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UNIT IV

INSTRUMENTATION IN CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES


(I) FOLLOWING ARE THE INSTRUMENTS COMMONLY USED IN
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WORK:-

1. Following tools are commonly used in the stone masonry and stone dressing
:-
a) Spade, b) Pick axe, c) Spall hammer, d) Kassi or Phawrah, e) Iron Pan,
f) Rammer, g) Punch, h) Gad, i) Square, j) Scrabbling hammer.

Fig. 1) and Fig 2) shows tools for stone masonry and stone dressing.

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Fig. (1) Tools and plants used in stone masonry.

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Various Tools For Excavation: -
1. Bulldozers.
2. Drag lines.
3. JCB.
4. Graders.
5. Scrapers
6. Power shovel.
Some of the instruments are explained in following sections.
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1) BULLDOZERS:-
Bulldozers are the cheapest and first choice for excavating and
moving earth upto 100 m. These are either crawler or wheel type.
Bulldozers can be used for following purposes.
1) It is used for excavating the materials and spread or dumping to the specific
area. It is mainly used for leveling and clearing of ground
2) It is used for shallow excavation up to 30cm.
3) It is used for clearing small trees and shrubs
4) For backfilling of trenches
5) Spreading the earth fill
6) Acting as a pushing or towing tractor

2) WHEEL LOADER (JCB):-


Excavation machine made up of a wheel tractor, a backhoe and a front
hand loader.
This type of excavator is manufactured by JCB sales limited that are why
the name is JCB.
It is typical type of multi-purpose excavator machine which is based
upon a tractor power unit and very popular in the construction industry and
commonly used by building contractors due to its versatility of multi-purpose
working.
JCB as an excavators are available with small to medium size. The
tractor is normally a diesel-powered wheeled vehicle in which a hydraulically
controlled loading shovel is fitted at the front and a hydraulically controlled back
acting bucket or hoe at the rear of the vehicle.

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Fig. (10) A typical section of JCB.
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3) DRAGLINE (EXCAVATOR MACHINE):-


It is the most flexible excavating tool. However they are more suitable
where swampy condition prevent other equipments from being used.
It has more reach than a shovel both for excavating as well as disposal. It
can dig far below its base almost in any location. These are classified on the basis
of mounting whether truck mounted, crawler tractor mounted or wheel mounted.

A typical
section of
Dragline
(Excavator machine).
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4) POWER SHOWEL :-
1) power showel is used for excavating and loading operations.
2) they are suitable for all type of earth which should not be return
3) the power showel conmsist of mounting cabin,boom, dipper sick,hoist etc. they
can be truck mounted or truck mounted.

5) GRADER:-

1) this type of excavating equipment used for grading,spreding,road crowing, side


cutting and bank dressing.
2) it consist of a blade which is 3 to 4 m length fitted to the frame work which is
supported over wheel.

FOLLOWING ARE THE INSTRUMENTS COMMONLY USED IN


COMPACTION WORK:-
To increase the bearing capacity, strength of earth structure the soil
stabilization and compaction is necessary. Compaction is achieved by applying
proper methods and by using many types of rollers depending upon the
requirement of degree of compaction.
Many types of compacting equipments are available like
1) roller
2) vibrators
3) kneaders
4) ramming
1) ROLLERS:-
1) it compact the earth by rolling process
2) the smooth drum which is having the capacity6 to 12 tons and roll over the
earth for compaction purpose.
3) rollers are of different types like, plain steel roller, smooth wheeled roller,
pneumatic tire roller, sheep footed roller,vibrator roller etc.
4) The plain steel rollers weighing from 5m to 15m are used for ordinary rolling
work where deep compaction is not required.
5)Whenever the compaction is to be done to a great depth the place like in
embankment or canal sheep foot rollers are used.
6) The pneumatic-tired rollers are widely used for compaction of subgrades,
bases, bituminous mixes, and many types of material. They have rubber tires
instead of steel tires.
7) Vibratory rollers are the recent development of compacting dry and lean
concrete. A heavy roller which vibrates while vibrates while rolling is used for

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the compaction of dry lean concrete. Mainly for construction of dams and
pavements.

2) kneaders:-
1) the soil is kneaded by applying a pressure. the sheep footed roller is used for
the compaction purpose.

3) rammer :-
1) soil is compacted by pounding action examples are hand tamper, mechanical
rammer, vibratory roller.

NON DISTRUCTIVE TEST (NDT) :-

Quality control method that does not damage or destroy the material or
product being tested.
Performed on a finished item instead of on a material sample, it uses
infrared radiation, radiography, ultrasound, x-rays, and other techniques to detect
fatigue effects, structural flaws, and other such defects.
it is a best method for evaluation of existing concrete structures with regard
to their strength and durability.
common NDT instruments used are
1) ultrasonic pulse velocity
2) rebound hammer
3) spectrophotometer.

1) ULTRASONIC TESTING

1) The basic principle of this method of testing is that the velocity of an


ultrasonic pulse through concrete is related to its density and elastic properties.

2) the advantage of this method is that the pulse passes through the complete
thickness of the concrete so that significant defects can be detected.

3) The method also determines the measurement of concrete deterioration which


might have occurred due to age or through the action of fire, frost or chemical
attack.

4) The measurement of concrete uniformity

5) Determination of the presence or absence of voids, cracks and other


imperfections

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6) Measurement of layer thickness and elastic modulus

7) Determination and monitoring of concrete strength


Quality control and inspection of concrete structures is
the primary application for the Ultrasonic Concrete Testing System.
It uses measurement of the speed of ultrasonic pulses through
the concrete to correlate concrete strength to standard strength.
It will identify non-homogeneous conditions in the structure
such as honeycombs, voids, cracks, frozen concrete, etc.
Use it to survey complete structures, new, old, fire
damaged or weathered. The large LCD display shows a graphic waveform and
the elapsed time in 0.1 microsecond increments.
The system includes two 54 KHz transducers with
connecting cables, readout unit, power cord, built-in rechargeable batteries,
carrying case and coupling grease.

The system facilitates automatic calculation of:


Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity
Poisson's Ratio
Modulus of Elasticity

2) SPECTROPHOTOMETER
spectrophotometer are kept and studied in the environmental
engineering lab.
Instrument used to measure the intensity of wavelengths in a spectrum
of light compared with the intensity of light from a standard source.
II Device for measuring the brightness of the various portions of
spectra.
Principle:
Light Intensity Change : By Absorbance or Transmittance
Quantity : Using Absorbance
Use:
To determine the intensity of transmitted light
To Determine the absorbance or transmittance
Used in dyes industry
To determine colour impurities in water

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3) REBOUND HAMMER :-
this method employs the principle which measures the height of
the rebound of the stand hammer when it strikes the surface under the test. the
correlation is obtain between the surface hardness to the height of the hammer.

factors affecting rebound hammer:-


type of concrete
type of coarse aggregate
surface and internal moisture contain
presence of surface carbonation
orientation of instrument

use of rebound hammer:-


to find the compressive strength of concrete
to find the uniformity of the concrete
the quality of concrete as per the standard requirement
application :-
testing of normal weight concrete
lightweight or small impact resistance concrete
testing of mass concrete

STRAIN GAUGES:

The elongation or compression per unit length of conducting wire is


called as strain.

strain gauge is a device or instrument to measure linear deformation


over a gauge length occurring in the material of a structure during the loading of
the structure for determining the stress in complicated structures.

It is passive resistive transducer. This is a transducer which transforms


mechanical elongation and compression into resistance change.

The strain gauge uses the variation in electrical resistance in wires to


sense the strain produced by a force on the wires.

Applications:
The strain guages find application in following areas :
1) Experimental stress analysis
2) Load cells
3) Torque meters

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4) Diaphragm type pressure gauges
5) Accelerometers
6) Flow meters
7) Temperature sensors

Types of strain guage :-


1) mechanical strain guage
2) optical strain guage
3) electrical resistance strain guage
4) acoustical strain guage
5) pneumatic strain guage

Electric Resistance Strain Gauges:-


In the electrical resistance strain guage the displacement or strain is measured
as a function resistance change produce by the displacement in the gauging
circuit
An ideal strain guage should have the following characteristics
1. The guage should be extremely small size so as to aequate estimate
strain at a point.
2. the guage should be of significant mass to permit the recording of
dynamic strain
3. the guage should be easy to attach to the member being analyzed and
easy to handle
4. the srain sensityvity and accuracy of the guage should be sufficiently
high
5. the guage should be unaffected by the temperature,vibration,humidity ot
other condition
6. the calibration constant for the guage should be stable over a widw
range of temperature and time
7. the guage should be capable of indicating both static and dynamic strain
8. it should be possible to read the guage either on location or remotely
9. the guage should exhibit linear response to strain
types of elecrical resistence strain guage
1) unbounded guage
. non metallic
. metallic
2) bonded guage
. non metallic
. metallic
3) weldable guage
4) pieroresistive guage

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Fig :- strain guage

TELEMETRY(Telemetry is the method of managing the utilities)


Definition of Telemetry:
A technology that allows data measurements to be made at a distance
is called as telemetry. The tele means remote and metron means measure.
a process by which the measured physical quantities such as
temperature level, pressure, flow, displacement, velocity, acceleration, relative
humidity, speed etc. are transmitted to a suitable and convenient remote station or
to a process etc. is called as telemetry.
Basic Telemetry System:
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It consists of the following building block which transmits data to the desire
destination.
A measuring instrument: It measures pressure, flow, temperature, level or any
other variable.
A conversion element or transducer: It converts the measured variable into
proportional electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic signals.
A transmitter: It transmits the measured variable to a receiver. A receiver: It
receives the transmitted variable.

Applications and Management of utilities using telemetry


There are several applications of telemetry; some of them are briefly
explained as below:
1. It is used in Meteorology by weather balloons for transmitting
meteorological data.
2. Telemetry is used to transmit drilling mechanics and formation evaluation
information up hole, in real time, as a well is drilled in oil and gas
industries
3. It is also used in agriculture, in which wireless weather stations play a
major role in disease prevention and precision irrigation. Telemetry
stations transmit parameters necessary for decision-making to a base
station to know the air temperature and relative humidity precipitation and
leaf wetness (for disease prediction models), solar radiation and wind
speed, water deficit stress leaf sensors and soil moisture.

4. Water resources sewer utilities can be well monitored and managed by


telemetry.

5. Telemetry play a vital role in water management including water quality


and stream gauging functions. Major applications include AMR i.e.
Automatic Meter Reading, ground water monitoring, leak detection in
distribution of pipelines and equipment surveillance.

6. Telemetry is used to manage the complex system such as missiles,


spacecraft, oil rigs and chemical plants since it allows the automatic
monitoring, altering and recordkeeping necessary for efficient and safe
operation.
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7. Telemetry is used in energy monitoring. In factories, buildings and houses,
energy consumption system is monitored at multiple locations; related
parameters such as temperature etc. are sent via wireless telemetry to a
central point. The information is collected and processed, enabling the
most efficient use of energy. Telemetry system also manages predictive
maintenance.

PROCESSING DATA FROM TELEMETRY


The meter readings from reservoirs are useful information
for managing the distribution system and helps in preventing overflow from
reservoirs.
However the effectiveness of Telemetry in pumping operations
is dependent on reliability of instrumentation for measuring flows, pressures,
KWh meters, etc.
Standard practice is to calculate pump efficiency and water
audit calculations on a monthly basis. Telemetry can also be used to supervise
water hammer protection system wherein the pump failures are linked to
initiate measu0res to prevent occurrence of water hammer.

Fig. SCADA system integrating industrial process and operator


panel.

SCADA SYSTEM.
(Automatic controlling of all the utilities using remote control device).

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition


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Instead of manual review of data collected by telemetry and
initiating action manually, if telemetry is extended to include actions based on the
data for remote control of pumps and other equipment then such a system is
known as SCADA.
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is a computer
aided system which collects, stores and analyses the data on all aspects of
O&M.(Operation and Maintenance).
The operating personnel can retrieve the data and control their
operations and sometimes the system itself is programmed to control the
operations on the basis of the acquired data.
SCADA enhance the efficiency of the O&M personnel who are
better informed about the system and hence are in full control of the operations.
Whether in a telemetry system or a SCADA system up-to the
minute real time information is gathered from remote terminal unit located at the
water treatment plant, reservoir, flow meter, pumping station etc. and transmitted
to a central control station where the information is updated, displayed and stored
manually or automatically.
In a SCADA system the information is linked to a supervisory
system for local display, alarm annunciation etc. which may be linked to remote
control of pumping operations or operation of valves etc.

Data collection in SCADA


SCADA systems will have probes/sensors which will sense and
generate signals for the level, pressure and flow in a given unit and transmit
the signals for storage and analysis in the computer.
The signals are transmitted by radio, by Telephone, microwave
satellite or fiber optic transmission systems.
The signals transmitted are stored as data, analyses and presented as
information.
SCADA systems can include the network diagrams of the
distribution system of which detailed sketches of a particular area can be viewed
by the operator if necessary to observe the current operating data such as flow,
pressure, level or residual chlorine.
SCADA systems in Water distribution are programmed for
collection and processing of following information.
To monitor levels in Service reservoirs, pressures and flows in a
distribution system
To monitor and store data on levels in SRs, or flows/quantity of
delivered into a SR or pressures of distribution system and generate
alarms for threshold values of levels, flows and pressures to initiate
operation of valves and pumps

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To monitor and store data on operation of pumps such as Voltage,
amperes, energy consumed, operating times and down times of
pumps
To measure and record chlorine residuals and generate alarms at
thresh hold values of residual chlorine in the distribution systems.

Working of SCADA

The SCADA works at the application layer i.e. the layer at which the
end user or operator/supervisor interfaces to the process controller and I/O
devices.
The SCADA system includes the basic blocks such as :
Input output signal hardware or instrumentation,
The process controller.
The HMI software and display.
Network communication.
Process database and
Controller interface hardware and software.

This whole system operates either in a standalone mode or in


networked mode.
In the networked mode the all possible nodes connected to the
supervisory controller usually called as master is connected to all possible and
required slaves.
All these slaves has unique slave address and the supervisory
controller can select the specific slave by placing the appropriate slave address,
followed by the datagram, that includes the targeted message to specific slave
and the compulsory pre-amble and post-amble message frame overheads.
This software addressing for the multiple clients and controllers
connected to the supervisor reduces the wiring complexity of the system upto the
considerable level.

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Fig. shows the functional block diagram of SCADA system.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
It is defined in the report of the 1987 world commission on
environment and development, our common future as development which meets
the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to
meet their own needs.
Sustainable development simply means development that
genuinely sustains and improves economic, social and environmental well being
with no major trade off, locally and globally, now and in the future.

Role of Engineers in Sustainable Development:


Engineers can play a significant role in ensuring sustainable solutions
available, considered and implemented.
In contrast, the applied knowledge of this engineering community has
been largely absent from this policy debate, despite this fact which
engineers use science to plan, build and operate this infrastructure
which may directly contribute to solutions and sometimes problems of
environmental degradation.
Re-address engineering responsibilities by incorporating sustainable
developments principles into the codes of ethic of these engineering
organizations throughout this world.
Incorporate long term environmental impacts and costs into this
analysis of alternate solutions being considered.
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Information exchange is this comer stone of sustainable development
and technological innovation. Engineers can use wenet to share ideas,
conduct business and develop sustainable engineering solutions.
The world engineering partnership for sustainable development with
its partners is creating an global communications network with
engineers to provide leadership and practical content to the concept of
sustainable development wenet represents is a major step in linking
engineers and sharing technology with developed and developing
nations. Hence engineer can use wenet for sustainable development.
Near form solutions to critical global environmental issues such as
fresh water and global climate change exist, for application in both
developed and developing countries and for all regions of the world.

Concept of green buildings


Green building is also termed as green construction or sustainable
building. Green building is that structure which is built by using the process
which is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a
building's life-cycle from setting to:
(i) Design (ii) Construction
(iii) Operation (iv) Maintenance
(v) Renovation and (vi) Demolition
To achieve the effective target of greens buildings, there should be a close
co-operation of the design team, the architects, engineers and the client at
all stages of the desired project.
The green building practice expands and complements the classical building
design concerns of economy, utility, durability, eco-friendly and comfort.

Objective of green building:


The common objective of green building is to design the building in
such way that it should reduces the overall impact of the built environment on
human health and the natural environment Following are the main and common
objective of the green building
Efficient utilization of energy, water and other resources
Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity

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Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation
Recycling of waste material
Maximum utilization of eco-friendly material or natural material which are
available locally. Sustainable design and green architecture.

Green Buildings Retain the Environment at the location of the Building.


Suppose we propose a multi-storied office complex to
accommodate thousands of officers and staff, it requires a vast area. Therefore
selection of a site for such a building complex should consider retention of local
vegetation, wild life, natural water courses etc. Either a site with bio diversity
should be avoided or the building should be planned to reduce site disturbance.

Fig. Conceptual drawing of Green Building

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LEED Certification

Meaning of LEED is leadership in energy and environmental


design. LEED consists of a suite of rating system for the design, construction and
operation of high performance green buildings; homes and neighborhoods.
Certification is granted solely by the Green Building Certification
Institute (GBCI), which is responsible for the third party verification of project
compliance with LEED requirements. LEED certification assures that a building
project is environmentally responsible; profitable and a healthy place to work.
Ratings for LEED certification exist for the following categories
1. New construction
2. Existing buildings
3. Core and shell
4. Schools
5. Commercial buildings and its interiors
6. Homes
7. Healthcare facilities Neighborhood development

LEED certified buildings has the following salient features


1. It has lower operating costs
2. It has a higher asset value
3. It conserve both water and energy
4. It is healthier and safer for occupants
5. It reduces green house gas emissions
6. It show the owner's commitment to environmental stewardship and social
responsibility
7. It qualify for tax rebates, zoning allowances and other incentives
LEED certification is obtained after submitting an
application documenting compliance with the requirements of the rating system
as well as paying registration and certification fees.
In order to establish a building's points awards in each credit
category, buildings applying for certification are compared with a theoretical
baseline defined by a LEED methodology.
certification level :-
building can qualify for four level of certification
certified : 40-49 points
silver : 50-59 points
gold : 60-79 points
platinum : 80points and above

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