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The test will consist of multiple choice questions, short answer questions, and "make an arguement"
questions. The "make an arguement" questions will present you with three terms or phrases, and
will require you to construct a paragraph in which you demonstrate how each of the three things led
to the other things, (cause and effect) and why it matters.
Preparing to answer the following questions should enable you to do well on the test. You will
notice that each set of questions corresponds to specific lectures. While studying, it is of the utmost
importance that you concentrate on understanding cause and effect. In other words, pay very close
attention to understanding how one event or situation caused another event or situation to occur. If
you have questions about this, contact me ASAP. Feel free to contact me if you have any questions,
comments, or concerns. I try to make myself as available as possible to you before a test, so you can
reach me by e-mail. It is my job to help you do well on the tests, but I can't help you if you don't
contact me and ask.

The first lecture was designed to demonstrate how and why Spain became a word power thanks to
their colonization efforts, and how and why that caused England France and England to also getting
involved in colonization. Some questions to consider:

How did the "first Americans" get here and what accounts for the diversity of their cultures?

How and why did Native-American concepts of land usage differ from that of Europeans?

What were the motivations that first brought Spanish explorers to the New World?

What were they looking for?

Which nations had the most success in creating a profitable New World empire prior to the 1600s?

How and why?

Understand England's failures in trying to get into the colony business.

In regards to colonization, what did Spain, France, and England each have at the start of the 1600s?

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The second lecture was designed to show how and why Virginia and Massachusetts became the
model English colonies, and how they caused a difference to emerge between the North and South.
Some questions to consider:

Why did James I grant a charter to the Virginia company?

Where did they settle and why?

Explain the reasons for the hardships they encountered.

What things happened that changed the fortunes of the colony?

What crop did they find that would be profitable, and how did that crop shape their settlement
patterns and society (tobacco culture)?

Why did the Virginia Company collapse, and in what ways was the colony of Virginia a model
colony for the other southern colonies?

Also, consider the Puritans. What did they believe and what were they trying to do?

How did their hopes for the New World differ from those of Virginia?

In what ways did their religion effect the ways that they settled and lived their lives?

Why did they have so much success in their early years?

What specific things began to happen that made them feel as though they were failing and thus
made them feel guilty?

Explain how the Glorious Revolution and the new charters they were granted marked the failure of
their mission.

What role did the Puritan sense of guilt and failure play in the Salem witch trials? What are the
legacies of the Puritans?

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The third lecture was designed to show that the other colonies were settled by people that had high
hopes for what they could accomplish in the new world, but that with only one exceptions, those
hopes were not realized. Yet, those colonies became a success for the peoples that settled
there. Some questions to consider:

Describe the settlement of each of the other colonies.

Who were the original founders of each colony and what kinds of specific hopes did they have?

Were these hopes fulfilled?

Why or why not?

Why were the colonies a success for the peoples that settled them? What were the conclusions for
this lecture?

The fourth lecture was designed to explain why the colonies came to depend on slave labor, and
how that gave us our race problem. Some questions to consider:
Why did the southern colonies have a constant need for more laborers?

What attempts at attracting labor did they make?

How and why did those things fail to solve their problem?

Why was Africa seen as the perfect source of slaves for the New World at this time?

What differences were there between slavery as it was practiced in Africa and slavery as it existed
in the New World?

Describe the process for obtaining slaves and getting them to America.

How many were brought?

What role did slave laws play in creating a legally defined racism in America?

What impact did slavery have on shaping the new world and the South in particular?

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The fifth lecture was designed to explain what was so great about the American colonies, and yet
why those very same things led Americans to want to rebel against the British. Some questions to

What was new and different about colonial America?

Understand its diversity, but also why there was little conflict.
Know the ways in which Old World cultural institutions were transformed by the colonial

Why did many Americans feel no need to defer to their "betters?"

Understand the economic and political relationship between the colonies and Britain prior to 1763.

What laws were in place to enforce a mercantilist system?

Faced with these restrictions, why didn't the colonists complain very much?

Understand the structure of colonial government.

Why did the colonists come to cherish their legislatures so much?

What was "Salutary Neglect?" What was "Whiggism" and why was it particularly fostered in

What did Americans view as their constitutional rights?

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The last lecture was designed to explain the events that diretly led to America's rebellion. Some
questions to consider:

What specific things happened after 1763 to change the relationship between America and Britain?
What role did the Seven Year's War play?

What legislation was passed that upset the colonists?

How did they respond?

What arguments did they make?

What are some examples of violence that flamed up in the colonies?

Why were the colonies in open rebellion by 1775?

****(BE VERY SURE that you understand the chronology of events leading to the rebellion, as
well as how one event led to another)*****

What were the conclusions for this lecture?


The format for the second test is the same as for the first.

The first lecture was designed to explain why our Revolution went from a war for salutary
neglect" to a war for independence.

Be sure to understand the importance of the battles of Ticonderoga and Bunker Hill, the activity and
petitions of the Continental Congress, the impact of Dunmore's proclamation, and the writings and
reasoning of Thomas Paine.

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The second lecture was meant to explain the military reasons why the Patriots won the American

Understand the three separate strategies the British used, and the reasons that they ultimately failed.
Think about the British mistakes, Washington's strategy, the activity of Patriot militia, and the help
we received from the French. B

e sure to understand the impact of Trenton and Princeton, Saratoga, Valley Forge, Monmouth, and

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The revolutionary diplomacy lecture explained the diplomatic side of the war. Who helped us and

What role did each play in our victory?

What were the terms of the treaty that ended the war?
What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The "inner revolution" lecture demonstrated the ways that the revolution impacted the lives of

Why did the founders believe that a republican form of government could work when it had failed
in the past?

In what ways were the lives of white male landholders changed by the new state constitutions?

How was slavery changed?

In what ways did white southerners begin to delude themselves about that nature of slavery?

What were femme sole and femme covert?

What were "Republican Mothers?"

How was the status of women changed by the revolution?

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The lecture on the Articles was meant to show the general and specific reasons why the Articles of
Confederation needed to be replaced. In what ways did they create a weak national government?

What few accomplishments were achieved under the Articles?

In general, what was wrong with the Articles?

What specific issues did the country face concerning debt, trade, the frontier, and the threat of
internal rebellions?

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The Constitution lecture showed how it is a product of the lessons learned under the Articles. What
kinds of different group and interests were at the meeting?

What were some of the compromises made during its drafting?

What efforts were made to make the South happy?

How was slavery made protected by the Constitution?

What powers were given to the Federal government?

How were they limited?

Explain the arguments of the Federalists and anti-Federalists.

Describe how the Constitution was ratified.

In what specific ways did the Constitution solve many of America's problems during Washington's

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

Before 1790, American leaders denounced political parties. Yet, during the administrations of our
first two presidents they clearly came into existence. The lecture on the Jeffersonians and Federalist
Party was meant to explain why it happened.

Get a grasp on the specific issues and understand how each party stood on them.

What was the XYZ affair?

What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?

What did Jefferson argue in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves?

How and why did Adams sacrifice his political career?

What was the bloodless revolution of 1800?

What made it possible for these factions to compete with one another without bloodshed?

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

What popular things did Jefferson do that dismantled the Federalist Party's agenda?

In what ways did Jefferson contradict himself?

What were his most important accomplishments?

What problems occured during his Presidency in regards to our shipping?

What was Peaceable Coercion?

Who were the War Hawks?

What were our goals when the War of 1812 began?

What disadvantages hindered us in the war?

How successful was American in fighting the war?

What things did Congress do to more successfully wage the war?

Where did we win our biggest victories and what were their impact?

What did we gain from the war?

In what ways was this war the final act of the American Revolution?

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The format for the last test is the same as for our other tests, except that there will be one "make an
argument" question that will require you to draw on information you have learned this entire
semester. Here are the study questions:
Just before and during Jackson's presidency the two-party system emerged stronger than ever and
became so fully entrenched that it is still with us today. This lecture was designed to explain why.

Understand the spread of democracy and specific events during Jackson's years like the Missouri
Compromise, the "corrupt bargain," Jackson's changes to the office of president, Indian removal, the
nullification crisis, the "bank war," the people who opposed him, etc.

How did these things lead to two parties?

In general, what did each party believe, and what issue did they seek to avoid?

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The Antebellum America lecture was designed to show how America was transformed and
reformed. Figure out how immigration, nativism, mechanization, and the American system
transformed America's economy.

Why were southerners unhappy with the economic system?

What was the Second Great Awakening and why did it happen?

Understand the reform movements it helped to spawn (communitarians, temperance reformers,

health reformers, the rise of spectator sports, spiritualists, education reformers, prison and asylum
reformers, women's rights activists, transcendentalists and American writers).

More importantly, be sure to consider what all those things said about American culture in general,
and the ways the South became more alienated from the rest of the country.
What were the conclusions for this lecture?

Describe southern slavery.

What kinds of masters were there, and how did they control their slaves?

Explain the different ways that psychological terror, physical abuse, and laws were used to
dominate slaves.

What types of control did slaves exert back on their masters and in what ways did they give
themselves self confidence?

Understand how slaves were able to shape their world, control their masters, and create their own
perceptions of themselves.

Who were the abolitionists?

What were their goals and activities?

How did slaves know about them and what impact did that have on the country?

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The road to Civil War lecture was designed to explain the events that lead to the Civil War. Be sure
to understand how all the things discussed in the lecture caused the war.

What land did America pick up after the 1830's?

How did they get it and how did it insure a split in the country?
What were the Free-Soil and constitutional protection arguments?

What was Popular Sovereignty?

Explain the series of events that led to the birth of the Republican party.

Show how Kansas, the Dred Scott case, the Lincoln-Douglas debates, the Lecompton constitution,
John Brown's raid, and the election of 1860 led to southern secession.

Why would non-slaveholders care if slaves were freed?

Why did the South secede?

Why didn't the North just let them go?

Where and how did the war begin?

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The Civil War behind the lines lecture was meant to explain the non-battle reasons why the South
lost the Civil War. Understand how loyalties, advantages and disadvantages, diplomacy, and
economics led to southern defeat.

Tie these things back to the very start of this course and understand how Jamestown and the Puritan
settlements established patterns that would help lead to the Civil War--as well as determine its
outcome. (Think about this in regards to what that last comprehensive question will be on the

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

The last lecture explains why the American Civil War went from being a limited war to one that
caused the destruction of the south's desire and ability to wage war. Why did the North initially
want to fight the war in a limited way?

What things happened that changed that?

How did Grant ultimately win the war?

What did the war accomplish? In answering this question, make sure that you include the IMPACT
of EVERY battle discussed in the lecture. (You do not need to discuss the details of the battles, just
the impact each had on transforming the war).

TIPS----Once again, there will be a chronology question on the test. ALWAYS be sure that when
you study, you do so in a way that helps you understand how the "dominoes" fell (how one thing led
to another).

What were the conclusions for this lecture?

Here are some study questions to help you write the essay for the last reading quiz. You should use
these to help you take notes while reading. You can then use those notes while taking the quiz.
What set of documents does the reading use to make its argument?

Why does the author believe that the documents reveal "better than any source I know, what was
really driving the Deep South states toward disunion?"

Who were the commissioners, and what was their mission? (I am looking for generalizations here,
don't try to memorize individual names).

What kinds of accusations did the commissioners repeatedly make about Lincoln and the
Republican party?

From a racial perspective, what seems to be the main fear these men have? (Particularly Hale).

Bottom line . . . what were the main points the commissioners made?