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8/1/2017 4 example calculations of compensation for reactive power | EEP

4 example calculations of compensation


for reactive power

Reactive power
First, lets say some words about basics of the reactive power in system.
Reactive current arises in every electrical system.

Not only large loads, but smaller loads as well require reactive power.
Generators and motors produce reactive power, which causes unnecessary
burdens to and power losses in the lines.

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8/1/2017 4 example calculations of compensation for reactive power | EEP

4 example calculations of compensation for reactive power (photo credit:


mavinelectric.files.wordpress.com)

Figure 1 shows the block diagram for the network loading.

Figure 1 Equivalent circuit diagram of a network with different loading: a) Equivalent circuit;
b) Phasor diagram

Reactive power is necessary to generate magnetic fields, e.g. in motors,


transformers and generators. This power oscillates between the source and the
load and represents an additional loading.

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8/1/2017 4 example calculations of compensation for reactive power | EEP

Power supply companies and the consumers of this electrical energy


are interested in reducing these disadvantages as well as possible. On
the other hand, non-linear loads and phase-controlled inverters
cause harmonics, which lead to voltage changes and a decrease in
the power factor. In order to reduce these harmonics, series resonant
(filter) circuits are used.

Now, lets take few examples to calculate the following:

1. Determination of Capacitive Power


2. Capacitive Power With k Factor
3. Determination of Cable Cross-Section
4. Calculation of the c/k Value

Example 1 Determination of Capacitive Power

A load has an effective power of P = 50 kW at 400 V and the power factor is to


be compensated from cos = 0.75 to cos = 0.95. Determine the required
capacitive power. The power and current before compensation are:

The power and current after compensation are:

The required capacitive power is:


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Go back to calculations

Example 2 Capacitive Power With k Factor

The capacitive power can be determined with the factor k for a given
effective power. The k factor is read from a table 1 Multipliers to determine
capacitor kilovars required for power factor correction (see below) and
multiplied by the effective power. The result is the required capacitive power.

For an increase in the power factor from cos = 0.75 to cos = 0.95, from the
table 1 we find a factor k = 0.55:

Go back to calculations

Example 3 Determination of Cable Cross-Section

A three-phase power of 250 kW, with Un = 400 V, at 50 Hz is to be transmitted


over a cable 80 m in length. The voltage drop must not exceed 4% =16 V.
The power factor is to be increased from cos = 0.7 to cos = 0.95. What is
the required cable cross-section?

The current consumption before compensation is:


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8/1/2017 4 example calculations of compensation for reactive power | EEP

The current consumption after compensation is:

The effective resistance per unit length for 516 A is:

According to Table 2 (see below) we must choose a cable with a cross-section


of 4 95 mm2. The effective resistance per unit length for 380 A is:

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8/1/2017 4 example calculations of compensation for reactive power | EEP

Here, a cable cross-section of 4 70 mm2 is required. As this


example illustrates, the improved power factor leads to lower costs
because of the reduced cross-section.

Go back to calculations

Example 4 Calculation of the c/k Value

Given a 150 condenser battery, i.e. 5 stages of 30 each, a supply voltage of


400 V, and an instrument transformer with a k of 500 A/5 A, how large is the
c/k value? The ratio c/k is given by.

Go back to calculations

Tables

Table 1 Multipliers to Determine Capacitor Kilovars Required for Power


Factor Correction

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Table 1 Multipliers to Determine Capacitor Kilovars Required for Power Factor Correction

Table 2 Resistance per unit length for (Cu) cable with plastic insulation

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8/1/2017 4 example calculations of compensation for reactive power | EEP

Table 2 Resistance per unit length for (Cu) cable with plastic insulation

Go back to calculations

References

1. Analysis and design of low voltage power systems by Ismail Kasikci


(Purchase hardcover from Amazon)
2. Power factor correction A guide for the plant engineer by EATON

About Author //

Edvard Csanyi

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8/1/2017 4 example calculations of compensation for reactive power | EEP

Edvard - Electrical engineer, programmer and founder of EEP. Highly


specialized for design of LV/MV switchgears and LV high power busbar trunking
(<6300A) in power substations, commercial buildings and industry fascilities.
Professional in AutoCAD programming. Present on Google+

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