the photosystems work together in using light energy to generate ATP and NADPH?
1. Non-cyclic electron flow
uses both photosystem I and II
photolysis occurs
products: ATP, NADPH, O2
2. Cyclic electron flow
uses only photosystem I
photolysis does not occur
No O2 eleased
No NADPH produced
Produces ATP
generates surplus ATP, satisfying the higher demand in the Calvin cycle
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(Calvin cycle consumes more ATP than NADPH)

Photoexcited electrons from PS I are occasionally shuttled back from Ferredoxin (Fd) to chlorophyll, via
the cytochrome complex and Plastocyanin (Pc), to continue on to P700

Non-Cyclic Electron Flow / Linear Electron flow


1. Photon strikes a pigment molecule in light-harvesting complex and relayed to other pigments until it reaches
one of the two P680 chlorophyll a molecules! one of the P680 electrons will be elevated/excited to a higher
energy state
this excited electron belongs to chlorophyll
2. This electron is captured by the primary electron acceptor.
3. An enzyme splits water into two e-, two H+, and one oxygen atom.
Electrons are supplied one by one to P680, each replacing an electron lost to primary electron acceptor.
An oxygen atom immediately combines with another oxygen atom forming O2.
4. Each photoexcited electron passes from the primary electron acceptor of PSII to PS I via an electron transport
chain (plastoquinone, cytochrome complex, plastocyanin)
5. Exergonic (i.e. releases energy) fall of electrons to lower energy level provides energy for ATP synthesis.
6. Light energy (transferred via light-harvesting complex) to PS I reaction center excites an electron of one of the
two P700 chlorophyll a molecules.
Photoexcited electron is then captured by PS I primary electron acceptor, creating a hole in P700. Hole is
filled by an electron from PS II.
7. Photoexcited electrons are passed from PS I primary electron acceptor down a second electron transport chain
through ferredoxin (Fd).
8. NADP+ reductase enzyme transfers electrons from Fd to NADP+.
Two electrons to make one NADPH
Electron is at a higher energy level than water

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PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
Photophosphorylation by chemiosmosis;
Water is split by PS II
Plastoqunione (Pq) transfers electrons to cytochrome complex
A hydrogen ion is removed from the storm when it is taken up by NADP+ i.e. NADP+ reduced to
NADPH
ATP is generated by H+ pumped across thylakoid membrane through ATP synthase;
ATP SYNTHASE: enzyme/protein that makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate
H+ gradient is created in the thylakoid space;
energy is released as protons pass through ATP synthase

Light Independent Reactions Overview i.e. CALVIN CYCLE


before this, NADP+ picks up electrons and ADP picks up a phosphate, forming NADPH and ATP
uses chemical energy of ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2 to sugar
ANABOLIC; builds sugar from smaller molecules by using chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH
carbon enters as CO2 and leaves as sugar G3P (glyceraldehyde-3-phospate) using ATP and NADPH produced
in light-dependent reactions
three phases: C R R
1. Carbon fixation (catalyzed by rubisco)
2. Reduction
3. Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP)
One glucose is produced by SIX Calvin cycles

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1.Carbon fixation
Rubisco attaches each CO2 (one at a time) to RuBP (ribulose biphosphate; 5-C sugar) which forms an unstable 6C
sugar > it splits and forms two molecules of PGA (3-phosphoglycerate)
i.e. aka CO2 is attached to RuBP by Rubisco

2. Reduction
PGA (3-phosphoglycerate) receives additional phosphate from ATP>1,3- bisphosphoglycerate
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate will be reduced, as it receives a pair of electrons, donated from NADPH > G3P
ATP and NADPH are incorporated into G3P, making it very energy rich

3. Regeneration of RuBP
(5) molecules of G3P rearranged into (3) molecules of RuBP (which is the CO2 acceptor)
RuBP is thus generated to begin the cycle again

NUMBERS / MATH TO REMEMBER


For every (1) CO2 molecule entering the calvin cycle, (3) molecules of ATP and (2) NADPH are needed
For every (3) molecules of CO2 that enters the calvin cycle, (1) molecule of G3P is produced/synthesized by Calvin
Cycle
3 x 3 ATP = 9 ATP
3 x 2 NADPH = 6 NADPH
9 ATPs and 6 NADPH used to make a net of one G3P
(9) ATPs and (6) NADPH are used to make a net of (1) G3P
(2) molecules of G3P, produced by a total of (6) turns of the cycle, combine to form (1) molecule of glucose.
For the calvin cycle to synthesize (1) glucose, the Calvin Cycle uses (6) CO2s, (18) ATPs, and (12) NADPHs
OR
1) To reduce six molecules of carbon dioxide to glucose via photosynthesis, how many molecules of NADPH
and ATP are required?
For every (3) molecules of CO2 that enters the Calvin cycle, (1) molecule of the three carbon glyceraldehyde 3-
phosphate (G3P) is produced
(2) molecules of G3P are needed to produce (1) molecule of glucose.
Therefore, the Calvin cycle needs to make a total of (6) turns to produce (2) molecules of G3P.
One turn of the Calvin cycle requires (3) molecules of ATP and (2) molecules of NADPH so for (6) turns:
3 ATP x 6 = 18 ATPs
2 NADPH x 6 = 12 NADPHs

Alternative Mechanism - Photorespiration


Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation have evolved in hot, arid climates, thus a problem facing terrestrial
plants is dehydration.
The stomata are the major route for gas exchange (CO2 in & O2 out), the place for the evaporative loss of water
On hot, dry days plants close the stomata to conserve water, but this causes problems for photosynthesis.
In most plants (C3 plants) initial carbon fixation of CO2 occurs via rubisco
the first organic product of carbon fixation is a 3-C compound, 3-phosphoglycerate
these plants include rice, wheat, and soybeans
Stomata closes on hot days, C3 plants produce LESS SUGAR because of the DECLINING level of CO2
Rubisco binds with O2 to RuBP (to Calvin Cycle) instead of CO2, as CO2 has become scarce
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When rubisco adds O2 to RuBP, RuBP splits into a 3-C piece and a 2-C piece in a process called photorespiration.
The two-carbon fragment is exported from the chloroplast and degraded to CO2 by mitochondria and
peroxisomes.
Photorespiration:
PRODUCES CO2
CONSUMES O2
USES ATP / PRODUCES NO ATP
PRODUCES NO SUGAR
DECREASES photosynthetic output by siphoning organic material from the Calvin cycle.

C4 Plants
The C4 plants fix CO2 in a four-carbon compound as its first product
plants such as sugarcane and corn use this pathway
In C4 plants, mesophyll cells incorporate CO2 into organic molecules.
The key enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP Carboxlyase), adds CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate
(PEP) to form oxaloacetetate.
PEP carboxylase has a very high affinity for CO2 and can fix CO2 efficiently when rubisco cannot - on hot, dry
days with the stomata closed.
In effect, the mesophyll cells pump CO2 into the bundle sheath cells, keeping CO2 levels high enough for
rubisco to accept CO2 and not O2.
C4 photosynthesis minimizes photorespiration and enhances sugar production.
C4 plants thrive in hot regions with intense sunlight.

Two distinct types of photosynthetic cells


Bundle sheath cells; arranged into tightly packed seats around the veins of the leaf
mesophyll cells : loosely arranged

CAM
A 2nd strategy to minimize photorespiration is found in succulent (i.e. water-storing) plants, cacti, pineapples
These plants, known as CAM plants for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), open stomata during the night
and close them during the day.
closing stomata in the day: helps desert plants conserve H2O and prevents CO2 from entering the leaves
opening stomata in the night: plants take up/fix CO2 and incorporate it into a variety of organic acids in
mesophyll cells

During the day, the light reactions supply ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle and CO2 is released from the
organic acids.

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Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration: A CATABOLIC process
objective: harvesting chemical energy / CATABOLIC: breaking down chemical energy/energy-rich organic
compounds (glucose) to synthesise ATP/produce energy
photosynthesis generates O2 and organic molecules, which are used in cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 > 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy (ATP + heat)

Catabolic Pathways
fermentation - partial degradation of sugars that occurs without O2
aerobic respiration consumes organic molecules and O2 and yields ATP
anaerobic respiration consumes compounds other than O2

Stepwise Energy Harvest via NAD+ and the Electron Transport Chain
in cellular respiration, glucose and other organic molecules are broken down in a series of steps
electrons from organic compounds are usually first transferred to NAD+, a coenzyme
NAD+ functions as an oxidizing agent during cellular respiration
it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced.
NADH is a reducing agent because it has room to lose electrons so it will be oxidized
each NADH (the reduced form of NAD+) represents stored energy (i.e an energy carrier) that fuels proton
gradient used to synthesize ATP

Equation

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Reduction = addition of hydrogen or electrons or removal of oxygen
Oxidation = removal of hydrogen or electrons or addition of oxygen
Glucose oxidized
reducing agent
O2 reduced
oxidizing agent

ATP STRUCTURE
stands for adenosine triphosphate
The ones between phosphate groups can be broken by hydrolysis
Hydrolysis of the end phosphate group forms adenosine diposphaste (ATP >ADP +Pi)

Transport work: ATP phosphorylates transport proteins


Mechanical work: ATP phosphorylates motor proteins
Chemical work: ATP phosphorylates key reactants

The Stages of Cellular Respiration


1. Glycolysis (breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate)
1.5: Link Reaction Pyruvate Oxidation
2. Citric acid cycle (completes the breakdown of glucose) / Krebs Cycle
3. Oxidative phosphorylation (accounts for most of the ATP synthesis)

Glycolysis; oxidizing glucose to (2) pyruvate


breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, a 3-C compound (splitting of sugar)
occurs with or without O2;
if oxygen is present, pyruvate enters the mitochondrion where enzyme of the Krebs cycle complete the oxidation
of the organic fuel (i.e. Glucose) to CO2
10 step pathway divided into 2 phases, each step catalysed by a specific enzyme

phosphorylation > lysis > oxidation > ATP formation (PLOA)


2 ATP is needed to get the reaction going
occurs in the cytoplasm/cytosol and has two major phases:
energy investment phase: 2 ATP is used thus cell spends ATP, investment is repaid later
energy payoff phase: 4 ATP produced; ATP is produced by substrate level phosphorylation, NAD+ is
reduced to NADH by electrons released from oxidation of glucose)
1. Phosphorylation: the hexose sugar (Glucose) enters the cell and is phosphorylated by the enzyme
hexokinase, which transfer a phosphate group from ATP to the sugar, thus becoming hexose
biphosphate
2. Lysis: hexose (bi)phosphate (a hexose: 6-C sugar) is then split into two (3-C sugars) triose
phosphates; / glucose, a 6-Carbon sugar, is split into (2) 3-Carbon sugars
3. Oxidation: hydrogen is removed from the (two 3-C sugars) aka triose phosphates via oxidation; NAD
+ is reduced to NADH i.e. e- are carried by NADH (by electrons released from oxidation of glucose)
4. ATP formation: net gain of two ATP / 2 ATP used and 4 ATP produced

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end result - 2 molecules of pyruvate, net of 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 H2O
(aka 1 glucose in = 2 ATP: 2 NADH: 2H20; 2 pyruvate out)

1.5 Link Reaction


only occurs when oxygen is present;
pyruvate (from glycolysis) is a charged molecule, so in eukaryotic cells, it must enter the mitochondrion
via active transport with the help of a protein;
pyruvate is eventually converted to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA);
a complex of several enzymes catalyses the three numbers steps;

1. carboxyl group (-COO^-) of pyruvate is removed and released as CO2;


2. the remaining two carbon fragment (2-C), is further oxidised, forming a compound named acetate;
an enzyme transfers the extracted electrons to NAD+, storing energy in the form of NADH
3. coenzyme A (CoA), a sulfur containing compound is ATTACHED to acetate by an unstable bond thus
forming acetyl coA / coenzyme A (CoA) is attached to acetate to form acetyl CoA

acetyl CoA is fed to/enters the citric acid cycle for further OXIDATION
end result - 1 Acetyl CoA, 1 NADH and 1 CO2

Citric Acid Cycle / Krebs Cycle


occurs only in aerobic conditions & takes place within the mitochondrion/mitochondrial matrix
oxidizing organic fuel/acetyl CoA derived from pyruvate and using the energy to synthesize ATP
generating 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2 per turn + (2CO2)
has eight steps, each step catalyzed by a specific enzyme
CATABOLIC: breaks down glucose to synthesize/produce energy
the next seven steps decompose the citrate back to oxaloacetate, making the process a cycle
NADH+H+ and CO2 are formed (with each decarboxylation)

acetyl CoA from the link reaction releases an acetyl group


begins when acetate (a two-carbon acetyl group) from acetyl CoA combines with a 4-c molecule,
oxaloaceteate, to form a 6-c molecule, citrate

(decarboxylation changes citrate) to 5-carbon molecule/C5/glutamate;


from this a carbon is given off as CO2 (CO2 is burned/oxidized)
in the process, NAD+ is reduced to NADH + H+
(decarboxylation changes glutamate) to a 4-carbon molecule/C4;
again, carbon is given off as CO2
again, NAD+ is reduced to NADH + H+
then converted into the original 4-carbon molecule/C4/oxaloacetate and the cycle repeats;
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NAD+ reduced to NADH
FAD is reduced to FADH2
ADP is reduced to ATP
GDP reduced to GTP

Oxidative Phosphorylation (i.e. ETC + Chemiosmosis) - occurs in Mitochondrial Membrane


NADH and FADH2, shuttle high-energy electrons (extracted from glycolysis and citric acid cycle) into ETC which
is built into the inner mitochondrial membrane;
protons will be released into inter membrane space, which results in proton concentration gradient (H+ lost
therefore OXIDATIVE phosphorylation)
follows same mechanism of PHOTOphosphorylation

Electron Transport Chain


collection of molecules embedded in the (cristae) in the inner mitochondrial membrane
folding of the inner membrane to form cristae increases SA
most components of the chain are PROTEINS, which exist in multi protein COMPLEXES number I through IV
tightly bound to these proteins are PROSTHETIC groups
oxygen acts as a final terminal electron acceptor for the ETC
oxygen combines with electrons with H+ ions to form H2O i.e. water is the final product of ETC

CHEMIOSMOSIS
chemiosmosis: process in which energy stored in the form of an existing H+/proton gradient across a
membrane is used to drive cellular work/to power ATP synthesis
H+ passes down a concentration gradient through ATP synthase
ATP synthase harnesses the proton motive to force phosphorylate ADP, forming ATP
ATP Synthase: a proton complex which actually makes ATP from ADP and Pi
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an energy converter uses the exergonic flow of electrons to pump H+ across the membrane;
Energy released produces ATP
Yields 32-34 per glucose molecule

1. Electron carried by NADH are transferred to first molecule the ETC, flavoprotein
2. NADH and FADH2 shuttle high-energy electrons extracted from glycolysis and citric acid cycle / the
electron continue along the chain which includes several cytochrome proteins and one lipid carrier
3. Two mobile carriers, Ubiquinone (Q) and Cytochrome C (Cyt c), move rapidly, ferrying electrons
between the complexes
4. Protons are being pumped from mitochondrial matrix to inter membrane space
5. FADH2 deposits its electron via complex II, where NADH deposits its electron via complex I, which is
of a higher energy level
The electrons carried by FADH2 have lower free energy and are added to a later point

Substrate Level Phosphorylation


occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP, rather than adding an
inorganic phosphate to ADP as in oxidative phosphorylation
ATP formation by enzymatic transfer of a phosphate group from an intermediate to ADP / "Substrate molecule"
here refers to an organic molecule generated as an intermediate during the catabolism of glucose.
forms a smaller amount of ATP in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle

How does energy flow: glucose > NADH > ETC > proton-motive force > ATP

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Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
glycolysis can produce ATP with or without O2 (in aerobic or anaerobic conditions)
includes glycolysis; occurs in the CYTOSOL
Fermentation uses substrate level phosphorylation thus there must be a sufficenty supply of NAD+
anaerobic respiration: no O2 BUT an ETC is used
fermentation: no O2 & ETC used to generate ATP
consists of glycolysis plus reactions that regenerate NAD+, which can be reused by glycolysis
NAD+ not converted to NADH
2 Types of Fermentation:
alcohol fermentation
pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps, with the first releasing CO2
used in brewing, winemaking, and baking (yeast)
lactic acid fermentation
pyruvate is reduced to NADH, forming lactate as an end product, with no release of CO2
used to make cheese & yogurt (fungi and bacteria) ,used by human muscle to generate ATP when
O2 is scarce

In yeast cells, pyruvate will be broken down further (ethanol)


Yeast; CO2 + Ethanol

In animal cells, pyruvate will be broken down further into lactic acid
Animal; Lactic acid (lactate)

Fermentation vs Aerobic Respiration


both use glycolysis to oxidize glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate
have different final electron acceptors: an organic molecule (such as pyruvate or acetaldehyde) in
fermentation and O2 in cellular respiration
cellular respiration produces 38 ATP per glucose molecule; fermentation produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule
Some organisms (facultative anaerobes), including yeasts and many bacteria, can survive using either
fermentation or aerobic respiration (e.g. muscles also)

THE CELL CYCLE


The Cell Cycle consists of:
Interphase (cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division)
Mitotic (M) phase (mitosis and cytokinesis)

Interphase
Interphase (about 90% of the cell cycle) can be divided into subphases:
G1 - growth (of cell) first gap
S - growth and DNA synthesis
G2 - growth and preparation for cell vision second gap
the cell grows during all three phases, but chromosomes are duplicated only during the S phase
Each duplicated chromosome, prior to division, is held together at the centromere.
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Mitotic Phase
Mitosis - nuclear division
Cytokinesis - division of the cytoplasm
ANIMAL CELLS; The sign of cytokinesis in animals (cleave) is the appearance of a cleavage furrow
PLANT CELLS; During telophase in plants, vesicles from the Golgi coalesce (phragmoplast) at the
metaphase plate, forming a cell plate

Functions of mitosis: reproduction, growth, and repair/tissue renewal

MITOSIS
chromosomes arent homologous, they are just replicated i.e. no homologous chromosomes
results in TWO DIPLOID CELLS - two genetically identical nuclei

mitotic spindle: made up of microtubules, controls chromosome movement


also include spindle microtubules and aster
spindle microtubules:
aster: part of a spindle consists of arrays of short microtubules that radiate from the spindle pole
Centrosomes: microtubule-organizing-centers, which are located at the centriole in animal cells
CENTRIOLES only found in animal cells, plant cells lack centrioles

MEIOSIS

MEIOSIS I: Separation of homologous chromosomes


after meiosis I, no more chromosome replication/duplication
homologous chromosomes with replicated chromosomes
results in TWO haploid cells of DUPLICATED/REPLICATED chromosomes

1. Prophase I: homologous pair associates with each other


homologous chromosomes undergo synapsis, forming tetrads (Groups of four chromatids)
homologous chromosomes pair up to form a bivalent, which are 4 chromatids or 2
homologous chromosomes
crossing over may/can occur between non sister chromatids
this is a source of genetic variation
chiasma: site of crossing over
producing recombinant chromosomes
2. Metaphase I: bivalents (homologous pair) lines up at the equator
terminal chiasmata are seen
indepdndent assortment
3. Anaphase I: homologous chromosomes separate by contraction of spindle fibers towards the poles
sister chromatids remain attached; each chromosome still consists of two sister chromatids
bivalent is split
4. Telophase I: Nuclear membrane reforms and division of cytoplasm
chromosomes decondense
daughter cells are no longer diploid (2n), they are now haploid (n)
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MEIOSIS II: Separation of sister chromatids
results in FOUR HAPLOID CELLS of UNDUPLICATED/UNREPLICATED chromosomes
four daughter cells are genetically DISTINCT from one another and from parent cell

1. Prophase II: spindle apparatus forms, chromosomes move towards Meiosis II plate
2. Metaphase II: chromosomes are positioned on the plate
3. Anaphase II: centromeres of each chromosomes separate, sister chromatids separate
non-disjunction occurs
4. Telophase II: chromosomes decondense, cytokinesis occurs

MEIOSIS VS MITOSIS
Mitosis: Somatic cells - 23 PAIRS - 46 chromosomes - 2n
Meiosis: Gametes - 23 chromosomes - n

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CELL CYCLE CONTROL SYSTEM
Cell Cycle Control System
The distinct events of the cell cycle are directed by a distinct cell cycle control system.
These molecules trigger and coordinate key events in the cell cycle.
The control cycle has a built-in clock, but it is also regulated by external adjustments and internal controls.
CHECKPOINTS: a critical control point where stop and go signals regulate the cycle
(3) major checkpoints are found in the G1, G2, and M phases.

Cyclin - a class of proteins that fluctuate in concentration at specific points during the cell cycle and that regulate the
cycle by binding to a kinase.
CDK= Cyclin-dependent kinases, which are a family
of protein kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle.
MPF = maturation-promoting factor/ M-phase-promoting factor

Cyclin levels rise sharply throughout interphase, then fall abruptly during mitosis.
Peaks in the activity of one cyclin-Cdk complex, MPF, correspond to peaks in cyclin concentration.
Fibroblasts in culture will only divide in the presence of medium that also contains PDGF.

benign tumor: abnormal cells REMAIN at the original site if they have too FEW genetic and cellular changes to
survive at another site; these do not cause serious problems and can be removed by surgery
malignant tumor: cells whose genetic and cellular changes enable them to spread to new tissues and impair
functions of one or more organs
anchorage dependence: to divide, they must be attached to a substratum
metastasis: spread of cancer cells to locations distant from the original site

External Chemical and Physical Factors that influence Cell Division


Growth factors: proteins released by one group of cells that stimulate other cells to divide.
e.g. platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF), produced by platelet blood cells, bind to tyrosine-kinase receptors
of fibroblasts, a type of connective tissue cell.

Growth factors appear to be a key in density- dependent inhibition of cell division.


density-dependent inhibition: crowded cells stop diving

Cancer cells are free of both density-dependent inhibition and anchorage dependence.

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