Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 97

Derek Sellen

audio C D

1 Buch
1 CD

BLACK
The British
Isles
Derek Sellen
Contents
CHAPTER ONE The British Isles

CHAPTER TWO From the Iron Age to the Golden Age 16

CHAPTER THREE From the Gunpowder Plot to Global Warming 28

CHAPTER FOUR England 47

CHAPTER FIVE Scotland 58

CHAPTER SIX Ireland 75

CHAPTER SEVEN Wales 85

d o s s ie r s Great British Scientists and Inventors 40

The British Isles and Films 68

INTERNET PROJECTS 45, 73

ACTIVITIES 4, 13, 25, 37, 46, 55, 66, 74, 82, 92

AFTER READING * 94

PET Cambridge PET-style activities 13,14, 39, 56, 66, 67, 82, 93

T: grades 4 /5 Trinity-style activities 55, 83

Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are recorded on the accompanying CD.


Chapter 1 is downloadable from our website: www.blackcat-cideb.com.

P P t These symbols indicate the beginning and end of the passages


P fffr linked to the listening activities.

www.biackcat-cideb.com This passage is downloadable from our website.


B e fo r e you read

0 V o c ab u lary
Use each w ord in the box once to fill the gaps in sentences 1-6. Use a
d iction ary to help you.

accent citizen dialect equator nation saint

1 The people in some parts of the UK have a special They use


lots of local words and phrases when they speak English.
2 The people in some cities have a local......
3 A is a person who did many good things in his or her life. The
abbreviation (short form) is St: for example, St George.
4 Scotland is a separate from England.
5 I am English. I am a of the UK.
6 The is a line on a map that runs around the middle of the Earth.

^ A stereotype is a typical idea of something or somebody. Label these


pictures of stereotypes w ith:

A an American B a Scottish person C a billionaire

Q W h a ts th e d iffe ren c e?
Read quickly through the first section of Chapter One. Then m atch A-
C w ith 1-3 below.

A 3 !te British Isles B Great Britain C The United Kingdom

1 U&iand, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland


2- England, Wales and Scotland
3) iSHgland, Wales, Scotland, Ireland (the Republic of Ireland and
rthern Ireland), including all the small islands around them

4
The British
Isles
W hat's the difference between
The British Isles, G reat Britain
and the U n ited 1Kingdom ?
Even some British people
c a n t answ er th at
question!

(^ H P www.blackcat-cideb.com

W hat a re th e y ?
The B ritis h Is le s is a g e o g rap h ical d e scrip tio n . W e use it to
describe England, W a le s , Sco tlan d and Ireland, including both
N orthern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. In other words the
B r itis h Isles a re th e tw o b ig g e st is la n d s , G r e a t B r it a in and
Ireland, and all the small islands around them.
The United Kingdom is made up of four parts: England, W ales,
Scotland and N orthern Ireland. On their passports, British people
a re c it iz e n s o f th e U n it e d K in g d o m o f G r e a t B r it a in and
N o r th e r n Ir e la n d . B r it is h is th e a d je ct
describe the United Kingdom. The southern
of Ireland, known as the Republic of Ireland
Eire, is an independent nation.

1. U n ited : jo in ed t o ge th e r.

5
The British Isles
Shetland Islands

Orkney Islands
The B ritish Isles are to the w e st
of the rest of Europe in an area of
s h a llo w sea. O v e r m illio n s of
y e a r s , th e B r it is h Is le s h a v e
SCOTLAND
m oved from n ear the eq uator
to w h e re th e y are now. In
ATLANTIC / NORTH
fact, they are still moving OCEAN rA Edinburgh
SEA
n o r t h , a t a b o u t 0 .8
centim etres a year!
There are m any Isle of Man

geographical
differences IRISH SEA
f *
w it h in th e
British Isles. ENGLAND

The A tla n tic


WALES
co a st on the
Cardiff
w est is more dram atic than
LONDON
the North Sea coast on the
east and less p ro tected Isles of Scilly
than the south coast, on
the English Channel. The m ountains of W a le s and Scotland are
differen t from the hills of m any parts of England. There are ve ry
big citie s and sm all v illa g e s and e ven a re a s w h e re v e r y fe w
people live.
There are more than a thousand small islands. The m ost well-
known are: the Scilly Isles to the south-west; the Isle of W ig h t to
th e sou th ; A n g le s e y o ff th e co a s t o f W a le s ; th e Isle of M an
betw een England and Ireland; the Hebrides, a group of islands
off the w est coast of Scotland; and Orkney and Shetland to the
n o rth of Sco tla n d . The C hannel Islands are n ear the co ast of
France but th e y are part of the British Isles. Je rse y, G uernsey,
Alderney and Sark are the main Channel Islands.

6
The British Isles

F lags an d sy m b o ls
Most people know the Union Flag, which
is inform ally called the Union Jack by
alm ost everybody. It s the British
flag, w hich the U nited Kingdom
team carries at the Olympics,
for example. Its actually made up
yfrsEs
England | Scotland

of three national flags. One of these


is the English flag, a red cross the
cross of S t G eorge on a w h ite Ireland

background. T h ats the flag you see


w h e n E n g la n d p la y s p o r ts lik e
footb all as a sep a ra te nation. The Sco ttish flag, the flag of St
Andrew, is a diagonal white cross on a blue background. The third
flag is the flag of St Pa trick of Ireland, a diagonal red cross on
white. W hen you put the three flags together, you get a red, white
and blue flag, the Union Jack.
W ale s has its own flag, w ith a red dragon on it. It
. MA isnt included in the Union Flag because the English
conquered 2 W a le s in the th irte e n th century. W h e n
th e U n io n F la g w a s c r e a t e d , p e o p le
thought th a t W ale s was sim ply a part of
England, so it w as represented by the English flag. Each
c o u n t r y o f th e B r it is h Is le s h a s its o w n s y m b o l.
E n g la n d s sym bol is the re d ro s e . The n a tio n a l
saint is S t G eo rg e and 23rd April is his s a in ts day.
T h e t h i s t l e or th e S c o t t i s h b lu e b e ll a re o fte n
sym bols of Scotland . S t A n d r e w s day is 30th
N ovem ber. S t D a v id is the sain t of W a le s
The British Isles

and his day is 1st M arch. The d a ffo d il and som etim es
the le e k are sym bols of W a le s. The s h a m r o c k is the
n a tio n a l sym b o l o f Ire la n d . S t P a t r i c k s d a y is 17th
March and Irish people all over the world celebrate it w ith
the Sain t Pa trick D ays Parade. In the parade, people w e a r green,
the n atio n al colour of Ireland, and m arch through the stre ets
w ith music and celebrate.

A p lace o f m an y la n g u a g e s
*
A lm o st e ve ry b o d y in the B ritis h Isles speaks
English but its not the only language. If you go
to W a le s.yo u will see television program m es,
n o tic e s and ro a d sig n s in W e ls h and h e a r
peop le s p e a k in g it. A b o u t 6 0 0 ,0 0 0 p eop le
speak W e lsh there. In Scotland, some people
speak Gaelic, especially in the Highlands, and
in Ireland, Gaelic or Erse is som etim es used:
about 500,000 people in Ireland speak Gaelic
e v e r y d a y . T h e p e o p le a re p ro u d o f t h e ir
national languages, which all come from the Celtic language.
These Celtic languages are v e ry d iffe re n t from English. For
example: How are y o u ? is S h w m a e in W elsh and Ciam ar a tha
th u ? in Gaelic.
W a le s is C ym ru in W elsh and Scotland is A lb a in Gaelic.
There are oth er languages w hich v e ry fe w people speak. In
C o rn w a ll, in the so u th - w e st of En gland , o n ly a fe w hun d red
people speak Cornish. On the Isle of Man, an ancient language
known as Manx is used on special occasions.
You will hear lots of other languages, especially in big cities.
People who have come to the British Isles from India, Pakistan
and Bangladesh m ay speak Hindi, Punjabi or Bengali, for example.
The British Isles

As well as d ifferen t languages, you will hear m any d ifferen t


accents and dialects. People in Liverpool have a d ifferen t accent
from people in Birm ingham , Leeds, Glasgow, Cardiff, London or
M anchester, which is near Liverpool. In New castle, in the n o rth
east of England, th e re is a d ia le ct kn ow n as G e o rd ie . It has
s e v e r a l s p e c ia l w o rd s : if th e p e o p le w a n t to c a ll So m e o n e
d a rlin g or h o n e y, th e y use the w ord h in n y : I love you, m y
hinny.

S te r e o t y p e s
W h e n you th in k of people from the B ritis h Isles w h a t typ e of
people do you im a g in e ? In the past, fo re ig n e rs im ag ined the
typical English man as a person who carried an um brella and a
b riefca se and w o re a black suit and a b o w ler hat. B u t to d ay,
m any people see a football hooligan 3 or a pop singer as the
But are these stereo typ es tru e ? For
exam ple, some people believe th a t the
English have a big breakfast every day;
but in fa ct m ost English people have a
qu ick u n co o ked b re a k fa s t. T h e re are
lots of jokes about the stupid Irish. But
fo r a sm all n atio n , Irela n d has a v e ry
high num ber of Nobel Prize w inners and
great w riters. Perhaps you think th a t it
is ve ry difficult to understand a Scottish
accent. But the accent of the people in
E d in b u r g h is o f t e n v o t e d th e m o s t
Seamus Heaney. pleasant.

The fo u r n a tio n s
Do th e S c o t tis h , W e ls h and Iris h h a te th e E n g lis h ? Do th e
Northern Irish hate the Southern Irish ? Do the English thirtTc th at
they are the best people in the British Isles?
No. But it is true th at there have been problems between the
d ifferen t nations. W h en there are sports m atches between these
countries, there is a special excitem ent. Recently, the devolution
o f p o w e r in sid e th e U n ite d K in g d o m has begun. D e v o lu tio n
m eans th at the people of Scotland, W ale s and N orthern Ireland
m a k e m o re p o lit ic a l d e c is io n s t h e m s e lv e s in s t e a d o f th e
P arliam ent in W estm in ster, London.
H o w does th is w o r k ? S in c e 1998, th e re has b een a n e w
S c o ttis h P a rlia m e n t in Ed in b urgh. The m em b ers can vo te on
Scottish issues but London still decides on national policies. The
Scottish N a tio n a lis t4 P a rty (the SN P) is popular in Scotland and

I
4. N a tio n a list : w an tin g to be a free, in de pe n de n t country.

10
The British Isles^

w a n ts an ind epen den t Scotland . In 2007 the S N P becam e t h e ^


largest p arty in the Scottish Parliam ent but in the U K elections
in 2010 they only got six representatives in the U K Parliam ent.
In W ale s there is a National Assem bly of W ale s and in N orthern
Ireland there is also an Assem bly, but som etim es it can t m eet
because it is d iffic u lt fo r the d iffe re n t religious and p o litic al
#
groups to w ork together.
The Isle of M an has its own a n cien t p a rlia m e n t, called the
Tynwald, and does not even belong to the European Union. The
Tynw ald is one of the oldest ruling bodies in the world. Som e of
its m e m b e rs w a n t th e Is le o f M an to be in d e p e n d e n t. The
C hannel Island s have th e ir ow n S t a t e s , w h ich are like sm all
parliam ents and can pass laws.

Parliam ent building in Edinburgh.


Parliament, Dublin.

The Republic of Ireland or Eire is an independent nation. It


has its own parliam ent, known as the Houses of O ireach tas in
Dublin. Both Eire and the U K are in the European Union but Eire
uses the euro as its currency while the U K has kept the pound.
The nations of the British Isles have a long and often exciting
history. They are proud of th eir individual identities but at the
sam e tim e th e ir c u ltu re and p o litic s are v e r y s im ila r to one
another. In the later chapters, we will look at each nation in
more detail.
The text and b e y o n d

= # r C o m p re h e n sio n c h e c k
Decide if each sentence (1-8) is correct or incorrect. If it is correct,
m ark A. If it is not correct, m ark B.
A B
1 The Republic of Ireland is part of the United Kingdom.
2 The British Isles are changing their position little by little.
3 The Union Jack is made up of the Irish, Scottish and
English flags.
4 In Wales, people used to speak Welsh but now it is used
very little.
5 People in one city often have a different accent from
those in other UK cities.
6 Most English people have a big breakfast every day.
7 In Eire, you pay for things using Irish pounds.
0 V o ca b u la ry
Look at the definitions of some words from Chapter One. Can you
com plete them ?

1 something which people might carry to represent


a nation a f .................
2 a flower or other thing which represents a nation a s .................
3 the place where political decisions are made P ...................
4 the process of giving some independent power
to parts of a country d...................
5 a language which not many people speak a m ...............
language
6 a local pronunciation of a language an a ..............

Think about your own country. Can you describe 1? W h a t is 2? W h ere


is 3? Is th ere 4 in yo u r c o u n try ? Are there an y 5s? Do people from
different cities have different 6s? W h a t are some of the stereotypes
about people from your cou ntry?

13
M an y different local a cc e n ts have developed.
W e use the Present Perfect for the following different reasons:
A for an action that happened at an unspecified time in the past
B for an action or state that began in the past and has continued until
now
C for a recent action with an effect in the present

O P re s en t P e rfe c t S im p le
Complete 1-5 by putting the verbs in brackets in the Present Perfect
Sim ple form. Then w rite the reason (A-C) for using it.

0 B Many different local accents ...Mv.5. devebped... (develop)


1 The Tynw ald ..................for hundreds of years, (exist)
2 \ The stereotype of a typical English person..................since the
1950s. (change)
3 People.................the Union Jack upside down by mistake, (fly)
4 Recently, th e re .................devolution in the UK, so now there
is a Scottish Parliament, (be)
5 Many Irish people.................a Nobel Prize, (win)

PET Q S e n te n c e tra n s fo rm a tio n


Here are some sentences about the coast of the B ritish Isles. For each
question, complete the second sentence so th a t it means the same as
the first. Use no more than three words.

0 Britain has a very long coastline.


The coastline of B rita in very.Jong......
1 Many sea battles have taken place around the British Isles.
Th ere many sea battles around the British Isles.
^ 2 Orkney is closer to the Scottish mainland than Shetland.
Shetland...............................the Scottish mainland than Orkney.
3 The English Channel is the calmest stretch of sea.
The English Channel...............................any other stretch of sea.
4 In 1987, a hurricane damaged the coastline.
In 1987, the coastline...............................a hurricane.

14
B e fo r e you read

Q V o c ab u lary
Use a dictionary, if necessary, to help you m atch the people in the box
to the sentences.


archaeologist archbishop duke invader
pilgrim Pope priest sailor

1 I study places where there were cities or important buildings in the


past.................
2 I am the leader of the Roman Catholic church.................
3 I work on boats and ships and travel across the sea.................
4 I go to other countries and fight because I want to have power in
their country.................
5 I go on a journey to a special place for religious reasons..................
6 I am the most important person in the Church of England.................
7 I come from an important, old family and I have a high position in
the country.................
8 You can find me in a church on a Sunday morning.................

0 Now m atch the words 1-3 w ith the pictures A-C.

1 a warrior 2 a knight 3 a druid

15
CHAPTER TWO

From the
Iron Age to the
Golden Age
G reat Britain has a long history
o f invasions, from the Celts and
the Rom ans to the Vikings
and the Normans.

Ancient M y ste ries f B


S to n e h e n g e is a m y s te rio u s group o f huge s ta n d in g sto n e s.
A rc h a e o lo g is ts b e lie ve th a t it w a s b u ilt a ro u n d 2500 B C E, 2
although the first w ork at the site w as done even earlier, in 3100
BCE. T h a t is 5000 y e a rs ago! The b u ilders used tw o typ e s of
stone, the b lu eston es and S a rs e n stones. The Sarsen stones
come from near Stonehenge and each one weighed tw en ty-five
tons. H ow ever, the bluestones came from nearly 400 kilom etres
aw ay. But how did they tran spo rt the bluestones so far*and how
did they lift the stones into a standing position?
A th ird m y s t e r y is: w h a t w a s th e p u rp o s e ? M a n y p eop le
believe th a t the stones w ere placed in this w a y to look at the
m ovem ent of the stars and the sun and moon. It w as probably
also im portant for the religion of the people who built it.
There is another fam ous ancient m onum ent near Stonehenge
the stone ring at Avebury, about 60km east of Bristol. This is
the largest stone circle in the world and it is near Silbury Hill, the
tallest man-made hill in Europe. There are also standing stones
in m any places in Ireland.

The Celts
The Celts lived in B ritain in the Iron Age from around 600 BCE.
They cam e from C entral Europe and we know about the Celts
fro m the o b jects w h ich a rc h a e o lo g ists h ave foun d and fro m
some G reek and Rom an w riters, who tell us th at the Celts loved
gold and fighting. Their priests w ere called Druids and had great
power in Celtic society.
W e also know about the Celts from the bog bodies. Bogs are
areas of w et land; if a body is buried in a bog, it is kept in good
c o n d itio n , p e rh a p s fo r c e n tu r ie s . In E n g la n d in 1984 som e
w orkers discovered Lindow M an . Lindow Man w as killed in the
first century CE, so it is a 2000-year-old m urder m ystery. Some
people think th at he was killed by the Druids for religious reasons.
You can see Lindow Man in the British Museum in London.

17
The British Isles

A w a r r io r q u een
In 55 BCE, Julius C a e s a r3 invaded Britain . The Celts w ere great
w arrio rs but the Rom ans had b etter organisation and d e fe a te d 4
them . C aesar retu rn ed in 54 BCE. This tim e, the Rom an a rm y
c ro sse d th e R iv e r T h a m e s b ut C a e s a r le ft a ft e r th e B rito n s
agreed to give m oney to the Rom ans.
In CE 43, n early a hundred years later, the Rom an Em p ero r
Claudius sent another arm y of about 50,000 men to Britain. This
tim e the Rom ans stayed and Britain became part of the Rom an
E m p ire .5
Camulodunum, now called Colchester, in the East of England
w a s th e f ir s t c a p ita l. B u t in CE 60 th e re w a s a re v o lu tio n 6
against the Rom ans. Boudicca w as queen of the Iceni tribe and a
w arrio r too. She hated the Rom ans because they w ere ve ry cruel
to her and h er d a u g h ters. H er a rm y a tta c k e d and d e stro y e d
C o lch ester and then b u rn t Lon d iniu m (n o w Lon d on). B u t the
Rom ans w on the next b attle and Bou d icca
killed herself. The Rom ans later controlled
m ost of Britain.

3. Ju liu s C a e s a r : a very
i m p o r ta n t R om an leader.
4. d e fe a te d : won a fight, a
com pe tition or in a war.
5. E m pire : a group o f
cou n trie s un der the
control o f a pow erful
country, for e x a m p le
the R om an Empire
included large p a r t s
o f Europe, Asia
an d northern
Africa.
6. re v o lu tio n : a
fight a g a i n s t the
pow erful people
in a country.
From the Iron Age to the Golden Age

The R om an o ccu p atio n


Londinium now becam e the new Ro m an ca p ital. The Ro m ans
also created m any o th er tow ns. If a m odern B ritish city nam e
ends in -cester or - caster or -C hester, it w as originally a Rom an
c a m p b e c a u s e th e R o m a n s c a lle d th e m c a s t r a . C h e s t e r ,
M a n c h e s t e r , L e ic e s t e r , L a n c a s t e r an d G lo u c e s t e r a re a ll
examples of Rom an cities. The Rom ans im proved the services
in th e c o u n try , and b u ilt s tr a ig h t ro ad s such as W a t lin g
Street, which runs from Dover in the south-east of England
to W a le s. Today it is still an im p o rtan t road in
Britain.
But they did not control Scotland. In
th e E m p e r o r H a d r ia n v is it e d B r it a i
decided to build a w a ll across the no:
England to defend Rom an Britain agains
Piets in Scotland. The Piets w ere differ
C e ltic g ro u p s w h o liv e d in S c o t la n c
H a d ria n s W a ll is 117 kilom etres long
and goes from W allsend on the North
S e a in th e e a s t to B o w n e s s on th e
Ir is h S e a in th e w e s t . It w a s v e r y
stro n g and large p a rts of it are still
there today.

The King Buried in a Ship


In CE 410, the Rom ans left Britain . They w e n t to defend Rom e
against the barbarians, who were not in the Rom an Empire, and
left B ritain w itho ut any protection. Soon, invaders arrived from
north-west Europe and took control of the country. These w ere
the A n g lo - Sax o n s and th e Ju te s . W e k n o w a lot a b o u t th e m
because archaeologists have found m any objects from their times.

19
In the 7th ce n tu ry, a king w as buried at S u tto n Hoo in the
s o u th - e a s t o f E n g la n d . H is p e o p le p u lle d a long
w o o d e n ship up a hill and b u rie d him in it. T h e y
b u rie d m a n y g o ld a n d s ilv e r o b je c t s w it h h im ,
( including a helm et. The ship w as discovered in 1939
and you can see th e se m a g n ific e n t o b je cts in the
British Museum.
More recently, in Ju ly 2009, another collection of
Anglo-Saxon objects w as found in S ta ffo rd s h ire in n orth-w est
England*. These objects are known as the Sta ffo rd sh ire H o a rd
and are the largest d isco ve ry of objects from the tim e of the
Anglo-Saxons. The British A rt Fund bought them for 3.3 million.

The A n g lo -S a x o n s an d th e Vikings
T h e A n g lo - S a x o n s h ad a big in f lu e n c e on
England; in fact the name England comes from
Angle-land. They divided the country into five
k in g d o m s: 7 N o r th u m b ria , M e rc ia , W e s s e x ,
K ent and Anglia. The nam es we use tod ay for
d ifferen t parts of the country come from this
period, such as Essex, Sussex, W essex. Most of
the basic words in the English language also cor
the Anglo-Saxons, such as m other, fa th e r, wom<
n ig h t, b ed , go and house. Som e of the days of th
come from the nam es of Anglo-Saxon gods.
In CE 597, a monk called Augustine came to En^
He w as sent by the Pope and he slow ly told pe
about the Christian religion all over the country,
can still see Anglo-Saxon stone churches in Britain

7. k in g d o m s : a r e a s un der the control


o f a king or queen.

20
From the Iron Age to the Golden Age

From CE 800, Vikings from D enm ark and N o rw a y began to


a tta c k B rita in . The m ost fam o u s Sax o n king w a s A lfre d th e
G re a t; he fo u g h t a g a in s t th e V ik in g s . A lth o u g h he w o n , he
a llo w e d th e m to liv e in th e a r e a a ro u n d Y o r k . T h e y a ls o
controlled the north-west of Scotland. But little by little, W essex,
in th e s o u th - w e s t o f E n g la n d , b e ca m e th e m o st im p o r ta n t
kingdom and Saxon kings ruled England.

The N o rm a n s
1066 is the best-kno w n d ate in B ritis h h isto ry . A duke fro m
N orm andy, on the north coast of France said th a t he w as the
real king of England and invaded it. The Saxon king, Harold, w as
fighting in the north but he retu rn ed q uickly and th ere w as a
g reat b attle at H astings. H arold w as killed, the N orm ans w on
and W illia m becam e the firs t N orm an king, called W illia m the
Conqueror.
The N o rm a n s b u ilt m a n y c a s tle s and c a th e d ra ls . F re n c h
b ecam e the language of the ru le rs fo r ab ou t 300 y e a rs . The
Norm ans created a feudal system , w here they w ere the lords and
the Saxons w ere the serfs. W ith this system the lords owned the
land, anim als and buildings and the serfs w ere w orkers who had
to w ork on the land for the lords.

Df.-INTEKFe(
3ap-TVSB
The British Isles,

The Middle A ges


In th e M idd le Ages, both th e king and th e ch u rch had g re a t
power. This som etim es led to problems. For example, King H enry
II argued w ith Thom as B ecket, the Archbishop of C an terb u ry,
and, as a result, Becket w as killed by some of H e n rys knights in
1170. B u t H e n ry w as s o rry fo r the m u rd er and fo r ce n tu rie s
pilgrims came to visit B eck e ts tomb. 8
There w as also a fight for pow er between the kings and the
rich men in England. The King w anted to collect m oney to pay for
his w ars but the rich men didnt like this. They invaded London
and in 1215 t h e y m ad e K in g Jo h n sign th e M a g n a C a rta , a
docum ent w hich lim ited the kings pow er and created a strong
p a rlia m e n t. Th e M a g n a C a rta is v e r y im p o r ta n t b e ca u s e it
introduced shared power between the king and the people.
In 1348, the Black Death came to England. This w as a terrible
disease w hich passed from one person to an o th er quickly and
killed nearly half of the 5-6 million people living there.
Throughout the Middle Ages, there w ere im p ortan t w ars. In
1337, the H un d red Y e a rs W a r b e tw e e n En g lan d and Fra n ce
began when King Edw ard III of England said th at he should also
be King of France. He invaded France and for the follow ing 116
years there w ere w ars between England and France. During this
w ar, a young wom an, Joan of Arc, 9 fought for the French and,
although the English caught her and burned her, she helped the
French to win because she w as so brave. At the end of the w ar,
England had lost all its land in France except Calais.

8. to m b : the place w here a p e r so n is buried a f t e r they die.


9. Jo a n o f Arc : a national heroine of France an d a catholic saint. Sh e led
the French a r m y to m a n y v ictories during the Hundred Y e a r s War. She
w a s then burned a t the s t a k e by an e c c lesiastica l court.

22
From the Iron Age to the Golden Age

L a te r, th e re w a s a w a r in
England betw een tw o leading
f a m ili e s , th e H ouse of
L a n c a s te r and th e H ou se of
Y o rk . B o th h o u s e s w a n te d
som eone from their fam ily to
be K in g o f E n g la n d . It w a s
ca lle d th e W a r of th e R o ses
because th e sym bol of
Lancaster w as a red rose and
th e s y m b o l o f Y o r k w a s a
w h ite rose. It began in 1455
and en d ed in 1485, w h e n
H e n ry Tudor, from the House Joan of Arc, miniature painting,
r t , i r . i i-.. i i Antoine Du Four, 1505.
of Lancaster, defeated Richard
III, from the House of York, at the B a ttle of Bosw orth. Richard
w as the last English king who w as killed in a battle.

The T udo r p e rio d


H e n ry Tudor becam e King H e n ry V II, the firs t Tudor king. He
created the Tudor rose, w hich joined the red and the w hite rose.
It w as a symbol of peace between Lancaster and York.
H is son, H e n ry V III, is fam o u s fo r h a vin g six w iv e s . Kin g
H enry first m arried Catherine of Aragon but w anted to divorce 10
her so th at he could m arry Anne Boleyn. He w anted to have a son
to becom e king a fte r him. W h e n the Pope did n t allow
th e d iv o rc e , H e n ry s e p a ra te d th e En g lish ch u rch
from Rome. Two of H e n ry s w ives w ere beheaded 11
Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard.

10. d iv o rce : end o f m a rria ge .


11. b e h e a d e d : their h e a d s w ere cut off.

23
The Spanish Armada against England in 1588.

H e n r y h ad tw o d a u g h te r s . M a r y h ad a R o m a n C a th o lic
m o th e r, C a th e rin e of A ra g o n . W h e n she b ecam e queen, she
returned England to the Rom an Catholic church. Peopldfcall her
Bloody M a ry because m any Pro testan ts w ere killed during her
re ig n .12 But when M ary died, her sister, Elizabeth, became queen.
E liz a b e t h s m o th e r, A n n e B o le y n , w a s a P r o t e s ta n t, and so
Elizabeth started the Pro testan t Church of England again.
E liz a b e t h s r e ig n w a s a g o ld e n age f o r E n g la n d . M a n y
im p o r ta n t th in g s h a p p e n e d and E n g la n d b e c a m e ric h and
pow erful and successful. There w ere m any fam ous w riters; for
example, W illiam Shakespeare w rote his plays and poems during
this tim e. English sailo rs such as Fra n cis D rake explored the
world and challenged the pow er of Spain. W h en the Spanish tried
to a tta c k England in 1588, th e ir fle e t of ships w e re d efeated .
England became the main P ro testa n t nation in Europe.

12. reign : the period when a king or queen is in pow er.

24
The text and b e y o n d

Q C o m p reh en s io n c h e c k
Put these events into chronological order (= order of tim e). W rite 1 for
the earliest and 10 for the latest. The first one has been done for you.

A Lindow Man was discovered.


B Henry VIII married six times.
C C Queen Marys sister became queen.
D Jtonehenge was built.
E The W ar of the Roses took place.
F joudicca fought against the Romans.
G c ^he period of Tudor power began.
H 7l|e Saxons and Vikings were powerful in Britain.
I English king was killed in battle.

J if adrians Wall was built.


K ~(^e Normans arrived in Britain.

Q D ays of th e w e e k
The Anglo-Saxons gave the days the names of th eir gods. The Rom ans
also did this. W rite the modern name of the day of the w eek next to
each god.

The day of:


0 Tiwe, the god of war Jw^sday....
1 the sun.................................................................................... ...........
2 Woden, the chief god.................................................. ......................
3 Frigg, the goddess of love........................................... ......................
4 the moon .......................
5 Saturn, a Roman god *....
6 Thor/Thunor, the god of thunder............................................. .........

25
The text and b e y o n d

Q V o c ab u lary
Replace the underlined parts in 1-5 w ith verbs from the box.

0 King Henry said sorry for the murder of Becket.


JfJinfl.Henr.y..wjalcigised.for..tbjR.nijjrder.^f..B.ec:ke.t.............
1 Henry Tudor won the battle against Richard III
2 The disease was called the Black Death.
3 The Vikings had power in north-west Scotland.
4 Lindow Man was found by some workers.
5 Perhaps they used Stonehenge to look at the stars..

England had lost all of its land in France...


W e often use the Past Perfect form of a verb to show that an action
happened earlier in the past than another action in the Past Sample.
E.g. After they had killed King Harold, the Normans ruled England.
=They killed Harold first and then they ruled England.

Q T h e P ast P e rfe c t
In 1-4 below, use one of the verbs in brackets in the Past Pe rfect form
and the other verb in the Past Sim ple form.

0 Bronze Age people fewllt Stonehenge after they


stones from other areas of Britain, (build, bring)
1 Claudius ...*....,............ an army nearly 100 years after Julius Caesar
.....wwm.,... the British Isles, (send, invade)
2 Boudicca *..............a revolution because the Romans
.................... her and her daughters badly, (begin, treat)
3 After the Romans k. . v Britain, invaders .
from Europe, (leave, arrive)
4 Erenchu................. the language of the rulers after the Normans
King Harold, (become, defeat)

26
B e fo r e you read

Q V o ca b u la ry
Use a d iction ary to help you w rite the correct w ord from the box.

a fam ine a m ulti-racial society a m u tiny *a plot

1 When soldiers fight against their officers, it is .........


2 When there is not enough food and people are dying, it is ,,...............
3 When people from different races, with different religions and
different customs, live together in one society, it i s .................
4 When people make a secret plan, it i s .......

Now m atch the verbs in the box w ith the definitions 1-5.

to ban to colonise to dom inate to m anufacture to rebuild

1 to forbid, not to allo w ................


2 to make in a factory, using m achines....
3 to go to live in another country and to take control .....
4 to use your power to control other people................
5 to build again......

mo Listening
Listen to the first part of Chapter Three twice. W rite a year in the
spaces in sentences 1-4.

1I n Guy Fawkes tried to kill the King.


2I n Charles I became .king.
3I n a war began in England.
4I n Charles I was killed.

27
CHAPTER THREE

From the
Gunpowder
Plot to Global
W arming 1
The Industrial Revolution changed
the w ay people lived and m ade
B ritain rich, but it also
created m any problems

The E x e c u tio n 2o f a King f ^


On 4th Novem ber 1605, a man named Guy Fawkes hid under the
Houses of Parliam ent with at least 20 barrels 3 of gunpowder. 4 He
and fou r o th er men planned to blow up King Ja m e s I w hen he
opened Parliam ent the next day. Fawkes was a Roman Catholic and
he was angry because he thought that the Kings laws were unfair
to p e o p le o f his r e lig io n . He h ad e v e r y t h in g he n e e d e d
gunpowder, matches, a watch to kill the most important people
in England. But he was arrested on the 5th November in the morning
and the King was safe! This was the end of the gunpowder plot.

1. G lobal w a rm in g : the idea t h a t the e arth is g e t tin g w a r m e r b e c a u s e o f


h um an activities.
2. e x e c u tio n : killing s o m e o n e b e c a u s e they have done so m e th in g wrong.
3. b a r r e ls : w o o d e n con ta in ers.
4. gu n p o w d e r : d a n g e r o u s ch e m icals which can c a u s e a big explosion.

28
W h e n Ja m e s son Charles became king in 1625, he w anted the
King to be more im portant than the G overnm ent. Som e people
t h o u g h t t h a t C h a r le s a g r e e d w it h th e C a t h o lic s b u t th e
G o v e rn m e n t w a n te d a P r o te s ta n t England. C harles I trie d to
close Parliam ent and to govern the country alone.
The Civil W a r began in 1642. It divided the country between
th e R o y a lis t s , who s u p p o rte d K in g C h a r le s , and th e
P a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s , w h o s u p p o r t e d O liv e r C r o m w e ll, th e
Pro testan t leader. Som etim es fam ilies w ere divided. There w ere
m any battles and m any people w ere killed. Finally, Crom well won
and on 30th Jan u ary, 1649, Charles I w as beheaded.

C h ris tm a s is can celled


From 1649 to 1660, th e re w a s no king or queen in En g lan d .
Crom well became Lord P ro te cto r. He took an arm y to Ireland,
w here they killed m any Irish soldiers and sent boys and wom en
as slaves 5 to the Caribbean. He also gave land in Ireland to his
P r o t e s ta n t s o ld ie rs w ho cam e to live in Ire la n d . C ro m w e lls
a c tio n s w e re th e s t a r t o f th e t w e n t ie t h - c e n t u r y p ro b le m s
b etw een C atholics and P ro te s ta n ts in Ireland. In England, the
Pro testan ts banned theatre and w ere ve ry strict about religion

5. sla v e s : people who w ork without being paid and belong to their owners.

29
and how people behaved: wom en could not w e a r bright colours
or make-up. C hristm as w as also banned by lim iting C hristm as
celebrations.

Plague, Fire an d R evolution


C ro m w e ll d ied in 1658 an d in 1660
Charles II, the dead kings son, became
king. He was popular but during his reign
there were two terrible events. The first
w as the G re a t Plag ue (1664), w hen a
disease, bubonic plague, killed about 20%
of the population of London. The second
w as the G re a t Fire of London (1666),
w hich destroyed m any buildings in the
c a p it a l. P a r t s o f L o n d o n h ad to be
rebuilt; St Pau ls C athedral w as among
th e n e w c h u r c h e s d e s ig n e d by th e
famous arch itect6 Christopher W ren.
A fte r Charles died, Parliam ent became unhappy w ith the new
king, Jam es II, who w as a Catholic. In 1688, Parliam ent invited a
D utch P ro te s ta n t, W illia m of O range, to in vad e the co u n try.
W illiam w as m arried to Ja m e s daughter M ary. Jam es ran a w a y
to France and W illiam and M ary became king and queen.
It w as not the end of the problem . In 1745, Bonnie 7 Prince
C harlie, the grandson of Jam es II, took an arm y from Scotland to
Derby in the middle of England. Finally, how ever, his arm y lost
and he had to escape from Scotland w earing a w o m an s clothes
to hide his identity.

6. a r c h i t e c t : s o m e o n e who d e s ig n s buildings.
7. B on nie : a Sc o ttish w ord m e an in g h a n d s o m e or p r e t t y .

30
From the Gunpowder Plot to Global Warming

England + W ales + S c o tla n d + Ireland


Anne w as another daughter of Jam es II and she became Queen in
1702. D u rin g h e r re ig n , tw o p o litic a l p a r t ie s d e v e lo p e d in
Parliam ent, the W higs and the Tories. This w as the sta rt of the
m o d ern B ritis h p o litic a l s ys te m . T w o im p o rta n t a c ts ,8 w e re
passed by Parliam ent. The Act of Settlem en t (1701) said th at no
Rom an Catholic could be king or queen. The Act of Union (1707)
said th at England and Scotland w ere one country.
W hen Anne died without any children, Britain had to look for a
Protestant king. This was King George I, who was German and spoke
very little English. It was the start of the Georgian Age in Britain.
George II, George III and George IV followed. During the reign of
\
George III, Brita in lost its colonies in Am erica as a result of the
American W a r of Independence (1775-1783). But the British colonised
Australia and British power grew in India during this period.
In 1727, Robert W alpole became the first British prime minister.
In 1735, George II gave W alpole a house in
L o n d o n w h ile he w a s g o v e r n in g th e
country. That house was 10 Downing Street,
where British prime ministers still live today.
In 1801, th e g o v e rn m e n t in tro d u ced the
Act of Union w ith Ireland. As a result, Britain
needed a new flag to join the English, Scottish
and Irish flags. This w as the Union Ja c k (see
Chapter One).
A fte r N apoleon to o k p o w e r in Fra n ce at
the beginning of the 17th century, Britain and
F r a n c e w e r e a t w a r . T w o m en b e c a m e
national heroes: Adm iral Nelson defeated the

8. a c t s : law s which are m a d e by Parliam ent.


F re n c h a t th e b a tt le o f T r a f a lg a r (1 8 0 5 ), and th e D u ke o f
W e llin g to n d e fe a te d N ap o le o n s arm ies at the b a ttle of
W a te rlo o (1815). Nelsons statue in T rafalg ar Square and
W ellington Arch in London are m onum ents to rem em ber
these heroes.

The In d u strial R evolution


T o w ards the end of the eighteen th century, the In d u strial fn
Revolution began in Britain. The invention of new m achines M
I /';
changed the w a y th a t people lived. People began to m ove jfj|
from the country to find w o rk in the factories in big cities jj
like Birm ingham , M anchester, Leeds or London.
In 1825, the w o rld s firs t ra ilw a y w as opened b etw een ill
Stockton and Darlington in the north of England. At first, people
were afraid of travelling by train but it soon became popular.
The Industrial Revolution made B ritain rich. But ilfalso pf
created problem s. Living conditions for the w orkers w ere
v e ry crowded and unhealthy. The facto ry ow ners grew rich H
but the w orkers w ere often ve ry poor. The factories w ere k.|*
not ve ry safe and children had to w ork so no schools w ere l;
created for them.
C oal w as th e
m a in fu e l o f th e
r e v o lu t io n , so
children worked in
th e m in e s . S o m e
c h ild r e n w o r k e d
u n d e rg ro u n d fo r
18 hours each day.
From the Gunpowder Plot to Global Warming

The V ictorian Age


In 1834, a young wom an, only eighteen years old, became queen
of Britain . Later, she becam e Em press of India. She fell in love
w ith Albert, a G erm an prince, and a fte r his death in 1861, she
kept his m em ory alive. Her face w as on the first postage stam ps
in the world and her statue w as placed not only in B ritain but in
all p arts of the B ritish Em pire. During her reign, m any B ritish
men and wom en such as Charles Dickens, Florence Nightingale,
Charles Darwin, Alexander G raham Bell and Lewis Caroll became
world-fam ous. Her nam e w as Victoria.
There w ere m any changes
in so cie ty: using ch ild re n as
w o rk e rs becam e ille g a l,
e d u c a tio n b e c a m e fre e fo r
e v e ry o n e and the in d u s tria l
c itie s w e re m ade s a fe r and
healthier. The railw ay system
c o v e re d th e w h o le c o u n tr y
and th e re w e re a d va n ce s in
scie n ce . The B ritis h E m p ire
g re w to in c lu d e p a rts of
A frica and Asia. B ritain dom inated the seas w ith its strong n avy 9
and was a centre of w orld trade.
But Queen V ictoria and her governm ent had m any problems.
Fro m 1845 to 1849 th e re w a s th e G re a t P o ta to F a m in e in
Ireland. Potatoes are just one of m any foods th a t are available
for us but the Irish depended on them in the nineteenth century.
A disease killed the potato plants and about 1 million Irish people
died because they had no food. About another million left Ireland

9. n av y : the fighting ship s an d the s ailo rs of a country.

33
The British Isles.

and m any of them w en t to Am erica. The British G overnm ent did


not do enough to help them. From 1854 to 1856 there w as a w a r
w ith R u ssia w h en m ore th an 20 ,0 0 0 B ritis h sold iers died. In
1857, Indian soldiers attacked their British officers in the Indian
m u tin y . A lth o u g h th e B r itis h got b a ck c o n tro l o f In d ia, the
fighting between the Indians and the British lasted for more than
a year. In 2007, the governm ent of India celebrated 150 years
since this First W a r of Independence.
B ritain changed greatly during the Victorian Age. At the end
of the period, there w ere electric lights, telephones, the London
underground and m any things became more modern.

The T w en tieth C entury


During the tw entieth century, Britain w ent through more changes.
The population grew from about fo rty million to sixty million. The
country was involved in two world wars (1914-1918 and 1939-1945),
and in other wars too. Technological and scientific progress had a
huge e ffect on life in the U nited Kingdom and in Ireland in this
century. Life expectancy 10 in the United Kingdom increased from
about 48 years in 1901 to about 78 years in 2000.
The relationship between G reat B ritain and Ireland changed.
At the start of the century, Ireland w as a part of B ritain and was
governed from London. But m any Irish people w anted to be free.
In 1919, the Irish W a r of Independence began and finally, in 1921,
the south of Ireland became independent. The people in this part
of Ireland w ere m ainly Rom an Catholic but the people who lived
in the north w ere m ainly Pro testan t and w anted to rem ain part
of B rita in ; so N o rth ern Ireland stayed in the U nited Kingdom .
The island of Ireland was divided.

10. life e x p e c ta n c y : the a v e r a g e length o f p e o p le s lives.

34
Som e Catholic Irish lived in the north and believed th a t the
situation was unfair. They also w anted a united Ireland. This led
to a period known as the troubles in N orthern Ireland from the
late 1960s until 1999. The Irish Republican A rm y (the IRA ) and
the British arm y fought and there w ere more than 3,500 deaths
in this period. In 1998, the Good Friday A greem ent 11 w as signed
and the troubles ended.
A fte r the second w orld w ar, countries in the B ritish em pire
becam e in dep en d en t; Ind ia and P a k is ta n in 1947 and A fric a n
c o u n trie s such as K e n ya , G h a n a and N ig eria in the fo llo w in g
y e a r s . M a n y o f t h e s e c o u n t r ie s a re p a r t o f th e B r it is h
C om m o nw ealth, an asso cia tio n of English-speaking co u n tries
from the form er Empire.
In the 1960s, there w as great social change. Teenagers had
more freedom , the role of wom en began to change and the rules
of society w ere relaxed. This was the tim e of the Beatles and the
Rolling Stones and m any other successful British music groups.
The 1960s are known as the swinging sixties.
The B ritish Isles saw m any oth er im p o rta n t changes in the
second half of the tw en tieth century it entered the European
C o m m u n ity in 1973; M a rg a re t T h a tc h e r w a s the fir s t B ritis h

11. G ood F rid ay A g r e e m e n t : a p e a c e a g r e e m e n t sign ed b e tw e en N orthern


Ireland, the United Kingdom an d Ireland.

35
The British Isles,

fe m a le p rim e m in is te r (1979-
9 0 ); N o rth Sea o il w as
discovered; the Channel Tunnel,
w hich joins Britain to the rest of
Europe, w as built; a multi-racial
s o c ie t y d e v e lo p e d ; S c o t la n d ,
N o r t h e r n Ir e la n d a n d W a le s
became more independent.

Into th e T w e n ty -first C en tury


B r it a in c o n tin u e s to ch a n g e . The S c o t tis h P a r lia m e n t , th e
National Assem bly for W a le s and the N orthern Ireland Assem bly
make those nations more independent. People face the problem
of global w arm in g the B ritis h Isles have had som e unusual
w e a th er and there have been serious floods. From 2008, there
have been econom ic problem s in all the n ations of thg B ritish
Isles because of the w orld recession.12 A new U K governm ent,
w ith tw o parties th at share power, w as elected in 2010. London
is getting ready for the Olym pics in 2012.

12. re c e ssio n : a bad econ om ic tim e for b u sin e ss.

Olympic Stadium , London


T he text and b e y o n d

Q C o m p reh en s io n c h e c k
Answer the following questions. The first one has been done for you.

W HO AM I?
0 I wanted to kill the King when he was in Parliament.
1 I was the King. I wanted to govern without Parliament.......................
2 When I had power, there was no Christmas. ............ .........
3 I designed a great new cathedral after the fire. .....................
4 I was King of England but I didnt speak English well .............
5 I was the first Prime Minister in 10 Downing Street..........................
6 I was a teenage queen. Later, I was an Empress. ............

WHAT IS IT?
7 It is a transport system in London.
8 It is a group of countries which used to be part
of the British Empire. ............ ........
9 It connects Britain and the rest of Europe. .....................

Q V o c ab u lary
Complete the words in 1-8. You can use a dictionary if you need to. All
the words are about politics.

1 the people who decide what the country should do


the g _ v._____ ment
2 the place where these people discuss what to do P ________ ment
3 this is when the people choose a n e w 1 a n e I_ _ _ io n
4 this is the leader o f 1 t h e P _ , _____M ________ter
5 this happens when the people fig h t1 a_r _ v _ _ , __ ion
6 these are the people who are in 2 M . _ _ _ e r s o f P ______ _m e n t
7 this is what you do during3 v _____
8 the system where you have 3s dem, _

37
0 Irregu /e rb s
Complete 1-8 w ith verbs from the box in the Past Simple.

become fall fight grow take lose run speak w ear

1 James ............. away to France and William and Mary


.................. king and queen,
2 Bonnie Prince Charlie ..................an army as far as Derby.
3 Bonnie Prince Charlie ................ womens clothes when he
escaped.
4 George I ................very little English.
5 After the American W ar of Independence, B rita in ......................its
colonies in America.
6 V ictoria..................in love with Albert.
7 In the twentieth century, the population ................... rapidly.
8 The IRA and the British a rm y ................ against each other.

Q P rep o sitio n s
Read these pairs of sentences. W rite a suitable preposition in the gaps
to give the sentence the same meaning as the first sentence.

1 Guy Fawkes brought gunpowder.


Guy Fawkes took gunpowder.........him.
2 1642 was the start of the war.
The war began 1642.
3 30th January was the date of his death.
Charles died 30th January.
4 People thought the trains were dangerous.
People were afraid the trains.
5 Life expectancy was 48 years.
People lived ...... 48 years on average.
6 The Channel Tunnel joins two countries.
The Channel Tunnel goes France and England.

38
S lEf Q Listening
You w ill hear a guide talking about an exhibition on the life of
Isam bard Kingdom Brunei. For each question, fill in the missing
inform ation in the num bered space.

EXHIBITION ON THE LIFE OF


ISAMBARD KINGDOM BRUNEL

A GREAT (0 ). Vje+orian.. ENGINEER

* He lived from 1806 to (1 )..................


* He designed and built railways,
(2 )................... , tunnels and ships
* In Bristol docks, you can see his ship,
the ( 3 ) ....................
* He also designed two other big steamships,
the G reat W estern and the G reat Eastern

The exhibition runs from ( 4 ) ....................until late summer.


OPENING TIMES: Weekdays: ( 5 ) until 5 p.m.
Weekends: 11 a.m. until ( 6) ....................p.m.

W riting
An English friend of yours called Rachel helped you to w rite some
hom ew ork about the h istory of the B ritish Isles. W rite a card to send
to Rachel. In your card, you should:

thank her for doing this


say if you got a good mark for your homework
offer to help her with her homework next time

W rite 35-45 words.

39
Great British
Scientists
and Inventors
M an y s c ie n tis ts , in v e n to rs and e n g in e e rs
have c o m e fro m th e B ritis h Isles. H ere are
som e questions about a fe w o f them .

Which great scientist believed in magic?


Isaac Newton (1643-1727) stu d ie d light, d e v e lo p e d new
ideas in m athem atics, show ed th a t g ra v ity 1 existed and found
the three law s o f m otion. N e w to n s law s o f m otio n explain, fo r
exam ple, how an aeroplane can fly. There has never been a m ore
im p orta nt scientist than N ew ton. But he w as also very interested in
alchem y, a m ixture of m agic and chem istry.

Who developed the theory


o f evolution? 2
M ost people answ er Charles Darwin(1809-
1882). D arw in tra v e lle d fo r five years on a
s h ip c a lle d th e B e a g le 3 a n d c o lle c te d
exam ples o f different animals, birds, insects
etc. As a result of his discoveries, and m any
m ore years of research, he published a book

1. g r a v ity : the force t h a t pulls o b je c t s t o w a r d s the earth ; thin gs fall


b e c a u s e o f gravity.
2. e v o lu tio n : the idea t h a t p la n ts an d an im a ls etc. develop and c han ge
o ver millions o f y e ars.
3. B eagle : the n a m e o f a typ e o f hunting dog.

40
called On the Origin o f the Species 4 in 1859. In this book, he w rote
th at species have e volved over m illions o f years.
H ow e ve r, a n o th e r B ritis h m an w as w o rk in g in th e sa m e area o f
science. This was Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913). Like Darwin,
he tra v e lle d a lo t, v is itin g th e A m a z o n a n d M a la y s ia . W a lla c e
d e v e lo p e d id e a s w h ic h w e re s im ila r to D a rw in s and he is a lso
responsible fo r the theory of evolution. However, D arw ins nam e is
m ore fam ous. Darwin is buried in W estm inster A b be y w hile W allace
is buried near a sm all village church in Broadstone, Dorset.

Who invented nursing?


Is nursing an invention? If it is, the inventor is Florence Nightingale
(1820-1910). She cam e from a rich fa m ily b ut she d e cid e d not to
m arry and to be a nurse instead. A t this tim e, the 1840s, nurses w ere
not trained. Florence becam e fam ous when she w ent to Turkey to

4. s p e c ie s : a typ e o f animal, bird, in sect or plant etc.


elp w ounded British soldiers w ho were fighting in the Crim ean war,
a w a r a g a in s t R ussia. T h e y c a lle d her th e la d y w ith th e la m p
because she visited the sick soldiers at night carrying a lamp. She
also m ade sure th a t the c o n d itio n s w ere clean and healthy. W hen
she returned, she established training schools fo r nurses, w here they
learnt th a t it w as im p o rta n t to have clean h osp itals. This w as the
beginning o f to d a y s professional nurses.

Who won the race to invent television? [


Even w hen he w as a young ch ild , John Logie Baird (1888-1946)
liked to invent things. He dream t of inventing a television, but when
he told a new spaper about this, they th o u g h t he was mad and were
afraid o f him! But in 1926 he show ed other scientists the w o rld s first
s u c c e s s fu l te le v is io n . Later, he even p ro d u c e d c o lo u r te le v is io n
pictures. However, in the USA, scien tists w ere also inventing a TV
system . Finally, the Am erican M arconi system becam e the basis fo r
to d a y s television.
Would you like to have a cra te r5 on the moon
with your name on it?
William Thomson (1824-1907), w ho w as born in Belfast, gave his
nam e to th e T ho m son c ra te r on th e m oon. He w as a s u c c e s s fu l
p h y s ic is t 6 a nd e n g in e e r: fo r e x a m p le , he w o rk e d on th e fir s t
transatlantic cable under the ocean from The British Isles to the USA.
He m ade inventions and discoveries in m any areas o f science. He
b eca m e Lord Kelvin and a K e lv in is a u nit o f te m p e ra tu re th a t
scientists use - absolute zero is 0 K on the Kelvin scale.

Can a woman be
a great scientist?
In 1974, th e N obel Prize c o m m itte e d id n t
th ink so. Jocelyn Bell Burnell (born 1943), a
fe m a le a s tro - p h y s ic is t 7 b o rn in N o rth e rn
Ire la n d , w o rk e d w ith tw o m ale s c ie n tis ts ,
Hewish and Royle. She discovered im portant
fa c ts a b o u t pulsars, sp ecial ty p e s o f stars,
and the d evelopm ent o f the galaxies, w hich
are large g ro u p s o f sta rs and p la ne ts. B ut w h o g o t th e N obel
Prize? Her male colleagues. N ow adays even NASA (the North
A m erican S pace Agency) says on th e ir w e b site : Pulsars
w e re d is c o v e re d in la te 196 7 b y g ra d u a te s tu d e n t
Jocelyn Bell B urnell. She d id n t win the Nobel Prize
but she has been honoured in other ways.

5. c r a te r : a hole in the s u r f a c e o f the moon.


6. p h y sic ist : a sc ie n tis t who s tu d ie s natural
physical laws.
7. a s tr o - p h y s ic is t : a sc ie n tis t who s tu d ie s the s t a r s .

43
L
Did the World Wide Web
invent itself?
The W orld W ide W eb is now a part of our
everyday lives, and so it is easy to fo rg et
th at so m e bo dy invented it. In fact, Sir Tim
B e rn e rs -L e e (b o rn in L o n d o n in 1 95 5)
developed the w eb betw een 1980 and 1991.
On 6 th A u g u s t 1 9 9 1 , th e fir s t w e b s ite w e n t
o n lin e . B e rn e rs -L e e
b e lie v e s th a t in f o r m a tio n
s h o u ld be fr e e and he h a s
w o rke d hard to m ake sure th a t as
m any p e o ple as p o ssib le can use the
W orld W ide Web, in poor countries as well
as rich countries. In 2004, Tim Berners-Lee
w as given the title of G reatest B rito n by a
g ro u p o f jud ge s. He has been given m any
other awards.

Q C o m p reh e n s io n c h e c k
Match the names of the people 1-8 w ith item s A-J.

A television F pulsars
B nursing G the transatlantic cable
C the worldwide web H Malaysia
D On the Origin o f Species I the laws of motion
E gravity J absolute zero

1 \/\ John Logie Baird 5 H Alfred Russell Wallace


2 [Tj Jocelyn Bell Burnell 6 ' Florence Nightingale
3 C Sir Tim Berners Lee 7 1 7 William Thomson
4 \W\ Charles Darwin 8 E 0 Isaac Newton

44
IN T E R N E T PROJECT
Look again at C harles Darwin. C onnect to the Internet and go to
w w w .b la c k c a t-c id e b .c o m . Insert the title or part of the title o f the
book into our search engine. Open the page fo r The British Isles.
C lick on the Internet project link. Then answ er the fo llow ing
questions.
1 W here can you som etim es see D arw ins face?
2 W hich city w as nam ed after Darwin? W here is it?
3 W ho w as Jenny?
4 Did he w rite his first scien tific paper about biology?
5 W hat percentage of British people believe in evolution?
6 Did Darwin w rite On the Origin o f Species fo r scien tists only?
7 Did his father e xpect him to be fam ous?
8 W hat did Darwin stu dy at university? W as he successful?
9 W hat did Darwin do w ith his specim en o f the lesser rhea?
10 W hich islands did he explore?

Charles Darwin 200 Facts : Enjoy England

The official website for breaks and days out in England

heritage&Cqltiire
Darwin facts ^ t f l I Q More
During the five-year Beagle Great holiday ideas,
expedition, Darwin shipped home offers and competitions.
Signup for our
PBOUrRLL
1,529 species preserved in spirit
and 3,907 labelled skins, bones and free newsletter KINDS OF
other dried specimens.
Chartes Darwin beat Charles Dickens to become the face of
the new 10 note in 2000. Apparently his beard makes it hat
to reproduce his portrait hair by hair.
Darwin was voted In the top five greatest Britons by BBC
viewers in 2002.
Darwin is the most frequently featured person on stamps outside the Royal Family.
Darwin In north Australiawas named bytwoof Darwin's former shipmates who led the Beagle's next
voyage. Darwin is now athrivingcity and hasits own Darwin200 celebrations planned.
The first ape Darwin saw was an orang-utan named Jenny at London Zoo in 1838. He was immediately
struck by the similarities between her behaviour and that
of humans.

British naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, independently conceived a theory of natural selection identical to
Darwin's, based on completely different observations on the other side of the work). Darwin's and Wallace's
theories were both presented on the same day in 1858 to the Linnean Society of London.
Survival of the fittest' was not a phrase coined by Darwin. He borrowed it from the economist Herbert
Spencer, on Wallace's advice, it does not appear until the fifth edition of Origin of Species.
Despite being best known for his contribution to biology, Darwin's first scientific paper was on geology.
B e fo r e you read

Q V o ca b u la ry
Use a d iction ary to help you to m atch the words in the box to pictures
A-E.

ash firew orks jew els diamonds pearls

Here are some other words. Use a d ictionary to discover the meaning,

an em erald a ruby a sapphire a bracelet a locket a necklace

^ H o w m uch do you know ?


Before you read, see if you can an sw er these questions. Then check
your answ ers in Chapter Four.

A W hat do English people like eating? Can you complete 1-3?


1 Fish a n d ................
2 Stilton .......
3 Roast meat and ro a st .......

B W hat do you know about English sport? Can you match the
competitions (1-3) to the sports (A-C)
1 Wimbledon A football
2 Test matches B cricket
3 a The FA Cup C tennis

46
England
England is the country in the British Isles
with the largest population (over 50
m illion) and contains the cap ital o f the
United Kingdom, London.

W hat do th e English like d o in g ?

Popular hobbies include gardening and DIY. This m eans do-it-


y o u r s e lf and it in vo lve s re p a irin g or d e co ra tin g y o u r hom e.
F is h in g in r iv e r s is a co m m o n a c t iv it y , e s p e c ia lly fo r m en.
T e e n a g e rs e n jo y clu b b in g going to n ig h tc lu b s w ith t h e ir
friends. In the past, people w en t for seaside holidays in places
like Brighton, on the south coast, or Scarborough, w hich is about
70km from York, but now they prefer foreign holidays because it
is often cheaper to go abroad. And, of course, shopping is alw ays
a popular activity.

Brighton Pier.
What is there to eat in England?
Most English people eat b reakfast, lunch (w hich some fam ilies
call d in n e r!) and d in n e r (w h ich som e fa m ilie s call t e a ). In
addition, there are elevenses (a snack at about 11 a.m.), tea (in
the afternoon at about 4 p.m.) and supper (a light meal before
bed). English food does not have a good re p u ta tio n 1 in o th er
countries but there are in fact some delicious dishes:
Fish an d ch ip s is made using w hite fish such as
cod, haddock or plaice, which is fried in batter.
T ra d itio n a lly , it is eaten w ith m ushy peas, a
kind of puree made from green peas.
R o a s t d in e r is th e t r a d it io n a l E n g lis h
S u n d a y lunch of ro a s t m eat, such as
lam b or beef, to g e th e r w ith ro a s t
potatoes and lots of vegetables. On
C h ristm a s D ay, m o st fa m ilie s e at
ro a s t tu rk e y .
S t ilto n cheese is a blue cheese w ith a
v e r y s tro n g ta s te and m a n y peop le call it th e
King of Cheeses. But if you prefer other kinds, there are m any
local varieties of cheese in England, especially in the south-west.
E n g lish c a k e s and b is c u it s are v e r y p o p u la r w ith En g lish
people and w ith to u rists. A c re a m t e a is u su ally e aten in the
afternoon and m ay include scones,2 butter, jam and cream . It is
typ ical of Devon and Cornw all in
the south-west of England.

1. r e p u ta tio n : the opinion of


oth e r people a b o u t
s o m e o n e or som e th in g.
2. sc o n e s : a typ e o f small
cake which you cut in half
and fill with b u tte r a n d / o r
j a m and c ream .

48
England

A f u ll E n g lis h b r e a k f a s t is a good w a y to s ta r t th e d a y if
y o u re not on a diet! A trad itio n al b reakfast includes sausages,
grilled tom atoes, m ushrooms, fried eggs, fried bread and a cup
of strong te a .
C u r r y is not orig in a lly English but the English love curries.
C urry came to England from South Asia in the 18th century, but it
becam e v e ry popu lar a fte r W o rld W a r II. T o d ay the E n g lis h s
favo urite type, Vindaloo, is more popular in the U K than in India!

Sport
The m ain sporting even ts in an English y e ar are: the FA Cup 3
(football), the Oxford-Cambridge boat race (rowing), the Grand
N ational and the Derby (horse-racing), W im bledon (tennis), the
O pen G o lf, th e S ix N a tio n s (ru g b y ) and in t e r n a t io n a l T e s t
M atches (cricket).
The English say th a t th e y in vented football but so do other
countries. H ow ever, it has been played since the eighth century.
It w as so popular in the Middle Ages th at some kings banned it

3. FA Cup: an im p o r ta n t football com pe tition b e tw e en English (and s o m e


Welsh) t e a m s .
because the players became ve ry angry and noisy and it stopped
men fro m p rep a rin g fo r w a r! The firs t in te rn a tio n a l fo o tb a ll
m atch w as between England and Scotland in 1870.
Team s at the top of the English Prem ier football league are
v e ry rich and have some of the best players in the world. The Big
F o u r te a m s a re M a n c h e s te r U n ite d , C h e ls e a , A r s e n a l and
Liverpool but other team s w ith rich owners m ay soon join them.
Cricket is played by m any English-speaking nations. In 1882,
the A u stralians beat the English for the first tim e. The English
were so upset th at the newspapers said th at English cricket w as
dead and w a s cre m a te d . 4 S in ce th e n , th e m atche^, b e tw e e n
A u s tr a lia and En g la n d h ave been ca lle d th e A s h e s . C ric k e t
m a tc h e s can la s t fo r f iv e d a y s , fo u r d a y s or one d a y . The
shortest form of the sport is called 20-20 and England won the
world cham pionship in 2010 when they beat strong team s from
South Africa, Sri Lanka and Australia.

C e leb ratio n s
C hristm as and E a s te r are the m ost im p o rtan t festivals fo r the
English but there are m any others. M ost English children look
forward to F ir e w o r k s N ight or Guy Fawkes Night on 5th November.
This is to remember that Guy Fawkes did not succeed in killing the
King in 1605 (see Chapter 3), but nowadays it is a fam ily festival for

4. c re m a te d : burnt; we use this w ord when the b odie s o f d e a d people are


burnt.

50
England

children. There are fires, fireworks and lots


of hot food. In the town of Lewes in Sussex
it is a big event and the local people burn
huge figures of unpopular politicians and
celebrities.
Another date is 1st April or A p r il F o o ls
D ay. On this day, people are allow ed to
p la y jo k e s on o th e r p e o p le . E v e n th e
newspapers and the television take part,
like in the 1950s when the BBC showed a
program m e about spaghetti grow ing on Cliffe Bonfire
Society members.
trees. Som e people believed it w as true!

Music
En glish pop and ro ck m usic is p o p u la r all o v e r the
world. From the Rolling Stones and the Beatles in
th e 1 9 60 s to E lt o n Jo h n to p u n k 5 b a n d s to
C o ld p la y and R a d io h e a d in th e 2 0 0 0 s , it has
developed over the years and is still developing now.

Ic o n ic 6 P laces
There are m any of these, so we will choose only a few. In Chapter
Two, you read about S to n e h e n g e and H a d r ia n s W a ll from the
e a rly h is to ry of B rita in . W h e n the N o rm an s cam e, th e y b uilt
m any castles but the m ost fam ous is the T o w e r o f Lo n d o n . The
W h ite Tower, which you can see from the river Tham es, w as the
original main building. M any people w ere executed in the Tower,
including three queens of England.

5. p u n k : a sty le o f music, c loth es and behaviour which d e ve lope d in the


1 9 7 0 s an d 19 8 0 s.
6. icon ic : f a m o u s and im porta n t. For e xam ple , Big Ben is iconic.

51
The Crown Jew els are kept in the
Je w e l House at the tow er. Tourists
can see the crow n w ith over 3,000
diamonds and pearls in it. Large black
birds called ravens have lived in the
T o w e r s in c e th e la te e ig h te e n th
century. Legend 7 says th a t if th e y
Raven Master at the Tower leave the Tower, som ething terrible
of London. -h i i t t
w ill h a p p e n to E n g la n d , so th e
governm ent pays for at least six ravens to be there. In fact some
feather are cut from their wings so they cant fly away.
As well as castles, England also has m any fam ous cathedrals.
C a n t e r b u r y C a t h e d r a l, Y o r k M in s t e r , S a lis b u r y a n d L in c o ln
C a th e d ra ls are some of the m ost beautiful. Mem bers of the royal
fa m ily get m a rrie d in W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y and S t P a u l s in
London. There are also m any g reat houses in England such as
C h a ts w o r th H ouse and B le n h e im Pa la c e .
f
B r it is h c itie s w h ic h a re fa m o u s fo r t h e ir b e a u ty in clu d e
C a n t e r b u r y , B a t h , Y o r k , S t r a t f o r d - o n - A v o n , O x fo r d an d
Cambridge. L iv e rp o o l, however, is a port city w hich is also world-

7. legen d : an old or trad ition al s to r y which is p rob ab ly not true but which
is well-known.
England

fam ous. Liverpool is a U N ESC O W o rld H eritage site and w as a


European Capital of Culture in 2008. Liverpool people speak w ith
a stro n g local a c ce n t and h ave a re p u ta tio n fo r being w a rm ,
cre a tive and strong. You can vis it the C avern club, w h ere the
Beatles started their career, or Anfield, w here Liverpool Football
Club play. Birm ingham , Leeds, Sheffield, M anchester and Bristol
are other big cities.
The La k e D is t r ic t is one of the m ost a ttra c tive landscapes in
the United Kingdom and w as loved by the Rom antic poets. It is
in the north-west and includes 12 of the largest lakes in England
w ith m ore th a n 3,5 00 k ilo m e tre s o f p a th s fo r w a lk e r s and
cyclists.
E n g la n d is n o t fa m o u s fo r its b e a c h e s . B u t if yo u go to
N e w q u a y in Cornwall, you can enjoy surfing on the A tlantic coast
in the Surfing Capital of G reat B rita in . The w h it e c liffs o f D o v e r
are well-know n as th e y are the firs t thing th a t you see if you
com e to England by ship from Fran ce. Th ere are m an y o th er
beautiful pieces of coast.

White cliffs of Dover.


Iconic People
England, like all nations, had m any famous people, such as Queen
Eliz a b eth I, Sh a ke sp ea re , Isaac N ew to n , Dickens, D a rw in and
W inston Churchill. Now read about some recent iconic people.
P r in c e s s D ia n a w as the w ife of Prin ce C harles but becam e
unhappy in her m arriage. M any people all over the worlds loved
her fo r her b eau ty and her kindness to people w ith problem s,
such as AID S victim s. She died in a car crash in Paris in 1997.
Jo h n Le n n o n w rote m ost of the songs of the Beatles w ith Paul
M cCartney. Later, he m arried Yoko Ono, a Jap anese artist, and
protested against w ar. He w as m urdered in New Y ork in 1980.
M a r g a r e t T h a t c h e r w as the firs t w o m a n to becom e Prim e
M inister of the UK. She was called the Iron Lady because of her
stro n g ideas on G o v e rn m e n t. Som e B ritis h people sup p o rted
Margaret Thatcher and her ideas but $he also had strong enemies.
D a v id B e c k h a m : he is p r o b a b ly th e
t m ost fa m o u s En g lish fo o tb a lle r o f th e
David
Beckham. 1990s and 2 0 0 0 s . He p la y e d in th r e e
W o rld Cups and w as England captain. He
m arried one of the Spice Girls, a pop group,
0
a n d is o f t e n in th e c e l e b r i t y p a g e s o f
magazines and newspapers.
England is a cou n try w ith castles, cathedrals
and s tro n g tra d itio n s ; but it is also a p lace of
c,,*mrises and new ideas. W h a t is the fu tu re? B y the
id o f th e 21st c e n tu r y , w ill th e re be a ro y a l
fa m ily ? W ill S c o t la n d and W a le s be
independent countries? W h a t will be Englands
Hationship w ith the rest of Eu ro p e? W h a t w ill
the e ffe c t o f global w a rm in g on the En g lish
:o u ntrysid e? Nobody knows the answers.
m

The text and b e y o n d

Q C o m p re h en sio n c h e c k
Complete this fact file about England. W rite a w ord or words in each
space. Use inform ation from Chapter Four.

Popular hobbies: Gardening, DIY and (1) .,............ in rivers


Food: Traditional Sunday lunch: roast (2) ....... ... and vegetables
Other fam ous dishes: (3) and chips; (4) originally
from India.
Sport: Many famous events, including ( 5 ) .............. (tennis) and the
Oxford and Cambridge (6) on the Thames.
Celebrations: These include: Christmas, Easter and, in November,
(7>-............. Night.
Music: English (8 ) .............. and (9 )..............music is world-famous.
Places: For example, the (1 0).............. of London and many famous
(11) ............. in cities like Canterbury and York. A place of
great natural beauty is the (1 2 ) District.
People: For example, (1 3 ) ............. , who died in a car crash.
John (1 4 ) ........ a member of the Beatles.
Margaret Thatcher, the first female (1 5 ) .............. of the UK.
David Beckham, a (1 6 ) , who has played in Britain,
Italy and the USA.

T: G R A D E 4

Q S p ea kin g - ho b b ies and sp o rts


Look again at the first sections in Chapter Four. Then prepare a short
talk w ith sim ilar inform ation about popular activities and hobbies in
your country.

You should talk about these four areas:


1 popular hobbies and activities
2 food
3 sport
4 an example of a famous city

55
ACTIVITIES

P E T N o tice s
Here are some notices th a t you might see in England. Look at the text
in each question. W h a t does it say? Choose the letter next to the
correct explanation A, B or C.

/ \
A The
FISH AND CHIPS
PREPARED WITH
B The
LOCALLY CAUGHTTISH C The
FRESHLY FRIED and
EACH NIGHT

0
TWENTY-TWENTY A Some spectators pay less than
CRICKET others.
Floodlit match: start time 6.45.
Admission: 18 for adults
B The match is played under
Half price for disabled/senior water.


citizens/children under 12

C Q All adults pay 18.

FIREWORK DISPLAY
A The display will take place this
weekend.
In the case of bad
weather, the display
B D The display may take place
will be postponed this weekend.
until the weekend. C There is bad weather but the
display will take place.

Please do not enter


A D Do not go inside the cathedral
now.
the Cathedral while a
service is in progress. B Please behave well inside the
P le a s e t r e a t th e cathedral.
b u ild in g w ith re s p e c t.

No flash photography, no
C It is forbidden to listen to
music in the cathedral.
loud music, no food.

56
B e fo r e you read

Q V o ca b u la ry
Complete the sentences w ith these people from Chapter Five.

An ancestor An astronaut A descendant A highlander*


A Iow lander* A philosopher A spectator

1................. asks big questions about life and about our knowledge
and experience.
2... ............. may travel to the moon or to Mars.
3... ............. is someone in our family in the past, for example your
great grandfather.
4 ............. lives in the mountains or the hills.
5... ............. watches sport or other exciting events.
6 ............. is the opposite of 4 and lives on flat land.
7... ............. is the opposite of 3, for example your granddaughter.

* W e especially use these words for people in Scotland.

mo Listening
Listen to the first part of Chapter Five tw ice and com plete the
advertisem ent for a book by w ritin g a w ord or num ber in each gap.

How long is the cloth that makes a kilt? (1 )................. metres.


How many different tartans are there? (2 )..................
When did the (3 ).................government ban kilts?
(4 ) .................
W hy did it ban them? Because they were a symbol of
Scottish (5 ).................
by Robert
Where did Alan Bean wear a kilt? On the (6 )................ Stew art
Read this book and find the fascinating answers to
many more questions.

57
CHAPTER FIVE

Scotland
Scotland has a long, proud history
and m any national heroes.

Scotland is a land of m ountains and lakes w ith a population of


about five million. The Scottish people say some things
w h ich you w o n t h e a r fro m E n g lish people: th e se
include: b airn for child, och a y e for ah y e s and
b o n n y fo r b e a u tifu l. L e t s look at the S c o ttis h
culture.

'Men in S k irts'
The k ilt is a piece of clothing which m any Scottish
men w e ar on special occasions. It consists of one
3-m etre piece of cloth w hich is folded round the
body to fo rm the kilt. T ra d itio n a lly , m en w e a r a
sporran w ith a kilt; it is a kind of large purse th a t
hangs from a belt.
T a r t a n is the nam e of the typ ical coloured p attern ;

58
Scotland

differen t tartan s are connected w ith d ifferen t Scottish fam ilies


or clans such as the S te w a rt ta rta n and the Macdonald tartan .
There are more than 4,000 d ifferen t tartan s! In 1746, the English
g o ve rn m e n t banned kilts because th e y th o u g h t ta r ta n w as a
sym b ol of S c o ttis h in d ep en d en ce. L a te r, in 1969, w h e n A lan
Bean, a Scottish-Am erican astronaut on Apollo 12, stood on the
moon, he wore tartan .
Pipers the men w ho play the tra d itio n a l Scottish m usical
instrum ent, the b ag p ip e s usually w e ar kilts and sporrans.

Food
The m ost fam o u s S c o ttis h food is h a g g is . This co n sists of a
sheeps stom ach w hich is packed w ith bits of meat, onion, o a ts ,1
spices and salt. Robert Burns (see below) w rote about how good
haggis is in a fam ous poem. P o rrid g e is another typical
Scottish dish. It is m ade by boiling oats in m ilk or
w a te r and in a tra d itio n a l Scottish break fast it is
served w ith salt.
You m ay prefer Scottish s h o rtb re a d , a delicious
b u tter biscuit. Scotland is also well-know n fo r its
ve ry good A b e rd e e n A n g u s b e e f and s a lm o n .2

Iconic P laces
E d in b u rg h is the ca p ital of S co tlan d and is v e ry popular w ith
tourists, who come to see the Castle and the fam ous streets such
as P r in c e s S t r e e t a n d th e R o y a l M ile . E v e r y A u g u s t, th e
Edinburgh Festival takes place. It is one of the m ost im portant
festivals of th eatre and music in the world. M any fam ous w riters

1. o a t s : a cereal.
2. sa lm o n : a typ e o f fish.
a n d p h ilo s o p h e r s h a v e liv e d in E d in b u r g h : R o b e r t L o u is
Stevenson grew up in Edinburgh, and to d ay J. K. Rowling, who
w rote H a rry P o tte r, lives there.
The S c o ttis h H ig h la n d s are the m ountains and valleys in the
northern half of the country. The landscape is m agnificent. Loch
Lo m o n d is the largest lake in Scotland and Lo ch N ess is the most
mmm fam ous (see below). The tallest m ountain
in the British Isles, B e n N e v is (1,343 m), is
in the Highlands. People have som etim es
ta k e n stra n g e o b je cts to th e top of Ben
N evis fo r fun; a piano and a bed are tw o
examples!
The H igh lands h ave a long, o ften sad
h is t o r y ; m a n y h ig h la n d e r s m o v e d to
Am erica or other countries to escape from
a difficu lt and unfair life of poverty. Only
about 250,000 people live there now.

60
Scotland

G la s g o w and A b e rd e e n are other Scottish cities. Aberdeen is


the centre of the North Sea oil industry. Aberdeen is so fa r north
th at it has less than seven hours daylight in w in te r and eighteen
hours in sum m er. G la sg o w is the la rg e s t c ity in S c o tla n d . In
r e c e n t y e a r s , F ra n z F e rd in a n d and S n o w P a tr o l h a v e b een
successful music bands from the city.

Iconic c r e a tu r e s
T h e L o c h N e s s M o n s t e r is th e m o s t fa m o u s in h a b it a n t o f
Scotland ! There is a legend th a t S a in t Colum ba saw a w ater-
beast in the sixth century near Loch Ness. Other w itnesses also
talked about the m on ster and th ere are photographs of w h a t
m ig h t be a huge c re a tu re in the lake. Loch Ness is about 250
m etres deep, so it is im possible to be absolu tely sure w h e th e r
the m on ster does or does not exist. Do you believe in N essie?
She is certainly good for the Scottish tourist industry!
D o lly th e sheep is another fam ous Scottish animal. She was
cloned 3 at a scientific institute near Edinburgh in 1996; it w as
the first tim e th at a m a m m a l4 w as cloned.

Iconic People
W i l l i a m W a ll a c e and R o b e r t t h e B r u c e w e re tw o g re a t
Scottish heroes who fought for independence from England in
the Middle Ages. W a lla c e (1272-1305) won a g reat v ic to ry
against the English arm y at Stirling Bridge in 1297, but in the
next battle he was defeated. He hid from the English for
seven years but was finally arrested and executed. His
head was shown to the people on London Bridge.

3. clon ed : copied, using a scientific p r o c e ss .


4. m am m al : an animal such a s a dog, ele ph an t or a
perso n.

. Jjfcb
The British Isles

E ve ry Scottish person knows the story of Robert the


B ru c e (1274-1329) and th e sp id e r. He w a s p u t in
prison by the English. He said th a t w hen he w as in
prison, he w atched a spider trying six tim es to make a
web. The spider fin a lly succeeded the seve n th tim e.
This example taught him to keep trying. Bruce escaped
fro m prison and d e fe a te d King Ed w a rd I l s English
a rm y at the fam ous B a ttle of Bannockburn in 1314.
He w as King of Scotland from 1306 to 1329.
M a r y Q u een o f S c o ts had a dram atic and ve ry sad
life. She w as crowned Queen of Scots when she w as a
baby in 1543.
She m a rrie d a F re n ch p rin ce w h e n she
w as only fifteen and lived in France.
A fte r his death, she returned as Queen to Scotland.
She w as a Catholic, so Pro testan t Scots hated her.

H e r m a le s e c r e t a r y , R^-zzio, w a s
murdered by her husband in front of
her. W a s Rizzio her lover?
Her second husband w as m urdered.
Did M ary arrange th is?
She m arried for a third tim e but she
had to run aw a y from Scotland.
Sh e w a s in p ris o n in E n g la n d fo r
n early tw e n ty years.
She planned to take the place of her
cousin, Elizabeth I, as Queen of England.
She w as beheaded in Fo th erin g h a y
Castle in N ortham ptonshire in 1587.
Her son Jam es later became King of
England.

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, Nicholas Hilliard.


Scotland

R o b e rt B u rn s is Scotlands national poet. As a young man, he


w orked on his fam ily farm but his poems in the Scottish dialect
became very popular. He died when he was only thirty-seven but
his poems live on. He w rote the words of Auld Lang Syn e, which
means long long ago and is the song that people sing at New Year.
Another famous poem begins My luve (love) is like a red, re d ro s e .
T h e re are m a n y o th e r fam o u s S c o ttis h people. T h e re are
w rite rs like S ir W a l t e r S c o t t , R o b e r t L o u is S t e v e n s o n and S ir
A r t h u r C o n a n D o y le , w ho created Sherlo ck Holm es. There are
acto rs like S e a n C o n n e ry , w ho played Ja m e s Bond. Th ere are
singers like S u s a n B o y le , w ho w a s in the B r it a in 's G o t T a le n t
com petition in 2009 and became in tern ation ally fam ous. There
are m any fam ous scien tists and in ven tors, fo r exam ple Ja m e s
W a t t , w h o in v e n te d th e s te a m engin e, A le x a n d e r B e ll, w ho
in v e n te d the tele p h o n e, A le x a n d e r F le m in g , w ho d isco ve re d
p enicillin,5 and Jo h n Logie B a ird , who invented television.

5. p en icillin : an antibiotic (medicine) which h as p r e v e n t e d m a n y se rio u s


diseases.
The British Isles,

G la s g o w has th e tw o b e s t- k n o w n S c o t tis h fo o tb a ll te a m s ,
Rangers and Celtic. W h e n th e y play against each other, it is a
special occasion. Sir Alex Ferguson, the most successful m anager
of M anchester United, is Scottish. G olf is another popular sport,
while in the w in te r you can go skiing in the Highlands.
T he H ig h la n d G am e s is a typical Scottish sporting event. It is
like a Scottish Olympics. The events include tossing the caber,
when men have to th ro w a long piece of tree trunk. You have to
be ve ry strong and ve ry skilled to win this com petition! You can
see Highland Gam es all over North Am erica but one of the most
im portant ones is held e very ye ar in California, w ith more than
50,000 spectators.

The caber toss, a traditional Scottish athletic event


C e leb ratio n s
N ew Year is m o re
im portant than Christm as
in Scotlan d . The S co ttish
have a special celebration
on 31st D ecem b er kn ow n
as H o g m a n a y . There are
s tre e t p a r t ie s in
E d in b u rg h and G la s g o w
and o th e r c it ie s . In
S to n e h a v e n , th e re is
fireball swinging. All over
S c o t la n d a n d in o t h e r
co u n tries w h e re S co ttis h
people live H o g m a n a y is
celebrated and Auld Lang
S yn e is sung.
B u rn s N ig h t ta k e s The Stonehaven Hogmanay Fireball
Celebrations.
place on th e b irth d a y of
Robert Burns, 25th Jan u ary. People read poems and sing songs by
Burns. The centre of a traditional Burns Night is a haggis. A piper
plays as the haggis is carried into the room and, before it is cut,
som eone read s B u r n s s poem To a H a g g is . Like H o g m a n a y,
Burns Night is celebrated not only in Scotland but by people in
m any countries who have Scottish ancestors.
L e ts close this chapter on Scotland w ith a part of a song by
R o b e rt B u rn s . It s a y s t h a t m en all o v e r th e w o rld sh a ll be
brothers:
It s coming ye t for a that,
That Man to Man, the world oer,
Shall brothers be for a that.

65
The text and b e y o n d

P E T Q C o m p reh e n s io n c h e c k
Decide if each sentence (1-8) is correct or incorrect. If it is correct,
m ark A. If it is not correct, m ark B.
A B

1 English people dont normally use words such as bairn


for child.
2 It is forbidden to wear tartan now.
3 Visitors can play the piano on top of Ben Nevis.
4 Everyone is now certain that the Loch Ness Monster
does not exist.
5 Robert Bruce learnt something important by watching
a spider.
6 Mary was Queen of France, then Queen of Scotland
and then Queen of England.
7 In the Highland Games, mountain climbing is one
of the main activities.
8 Hogmanay is the Scottish New Year celebration.

Q V o c ab u la ry
H ow m any words w ith a Scottish connection can you find in this
w o rd search ? The words m ay be horizontal, vertical or diagonal.

M O U N f A I N
B X S 0 A G R E
A Z P I R 0 E W
G K I L ? L T Y
P U D W A F S E
I c E W N S B A
P G R z T E O R
E G X A W Q M B
S P O R R A N Z

66
a
p e r R ead in g
Read the section Iconic People on pages 61-63. For each question,
choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.

1 W hat does the writer say about Robert the Bruce?


A He was a friend of William Wallace.
B He wanted Scotland to be independent.
C He had a pet spider when he was in prison.
D J The story about the spider isnt true.

W hat do we learn about Mary Queen of Scots from the text?


A E Her life was full of problems.
B She enjoyed marriage.
C She murdered one of her husbands.
D She was very religious.

W hy does the writer include Robert Burns in this section?


A because he wrote in the Scottish dialect
B because he was a farmer
C because his songs and poems are very popular in Scotland
D because he died when he was still young

Which of these does the text tell us?


A Scottish people are different from the English.
B Scotland has produced famous writers and scientists.
C Scotland has had many kings and queens.
D The Scottish know a lot about their own history.

^ E T Q W ritin g
This is part of a lette r you receive from your friend Sarah.

M 3 Dad's a job in Scotland, so we are ^oin^ to live there


for a 3 ear. I don't know an3tb/n^ about the life there. I know
that you've read about Scotland. Can 30U tell me an^thin^?

Now w rite a le tte r to Sarah. Use in fo rm atio n from Chapter Five or


from the Internet. W rite your le tter in about 100 words.

67
The British Isles
and Films
T h e re are th o u s a n d s o f film s th a t ta k e
pla ce in th e B ritish Isles. H ere are so m e
th at are a bo ut England, Scotland, W ales and
N orthern and Southern Ireland.

Films about English Queens


In 1998, Cate B lanchett starred as Queen Elizabeth I in
the film E liz a b e th . The film starts when the C atholic Queen
M ary is in power. The young Elizabeth is in danger as she is a
P ro te s ta n t and has m a n y e n e m ie s. W hen M a ry d ie s , th e n ew
q ue en s supp orte rs w ant her to get married so th at she can have a
son w ho will be king after her. But Elizabeth d o e sn t get m arried and
sh e d o e s n t h a ve a n y c h ild re n . F o r h e r p a rt in th e film , C a te
B la n c h e tt w o n a B ritis h A c a d e m y A w a rd 1 and a G o ld e n G lo b e
A w a rd fo r B est A ctre ss and several o th e r a w ards. A se con d film ,
E liz a b e th , th e G o ld e n A g e (2007), w as not so successful although it
won an O scar fo r its costum es.
In 2009, the slogan fo r a film about the early years of Queen V ictoria
said Love rules a ll. This was The Y o u n g V ic to ria w ith Emily Blunt
playing the eighteen-year-old queen. The film show s the love w hich
grow s betw een V ictoria and Albert. It w on several awards, including
an O scar fo r its costum es.
The Q u ee n w as a 2006 film abo ut Queen Elizabeth II at the tim e that
P rincess Diana died. The role o f the Queen w as played by Helen

I
1. a w a r d s : prize.

68
M irren, w ho w on an O scar in 2007 fo r her perform ance. O ther actors
p la y e d re a l-life c h a ra c te rs , s u c h as P rin c e C h a rle s , th e P rim e
M inister Tony Blair and his w ife Cherie.

Braveheart, a Scottish warrior


The Am erican a cto r Mel G ibson both directed and acted the hero in
the film B ra v e h e a rt. The film is about the life o f W illiam W allace (see
C h a p te r 5). A lth o u g h , it is n o t h is to ric a lly a c c u ra te , it is a g o o d
a d ve ntu re story. A fte r th e w om an w ho W a llace loves is killed, he
fig hts against the English king Edward I. Princess Isabelle o f France
falls in love w ith W allace and helps him to escape from danger but
finally he is put in prison. The film ends w ith his death as he cries
F reedom ! fo r Scotland. The film w on five O scars in 1996, including
one fo r best p ic tu re .
An Irish story
Meryl Streep starred in D a n c in g a t L u g h n a s a , a 1998 film about five
u nm arrie d siste rs w ho live in th e c o u n try in Ireland in th e 1930s.
Lughnasa is an ancient sum m er pre-C hristian 2 festival w hen rules
are broken. There is d isa gre em en t betw een C hristian religion and
a n c ie n t C e ltic re lig io n in th e film . The w o m e n are lim ite d by th e
strong religious rules o f Ireland in the 1930s but they also w ant love
and freedom . But they cannot get th eir dream s. A lthough the story of
the film is sad, there are lots o f funny m om ents. Meryl Streep is a
fam ous Am erican actress w ho has w on tw o O scars in her career and
m any o the r aw ards. She has an Irish g re a t-g ra n d m o th e r and after
she m ade this film , she w anted to spend m ore tim e in Ireland.

2. p re -C h ristia n : b e fore the tim e o f Christianity.

70
Kings and Mountains in Wales
King A rth ur (see C ha pter 7) has been the su b je c t o f m any
film s. The love a ffa ir betw een Queen G uinevere, his w ife,
and L ancelot, one o f his kn ig hts, has been th e
su bject o f m ost of these film s, such as C am elot
(1967) and E xca lib u r (1981). In the 2004 film K in g
A r t h u r , K eira K n ig h tle y p la ye d G u in e ve re , C live O w en
played A rth u r and Ioann G ruffud, a W elsh a ctor, played
Lancelot. The film places A rth u r in the period o f h isto ry /
/
after the Rom ans left Britain and he has to fig h t both the
A nglo-S axons and the Britons.

K in g A r th u r , 2004.
sca r-w in ne r Hugh G rant starred in a film called The E n g lis h m a n
W ho W e n t U p a H ill B u t C am e D o w n a M o u n ta in (1995). W hat a
s tra n g e title ! T he p e o p le in a W e lsh v illa g e are a n g ry w h e n an
a rrogant man from London tells them th a t th e ir local m o u n ta in is
not tall enough to be a real m ountain and m ust be nam ed a h ill on
the map. Finally, the villagers add rocks to the to p o f the hill and it
becom es a m ou nta in . The film is a co m e dy and tells us a lot about
the relationships betw een the W elsh and the English.

Q C o m p reh e n s io n c h e c k
There are 20 m istakes in this fact-file about the film s. Can you find
the m istakes and correct th em ?

TITLE DATE M AIN O TH ER


ACTO R(S) IN FO RM ATIO N

The Englishm an Who 1995 Hugh Grantley Some Irish people are
W ent Up dfMcnlnia in angry when a man
Bu t Came Down a H ill from London comes
to their village.

Braveheart 1996 William Wallace It is directed by the


main actor.
i
Elizabeth II 1998 Cate Blanchett Cate Blanchett won
an Oscar for this film.

Dancing a t Easter 2006 Meryl Streep Meryl Streep is an


Irish actress. She has
never won an Oscar.

King A rthur 1967 Keira Knightley Keira Knightley won


and Lancelot an Oscar for this film.

The Queen o f England 2007 Helen Mirren Helen Mirren won an


and Prince Oscar for this film.
Charles

Love Rules A ll 2009 Emilia Blunt A film about Queen


Victoria when she
was ojd.

72
IN T E R N E T PROJECT
R ichard the Third
C onnect to the Internet and go to w w w .b la c k c a t-c id e b .c o m . Insert
the title or part of the title of the book into our search engine. Open
the page fo r The B ritish Isles. C lick on the internet pro je ct link. Then
answ ers the fo llo w in g questions.
4
R ichard the Third is a play by Shakespeare; there is a fam ous film of
the play starring Laurence Olivier. It is an old b la ck-a n d -w h ite film
but it is still enjoyable. King Richard III w as a real person in the
history of England. Som e people th ink th at he m urdered tw o young
princes because he w anted to be king.
1 W hat were the nam es o f the Princes?
2 W here did King Richard put them ?
3 H ow old w ere the princes?
4 W hat did people find in 1674?
5 Does the new research say th at the princes w ere m urdered?
6 A cco rding to the new research, w ho w as w ith Richard at the
Battle of B osw orth?
7 W ho w on the Battle o f B osw orth?
8 W hich queen w as held later in the sam e place as the Princes? For
how long?
9 W ho has w ritten a new book about the Princes?
ACTIVITIES

B e fo r e you read

Q V o ca b u la ry
Use a d iction ary to help you m atch the people in the box w ith the
definitions.

com m issioner giant m onk ou tlaw pirate rock or pop star

1 this person is usually on a ship and robs other ships ...............


2 this person may work in an office and is very important ....... .............
3 this person is famous because s/he plays music, especially for
young people ..................
4 this map lives away from other people for religious reasons
...........
5 this person lives outside normal society, e.g. Robin Hood in the
forest ..................
6 you often read abput this very tall person in stories for young
children .....*r.......

Q H o w m uch do you know ?


H ow much do you alread y know about Ire la n d ? Choose the correct
word/phrase in each sentence. Now read Chapter Six up to the end of
The Economy and check your answers.

1 The national colour of Ireland is red/blue/green.


2 Irish stew contains lam b/beef/cream .
3 An average Irish person drinks 100/6/12 cups of tea every day.
4 Hurling is a sport/dance/festival.
5 On 26th December, many Irish people visit their grandparents/have
a special Christm as meal/go to the horse races .
6 Which of these music groups are Irish? The Rolling
S tones/U2/Coldplay.
7 Danny Boy is an Irish hero/a song/a racehorse.
8 People called Ireland The Celtic Tiger/The Green Lion/Riverdance.

74
Ireland
The national colour o f Ireland
is green, and it is certainly
very green and beautiful island,
with a lot o f farm s, lakes,
hills and m ountains.

Food
You can eat well in Ireland; there is fresh fish and seafood from
the lakes and the ocean, and fresh m eat and vegetables from the
f a r m s . T h e n a t io n a l d ish , I r i s h s t e w , is m a d e fro m la m b ,
potatoes, onions, carrots and parsley. The Irish are even more
. fond of drinking te a than the English, and an average Irish
person drinks six cups a day.

Sport
The n a tio n a l sp o rt of Ire la n d is G a e lic
fo o tb a ll. It differs from norm al football
in m any w ays: there are fiftee n players
in each team ; the goals are H-shaped;
you can hit the ball w ith your hand as well as kicking it. A nother
Irish sport is h u rlin g . In this sport, you hit the ball w ith a stick.

75
The British Isles,

W h a t do you do in Ireland on 26th Decem ber, the day a fte r


C hristm as? You go to the horse races. Horse racing has a long
history in Ireland and m any of the w o rld s best horses, riders and
train ers have been Irish. O ther popular sports are rugby, football
and golf.

M usic an d Dance
In m a n y c o u n trie s tra d itio n a l m usic has died out, but not in
Ireland. The love for typical Irish music is still ve ry strong. Irish
d a n c in g is a ls o p o p u la r an d th e s h o w R iv e r d a n c e w a s an
in te rn a tio n al success. There are also m any Irish rock and pop
stars. H ave you heard of U2 (th e y have sold o ve r 170 m illion
CDs), Boyzone, W estlife, En ya or Van M orrison?
The best-known traditional Irish song is probably Danny B o y
but although the music is Irish, the words w ere w ritte n by an
En g lish m an ! You can listen to it on the In te rn e t. The song is
about someone who is sad because Danny boy m ust leave; is he
going to fight in a w a r or is he leaving to find w o rk ? The song
doesnt tell us.
Ireland

The Economy i
V
Ireland has been a poor cou n try w ith m any problem s but from
1995 to 2007 th ere w as an econom ic boom there. This m eans
th at the Irish econom y grew fast. Lots of new houses w ere built,
new com panies grew, there w ere more jobs in Ireland aod lots of
people from the new European cou n tries m oved there. People
called Ireland the Celtic Tiger at this time. U n fortu nately, as in
m any other countries, the Irish econom y got w orse a fte r 2008.

Iconic p la c e s
D u b lin is the capital of the Republic of Ireland. It is a beautiful
city w ith Georgian buildings, a castle, art galleries and a fam ous
theatre, the Abbey Theatre. The River Liffey passes through the
cen tre of Dublin, and th e re are m an y fam ous bridges such as
O Connell Bridge, H a penn y Bridge and the m odern M illenium
Bridge. In 1916 there was The Easter Rising in Dublin. This was a
part of the revolution by Irish Republicans against the English.
Some of the Republicans organised the revolution from inside the
P o s t O ffic e and you can still see the bullet 2 holes in the stone.

1. E co n om y : the financial condition


o f a country.
The British Isles

T r in it y C o lleg e , Dublin, is the m ost im p o rta n t


Ir is h u n iv e r s it y , lik e O x fo rd or C a m b rid g e in
En g lan d . In the lib ra ry you can see the B o o k o f
K e lls , a b e a u tifu l book th a t is m ore th a n 1,200
years old. The book contains parts of the Bible. The
detailed pictures w ere painted by Irish monks.
B e lf a s t is the cap ital of N o rth ern Ireland. For
m any years it w as divided betw een the Catholics
and the Protestants. There w as a lot of fighting but
since the Good F rid a y A g re e m e n t w as signed in
1998 (see Chapter 3), it has been peaceful.
T h e G i a n t s C a u s e w a y is on th e e a s t c o a s t o f N o r th e r n
Ireland. It w as form ed n a tu ra lly 50-60 m illion ye ars ago by a
volcano. 3 There are about 40 ,00 0 colum ns of rock w hich look
like a man-made road. There is a legend w hich says th at an Irish
giant made this type of bridge by throw ing rocks in the sea so
th at he could cross to Scotland to fight a Scottish gian.
In the w alls of B la r n e y c a s tle near
the city of Cork is an ancient piece of
bluestone called th e B la r n e y S to n e .
People b elie ve th a t if you kiss the
sto n e you w ill s ta r t to sp eak v e ry
well. But to reach the stone you have
to hang dow n fro m the top of the
c a s t le w a ll a n d p u t y o u r lif e in
danger! Nowadays, there are rails to
keep yo u s a fe and m a n y t o u r is ts
come to kiss the Blarn ey S to n e .

3. v o lc a n o :
wr
Ireland

T he w e s t co a st o f Ire la n d on the A tlantic Ocean is fam ous for


its g re a t b e a u ty . In th e s o u th - w e st of Ire la n d , th e L a k e s o f
K illa r n e y are in a ring of m ountains. The lakes are a good place
to eat the local fish, called trout.
In many places there are very tall round tow ers. The most famous
ones are at the R o c k o f C ashel and at G lend aloug h. They were
built in the Middle Ages and the tallest is forty metres high.

Iconic People
T h ere are m a n y Irish h eroes. Did you kn o w th a t som e
Presidents of the U SA had Irish ancestors for example,
T e d d y R o o s e v e lt, J F K e n n e d y , R o n a ld R e a g a n and B ill
C lin t o n ? E ve n B a r a c k O b a m a s m o th e r s fa m ily cam e
from Ireland. The fam ous outlaw, B illy th e K id, w as Irish
too! There are m any fam ous Irish w riters and artists, for
exam ple G. B. S h a w , W . B. Y e a t s , S a m u e l B e c k e t t and
S e a m u s H e a n e y , w h o all w o n the N obel prize. O s c a r
W ild e w as also Irish. Here are some examples of recent
Irish iconic people:
I f y o u a s k th e q u e s tio n W h o w a s th e g r e a t e s t
fo o tb a lle r in the w o r ld ? in N o rth ern Ireland, th ere is
only one answer, G e o rg e B e s t . If you dont believe this,
look at videos of his play on the Internet. He played for
M anchester United and of course, N orthern Ireland.
B o b G e ld o f w as the leader of an Irish punk band,
the Boom tow n Rats, but soon became fam ous for his
fight against w orld p o verty. He form ed Band Aid to
raise m oney for Ethiopia in 1984 and organised Live
Aid, a rock concert, in 1985. He is still active and tries
to help poor nations.

The round tower of G lendalough.


The British Isles

M a r y R o b in s o n w a s th e f ir s t w o m an p re s id e n t of Ire la n d
between 1990 and 1997, and w as later the United Nations High
Com m issioner for Hum an Rights. 4 She has fought for the rights
of w om en and has also done a lot for the poor and hungry. In
2009, she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from the
U .S. P r e s id e n t B a ra c k O b am a. She has w o rk e d w ith N elso n
Mandela and other world politicians.

S a in t P atrick
W h o w as Saint Pa trick ?
He w a s n t Irish (m a y b e he w a s W e ls h or S c o ttis h ) but Irish
pirates caught him.
He w as a slave in Ireland.
He escaped, but returned to Ireland around CE 450.
He converted the Irish people to Christianity.
A legend says th a t S ain t P a trick drove all the snakes out of
Ireland and today there are no wild snakes there.
The Irish celebrate St Patricks Day on 17th March w ith special
parades. These take place not just in Ireland but anywhere where
there are Irish communities. For example, in 2010, Sydney Opera
House in Australia was turned green by special lights. In New York,
about 250,000 people take part in the parade on Fifth Avenue.

4. H um an R ig h ts : the idea o f fr e e d o m for every person.


Ireland

Stories from the past


There are lots of stories in Ireland about leprechauns
or the little people. Leprechauns are little old men
who w ear green or red jackets, carry a stick and w ear
a tall hat. If you catch a leprechaun, maybe you will
find his pot of gold and he m ight give you three
w ish es. B u t th e y e n jo y p layin g tric k s and you
shouldnt trust them. M any Irish people dont like
th is im a g e o f le p re c h a u n s , w h ic h t h e y th in k is
something just to please the tourists.
T h e re are m a n y C e ltic legends. One of th e se is
a b o u t D e ir d r e o f th e S o r r o w s . 5 D e ir d r e w a s a
beautiful young w om an but when she was a baby,
the druids (see C hapter Tw o) said th a t
w ould cause the death of m any men. "
King sent her to live in the forest until she w as a teenager. Then
he w a n te d to m a rry her. Bu t D eirdre fell in love w ith a n o th e r
man and m arried him, and then th ey escaped to Scotland. A fte r
s e v e n y e a r s , th e K in g s a id t h a t he f o r g a v e th e m , so t h e y
returned to Ireland. But the king had lied. D eirdres husband and
his brothers w ere killed and Deirdre died of a broken heart.
Ireland has not had an easy history. For centuries, the English
controlled the country. It is divided into the Republic of Ireland
and N orthern Ireland; there has been a d ifficult division betw een
Rom an Catholics and Protestan ts. It has experienced the Potato
Fam ine, the W a r of Independence and the troubles (see Chapter
3). In the past m any Irish people w ent to live in other countries,
because th e y w anted to escape from p overty. But anyone w ith
Irish blood is proud to be Irish.

5. S o r ro w s : s a d n e s s .

81
T he text and b e y o n d

Q C o m p re h e n s io n c h e c k
Read the summary of Chapter Six below. In each space w rite one or
two words.

Ireland is a green and beautiful land. Its national dish is


(1 )..... .............. and its national sport is (2) .......
Traditional Irish music and dancing is popular; the show
(3) ........ ............ was successful all over the world.
(4) ......*.............. is the capital of Northern Ireland and
(5) ......... is the capital of Eire. There are.many interesting
places in Ireland; one of these is (6) Tourists come
here to kiss a special stone. There are many famous Irish people,
including (7 )..... ..................She was the (8) ................... of Eire
and also worked for the United Nations. Saint (9) ..................is
the national saint of Ireland. There are special parades all over the
world on 17th (10)......... w ........Ireland has many old stories and
legends. Some of these stories are about (11) ; these
are little men who play tricks on human beings. (12)......... ..............
of the Sorrows is another old Irish story.

P E T Read the section Iconic Places again. Decide if each statem ents about
fam ous Irish places is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, m ark A. If it
is not correct, m ark B.

A B
1 There are three famous modern bridges in Dublin.
2 Dublin Post Office is connected to the Easter Rising.
3 The Book of Kells is over 1,000 years old.
4 Belfast is the capital of Ireland.
5 The Giants Causeway was built a long time ago.
6 The west coast is one of the most beautiful areas in Ireland.
7 Trout live in the Lakes of Killarney.
8 There are two very tall round towers in Ireland.

82
Q V o c a b u la ry - o p p o sites
Give the adjective w hich has the opposite m eaning to the underlined
adjective in the sentences. The first one has been done for you.

0 Dublin is a beautiful city. H.Sly...


1 Horse-racing is popular in Ireland...................................#.v. ........
2 The economy got worse after 2008 V.V'.i/.W'f...
3 Kissing the Blarney stone used to be dangerous.
4 The tallest tower is forty metres tall. .......................
5 Some leprechauns play nasty tricks. .......................

Q Passive verbs
Complete the sentences w ith the verb in brackets in the passive form.
Choose Present Sim ple or Past Sim ple form s, depending on the
sentence. There are tw o examples.

0 St Patricks Day j.s .fiejgbrated on March 17th. (celebrate)


00 Deirdres husband and brothers M Ie d <#. (k ill)
1 Irish stew from Iamb, potatoes, onions, carrots and
parsley, (m ake)
2 The words of Danny Boy ...... by an Englishman, (w rite)
3 From 1995 to 2007, lots of new houses ..... (build)
4 During that period, Ireland....................... the Celtic Tiger, (call)
5 The pictures in the Book of Kells ........... bymonks,(paint)

T: G R A D E 5

o S p e ak in g - F estivals and m usic


In Chapter 6, you read about festivals and music in Ireland. Talk about
these questions w ith a partner.

1 Talk about a festival in your country.


2 Do you think traditional festivals will continue to be popular in the
future?
3 W hat types of music do you enjoy listening to?
4 Is music an important part of life in your country?
5 Do you and your parents listen to different types of music?

83
B e fo r e you read

Q W h a t do you k n o w a b o u t W ales?
Before you read Chapter Seven, an sw er these questions to see how
much you already know. Then check your answ ers as you read.

1 Do the children in Wales learn Welsh in school?


2 W hat is the eldest son of a British king or queen called?
3 Is an Eisteddfod something that you eat or something that you visit?
4 W hat is Snowdon, a mountain, a city or a lake?

0 V o ca b u la ry
Use a d iction ary to help you m atch the w ords in the box w ith pictures,

a choir a cloak seaweed a w o lf

I S l i Q Listening
Listen to the beginning of Chapter Seven and choose the correct
an sw er A, B or C.

In Wales you will see a lot of


A sheep. B trees. C ships.

To prepare Welsh rarebit, you need


A cheese. B lamb. C rabbit.

Bara Brith is the Welsh name of a type of


A fruit. B ; fruit juice. c cake.

A popular sport in Wales is


A snooker. B tennis. c swimming.

84
Wales
W ales is the English nam e
fo r this country
but Cymru is its
nam e in Welsh.

W ales and England have alw ays had a close relationship. In the
13th c e n tu ry , th e En g lish king E d w a rd I and his a rm ie s to o k
control of W a le s a w a y from Llew ellyn ap G ruffud . He w as the
grandson of Llew ellyn the G reat (see later in this chapter). W h en
H en ry V III w as king, in the period from 1536 to 1543, England
and W ale s became one country and English laws covered all the
area. B u t the m odern W e ls h n a tio n a lis t p o litic a l p a rty , Plaid
Cym ru (in English, The P a rty in W a les), w ants independence for
W a le s. Plaid C ym ru often w orks w ith the S co ttish N a tio n a lis t
Party, who w a n t independence for Scotland.
W elsh is a living language: about 25 per cent of
W e ls h people k n o w it w e ll, a lth o u g h th e y also
know English. All children learn W elsh in schools
Raon Rotjiar and teach ers m ust know W elsh. There is W e lsh
CY CLE TRACK
language TV and n ew spapers, and the signs in
tow ns are in W elsh and English.
-SAJ

85
The British Isles,

W a le s is an in t e r e s t in g c o u n t r y t h a t h as m a n y s p e c ia l
customs, beautiful places and im portant people.
M

Food
If you visit W ales, you will see a lot of sheep in
the co u n trys id e . So it s n ot su rp risin g th a t
W e ls h lam b is o fte n on th e m en u ! Y o u r
b r e a k f a s t in W a le s m a y in c lu d e b la c k
lave rb re ad , w hich is a p aste m ade w ith the
same type of seaweed th at the Japanese use to
m ake sushi. D esp ite its nam e, it is n t bread.
Other typical W elsh dishes are W elsh rarebit (cheese
on to a s t m ade in a special w a y ) and B a ra B rith (W elsh fru it
cake).

Sport
Rugby is the most popular sport in W ale s and the Stadium called
C ardiff Arm s Park is the home of W elsh rugby. The W ale s team
ta k e p a rt in th e Six N a t io n s c o m p e titio n , w h e re th e y p la y
England, Scotland, Ireland, France and Italy. Football, cricket and
s n o o k e r a re also p o p u la r. Y o u can also go s u rfin g on m a n y
beaches in W ales.

The Land o f S o n g
W a le s is called th e land
o f s o n g , and th e W e ls h
n a t io n a l s o n g is c a lle d
Land of m y Fa th e rs. W ale s
is fa m o u s f o r its m e n s
choirs and th e y o ften sing
Wales

b efore rugby m atch es. W h e n the iron in d u stry and coalfield s


s*

w ere im portant in South W ales, the facto ry w orkers and m iners 1


o ften form ed choirs. To d ay in d u stry and coal-m ining are less
im portant in W ale s but the tradition of singing continues.
K ath erin e Jenkins and Bryn Terfel are tw o successful opera
singers fro m W a le s . Th ere h ave also been s e v e ra l su ccessfu l
in te rn a tio n al singing stars, such as Tom Jones, S h irle y B assey
(see page 90) and D u ffy, and bands such as the M anic S tre e t
Preachers.

The E iste d d fo d
Eisteddfod is a W elsh word w hich m eans to be sitting tog eth er.
An Eisteddfod is an annual m eeting of poets, musicians, singers
and som etim es dancers who com pete for prizes. It is an ancient
W e ls h tr a d itio n w h ic h s ta r te d in 1176. The m o st im p o rta n t
Eisteddfod is the National Eisteddfod of W ales; it a ttra c ts over
6 ,0 0 0 c o m p e t it o r s 2 a n d
more than 150,000 visitors.
The E is t e d d f o d s a re
sym bols of the W e ls h love
of poetry, music and song.
A t an E is t e d d f o d , y o u
m a y see w o m e n in W e ls h
national dress. This is a tall
black h at and a red cloak.
There is no special costum e
for men.

1. m in e rs : people who t a k e
useful m inerals, such a s
coal, out o f the ground.
2. c o m p e tito r s : people who
t a k e p a r t in a competition,
Iconic p la c e s
C a r d iff is the capital of W a le s and the location of the Millennium
S ta d iu m , w h e re ru g b y and fo o tb a ll are p la y e d . C a r d iff w a s
nam ed European City of Sport in 2009. The second largest city in
W ale s is S w a n s e a . In the past it w as a centre of the coal and the
cop per in d u stry. A fam o u s W e ls h poet, D ylan Th om as (1914-
1953), w as born here.
N ear Sw an sea there are some prize-winning beaches: O x w ic h
B a y , w ith 5 kilo m etres of sands, w h ich w as nam ed the m ost
b e a u tifu l beach in B r it a in ; T h r e e C lif f s B a y , w h ic h is called
B rita in s best beach; R h o s s ili B a y , which w as called the British
superm o del3 of beaches!
S a in t D a v id s is the sm allest city in the UK, w ith under 2,000
people, but it has a m agnificent cathedral. In fact, in Europe a
tow n is called a city because it has a cathedral. Saint David, the
saint of W ales, is buried in the cathedral in Saint D avid s.
I
3. su p e rm o d e l : top fash io n model. Here the m o s t beautiful o f all b e ac h es.

88
Wales o

y
S n o w d o n ia is a n a tio n a l p a rk in N o rth W a le s . It in clu d es
m ountains, lakes, rivers, w aterfalls, forests and coast. The name
c o m es fro m th e h ig h e s t m o u n ta in , M o u n t S n o w d o n (1,085
m etres). You can w a lk to the top of the m ountain or, if y o u re
lazy, take the little red train, the Snowdon Mountain railw ay. The
film Tom b R a id e r 2 w ith Angelina Jolie w as film ed in Snoyvdonia.
Snow d on is the English name; the W elsh call it Y r W y d d fa .
The English king Edward I w anted to control W ales, so he built
huge castles to protect W ales. Today these castles are attractive
for tourists, but in the thirteenth century they were a symbol of
English power. Four of the m ost im portant castles th at you can
see to d a y a re C a e r n a r f o n , H a r le c h , B e a u m a r is and C o n w y .
Caernarfon castle is connected with the Prince of W ales, the eldest
son of the monarch. In 1284, Edward Is son was born here and this
is w hy the first son of a monarch is called the Prince of Wales.
P o rtm e irio n is an Italian-style village in North Wales. Sir Clough
Williams-Ellis, who designed the village, said that he wanted to bring
the colour and beauty of the Mediterranean to this area of Wales.
T h e re a re m a n y o th e r b e a u tifu l a re a s in W a le s , such as
C a rd ig a n B a y , the P e m b ro k e s h ire C oast, the island of A n g lese y,
and interesting tow ns like A b e r y s tw y th , B a n g o r and Llan d u d n o .
As for castles, there are more castles in W a le s per person than
anyw here else in the world.
*
Caernarfon Castle.
The British Isles,

Iconic peo ple


Two heroes of the W elsh people are L le w e lly n th e G re a t (1173-
1240) and O w e n G le n d o w e r (c.f. 1354-1416). In the th irte e n th
ce n tu ry, L lew e llyn kept W a le s in dep en d en t from the N orm an
kings of England. G lendow er w as a nationalist leader who led a
revolution against the English king, H enry IV, from 1400 to 1412.
At first he w as successful and in 1404 he created an Independent
W elsh Parliam ent, but in 1405 he w as defeated by H e n rys son.
There is a legend about Llew ellyn s dog, called Gellert. Gellert
had to guard the kings baby son while Llew ellyn w as aw ay. He
k illed a w o lf th a t trie d to a tt a c k th e ch ild . W h e n L le w e lly n
returned, he couldnt see the baby and there w as blood on the
dogs m outh, so he killed the dog. But then he found the baby
safe under its bed.
H e n r y M o r g a n w a s a W e ls h p ira te w h o robbed ships and
tow ns in the Caribbean in the seventeenth century, a real pirate
of the Caribbean. To some people he is a hero, to others he is a
crim inal of the sea.
In recent times, there have been m any fam ous W elsh people:
w riters like D y la n T h o m as; actors like C a th e rin e Z e ta Jo n e s and
A n t h o n y H o p k in s, who played Hannibal Lecter in S ile n c e o f the
L a m b s ; politicians like A n e u r in B e v a n , w ho began the N ational
H ealth S ervice in the UK. R ic h a r d B u r t o n w as the firs t world-
fa m o u s W e ls h a c to r; he m a rrie d E liz a b e th T a y lo r and th e y
starred together in C le o p a tra .
S h i r l e y B a s s e y g re w up in T ig er B a y, w h ic h w a s th e n the
d angerous p ort a re a of C a rd iff. She has had a long ca re e r in
show business since she began perform ing in 1953. She is fam ous
for singing the title songs for three Jam es Bond films: G o ld fin g e r}
D iam on d s a re F o re ve r and M o o n raker.

90
Wales
y *
W elsh le g e n d s: King A rth ur a n d Bran w en
H ave you heard the stories of King A rth ur and the knights of the
round ta b le ? Som e people say th a t his castle, Cam elot, w as in
W ales but others say it w as in south-west England or B ritta n y in
France. Certainly, the first tim e th at anyone w rote about A rth ur
w as in W elsh literature. M any people think that the real A rth ur
w as a Celt who fought against the Anglo-Saxons.
On Bardsey Island, off the north-west coast of W ales, there is
a cave w here local stories say th at A rth ur and Merlin, a w izard 4
w ho gave a d vice to A rth u r, are bu ried . Is it t r u e ? W a s Kin g
A rth ur W e ls h ? Did he exist?
Another legend is about a girl called Branwen, whose brother was
a giant, and a king in Wales. Branwen married the Irish king but when
he took her to Ireland he was very unkind to her. Branwen sent news
to her brother by a bird which flew across the sea between Ireland
and Wales. Her brother walked through the sea to help his sister.
There was a terrible w ar and many people were killed, including the
Welsh and Irish kings. Branwen returned to W ales with the head of
her dead brother and was sad about what happened.
W a le s is a sm all co u n try w ith a p opulation of only about 3
million. But it has its own identity and its own strong Celtic culture.

4. w izard : m an with m agic power.

Welsh coast.
ACTIVITIES

The text and b e y o n d

Q C o m p re h e n s io n c h e c k
Correct the m istake in each sentence. The first one is an example.

0 50% of people in Wales know Welsh well.


2596''O f'PeopJe'in, Wgjes.know Wejsh. well....................................

1 Black Iaverbread is a type of Japanese bread.


2 Swansea is the capital of Wales.
3 The national park is called Snowdonia because it snows a lot there.
4 Portmeirion is an Italian village where a lot of Welsh people live.
5 Llewellyns dog killed his baby son.
6 Richard Burton played Hannibal Lecter in Silence o f the Lambs.

0 V o c ab u lary
W ales is the Land of Song. Can you com plete the words about music
and song below.

1 Someone who plays music. a^mus an


2 A group of people who sing. a c r
3 You go to this to listen to people sing or play music a con t
4 Someone who plays the guitar. a guitar_____
5 This is music, song and drama. o ____

Q P rep o sitio n s
W rite a suitable preposition in each of these sentences from Chapter
seven. Then check your answ ers in the chapter.

1 Wales is the English n am e............... this country.


2 The Wales team take p a rt................the Six Nations competition.
3 Bryn Terfel is a successful opera singer.................Wales.
4 In 1405 he was defeated................Henrys son.
5 But then he found the baby s a fe ................. its bed.
6 Perhaps Arthur fought................. the Anglo-Saxons.
7 Merlin gave advice.................Arthur.

92
_____
P E T R ead in g
Read the text below and choose the correct w ord for each space.

TH E ISL E OF A N G L ESE Y
Anglesey is an island near the north-west coast of Wales. In the
Middle Ages, people called the island the Mother of W ales because
the farms provided so (1 )............. food.
There is an old castle on Anglesey in the town of Beaumaris.
(2 )............ was built by King Edward I after he defeated the Welsh
princes. (3 )............ important town on the island is Holyhead;
ferries go ( 4 ) ............. here to Ireland.
There is a famous village in Anglesey. It has the longest name of any
place in the United Kingdom. (5 )............. name is
LIanfairpw lIgw yngylIgogerych-w yrndrobw llllantysiliogogogoch * 11
was invented (6 ) ............ the nineteenth century to attract tourists!
Local people call it LlanfairpwII (7 ) it is easier to say.

* This name means in English: The church of St. Mary in a hollow of white
hazel near a rapid whirlpool and near St. Tysilios church by the red cave.
Use a dictionary to help you to understand this.

1 A many B more C very D much


2 A He B Its C It D Its
3 A Other B Extra C Another D Second
4 A from B after C on D between

5 A Its B Its C His D Their


6 A by B in C on D while
7 A during B but C why D because

P E T W riting
This is p art of a letter you receive from a W elsh friend Owen.

I've told 30U a lot about the famous places in Wales. When 30U
come to sta^ with me, which ones would 30U I/Ke to visit?

N ow w rite a letter to Owen in about 100 words.

93
AF TER RE ADI NG

Q T h e British Isles Q uiz


A n sw er these questions about the inform ation in this book. You get
one point for each correct answer.
M
Total points:
30-40 You deserve a British or an Iri$h passport!
25-29 Very good 20-24 Good

Section One: Geography


1 W hat is the name of the sea on the east coast of Great Britain?
2 W hat is the tallest mountain in the UK?
3 W hat natural feature was formed by volcanic action?
4 In which country is the Lake District?
5 Which UK islands are closer to France than to England?
6 In which country is Snowdonia?
7 W hat is the second largest city in Wales?
8 Where are the Lakes of Killarney?
f
Section Two: Customs and languages
1 When is Guy Fawkes Night?
2 Where would you see someone tossing the caber?
3 W hat is Geordie?
4 According to a legend, what did St Patrick remove from Ireland?
5 Which flower is the national symbol of Wales?
6 W hat is the English translation of Shwmae?
7 W hat is the national song of Wales?
8 Who celebrates Hogmanay and when?

94
A F T E R R E A D I N G

Section Three: People


W hat is the name of...
1 the last English king who was killed in battle?
2 the English king who had six wives?
3 the man who tried to kill King James I?
4 the first Prime Minister to live at 10 Downing Street?
5 the owner of a dog called Gellert?
6 the Scottish leader who learnt a lesson from a spider?
7 the national saints of England, Wales and Scotland?
8 the first female Irish President?

Section Four: Places


Where is...
1 the cathedral where Thomas Becket was killed?
2 the Abbey Theatre?
3 the Scottish Parliament?
4 a stone that people come to kiss?
5 the Tynwald?
6 the Book of Kells?
7 Hadrians W all?
8 the 2008 European Capital of Culture?

Section Five: Countries


Which country...
1 was called the Celtic Tiger?
2 experienced the Troubles?
3 fought with England during the Hundred Years W ar?
4 is now the home of the writer of H arry Po tter ?
5 had a queen called Mary who was beheaded in England?
6 sent a fleet of ships to invade England?
7 fought a W ar of Independence against England in 1857?
8 in the United Kingdom does not have its flag as part of the Union Flag?

95
This reader uses the EXPANSIVE READING approach, where the text
becomes a springboard to improve language skills and to explore historical
background, cultural connections and other topics suggested by the text.
The new structures introduced in this step of our READING & TRAINING
series are listed below. Naturally, structures from lower steps are included
too. For a complete list of structures used over all the six steps, see T h e
B l a c k C a t G u i d e t o G r a d e d R e a d e r s , which is also downloadable at no cost

from our website, www.blackcat-cideb.com.


The vocabulary used at each step is carefully checked against vocabulary
lists used for internationally recognised examinations.

Step T w o B 1 .1
All the structures used in the previous levels, plus the following:

Verb tenses
Present Perfect Simple: indefinite past with y e t , a l r e a d y , s t i l l ; recent past
with j u s t ; past action leading to present situation
Past Perfect Simple: in reported speech

Verb forms and patterns


Regular verbs and most irregular verbs
Passive forms with g o in g to and w ill
Sy
S o / n e it h e r / n o r + auxiliaries in short answers
Question tags (in verb tenses used so far)
Verb + object + full infinitive (e.g. I w a n t y o u to h e lp )
Reported statements with say and te ll

Modal verbs
C a n t: logical necessity
C o u ld : possibility
M a y : permission
M ig h t (present and future reference): possibility; permission
M ust : logical necessity
D o n t h a v e t o / h a v e n t g o t t o : lack of obligation
D o n t n e e d t o / n e e d n ft: lack of necessity

Types of clause
Time clauses introduced by w hen , w h ile , u n til , b e fo re , a fte r , as soon as

Clauses of purpose: so th a t ; ( i n o r d e r ) to (infinitive of purpose)


f
The British Isles
The British Isles t e lls th e s t o r y o f E n g la n d , W a le s , S c o t la n d a n d
Irelan d. It includes th e m o st im p o rta n t ev e n ts in th e ir h is to ry fro m
th e Bronze Age to th e tw e n ty - firs t cen tu ry.

This re a d e r uses th e E X P A N S IV E R E A D IN G ap p ro ach, w h e re th e te x t


b eco m e s a s p rin g b o a rd to im p ro v e lan g u ag e s k ills an d to ex p lo re
h i s t o r ic a l b a c k g r o u n d , c u l t u r a l c o n n e c t io n s a n d o t h e r t o p ic s
s u g g e s te d b y t h e t e x t . A s w e ll as t h e s t o r y , w r i t t e n in B r it is h
English, th is re a d e r co n ta in s:
A w id e rang e o f a c tiv itie s p ra ctisin g th e fo u r skills
D ossiers:Great British Scientists and Inventors an d The British
Isles and Films
In te r n e t p ro jects
PE T - style a c tiv itie s an d T rin ity - s ty le a c tiv itie s (G ra d e s 4/5)
A fu ll re co rd in g o f th e te x t
A n ex it te s t an d k e y on o u r w e b s ite
F re e d o w n lo ad a b le su m m ary- b ased a c tiv itie s fo r co m p reh e n sio n
an d language p ra ctic e

FR E E W eb A c t i v i t i e s . G o to w w w .b la c k c a t- c id e b .c o m
to in te ra c tiv e ly develop y o u r language skills.

Step One CEFR A2 Exam Level KET

Step Two CEFR B1.1 Exam Preparation PET

Step Three CEFR B1.2 Exam Level PET

Step Four CEFR B2.1 Exam Preparation FCE

Step Five CEFR B2.2 Exam Level FCE

This volum e w ithout the side coupon is to be


considered a free sample copy not for sale. (Sale or
other distribution is forbidden: art. 17, c. 2, L. 633/1941).
Excluded from V.A.T. (D.P.R. 26/10/72, n. 633, art. 2, 3
c., lett. d.)

Оценить