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Guide to the Design of Diaphragms,

Chords and Collectors


Based on the 2006 IBC and ASCE/SEI 7-05

Copyright 2009 NCSEA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Accessed by Kevin Kirkland on May 28, 2016 11:35:44 AM pursuant to License Agreement with NCSEA. No further
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Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors
Based on the 2006 IBC and ASCE/SEI 7-05

ISBN: 978-1-58001-790-9

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Copyright 2009 by
NCSEA

Published by
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iii

Preface

Three very important elements of the lateral-load-resisting system


(LLRS) are the diaphragm itself; the diaphragm chord, which resists ten-
sion and compression due to bending moment; and collectors, which
distribute lateral forces from the diaphragm to the vertical resisting
elements (shear walls, frames, etc.). Without properly designed
diaphragms, the lateral forces will not be adequately distributed to the
vertical resisting elements. Because chords and collectors play an
important role in resisting the lateral loads imposed on them during a
seismic event and in transferring the demands adequately to the
buildings vertical LLRS, it is critical that the chords and collectors are
properly designed and detailed. Properly designed and detailed
diaphragm chords and collectors are especially critical in the higher
seismic design categories in which large forces are anticipated;
recognizing this, building codes require that in higher seismic design
categories certain elements such as collectors be designed for amplified
forces that approximate the system overstrength. To complicate matters,
most buildings have openings in roof and floor diaphragms that can sig-
nificantly affect distribution of shear, which in turn affects the
determination of chord and collector forces. In addition to the above,
consideration of torsional effects, where diaphragms are not flexible,
will further add to the complexity and will result in making the analysis
and design of chords and collectors a formidable task.

Many publications on the design of lateral-load-resisting systems do not


address the design of diaphragms, chords and collectors but provide only
a cursory discussion of the subject without any details of how to actually
design these crucial elements. This guide fills that void by explaining the
role that diaphragms, chords and collectors play in buildings and by
providing detailed examples of how to determine the seismic forces and
of how to design the elements for various types of buildings located in
Seismic Design Category (SDC) B and SDC D. This guide also
addresses the issue of diaphragm design when large openings are present
in the diaphragm. The introduction covers in detail all aspects of
diaphragm behavior such as diaphragm stiffness, diaphragm flexibility,
force distribution, etc., and also discusses the purpose and behavior of
collectors. Although the design examples presented in this publication
are based on seismic load effects, lateral forces from wind produce
similar loads in the diaphragms, chords and collectors. Although the
determination of lateral forces are different for seismic and wind effects,
the basic principles involved in the design of the diaphragms, chords and
collectors are essentially the same.

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


Copyright 2009 NCSEA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Accessed by Kevin Kirkland on May 28, 2016 11:35:44 AM pursuant to License Agreement with NCSEA. No further
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iv

The discussion and examples in this guide are based on the structural
provisions of the 2006 International Building Code (IBC) and the
American Society of Civil Engineers Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE/SEI 7-05) standard. Although
the 2009 IBC references the 2008 edition of the ACI 318 standard, there
are only minor changes from ACI 318-05 in regards to the design of
concrete diaphragms, chords and collectors. Because the 2009 IBC ref-
erences ASCE/SEI 7-05, the design examples in this publication are
applicable to the 2009 IBC as well.

Detailed design examples are provided for the following:

Four-story concrete office building with concrete diaphragms

Three-story office building with CMU walls, glue-laminated


beams on steel columns and wood-frame roof and floor dia-
phragms

Four-story steel-braced frame building with steel beams and col-


umns and steel deck roof diaphragm

Four-story steel-braced frame building with steel beams and


columns and concrete-filled steel deck floor diaphragms

Each design example includes analysis and design of the diaphragm,


determination of chord forces, determination of collector forces and
design of collectors to resist combined axial and flexural loads.

An example showing the design of collectors, using the alternate ap-


proach for the design of collectors for buildings with concrete
diaphragms and beams, developed by the SEAONC Seismologys
concrete subcommittee, is also presented in this guide.

The following individuals were primarily responsible for the publication


of this guide:

Badri K. Prasad, S.E. Project Manager and Author of Concrete Design


Example 1
Douglas S. Thompson, S.E. Author of Wood Design Example 2
Rafael Sabelli, S.E. Author of Steel Design Examples 3 and 4
Timothy W. Mays, PhD, P.E. Chair, NCSEA Publication Committee

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


Copyright 2009 NCSEA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Accessed by Kevin Kirkland on May 28, 2016 11:35:44 AM pursuant to License Agreement with NCSEA. No further
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v

Acknowledgments

The following individuals helped the authors in preparing the examples


presented in the Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors:
Based on the 2006 IBC and ASCE/SEI 7-05.

Jason A. Pisano, P.E., LEED AP


Kathryn Briggs, P.E.

The authors recognize and thank the above individuals sincerely for their
immense contribution, which has resulted in the publication of this
guide.

The authors are also highly thankful to the following individuals for re-
viewing the design examples presented in this guide. Their useful
suggestions have resulted in enhancing the clarity of this guide.

Michael Cochran, S.E.


Warren Pottebaum, S.E.
Tom Van Dorpe, S.E.
Thomas G. Williamson, P.E

The authors wish to express their sincere appreciation to Timothy Mays,


Ph.D., P.E., Chair of the NCSEA Publications Committee, for his
tireless efforts in working with the authors from the very beginning and
for reviewing the guide thoroughly.

The National Council of Structural Engineers Associations (NCSEA)


acknowledges the hard work of the NCSEA Publications Committee.
This group consists of individuals from many backgrounds including:
consulting engineering, research, education, design, and private practice.
Individuals who serve on the NCSEA Publications Committee include:

Timothy W. Mays, Ph.D., P.E., Chairman


Roberto Leon, Ph.D., P.E.
Clem McCarey, P.E.
C. Michael Donoghue, P.E.
Chun Lau, P.E.
Jon P. Kiland, S.E.
John Finke, P.E.

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


Copyright 2009 NCSEA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Accessed by Kevin Kirkland on May 28, 2016 11:35:44 AM pursuant to License Agreement with NCSEA. No further
reproduction or distribution authorized. ANY UNAUTHORIZED REPRODUCTION OR DISTRIBUTION IS A VIOLATION OF THE FEDERAL COPYRIGHT ACT AND THE
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vi

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


Copyright 2009 NCSEA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Accessed by Kevin Kirkland on May 28, 2016 11:35:44 AM pursuant to License Agreement with NCSEA. No further
reproduction or distribution authorized. ANY UNAUTHORIZED REPRODUCTION OR DISTRIBUTION IS A VIOLATION OF THE FEDERAL COPYRIGHT ACT AND THE
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vii

Comments and Suggestions

In keeping with the mission of NCSEA to provide structural engineers


with guidance and education on current trends and practices in structural
engineering and construction, NCSEA plans to update this document pe-
riodically as changes to code provisions and practice dictate. NCSEA
welcomes any comments or suggestions for improvement that may be
inserted into future editions of this document. Comments and
suggestions should be sent to the following address:

National Council of Structural Engineers Associations (NCSEA)


Attention: Executive Director
645 N. Michigan Ave.
Suite 540
Chicago, IL 60611
E-mail: execdir@ncsea.com
Web address: www.ncsea.com

NCSEA has made every reasonable effort to ensure that the information
presented in this document is accurate. In the event that corrections or
clarifications are needed, these will be posted on the NCSEA web site
(www.ncsea.com). NCSEA, at its sole discretion, may choose to publish
written errata.

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


Copyright 2009 NCSEA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Accessed by Kevin Kirkland on May 28, 2016 11:35:44 AM pursuant to License Agreement with NCSEA. No further
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viii

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


Copyright 2009 NCSEA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Accessed by Kevin Kirkland on May 28, 2016 11:35:44 AM pursuant to License Agreement with NCSEA. No further
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ix

Table of Contents

Preface iii
Acknowledgments v
Comments and Suggestions vii
Introduction to Diaphragms 1
Design Example 1: Concrete Diaphragm DesignFour-Story
Building 11
1. Determination of Diaphragm Demands for Seismic Design
Category B. 19
2. Design of Diaphragm without Opening for Seismic Design
Category B. 37
3. Design of Diaphragm with Opening for Seismic Design
Category B. 39
4. Collector Design for Seismic Design Category B. 40
5. Brief Discussion of Seismic Design Categories C through F. 43
6. Determination of Diaphragm Demands for Seismic Design
Category D. 44
7. Design of Diaphragm without Opening for Seismic Design
Category D. 56
8. Design of Diaphragm with Opening for Seismic Design
Category D. 57
9. Collector Design for Seismic Design Category D. 58
10. Design of Slab as Collector Element for Seismic Design
Category D (Alternate Approach for Collector Design). 63
Design Example 2: Wood Diaphragm (Flexible Diaphragm) for Seismic
Design Category B, C & DThree-Story Building 77
1. Determination of Diaphragm Demands for Seismic
Design Category B. 80
2. Diaphragm Design without Opening for Seismic
Design Category B. 86
3. Diaphragm Design with Opening for Seismic Design
Category B. 93
4. Collector Design for Seismic Design Category B. 113
5. Brief Discussion on Seismic Design Category C, D, E and F. 128
6. Determination of Diaphragm Demands for Seismic Design
Category D. 129
7. Diaphragm Design for Seismic Design Category D. 132

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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x

8. Diaphragm Nailing for Seismic Design Category D. 139


9. Collector Design for Seismic Design Category D. 144
10. Collector Connection Design for Seismic Design
Category D. 153
Design Example 3: Steel Deck Diaphragm with Opening (Flexible
Diaphragm) for Seismic Design Category DFour-Story Building
Example 157
1. Determination of Diaphragm Forces. 161
2. Roof Diaphragm Analysis without Opening. 165
3. Diaphragm Analysis at Opening. 175
4. Collector Design. 176
5. Collector Connection Design. 180
Design Example 4: Steel Deck with Concrete Fill Diaphragm for
Seismic Design Category DFour-Story Building Example 187
1. Diaphragm Analysis. 189
2. Determination of Chord Forces. 191
3. Determination of Collector Forces. 193
4. Diaphragm Design. 199
5. Collector Design. 200
About the Authors 205

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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1

Introduction to Diaphragms

Horizontal forces generated by seismic loads are transferred to the vertical


lateral-load-resisting system (LLRS) by the building floor and roof ele-
ments. These horizontal elements, known as diaphragms, also serve to resist
gravity and out-of-plane loads and enable the building to behave as one
unit.

A diaphragm is defined in 2006 IBC Section 1602.1 as, A horizontal or


sloped system acting to transfer lateral forces to the vertical-resisting ele-
ments. When the word diaphragm is used, it shall include horizontal
bracing systems.

The diaphragm provides the structure with global stability against collapse
due to applied lateral loads from sources such as earthquakes or wind.

Diaphragms
Typical Vertical Elements
(Gravity Load Only System)

Diaphragms stabilize columns and Vertical Element (LLRS) Typical


walls by decreasing unbraced height

Figure I. Example shear wall building

Those vertical elements that are not part of the lateral-load-resisting system,
the gravity load only vertical elements, are laterally supported at each
elevation point within the structure where they are attached to a diaphragm
(see Figures I and II). The gravity load only vertical elements are
typically columns, but can include walls that are not part of the LLRS. All
gravity and LLRS vertical elements will buckle sideways when a large

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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2 Introduction

enough axial load is applied. Vertical elements that extend the structures
entire height uninterrupted are considered as being continuous through all
diaphragm levels of the structure. The continuous vertical members
unbraced buckling length is reduced from being the full height of the
structure to the distance between diaphragm attachment points when there
are multiple diaphragm levels between the base and top of the structure.
The reduced buckling length thereby increases the continuous vertical
elements ability to support larger applied axial loads.

The diaphragm provides a stabilizing, restraining horizontal force, F, on the


continuous vertical element preventing the vertical element from buckling
sideways at the elevation of the diaphragm, which would otherwise buckle
if the diaphragm were not there. Essentially, the vertical element is laterally
supported by the diaphragm, and the diaphragm in turn acts as a beam
spanning laterally between the vertical members of the LLRS that provides
the global stability for the structure. The diaphragm and LLRS must each be
strong and stiff enough to provide lateral support for the vertical gravity
elements over the height of the structure to prevent their buckling and col-
lapse of the structure.

The required diaphragm restraining


force, F, to prevent the column from
buckling outward in the x direction at
the third floor.

(The column restraining force, F, is


transferred first through the
beam/column connection and then
secondly by attachments across the
beam diaphragm interface into
diaphragm.)

The diaphragm shear D1 or D2


transferring a portion of Force, F, to the
LLRS wall element.

Note that the diaphragm also


restrains the gravity column and
LLRS wall from buckling in the
y direction.

Figure II. Floor diaphragm bracing a continuous vertical element from buckling

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Introduction 3

The diaphragm provides multiple functions for the structure:

1. The diaphragm acts as a flexural member to transfer gravity loads


(loads perpendicular to the diaphragm surface) to the individual
floor/roof framing members such as joists, beams, girders or col-
umns.
2. The diaphragm, when properly attached to the top surface
(compression face) of the floor/roof framing members, increases
the flexural lateral stability of the joists, beams and girders to sup-
port greater imposed gravity loads.
3. The diaphragm provides a way to stabilize both vertical gravity
and LLRS elements from buckling when they are attached to the
diaphragm level through the floor/roof framing.
4. In light-frame structures constructed of wood or cold-formed
steel, the diaphragm provides lateral support for stud walls sub-
jected to out-of-plane loads.
5. The diaphragm transfers lateral forces resulting from gravity
loads, seismic or wind forces in the plane of the diaphragm to the
structures LLRS.

Diaphragm Stiffness

As previously noted, the diaphragm, when properly attached, will


strengthen the floor/roof framing members flexural capacity. The dia-
phragm is relatively thin when compared with other elements of the
structure, such as beams, columns, etc. The floor/roof framing members
help stiffen the diaphragm elements from buckling out-of-plane due to in-
plane axial and shear forces being transferred laterally to the structures
LLRS. Examples of closely spaced framing elements stiffening a
diaphragm that one might consider are concrete pan joists spaced at 30
inches on center stiffening the thin concrete slab or wood joists spaced at 12
inches on center stiffening a plywood sheathed diaphragm. As the dia-
phragm elements become thicker (e.g. two-way concrete slab), typically
spanning further between floor/roof framing member supports, these fram-
ing members contribute less to the overall stiffening of the diaphragm
elements.

As shown in Figure III, the deflection of the diaphragm between the sup-
ports due to lateral loads results in the generation of shear forces (parallel to
the x-axis) within the plane of the diaphragm. This is often best visualized
thinking of a single span, simply supported, wood, glu-lam beam deflecting
under an applied load, and the individual laminations of the member trying

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4 Introduction

to slide back and forth (horizontal sliding shear), but resisted by the glue
interface between the laminations.

One edge of the diaphragm is now stretching due to tension forces while the
other edge is attempting to shorten due to compression forces. The applied
in-plane forces are transferred by means of shear to the diaphragm end sup-
ports (shear parallel to the transverse y-axis). If the diaphragm is made up
of many individual elements (multiple sheets of plywood, for example),
then there are more joint locations for sliding shear to occur between the
diaphragm elements. Since there are in-plane compression forces, there can
be potentially out-of-plane buckling of the diaphragm element.

Figure III. Diaphragm deflecting under uniform load

The thin diaphragm element is stiffened from buckling out-of-plane due to


the supporting framing member stiffness and number of diaphragm attach-
ments (example: nails, screws, pins, welds) to the framing member. The
floor/roof framing member sizes, spacing and number of fasteners between
the diaphragm and framing members impact the in-plane stiffness of the
diaphragm by controlling the forces at which out-of-plane buckling of the
diaphragm may occur between the framing members. In some specific
cases, the building codes mandate the maximum spacing of floor/roof
framing members for certain types of diaphragms to help control the in-
plane distortions that can lead to diaphragm failure.

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Introduction 5

Diaphragm Construction

The diaphragm is designed and constructed from various structural materi-


als capable of resisting imposed loads acting both perpendicular to the
surface (gravity loads) of the diaphragm, as well as transferring lateral loads
in the plane of the diaphragm. Typical examples of construction materials
used for structural diaphragms would include: wood sheathing, bare corru-
gated metal deck, concrete fill over corrugated metal deck, concrete topping
slab over precast planks or a cast-in-place concrete floor slab. In some
cases, a horizontal truss can be utilized, like a diaphragm, to laterally
transfer forces to the structures LLRS.

The diaphragm (floor/roof framing system) used in buildings is typically


the single biggest contributor to the overall building mass that is used to
calculate the seismic forces acting upon the structure.

Behavior of Diaphragms

The behavior of a diaphragm can be analogous to that of a flexural member


such as a continuous beam. The shear resisting web element of the dia-
phragm is provided by the floor or roof system; the chords behave as flange
elements resisting the axial tension or compression resulting from flexural
behavior. As noted in the 1999 SEAOC Blue Book commentary, dia-
phragms have special properties when compared to a beam: (a) The span-
to-depth ratio is usually small; therefore, plane sections are not likely to re-
main plane; (b) As the span-to depth ratio decreases, the deformation
characteristics of the diaphragm approach that of a deep beam in which
deflection is primarily caused by shear strain rather than by flexure.

Diaphragm deflections have important design implications. Section 12.3.1


of ASCE/SEI 7-05 requires structural analysis to explicitly include the ac-
tual diaphragm stiffness (semi-rigid diaphragm) if the diaphragm cannot be
characterized as either flexible or rigid in accordance with Sections 12.3.1.1
or 12.3.1.2. Section 12.3.1.3 and Figure 12.3-1 provide a procedure for
establishing whether a diaphragm is flexible that involves comparing the in-
plane diaphragm deflection to the average story drift of adjoining vertical
elements of the LLRS.

The stiffness of a diaphragm must be considered in relation to the type of


LLRS. For example, if the LLRS consists of a flexible system such as mo-
ment frames, the behavior of the diaphragm may approach that of a rigid
element. On the other hand, if the LLRS is a more rigid (stiffer) system

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6 Introduction

such as concrete shear walls, then the behavior of the diaphragm ap-
proaches that of a flexible element.

Section 12.12.2 of ASCE/SEI 7-05 addresses the fact that the deflection of
the diaphragm should not exceed the allowable deflection of the elements
attached to the diaphragm. Another aspect to keep in mind is that the de-
flection of the diaphragm has a direct impact on the out-of-plane deflection
capacity of the walls that are perpendicular to the direction being analyzed.

For Seismic Design Categories (SDC) D through F, in accordance with


Section 12.3.3.4, the design forces must be increased by 25 percent for the
design of diaphragm connections to the vertical LLRS and to collectors and
the connection between collectors and vertical elements if the structure has
horizontal irregularities Type 1a, 1b, 2, 3 or 4 as listed in Table 12.3-1 or
vertical irregularity Type 4 in Table 12.3-2.

Another code requirement (Section 12.11.2.2.1) that addresses the issue of a


diaphragm behaving as one unit is the provision requiring continuous ties or
struts between diaphragm chords in order to distribute anchorage forces into
the diaphragm.

For wood diaphragms, Section 12.11.2.2.3 requires that the continuous ties
should be in addition to diaphragm sheathing. As explained in the 2000
NEHRP Commentary (FEMA 369), during the San Fernando earthquake,
separation of the walls from the roof diaphragm in many industrial build-
ings was due to inadequate anchorage development of the ties into the
diaphragm. Connection of the crosstie to resist out-of-plane wall anchorage
forces should be detailed such that cross-grain bending and cross-grain
tension in wood members is avoided. Subdiaphragms are allowed in
accordance with Section 12.11.2.2.1 with the limitation that maximum
length to width ratio should be not greater than 2.5 to 1.

Diaphragm Force Distribution

The distribution of in-plane forces in a diaphragm is a very complex sub-


ject, as can be seen from the previously presented information. Diaphragms
themselves often consist of many individual pieces fastened together to act
as one monolithic element (example: plywood diaphragm, metal deck dia-
phragms) which will behave differently than a concrete cast-in-place
diaphragm that may behave more like a single monolithic element.

Section 1602 of the 2006 IBC defines a diaphragm chord as, a dia-
phragm boundary element perpendicular to the applied load that is assumed
to take axial stresses due to the diaphragm moment.

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Introduction 7

Along the flexural edges of the diaphragm, the floor/roof framing members
serve as the chord elements of the diaphragm, resisting the flexure-induced
compression and tension forces that can tear a diaphragm apart if the
deflections are too extreme (exceed the diaphragm element tensile capacity
resulting in tensile fracture starting at the edge of the diaphragm and mi-
grating inward).

Note that the definition of diaphragm chord states that the chord is a
boundary element. The terms boundary element and boundary
member are defined in Section 11.2 of ASCE/SEI 7-05 as follows:

BOUNDARY ELEMENTS: Diaphragm and shear wall boundary members


to which the diaphragm transfers forces. Boundary members include chords
and drag struts at diaphragm and shear wall perimeters, interior openings,
discontinuities, and reentrant corners.

BOUNDARY MEMBERS: Portions along wall and diaphragm edges


strengthened by longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. Boundary
members include chords and drag struts at diaphragm and shear wall
perimeters, interior openings, discontinuities, and reentrant corners.

Section 1602 of the 2006 IBC defines a diaphragm boundary in light-frame


construction as, In light-frame construction, a location where shear is
transferred into or out of the diaphragm sheathing. Transfer is either to a
boundary element or to another force-resisting element. Diaphragm
boundaries typically occur at the perimeter of the building. Boundaries also
occur along interior shear wall lines and around openings in the diaphragm.

Openings in diaphragms, depending on the size of the openings, have a sig-


nificant influence on the behavior of the diaphragm. Secondary moments
are introduced in the diaphragm resulting in additional tension and
compression forces in the diaphragm segment. These forces must be
resisted by the chords of the diaphragm segment (subdiaphragm) and must
be adequately developed into the diaphragm.

Large openings in the diaphragm result in an abrupt change in the stiffness


of the diaphragm (additional research is needed in this field). This is desig-
nated as a horizontal diaphragm discontinuity irregularity in accordance
with Table 12.3-1, Type 3. If the diaphragm has this horizontal irregularity,
concrete slabs and concrete slabs on metal deck cannot be considered as
rigid diaphragms in accordance with Section 12.3.1.2. This is because large
forces are introduced around the openings and a significant reduction in
diaphragm stiffness exists.

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8 Introduction

In order to obtain design forces on collectors, a rational approach to dia-


phragm design needs to be established. One acceptable method used by
many practicing engineers is to assume that the diaphragm acts as a simple
beam with uniform distribution of shear in a direction normal to the lateral
span and with increasing axial forces in collectors aligned with the vertical
lateral-load-resisting elements of the building. This method neglects any
distributed tension or compression in the direction of lateral forces. Another
approach to diaphragm design utilizes strut and tie models for diaphragms
as presented in detail in ACI 318-05. The use of software programs in
which the diaphragm can be modeled as floor plate elements to represent
the behavior of the diaphragm is also an acceptable approach.

Either mechanism of force delivery can be used in design provided


adequate collector and shear strength, as well as the required flexural
strength, is demonstrated.

Introduction to Collectors

Collector elements (also called drag struts or drag elements) a) collect and
transfer diaphragm shear forces to the vertical lateral-force-resisting ele-
ments or b) distribute forces within a diaphragm. They include the
connections between the floor or roof diaphragms and lateral-force-resisting
elements. For SDC C through F, it is required that the collector elements,
splices and their connections be designed to have the strength to resist 0
times the specified seismic design forces in accordance with Section
12.10.2.1. The purpose of this requirement is to ensure that the inelastic
energy dissipation occurs in the ductile lateral force-resisting elements
(frames, braces and walls) rather than in collectors, diaphragms and their
connection to the LLRS.

It should be mentioned here that the global ductility system reduction fac-
tor, R, that is used to reduce the elastic response spectrum demands on the
LLRS implies that adequate overstrength is provided in diaphragms,
collectors and connections to ensure these remain essentially elastic. Thus it
is essential that these elements do not yield, and that yielding and inelastic
energy dissipation occurs primarily in LLRS to be consistent with design
assumption in reducing the elastic base shear using R.

It is important that these connections be designed to prevent localized slip


failure (or rupture), which would in turn prevent inelastic energy dissipation
from developing in the lateral-force-resisting system as assumed. Particular
attention to this problem is required for post-tensioned slab connections to
shear walls and for precast concrete floor or wall panel connections. An

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Introduction 9

abrupt termination of collector reinforcement without sufficient distance for


its development may result in localized failure and loss of anchorage.

In the 1994 Northridge earthquake, failure of collector elements, which


contained insufficient reinforcement and confinement, was observed in
more than one precast parking structure. Collector elements yielded early,
rendering the elements incapable to transmit the lateral force to the shear
walls.

A potential area of weakness in modern precast parking structures is the


flexibility of the thin cast-in-place topping slab that forms the horizontal
floor and roof diaphragms and the chords and collectors for these dia-
phragms. The use of a composite design of the topping slab together with
the precast elements to act as the diaphragm may very well be preferable.

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10 Introduction

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11

Design Example 1
Concrete Diaphragm DesignFour-Story Building

Overview

This example illustrates the design of concrete diaphragms, chords and


collectors for a four-story office building in accordance with the provisions
of the 2006 International Building Code (2006 IBC) for Seismic Design
Category B. The gravity load-resisting system consists of concrete beams
and girders on the interior and exterior, which are supported by concrete
columns. Lateral loads are distributed to the vertical elements through a
61/2-inch-thick normal weight concrete slab (Figure 1-1) at each of the roof
and floor levels. The second-floor diaphragm contains a large rectangular
opening at its center. Resistance to lateral loads is provided by 12-inch-
thick concrete shear walls in both directions. Typical floor plans and sec-
tions of the structure are shown in Figures 1-2 through 1-5. A three-dimen-
sional view of the structure is shown in Figure 1-6. Detailed sections are
shown in Figures 1-7 through 1-9.
The following steps provide a detailed analysis of some of the important
seismic requirements for the diaphragm, chord and collector design in ac-
cordance with the 2006 IBC. The diaphragm is assumed to be rigid for the
lateral analysis procedure. Structural modeling and analysis software was
used to create and analyze a three-dimensional model of the example
building.
This example is not a complete building design. Many aspects have not
been included and only select steps of the seismic design have been illus-
trated.

Outline

This example will illustrate the following parts of the design process:

1. Determination of Diaphragm Demands for Seismic Design


Category B.

2. Design of Diaphragm without Opening for Seismic Design


Category B.

3. Design of Diaphragm with Opening for Seismic Design


Category B.

4. Collector Design for Seismic Design Category B.

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12 Design Example 1

5. Brief Discussion of Seismic Design Categories C through F.

6. Determination of Diaphragm Demands for Seismic Design


Category D.

7. Design of Diaphragm without Opening for Seismic Design


Category D.

8. Design of Diaphragm with Opening for Seismic Design


Category D.

9. Collector Design for Seismic Design Category D.

10. Design of Slab as Collector Element for Seismic Design


Category D (Alternate Approach for Collector Design).

Given Information

Site data: Site Class D (stiff soil), by default

Building data:

The example building has Occupancy Category II in accordance with Table


1-1 of ASCE 7-05.

A computer program has been used to calculate the self-weight of the slabs,
beams, girders, columns and shear walls. All member sizes assumed in the
analysis are shown in Figures 1-2 and 1-3. The following are the modeling
assumptions incorporated into the computer analysis:

The concrete shear walls were assigned a stiffness modifier of 0.35


to model cracked section properties.
All building columns were assigned a stiffness modifier of
0.0000001 to eliminate lateral force resistance.
All nodes at the foundation level for columns were assigned pinned
supports.
All nodes at the foundation level for shear walls were assigned
fixed supports.
Additional dead loads:

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Design Example 1 13

Floor loads (seismic): ext. cladding 10 psf


partitions 10 psf
MEP 4 psf
flooring 2 psf
misc 3 psf
29 psf

Roof loads (seismic): ext. cladding 5 psf


partitions 5 psf
MEP 4 psf
roofing 3 psf
mechanical 10 psf
misc 3 psf
30 psf

An exterior cladding load of 20 psf, which acts along the perimeter of the
floors and the roof, was used in generating the seismic loads. The typical
story height is 15 feet. The following are the total seismic weights tributary
to each floor level, as calculated by the computer program:

W roof = 3,149 k
W 4th floor = 3,442 k
W 3rd floor = 3,442 k
W 2nd floor = 3,271 k
W = 13,304 k

Note: Seismic weights are equal for both the north-south and east-west
directions.

The following material properties are assumed for this example:

f 'c = 4,000 psi


f y = 60,000 psi

Typical slab: 61/2-inch-thick with #5 @ 12 inch o.c., top and bottom in the
east-west direction. Temperature and shrinkage reinforcement: #4 @ 12
inch o.c. in the north-south direction. See Figure 1-1 below.

Typical concrete framing member sizes are as follows:

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14 Design Example 1

Interior beams 21 x 24
Perimeter beams 21 x 24
Interior girders 24 x 28
Exterior columns 21 x 21
Interior columns 24 x 24

Figure 1-1. Typical concrete slab section (E-W direction)

Figure 1-2. Second floor plan

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Design Example 1 15

Figure 1-3. Third and fourth floor plan (roof plan similar)

Figure 1-4. Typical E-W elevation (Grid Line 1; Grid Line 4 similar)

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16 Design Example 1

Figure 1-5. Typical N-S elevation (Grid Line B; Grid Line F similar)

Figure 1-6. South-west three-dimensional view of structure

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Design Example 1 17

Figure 1-7. Section APerimeter beam detail showing chord reinforcement

Figure 1-8. Section BInterior beam/collector detail for SDC B

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18 Design Example 1

Figure 1-8a. Section CInterior beam/collector detail for SDC D

Figure 1-9. Plan Detail at Collector/Shear Wall Interface

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Design Example 1 19

Calculations and Discussion Code Reference

1. Determination of Diaphragm Demands for Seismic Design Category B. 12.8

1a. Design Base Shear.

Determine the approximate building period (see Figures 1-4 and 1-5 for
typical elevations):

Ta = C t (hn ) = 0.020(60)
x 3/ 4
= 0.43 s (12.8-7)

North-south direction:
T = 0.51 s (from computer model)

East-west direction:
T = 0.38 s (from computer model)

From Table 12-8-1, for SD1 = 0.128, Cu = 1.6

In accordance with 12.8.2, T is not to exceed (Cu)(Ta) = (1.6)(0.43)

100325887
= 0.69 s

For this example, the building period as calculated in the computer analysis has
been used as allowed in accordance with 12.8.2. However, the designer can
use the approximate fundamental period, Ta, calculated above as an alternative.

Seismic data:

Seismic Design Category (SDC) B

Values for SS and S1 can be determined from the maps in ASCE 7-05 or
from the USGS web site, which calculates the values by either zip code or
latitude and longitude coordinates.

S S = 0.28 Figure 22-1

S1 = 0.08 Figure 22-2

Fa = 1.6 Table 11.4-1

Fv = 2.4 Table 11.4-2

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20 Design Example 1

S MS = Fa S S = 1.6(0.28) = 0.45 (11.4-1)

S M 1 = Fv S1 = 2.4(0.08) = 0.192 (11.4-2)

2 2
S DS = S MS = (0.45) = 0.30 (11.4-3)
3 3

2 2
S D1 = S M 1 = (0.192) = 0.128 (11.4-4)
3 3

TL = 4 s Figure 22-15

I = 1.0

For ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls (bearing wall system):

R = 4.0 Table 12.14-1

Design base shear is based on equivalent lateral force procedure:

V = C sW (12.8-1)

where

S DS 0.30
Cs = = = 0.075 (governs in east-west direction) (12.8-2)
R 4.0

I 1.0

The seismic response coefficient need not exceed:

North-south direction:

S D1 0.128
Cs = = = 0.063 (governs in north-south direction) (12.8-3)
R 4.0
T 0.51
I 1.0

East-west direction:

S D1 0.128
Cs = = = 0.084
R 4 .0
T 0.38
I 1 .0

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Design Example 1 21

for T TL

The seismic response coefficient shall not be less than:

C s = 0.01 (12.8-5)

For north-south direction of forces:

V = 0.063(13,304 k ) = 838 k

For east-west direction of forces:

V = 0.075(13,304 k ) = 998 k

1b. Vertical Distribution of Forces.

The design base shear must be distributed to each floor level, as follows:

Fx = C vxV (12.8-11)

where

w x hxk
C vx = n
(12.8-12)
w h
i =1
i i
k

and

k = 1.0 for T < 0.5 s


= 2.0 for T > 2.5 s
= interpolated value between 1.0 and 2.0 for 0.5 s < T < 2.5 s

k = 1.005 for T = 0.51 s (north-south direction)


k = 1 for T < 0.50 s (east-west direction)
h x is the average height at level x of the concrete diaphragm in feet
above the base.

Determination of Fx is shown in Tables 1-1 and 1-2.

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22 Design Example 1

Table 1-1. Vertical distribution of seismic forces for the north-south direction (SDC B)

wx hxk wx hxk Ftot


Level w x (k) hx (ft) (%) Fx (k)
(k-ft) wi hik (k)

Roof 3149 60 192848 38.1 319.1 319.1


4th Floor 3442 45 157866 31.2 261.7 580.8
3rd Floor 3442 30 105031 20.8 174.5 755.3
2nd Floor 3271 15 49734 9.9 82.9 838.2
13304 505479 838.2

Table 1-2. Vertical distribution of seismic forces for the east-west direction (SDC B)

wx hxk wx hxk Ftot


Level w x (k) hx (ft) (%) Fx (k)
(k-ft) wi hik (k)

Roof 3149 60 188940 38.1 380.0 380.0


4th Floor 3442 45 154890 31.2 311.5 691.5
3rd Floor 3442 30 103260 20.8 207.7 899.2
2nd Floor 3271 15 49065 9.9 98.6 997.8
13304 496155 997.8
Note: Although not shown here, designers must also check wind loading.

The redundancy factor, , is equal to 1.0 in accordance with 12.3.4.1 for


Seismic Design Category B or C.

It should be noted here that if the diaphragm is rigid, accidental torsion


should be considered for both directions in the analysis in accordance with
12.8.4.2. In addition to the inherent torsional moment due to the
eccentricity (e) of the center of mass (COM) to the center of rigidity (COR),
the COM shall be further displaced a distance equal to 5 percent of the
building dimension perpendicular to the direction of loading as shown in
Figure 1-10. Accidental torsion has been accounted for in the computer
analysis for this example. Note that in this example the COM and COR are
concurrent due to the symmetrical nature of the structure.

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Design Example 1 23

COM
COM
COR Fix
0.05Ly Ly
COR ey
ex 0.05Lx

Fiy

Lx

Case I - COM displaced in positive x-direction; force in positive y-direction Case V - COM displaced in positive y-direction; force in positive x-direction

ey
COM COR 0.05Ly
COR
Ly
Fix
ex
COM
0.05Lx
Fiy

Lx

Case II - COM displaced in negative x-direction; force in positive y-direction Case VI - COM displaced in negative y-direction; force in positive x-direction

Fiy
COM
COM Fix
COR
0.05Ly Ly
COR ey
ex 0.05Lx

Lx

Case III - COM displaced in positive x-direction; force in negative y-direction Case VII - COM displaced in positive y-direction; force in negative x-direction

Fiy
0.05Lx
COM ey
COR 0.05Ly
COR
Ly
Fix
ex
COM

Lx

Case IV - COM displaced in negative x-direction; force in negative y-direction Case VIII - COM displaced in negative y-direction; force in negative x-direction

Figure 1-10. Illustration of accidental torsion for each analysis case

Note: The locations of the COM and COR above are shown exaggerated for illustration purposes.

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24 Design Example 1

1c. Diaphragm Design Forces.

The diaphragm design forces must be calculated at each level, as follows:

F
i=x
i
F px = n
w px (12.10-1)
w
i=x
i

The diaphragm design force at each level need not exceed:

F px = 0.4S DS Iw px = 0.4(0.30 )(1.0)w px = 0.120 w px

The diaphragm design force at each level shall not be less than:

F px = 0.2S DS Iw px = 0.2(0.30 )(1.0)w px = 0.060 w px

Determination of F px is shown in Table 1-3.

Table 1-3. Diaphragm design forces for the north-south direction (SDC B)

Maximum code diaphragm force

Level w px (k) w i Fx (k) F i


F x
F px (k) =
Fpx
(k) (k) w px Fx
Roof 3149 3149 319.1 319.1 0.101 319.1 1.00
4th Floor 3442 6591 261.7 580.8 0.088 303.3 1.16
3rd Floor 3442 10033 174.5 755.3 0.075 259.1 1.49
2nd Floor 3271 13304 82.9 838.2 0.063 206.0 2.49
13304 838.2

1d. Design Forces for Diaphragm without Opening (Third Floor).

Explanation of analysis procedure.

Determination of diaphragm shear:

Based on 12.3.1.2, for the diaphragm to be considered rigid, the span to


depth ratio of diaphragm should be less than 3 and no horizontal irregulari-
ties should exist. The example diaphragm aspect ratio is less than 3. Also,
none of the horizontal irregularities listed in Table 12.3-1 (items 1a through
5) occur in the example building. Note that the diaphragm discontinuity ir-

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Design Example 1 25

regularity due to the presence of openings greater than 50 percent of the


gross enclosed diaphragm area or a difference in diaphragm stiffness of
more than 50 percent from one story to the next does not apply to Seismic
Design Categories B and C. Therefore in this example, the diaphragm is
considered as rigid for the analysis.
The rigid diaphragm analysis assumes that there are no relative horizontal
displacements within the diaphragm, thus implying that there are no inter-
nal strains, and therefore no stresses. As a result, the distribution of forces
within the diaphragm cannot be captured in the rigid diaphragm analysis
performed by the computer program. One method to address this is to
model the actual diaphragm as a floor (plate) element; however, this can
lead to a very large model and data reduction can be a challenge. Another
method, which is used in this example, is described below.

From the computer analysis, to calculate the diaphragm force at the third-
floor level for walls on lines B and F, subtract the cumulative shear in each
wall at the third floor level from the cumulative shear in the corresponding
wall at the fourth floor level (see Figures 1-11 and 1-12).

F3rd diaphragm (Line B) = V3rd (wall at Line B) V4th (wall at Line B) (1d-1)
F3rd diaphragm (Line F) = V3rd (wall at Line F) V4th (wall at Line F) (1d-2)
F3rd diaphragm (total) = F3rd diaphragm (Line B) + F3rd diaphragm (Line F) (1d-3)

For the particular case where both the lateral system and the floor plan are
symmetrical about the centerline of the building and the wall stiffnesses are
the same, the force calculated from Equations 1d-1 and 1d-2 along lines B
and F will be equal for the center of mass analysis (i.e. ignoring accidental
torsion). This implies that the diaphragm force at the second-floor level will
be a constant, uniformly distributed load along the entire length of the
diaphragm.

Figures 1-13 through 1-16 present detailed shear and moment calculations
for the 3rd floor diaphragms. Since accidental torsion must be considered in
accordance with 12.8.4.2, the forces obtained at lines B and F will be un-
equal and the diaphragm force obtained from Equation 1d-3 when
distributed along the length of the diaphragm will be trapezoidal in shape as
shown in Figure 1-17. It should be noted that all load cases (i.e. positive
and negative accidental torsion as illustrated in Figure 1-10) must be con-
sidered when calculating shear wall and diaphragm demands.

Finally, the diaphragm demand obtained as described above must be scaled


up by the factor, equal to 1.49 at the third-floor level in this example, as
obtained from Table 1-3. In other words, the trapezoidal diaphragm load
distribution obtained is scaled up by the factor as shown in Figure 1-17.

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26 Design Example 1

Fpx = F3rd diaphragm (total) (1d-4)

where

> 1.0

Once the factored diaphragm load is calculated, the diaphragm can then be
analyzed as a continuous beam with pinned supports representing the shear
walls below. The resulting internal shear diagram calculated by the beam
model can be used to determine the total diaphragm shear at any location
along the length of the diaphragm.

Determination of chord forces:

The flexural behavior of the diaphragm in resisting lateral loads causes


compression and tension to develop in the diaphragm chords (see Figure 1-
18). Using the beam model described earlier, an internal moment diagram is
created as shown in Figure 1-16. The chord forces at any point along the
length of the diaphragm can then be calculated as follows:

M
T =C = (1d-5)
D
where

D = diaphragm dimension parallel to the direction of load

Note that the diaphragm depth dimension, D, should be measured from


center-to-center of the chord elements.

Diaphragm shear:

Total wall shears at each level for concrete shear walls in the north-south
direction are as follows (these values represent the resulting wall shears
with the mass displaced 5 percent to the east of the COM; if the mass is
displaced 5 percent to the west of the COM then the wall shears on Grid
Lines B and F would be switched):

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Design Example 1 27

146.68 k

266.85 k

348.42 k

383.56 k

Figure 1-11. Concrete shearwall forces by level, wall on Grid Line B

171.89 k

310.57 k

404.21 k

443.40 k

Figure 1-12. Concrete shearwall forces by level, wall on Grid Line F

F3rd diaphragm (Line B) = 348.42 k 266.85 k = 81.57 k


F3rd diaphragm (Line F) = 404.21 k 310.57 k = 93.64 k

Based on these forces, the trapezoidal load distribution is calculated and


applied as shown in Figure 1-13. The concrete diaphragm is then modeled
as a continuous beam with supports at the shear wall locations, as shown in
Figure 1-17. Referring to Figure 1-13, the trapezoidal load is back calcu-
lated by setting w1 and w2 as unknowns and assuming that the diaphragm
forces as calculated above are the known beam reactions. Then simple stat-
ics is used to solve for the two unknowns (w1 and w2) in the statically de-
terminate beam model as follows:

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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28 Design Example 1

RL RR
a b c

w1
w2
L

Figure 1-13. Notation used in trapezoidal load calculation

Known values:

R L = F3rd diaphragm (Line B) = 81.57 k


R R = F3rd diaphragm (Line F) = 93.64 k
a = left cantilever = 30 ft
b = center span = 120 ft
c = right cantilever = 30 ft
L = total diaphragm length = a + b + c = 180 ft

Sum the forces in the direction of the load and sum moments about the left
support point, RL (two equations and two unknowns):

w1 + w2
(1) L = RL + RR
2

L 1 2
(2) w1 L a + ( w2 w1 ) L L a = R R b
2 2 3

Solve for w1 and w2.

Applying the factor to the distributed load (Figure 1-14a) gives the dia-
phragm load at the Fpx force level (Figure 1-14b). Analysis of the beam
model yields support reactions that represent the shear wall forces shown
above, multiplied by the factor. This can serve as a computational check
of the accuracy of the beam model by dividing out the factor and com-
paring the resulting beam reactions to the wall shears shown in Figures
1-11 and 1-12.

Based on Figure 1-15, the maximum diaphragm shear calculated at Grid


Line B is 83.0 k. The shear is then divided by the total length of the dia-
phragm since the beams below act as collector elements along this line. The

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 1 29

ultimate diaphragm shear on a per-foot basis can then be calculated as fol-


lows:
V 83.0 k
vudB = udB = = 0.92 klf
LdB 90ft

Similarly, the ultimate shear at Grid Line F can be calculated as:

VudF 91.0 k
vudF = = = 1.01 klf
LdF 90ft

Therefore, the ultimate shear in the third floor diaphragm in the north-south
direction occurs at Grid Line F when the mass is offset to the east of the
COR.

Chord forces:

The maximum chord forces will occur at the location of maximum moment.
Based on the moment diagram shown in Figure 1-16, the maximum mo-
ment occurs at the point of zero shear, which in this case is near the mid-
point of the center span. Assuming an approximate center-to-center distance
between chord elements of 95 percent of the total diaphragm depth, the
chord forces are calculated as follows:

Mu = 1958.2 k-ft
D = 0.95(90ft ) = 85.5 ft
M u 1,958.2 k - ft
Tu = = = 22.9 k
D 85.5 ft
It should be noted here that one could use the center-to-center distance be-
tween perimeter beams as D. If this is used, the chord reinforcement should
be located at the top of the perimeter beam.

B F

R L = 81.57k R R= 93.64k
a = 30 ft b = 120 ft c = 30 ft

w1= 0.839 klf


w 2= 1.108 klf
Figure 1-14a. Beam model of third floor diaphragm with fx loading applied

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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30 Design Example 1

R L = 121.54k R R= 139.52k
a = 30 ft b = 120 ft c = 30 ft

w1= 1.25 klf


w 2= 1.65 klf
Figure 1-14b. Beam model of third floor diaphragm with fpx loading applied

Figure 1-15. Shear diagram (nonlinear) for third floor beam model, fpx force level (k)

Figure 1-16. Moment diagram for third floor beam model, fpx force level (k-ft)

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 1 31

fx

f px = f x

Figure 1-17. Plan view of third floor diaphragm showing loading at base shear (fx) and
diaphragm force (fpx) levels

tension chord, T

compression chord, C

direction of
force

Figure 1-18. Plan view of third floor diaphragm showing flexural behavior and resulting
chord forces

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32 Design Example 1

1e. Design Forces for Diaphragm with Opening (Second Floor).

Explanation of analysis procedure.

Determination of diaphragm shear:


The analysis methodology used in Part 1d for the analysis of the diaphragm
without openings can be used similarly for the diaphragm with an opening
(see Figures 1-19 through 1-24). However, in order to accurately calculate
the actual diaphragm forces, a more detailed analysis that accounts for the
nonuniform distribution of seismic mass across the floor diaphragm due to
the existence of the large opening is required. This can prove to be an
arduous task if done by hand and for the purposes of this design example
the procedure used in Part 1d will be used.

Determination of chord forces:


As stated in Part 1d, the primary chord forces (T1, C1) are calculated as a
function of the flexural moment in the diaphragm and the depth of the dia-
phragm perpendicular to the direction of loading. With the introduction of
an opening into the diaphragm, secondary chord forces (T2, C2) must be ac-
counted for in the analysis as shown in Figure 1-25. These secondary chord
forces occur due to local bending of the diaphragm segments on either side
of the opening (in this case above and below). These diaphragm segments
are idealized as beams that span across the opening with fixed ends. It
should be noted here that although a fully fixed condition is assumed for the
purposes of this example, the actual beam end fixity will lie somewhere in
between a fixed and a pinned condition. The loading on these segments is
calculated based on the relative mass of the two segments. The primary and
secondary chord forces are calculated using the corresponding diaphragm
depths, D1 and D2, respectively and the resulting values are additive.

Diaphragm shear:
Using the procedure outlined in Part 1d, the total diaphragm force at each
grid line is calculated as:

F2nd diaphragm (Line B) = 383.56 k 348.42 k = 35.14 k


F2nd diaphragm (Line F) = 443.40 k 404.21 k = 39.19 k

The diaphragm will be checked at two locations: (1) the shear wall line with
the higher diaphragm shear demand (Grid Line F); (2) the side of the
opening with the higher shear demand (Grid Line E).

Referring to Figure 1-20, the maximum diaphragm demands on a per-foot


basis are calculated as:

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Design Example 1 33

VudF 63.9 k
(1) vudF = = = 0.71 klf
LdF 90 ft
V 31.5 k
(2) vudE = udE = = 0.45 klf
LdE (90 ft 20 ft )

Therefore, the maximum ultimate shear in the second floor diaphragm in


the north-south direction occurs at Grid Line F.

B F

R L = 35.14k R R= 39.19k
a = 30 ft b = 120 ft c = 30 ft

w1= 0.368 klf


w2= 0.458 klf

Figure 1-19a. Beam model of second floor diaphragm with fx loading applied

R L = 87.50k R R= 97.58k
a = 30 ft b = 120 ft c = 30 ft

w 1= 0.916 klf
w 2= 1.14 klf

Figure 1-19b. Beam model of second floor diaphragm with fpx loading applied

31.5 k
Edge of opening

Figure 1-20. Shear diagram (nonlinear) for second floor beam model, fpx force level (k)

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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34 Design Example 1

Figure 1-21. Moment diagram for second floor beam model, fpx force level (k-ft)

Chord forces:
The primary chord forces at midspan of the diaphragm are calculated in a
manner similar to that described in Part 1d, as follows:

Mu1 = 1,388.6 k-ft

D1 = 0.95(90 ft ) = 85.5 ft

M u1 1,388.6 k - ft
Tu1 = = = 16.2 k
D1 85.5 ft

The secondary chord forces are calculated based on the internal moment in
the diaphragm segment adjacent to the opening. Idealizing the segment
above the opening as a beam with fixed ends, the applied loading is ap-
proximated based on the relative mass of each segment. Since the building
is symmetric and the opening is located directly in its center, the applied
loading on each segment will be equal to half of the overall applied trape-
zoidal load over this portion of the diaphragm as shown in Figures 1-22 and
1-23 (see calculation below). The moment diagram is then derived as
shown in Figure 1-24.

The trapezoidal load on the diaphragm segment above the opening is cal-
culated as follows:

In accordance with Figure 1-19b:


w1 = 0.916 klf
w2 = 1.14 klf
180 ft 57 ft

1 2 = 0.50 klf
w1 ' = 0.916 klf + (1.14 klf 0.916 klf )
2 180 ft

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 1 35

180 ft 57 ft

1 2 = 0.53 klf
w2 ' = 1.14 klf (1.14 klf 0.916 klf )
2 180 ft

w1 w2

w1 w2

w1

w2

Figure 1-22. Plan view of second floor diaphragm showing distribution of overall trapezoidal
load to diaphragm segments adjacent to opening

57 ft
(opening)

w1' = 0.50 klf


w 2' = 0.53 klf
Figure 1-23. Beam model of second floor diaphragm segment above opening with fpx loading
applied

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36 Design Example 1

Figure 1-24. Moment diagram for second floor diaphragm segment above opening (k-ft)

The secondary, T2, and total chord forces near midspan are then calculated
based upon the maximum positive moment as follows:

M u 2 = 69.7 k - ft (max. positive secondary moment near segment midspan)

D2 = 0.95(35ft ) = 33.3 ft

M u 2 69.7 k - ft
Tu 2 = = = 2.09 k
D2 33.3ft

Tutot = Tu1 + Tu 2 = 16.2 k + 2.09 k = 18.3 k

primary tension force, T1

secondary tension force, T2

secondary compression force, C2

Direction of
secondary tension force, T3 EQ force
secondary compression force, C3

primary compression force, C1

Figure 1-25. Plan view of second floor diaphragm showing flexural behavior and resulting
primary and secondary chord forces for the diaphragm segments near midspan

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 1 37

Since the diaphragm segment adjacent to the opening is assumed to have


fixed end supports in the beam model, tensile chord forces will develop at
the locations near the corners of the opening due to negative moments at
these locations. The secondary chord force is thus calculated based upon the
maximum negative moment as follows:

M u 3 = 140.2 k - ft (max. negative secondary moment at segment end)

D2 = 0.95(35 ft ) = 33.3 ft

M u 3 140.2 k ft
Tu 3 = = = 4.21 k
D2 33.3 ft

Note that this force will govern in the design of the chord nearest the open-
ing. Based upon the moment diagram in Figure 1-24, the seismic force
when reversed will induce a maximum negative moment near midspan of
the diaphragm segment equal to 69.7 k-ft, which is less than the maximum
positive moment of 140.2 k-ft at the end of the segment. Thus, the dia-
phragm chords will be designed based upon a maximum moment of 140.2
k-ft since the area of chord steel provided is constant over the full length of
the diaphragm segment. However, additional reinforcement may be pro-
vided locally in the diaphragm segment if the demands are significant.

Note that, although not shown here, the above approach shall also be used
for the design of the chords in the east-west direction.

2. Design of Diaphragm without Opening (Third Floor) for Seismic Design


Category B.

2a. Design Third Floor Diaphragm on Grid Line F.

The design shear strength of the 61/2-inch-thick concrete floor slab is cal-
culated as follows:

Vc = 2 f ' c bd ACI 318-05 (11-4)

where

= 0.75 for members subject to shear ACI 318-05 9.3

For the 61/2-inch concrete slab:

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38 Design Example 1

12 in. 1 k
Vc = (0.75) 2 4,000psi (6.5 in.) = 7.4 klf
1ft 1000 lbs

Vc vudF = 1.01 klf slab is OK for diaphragm demands

2b. Design Chords for Third Floor Diaphragm (without Opening).

The slab reinforcement required for the chord forces must be calculated.
The design tension strength of the reinforcement is calculated as:

Tn = As f y Tu

where

= 0.90 for tension in the reinforcing steel

As calculated in Part 1d:

Tu = 22.9 k

The amount of additional slab reinforcement required in the chord member


can then be calculated as:

Tu 22.9 k
As = = = 0.42 in.2
f y (0.9)(60 ksi)

provide one #6 bar at the slab edge ( As = 0.44 in.2 )

Alternatively, the reinforcement provided at the top of the beam (i.e., com-
pression reinforcement) can be utilized to meet the demand of chord forces.
However, only the reinforcement provided in excess of that required for
gravity demands alone may be used to resist lateral loads (i.e., as chord re-
inforcement).

Note that elements that resist chord forces due to seismic loading in one
particular direction may act as collector elements for seismic forces in the
perpendicular direction. In such cases, these elements must be designed for
the highest forces resulting from seismic loading in either direction. Provide
Class B splices for all chord and collector reinforcement (see ACI 318-05
21.9.8.2 and 12.15 for splice requirements).

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 1 39

3. Design of Diaphragm with Opening (Second Floor) for Seismic Design


Category B.

3a. Design Second Floor Diaphragm on Grid Line F.

The slab thickness and reinforcement is the same as the third floor. There-
fore, the design shear strength of the diaphragm is:

Vc = 7.4 klf vudF = 0.71 klf slab is OK for diaphragm


demands

3b. Design Chords for Second Floor Diaphragm (with Opening).

The additional slab reinforcement required to resist the chord forces is cal-
culated using the same procedure outlined in Part 2b. The total chord
reinforcement required for primary and secondary chord forces:

Tutot = 18.3 k (along Grid Lines 1 and 4)

Tutot 18.3 k
As = = = 0.34 in.2
f y (0.9)(60 ksi)

provide one #6 bar at the slab edge ( As = 0.44 in.2 )

Note that since one #6 bar is required for both primary and total chord
forces near to midspan of the opening, this reinforcement shall be used
continuously along the full length of the edge of the diaphragm. If extra re-
inforcement were required at the edge of the opening to carry the additional
load due to the secondary chord force, this reinforcement should be
provided along the length of the diaphragm adjacent to the opening and
should extend a distance equal to the development length, ld, of the bar be-
yond each end of the opening.

Secondary chord reinforcement required for negative moment adjacent to


opening:

Tu 3 = 4.21 k (adjacent to Grid Lines 2 and 3)

Tu 3 4.21 k
As = = = 0.08 in.2
f y (0.9)(60 ksi)

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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40 Design Example 1

provide one #5 ( As = 0.31 in.2 ) bar at the inside slab edge adjacent to
the opening

Alternatively, the top reinforcement in the beam may be utilized to resist


chord forces as discussed in Part 2b.

4. Collector Design for Seismic Design Category B.

4a. Design Forces for Collector on Third Floor, Line B.

Because of the symmetrical nature of the building, the collector on Line B


shall be designed for a diaphragm force level load of 93.64 k, which will
occur if accidental torsion is applied by displacing the load to the west of
the COM (see Part 1d).

F3rd diaphragm (Line B) = 93.64 k

F px = F3rd diaphragm (Line B) = (1.49)(93.64 k ) = 139.52 k

The load combination used in the collector design for Seismic Design Cate-
gory B is in accordance with 12.4.2.3:

(1.2 + 0.2S DS )D + QE + L
where
= 1.0

QE = axial demand on the collector at the Fpx force level

In order to determine the axial load effects of seismic forces on collectors, a


collector diagram is typically constructed using the diaphragm force. The
distributed diaphragm and wall resistance forces are calculated as follows
(see Figure 1-26):

Q E (1.0)(139.52 k )
v diaph = = = 1.55 klf
Ldiaph 90ft

QE (1.0)(139.52 k )
v wall = = = 4.65 klf
L wall 30ft

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 1 41

Note that the above calculation of the distributed diaphragm force as-
sumes a uniform mass distribution across the diaphragm and hence a lin-
ear distributed diaphragm force, which is indeed the case in this example.
Nonuniform mass distribution must be accounted for in the determination
of the distributed diaphragm force where it occurs. The collector diagram
is calculated as follows:

FC 2 = (v diaph )( L1 2 ) = (1.55 klf )(30ft ) = 46.5 k

FC 3 = FC 2 + (v diaph v wall )( L23 ) = 46.5 k + (1.55klf 4.65klf )(30ft ) = 46.5 k

46.5 k

-46.5 k

Figure 1-26. Distributed diaphragm force and collector diagram for third floor collector on
Line B (k)

Based on the collector diagram in Figure 1-26, the maximum axial force
(QE) on the collector is:

Tu = C u = 46.5 k

4b. Design of Collector on Third Floor, Line B.

Flexure:
The flexural demand on the collector beams is due to gravity loading. Based
on the (1.2D + 1.6L) load combination and equations in ACI 318-05 for the
flexural design of reinforced concrete beams, the loading and required
longitudinal reinforcement for the beam on Line B assuming simply
supported end conditions is as follows:

Interior beam (collector) = 21x24


(wgrav)u = 3.57 klf
(Mgrav)u = 402 k-ft
(As)reqd = 4.53 in

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42 Design Example 1

Use six #8 longitudinal bars at bottom (As = 4.71 in.)

For the seismic load combination used in Part 4a, the load effects due to
gravity and lateral loads are:

(wgrav)u = 3.24 klf


(Mgrav)u = 365 k-ft
Pu = 46.5 k (see Part 4a)

Tension:

The design strength of a reinforced concrete section in tension is:

Tn = Fy As

where

= 0 .9 ACI 318-05 9.3.2.2

Compression:
The design strength of a nonprestressed reinforced concrete section in
compression with ties is:

[
Pn = 0.80 0.85 f c' (Ag Ast ) + f y Ast ] ACI 318-05 10.3.6.1 (10-2)

The strength reduction factor shall be 0.65 for compression-controlled


sections with ties in accordance with ACI 318-05 9.3.2.2. increases
linearly to 0.90 as Pn decreases from the lesser of 0.10 f'cAg or Pb to zero.

Axial-Flexure Interaction:
The collector must be designed as a beam-column. In order to determine the
interaction of flexural and axial load effects an axial load-moment interac-
tion, or P-M, diagram is typically constructed either by hand or by using a
computer program. The construction of a P-M diagram requires that the
section size and reinforcement be previously known or assumed with the
final design being achieved through iterative analysis. Four major points
including the strength in pure compression (Pn), the balanced point (Pb,
Mb), the strength in pure flexure (Mn) and the strength in pure tension
(Tn) must be determined in order to construct the P-M diagram.

A computer program has been used in this example and the resulting P-M
diagram is shown in Figure 1-27. Points 1 and 2 plotted on the diagram rep-
resent the factored axial and flexural loads determined in Part 4a. Both

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Design Example 1 43

points fall within the P-M curve indicating that the section is adequate to
carry the design loads.

Use six #8 longitudinal bars at bottom with two #8 corner bars at top

See Figure 1-8 for collector reinforcement detail.

Figure 1-27. P-M diagram for third floor collector on Line B (k)

5. Brief Discussion of Seismic Design Categories C through F.

The rigid diaphragm assumption used for the example in Seismic Design
Category B is also valid for Seismic Design Category C, since it meets the
requirements of 12.3.1.2, and the horizontal irregularity Type 3 in Table
12.3-1, which addresses openings in the diaphragm, is not applicable for
this category. From the three dimensional analysis results, it has been veri-
fied that horizontal irregularity Type 1a does not exist. If torsional
irregularities do exist, then the design forces determined from the analysis
must be increased by 25 percent for the design of diaphragm connections to
the vertical elements in accordance with 12.3.3.4. The redundancy factor
can be taken as equal to 1.0 in accordance with 12.3.4.1.

12.11.2.2.1 addresses the requirements of continuous ties or struts between


diaphragm chords for Seismic Design Categories C through F. This is not
required in the example for Seismic Design Category B. It should be noted
that in the case of a concrete diaphragm with beams, as in this example, the

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44 Design Example 1

above requirement is satisfied automatically as these elements act


integrally.

An additional requirement, which applies for Seismic Design Categories C


through F, is the application of load combinations with the overstrength
factor (0) in accordance with 12.10.2.1 for the design of collector
elements, splices and connections. The SEAOC Seismology Committee
has, however, proposed a revision to this code section, which will be
addressed in Part 6b.

6. Determination of Diaphragm Demands for Seismic Design Category D. 12.8

Note: this section follows the procedure presented in Part 1 and is a con-
densed version.

6a. Design Base Shear.

Seismic data:

Seismic Design Category (SDC) D

Values for SS and S1 can be determined from the maps in ASCE 7-05 or
from the USGS web site, which calculates the values by either zip code or
longitude and latitude coordinates.

S S = 1.5 Figure 22-1

S1 = 0.30 Figure 22-2

Fa = 1.0 Table 11.4-1

Fv = 1.8 Table 11.4-2

S MS = Fa S S = 1.0(1.5) = 1.5 (11.4-1)

S M 1 = Fv S1 = 1.8(0.30 ) = 0.54 (11.4-2)

2 2
S DS = S MS = (1.5) = 1.0 (11.4-3)
3 3
2 2
S D1 = S M 1 = (0.54 ) = 0.36 (11.4-4)
3 3

TL = 4 s Figure 22-15

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Design Example 1 45

I = 1.0

For special reinforced concrete shear walls (bearing wall system):

R = 5 .0 Table 12.14-1

Design base shear is based on equivalent lateral force procedure:

V = C sW (12.8-1)

where

S DS 1.0
Cs = = = 0.200 (12.8-2)
R 5 .0

I 1.0

The seismic response coefficient need not exceed:

North-south direction:

S D1 0.36
Cs = = = 0.141 (governs in north-south direction) (12.8-3)
R 5.0
T 0.51
I 1.0

East-west direction:

S D1 0.36
Cs = = = 0.189 (governs in east-west direction)
R 5.0
T 0.38
I 1.0

for T TL

The seismic response coefficient shall not be less than:

C s = 0.01 (12.8-5)

For north-south direction of forces:

V = 0.141(13,304 k ) = 1876 k

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46 Design Example 1

For east-west direction of forces:

V = 0.189(13,304 k ) = 2514 k

6b. Vertical Distribution of Forces.

Table 1-4. Vertical distribution of seismic forces for the north-south direction (SDC D)

wx hxk wx hxk F tot


Level w x (k) hx (ft) (%) Fx (k)
(k-ft) wi hik (k)

Roof 3149 60 192848 38.1 714.1 714.1


4th floor 3442 45 157866 31.2 585.7 1299.8
3rd floor 3442 30 105031 20.8 390.5 1690.3
2nd floor 3271 15 49734 9.9 185.4 1875.7
13304 505479 1875.7

Table 1-5. Vertical distribution of seismic forces for the east-west direction (SDC D)

wx hxk wx hxk F tot


Level w x (k) hx (ft) (%) Fx (k)
(k-ft) wi hik (k)

Roof 3149 60 188940 38.1 957.5 957.5


4th floor 3442 45 154890 31.2 784.9 1742.4
3rd floor 3442 30 103260 20.8 523.3 2265.7
2nd floor 3271 15 49065 9.9 248.6 2514.3
13304 496155 2514.3
Note: Although not shown here, designers must also check wind loading.

Redundancy Factor, :
The redundancy factor, , for SDC D, must be calculated based upon the
requirements in 12.3.4.2. According to this section, shall equal 1.3
unless one of two conditions is met, in which case shall equal 1.0.

(1) Since all of the shear walls in the example building have a height-to-
length ratio less than 1.0 (15 ft/30 ft = 0.5), item 12.3.4.2.a is automatically
met and therefore equals 1.0 in this example.

(2) To check if item 12.3.4.2.b is met, the number of bays, which is calcu-
lated based upon the definition of a bay given in this section, must be
greater than two. Based on Tables 1-4 and 1-5, only the roof level resists
more than 35 percent of the base shear in both directions and is therefore
the only level that needs to be checked for compliance with item 12.3.4.2.b.

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Design Example 1 47

By inspection, the north-south direction will govern since there are only
two walls in this direction.

(30 ft )
No. bays = = 2 bays 2 bays
15 ft
= 1.0

Note that the code requires that only one of the above conditions must be
satisfied in order for to equal 1.0.

Accidental Torsion and Amplification:


In addition to the application of 5 percent accidental torsion required in
accordance with 12.8.4.2 for rigid diaphragms, an amplification of the
accidental torsion in accordance with 12.8.4.3 must be accounted for in
SDC C through F for structures with either torsional irregularity Type 1a or
1b. Since neither torsional irregularity Type 1a nor 1b exists in the example
structure, amplification of accidental torsion is not required. However, for
structures where either of these irregularities does occur, the accidental
torsion amplification factor, Ax, varies between a minimum of 1.0 and a
maximum of 3.0. The reader is encouraged to review the 2006
Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Example 25, for detailed application of
this code provision.

6c. Diaphragm Design Forces.

The diaphragm design forces must be calculated at each level, as follows:

F
i=x
i
F px = n
w px (12.10-1)
w
i=x
i

The diaphragm design force at each level need not exceed:

F px = 0.4 S DS Iw px = 0.4(1.0)(1.0)w px = 0.400 w px

The diaphragm design force at each level shall not be less than:

F px = 0.2 S DS Iw px = 0.2(1.0)(1.0)w px = 0.200 w px

Determination of F px is shown in Table 1-6.

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48 Design Example 1

Table 1-6. Diaphragm design forces for the north-south direction (SDC D)

Maximum code diaphragm force

Level w px (k) w i Fx (k) F i


F x
F px (k) =
Fpx
(k) (k) w px Fx
Roof 3149 3149 714.1 714.1 0.227 714.1 1.00
4th Floor 3442 6591 585.7 1299.8 0.200* 688.4 1.18
3rd Floor 3442 10033 390.5 1690.3 0.200* 688.4 1.76
2nd Floor 3271 13303 185.4 1875.7 0.200* 654.0 3.53
13304 1875.7
*Note: The minimum diaphragm design value of 0.200 controls at the fourth, third
and second floor levels (actual calculated value are 0.197, 0.168, 0.141,
respectively).

6d. Design Forces for Diaphragm without Opening (Third Floor).

Note that for buildings assigned to SDC D through F, the structure must be
checked for horizontal structural irregularities listed in Table 12.3-1 in
accordance with 12.3.3.4. Since the example building is symmetrical in
both mass and lateral system, it has neither Torsional Irregularity (1a) nor
Extreme Torsional Irregularity (1b) by inspection. For structures with rigid
or semirigid diaphragms, the method for checking for torsional
irregularities is as shown in Figure 1-28 as follows:

Figure 1-28. Notation used for diaphragm displacements

a = story drift at end a of structure


b = story drift at end b of structure
max = maximum story drift at either end of structure
(Note: these values are calculated including accidental torsion)

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Design Example 1 49

+ b
Type 1a applies if: max > 1.2 a
2

+ b
Type 1b applies if: max > 1.4 a
2

By inspection, the example structure is also regular in the vertical direction


and does not have any of the vertical structural irregularities listed in Table
12.3-2. Therefore, in accordance with 12.3.3.4, the seismic design forces
need not be increased.

Diaphragm shear (see Figures 1-29 through 1-32):


Total wall shears at each level for concrete shear walls in the north-south
direction are as follows (these values represent the resulting wall shears
with the mass displaced 5 percent to the east of the COM; if the mass is
displaced 5 percent to the west of the COM then the wall shears on Grid
Lines B and F would be switched):

F3rd diaphragm (Line B) = 783.94 k 600.42 k = 183.52 k


F3rd diaphragm (Line F) = 909.46 k 698.78 k = 210.68 k

330.03 k

600.42 k

783.94 k

863.02 k

Figure 1-29. Concrete shearwall forces by level, wall on Grid Line B

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50 Design Example 1

386.75 k

698.78 k

909.46 k

997.65 k

Figure 1-30. Concrete shearwall forces by level, wall on Grid Line F

Based on Figure 1-32, the ultimate shear at Grid Line B is calculated as:

VudB 220.6 k
vudB = = = 2.45 klf
LdB 90ft

Similarly, the ultimate shear at Grid Line F is calculated as:

VudF 241.9 k
vudF = = = 2.69 klf
LdF 90 ft

Therefore, the ultimate shear in the third floor diaphragm in the north-south
direction occurs at Grid Line F when the mass is offset to the east of the
COR.

Chord forces:
In accordance with Figure 1-33, the maximum moment at midspan of the
diaphragm is:

Mu = 5202.8 k-ft

D = 0.95(90ft ) = 85.5ft

M u 5202.8 k ft
Tu = = = 60.9 k
D 85.5 ft

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Design Example 1 51

Figure 1-31. Beam model of third floor diaphragm with fx loading applied

Figure 1-31a. Beam model of third floor diaphragm with fpx loading applied

Figure 1-32. Shear diagram (nonlinear) for third floor beam model, fpx force level (k)

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52 Design Example 1

Figure 1-33. Moment diagram for third floor beam model, fpx force level (k-ft)

6e. Design Forces for Diaphragm with Opening (Second Floor).

For the diaphragm with an opening (second floor), the diaphragm design
forces are calculated using the same procedure as described in detail in Part
1e.

Due to the large opening at the center of the second floor diaphragm in this
example, the Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity (3) in Table 12.3-1 must
be checked in accordance with 12.3.3.4. This is done as follows:

Ag = gross enclosed diaphragm area = (90 ft)(180 ft) = 16,200 ft2


Aopg = area of diaphragm opening = (20 ft)(57 ft) = 1,140 ft2

1,140 ft 2
= 0.07 < 0.50 Irregularity 3 does not apply
16,200 ft 2

Since the area of the opening in the diaphragm is only 7 percent of the gross
enclosed diaphragm area, by inspection there is no change in diaphragm
stiffness of more than 50 percent from the second floor to the adjacent lev-
els. Therefore, in accordance with 12.3.3.4, the seismic design forces need
not be increased.

Diaphragm shear (see Figures 1-34 and 1-35):


Using the procedure outlined in Part 1d, the total diaphragm force at each
grid line is calculated as:

F2nd diaphragm (Line B) = 863.02 k 783.94 k = 79.08 k


F2nd diaphragm (Line F) = 997.65 k 909.46 k = 88.19 k

The diaphragm will be checked at two locations: (1) the shear wall line with
the higher diaphragm shear demand (Grid Line F); (2) the side of the open-
ing with the higher shear demand (Grid Line E).

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Design Example 1 53

Referring to Figure 1-35, the maximum diaphragm demands on a per-foot


basis are calculated as:

VudF 204.0 k
(1) vudF = = = 2.27 klf
LdF 90ft

VudE 96.0 k
(2) vudE = = = 1.37 klf
LdE (90ft 20ft )

Therefore, the maximum ultimate shear in the second floor diaphragm in


the north-south direction occurs at Grid Line F.

Figure 1-34. Beam model of second floor diaphragm with fx loading applied

Figure 1-34a. Beam model of second floor diaphragm with fpx loading applied

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54 Design Example 1

96.0 k
Edge of opening

Figure 1-35. Shear diagram (nonlinear) for second floor beam model, fpx force level (k)

Figure 1-36. Moment diagram for second floor beam model, fpx force level (k-ft)

Chord forces (see Figure 1-36):


Refer to Part 1e for explanation of procedure.

Maximum primary chord force:

Mu1 = 4428.7 k-ft

D1 = 0.95(90ft ) = 85.5ft

M u1 4428.7 k ft
Tu1 = = = 51.8 k
D1 85.5ft

The trapezoidal load on the diaphragm segment above the opening is cal-
culated as follows (see Figure 1-37):

In accordance with Figure 1-34a:


w1 = 2.923 klf
w2 = 3.638 klf

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Design Example 1 55

180ft 57ft

1 2 = 1.584 klf
w1 ' = 2.923 klf + (3.638 klf 2.923 klf )
2 180 ft


180ft 57ft

1 2 = 1.697 klf
w2 ' = 3.638 klf (3.638 klf 2.923 klf )
2 180 ft

Maximum positive secondary chord force:

Figure 1-37. Beam model of second floor diaphragm segment above opening with fpx loading
applied

Figure 1-38. Moment diagram for 2nd floor diaphragm segment above opening (k-ft)

M u 2 = 222.1 k - ft (maximum positive secondary moment near segment


midspan from Figure 1-38)

D2 = 0.95(35ft ) = 33.3ft

M u 2 222.1 k ft
Tu 2 = = = 6.67 k
D2 33.3ft

Tutot = Tu1 + Tu 2 = 51.8 k + 6.67 k = 58.5 k

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56 Design Example 1

Maximum negative secondary chord force:

M u 3 = 447.2 k - ft (max. negative secondary moment at the segment


end)

D2 = 0.95(35ft ) = 33.3ft

M u 3 447.2 k ft
Tu 3 = = = 13.4 k
D2 33.3ft

7. Design of Diaphragm without Opening (Third Floor) for Seismic Design


Category D.

7a. Design Third Floor Diaphragm on Grid Line F.

The slab thickness and reinforcement is shown in Figure 1-1. For Seismic
Design Category D, the diaphragm shear strength shall be in accordance
with ACI 318-05 21.9.7 and is calculated as follows:

Vn = Acv (2 f ' c + n f y ) ACI 318-05 (21-10)

where

= 0.75 for members subject to shear in accordance with ACI 318-


05 9.3

Note that the diaphragm shear strength calculated above shall not exceed
8 Acv f ' c in accordance with ACI 318-05 21.9.7.3.

For the 61/2-inch concrete slab (ignoring the steel reinforcement in the
slab):
12 in. 1k
Vn = (0.75)(6.5 in.) ( 2 4,000psi ) = 7.4 klf
1ft 1000 lbs

Vn vudF = 2.69 klf slab is OK for diaphragm demands

7b. Design Chords for Third Floor Diaphragm (without Opening).

See Part 2b for the design procedure. As calculated in Part 6d:

Tu = 60.9 k

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Design Example 1 57

Tu 60.9 k
As = = = 1.13 in.2
f y (0.9)(60 ksi)

Provide three #6 bars at the slab edge ( As = 1.32 in.2 )

For SDC D, the chord must also be checked for compressive stresses in
accordance with ACI 318-05 21.9.5.3. Assuming a 2-foot strip,

C u = 60.9 k

60.9 k
= 0.390 ksi = 0.10 f ' c
(6.5 in.)(24 in.)

Since the maximum chord compressive stress is less than 0.2f c special
transverse reinforcement is not required.

8. Design of Diaphragm with Opening (Second Floor) for Seismic Design


Category D.

8a. Design Second Floor Diaphragm on Grid Line F.

For the 61/2-inch concrete slab (see Part 7a):

Vn = 7.4 klf vudF = 2.27 klf slab is OK for diaphragm demands

8b. Design Chords for Second Floor Diaphragm (with Opening).

The additional slab reinforcement required to resist the chord forces is cal-
culated using the same procedure outlined in Part 2b. The total chord
reinforcement required for primary and secondary chord forces:

Tutot = 58.5 k (along Grid Lines 1 and 4)

Tutot 58.5 k
As = = = 1.08 in.2
f y (0.9)(60 ksi)

provide three #6 bars at the slab edge ( As = 1.32 in.2 )

Note that since three #6 bars are required for both primary and total chord
forces near to midspan of the opening, this reinforcement shall be used
continuously along the full length of the edge of the diaphragm. If extra re-

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58 Design Example 1

inforcement were required at the edge of the opening to carry the additional
load due to the secondary chord force, this reinforcement should be
provided along the length of the diaphragm adjacent to the opening and
should extend a distance equal to the development length, ld, of the bar be-
yond each end of the opening.

Secondary chord reinforcement required for negative moment adjacent to


opening:

Tu 3 = 13.4 k (adjacent to Grid Lines 2 and 3)

Tu 3 13.4 k
As = = = 0.25 in.2
f y (0.9)(60 ksi)

provide one #5 ( As = 0.31 in. 2 ) at inside slab edge adjacent to the


opening

9. Collector Design for Seismic Design Category D.

9a. Design Forces for Collector on Third Floor, Line B.

Due to the symmetrical nature of the building, the collector on Line B


shall be designed for a diaphragm force level load of 210.68 k, which will
occur if accidental torsion is applied by displacing the load to the west of
the COM (see Part 6d).

F3rd diaphragm (Line B) = F3rd diaphragm(Line F) = 210.68 k

F px = F3rd diaphragm (Line B) = (1.76)(210.68 k ) = 370.80 k

In order to determine the axial load effects of seismic forces on collectors, a


collector diagram is typically constructed using the diaphragm force. The
distributed diaphragm and wall resistance forces are calculated as follows
(see Figure 1-39):

F px 370.80 k
v diaph = = = 4.12 klf
Ldiaph 90ft

F px 370.80 k
v wall = = = 12.36 klf
Lwall 30ft

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Design Example 1 59

Note that the above calculation of the distributed diaphragm force


assumes a uniform mass distribution across the diaphragm and hence a
linear distributed diaphragm force, which is indeed the case in this
example. Nonuniform mass distribution must be accounted for in the
determination of the distributed diaphragm force where it occurs. The
collector diagram is calculated as follows:

FC 2 = (v diaph )( L1 2 ) = (4.12 klf )(30ft ) = 123.6 k

FC 3 = FC 2 + (v diaph v wall )( L23 ) = 123.6 k + ( 4.12klf 12.36klf )(30ft ) = 123.6 k

123.6 k

-123.6 k

Figure 1-39. Distributed diaphragm force and collector diagram for third floor collector on
Line B (k)

Based on the collector diagram in Figure 1-39, the maximum axial force on
the collector is:

Tu = C u = 123.6 k

Since the current code requirement for collector design in accordance with
ASCE 7-05 12.10.2 and 12.10.2.1 leads to overly conservative collector
demands, this example follows the latest (August 2008) SEAOC
Seismology Committees draft recommendations, which are as follows:

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60 Design Example 1

12.10.2.1 Collector Elements Requiring Load Combinations


with Overstrength Factor for Seismic Design Categories C
through F. In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C,
D, E, or F, collector elements (see Fig. 12.10-1), splices, and their
connections to resisting elements shall resist the load combina-
tions with overstrength of Section 12.4.3.2, where the value of
0QE shall be taken as the greater of the following:
1) 0Fx (where Fx per 12.8-11)
2) 0Fpx (where Fpx per 12.10-1 ignoring the 0.2SDSIwpx
minimum)
3) Collector force based on 0.2SDSIwpx (minimum value
from 12.10.1.1)

where wpx represents the weight tributary to the diaphragm at


level x.

EXCEPTION: In structures or portions thereof braced entirely by


lightframe shear walls, collector elements, splices, and connec-
tions to resisting elements need only be designed to resist forces in
accordance with Section 12.10.1.1.

In accordance with Table 12.2-1: 0 = 2.5

According to the revised ASCE 7-05 12.10.2.1, the collector forces are
calculated as:

(2.5)(123.6 k )
1) 0 Fx = = 176 k
1.76
0.168
2) 0 F px = (2.5)(123.6 k ) = 260 k
0.200
3) 115 k

Note that in this example the minimum diaphragm shear at the third level
governs as shown in Table 1-6. As a result, the collector design load in
Item 2 above must be factored down to the actual diaphragm shear level
as shown above.

To calculate collector demand using Item 3 noted above (115 k), take the
weight tributary to the diaphragm at the level under consideration in
accordance with Table 1-4 (wpx = 3442 k) and derive the collector load
based upon a seismic coefficient of 0.2SDSIwpx as follows (note that due to
the symmetrical nature of the building the weight tributary to each of the

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Design Example 1 61

two collector lines is approximated as one half of the total tributary


weight):

3442 k
W pxB = = 1721 k
2

1791 k
w pxB = = 19.1 klf
90ft

0.2S DS Iw px = 0.2(1.0)(1.0) w px = 0.2w px

Maximum collector force:

(0.2)(19.1 klf )(30ft ) = 115 k

The design of the collector follows the same procedure as explained in Part
4b using the seismic load combination in accordance with ASCE 7-05
12.4.3.2 as follows:

(1.2 + 0.2S DS )D + 0 QE + L

where 0 QE is as proposed in the code revision above

The gravity demands and design for 1.2D+1.6L load combination are the
same as those calculated in Part 4b. For the seismic load combination
above, the load effects due to gravity and lateral loads are:

(wgrav)u = 3.52 klf


(Mgrav)u = 396 k-ft
Pu = 260 k (see above)

An interaction diagram has been has been created for the collector as shown
in Figure 1-40.

Use six #9 bars at bottom; four #8 bars at top; two #8 bars each side

Note that special transverse reinforcement in accordance with ACI 318-05


21.9.5.3 (ACI 318-08 21.11.7.5) is required for collector elements with
compressive stresses exceeding 0.2 f'c. The special transverse reinforcement
shall be provided over the length of the element as given in 21.4.4.1
through 21.4.4.3 (ACI 318-08 21.9.6.4c) and is permitted to be
discontinued at sections where the calculated compressive stress is less than
0.15 f'c. Because the axial load is magnified by the overstrength factor, the

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62 Design Example 1

stress criterion also must be increased accordingly. To check if special


transverse reinforcing is required:

Cu 260k
fc = = = 0.52 ksi = 0.13 f c' 0.5 f c'
Ag (21in.)(24 in.)

special transverse reinforcement is not required

See Figure 1-8a for collector reinforcement detail.

Figure 1-40. P-M diagram for third floor collector on Line B (k)

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Design Example 1 63

10. Design of Slab as Collector Element on Third Floor, Line B for Seismic
Design Category D (Alternate Approach for Collector Design).
The following example is provided to illustrate an alternate approach for
concrete slab collector design. Please refer to the 2008 SEAOC Blue Book:
Seismic Design Recommendations, Article 05.02.030 and the paper titled,
Concrete Slab as Collector Element, by SEAONC Concrete Subcom-
mittee (see Reference 11), for a more detailed description of the theory and
methodology. Figures 1-41 through 1-44 present design methodology and
details.

10a. Calculate Collector Forces and Effective Slab Width on Each Side of
the Wall.
As calculated in Part 9a, the ultimate collector forces with the over-
strength factor applied are:

Cu = Tu = 260 k

Since this is an interior condition, the collector force must be broken into
components, which are then applied to each side of the collector line (see
Figure 1-42). The components are calculated in proportion to the
respective diaphragm shear on each side of the collector line as follows:

V BL
FBL = FC
RL
V
FBR = BR FC
RL

where

FC = collector design force in accordance with Part 9a (Cu or Tu


above)
VBL = diaphragm shear left of collector line in accordance with
Figure 1-32 (opposite hand)
VBR = diaphragm shear right of collector line in accordance with
Figure 1-32 (opposite hand)
R L = F3rd diaphragm (Line B) in accordance with Figure 1-31a

128.9 k
FBL = ( 260 k ) = 90.4 k
370.8 k

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64 Design Example 1

241.9 k
FBR = ( 260 k ) = 169.6 k
370.8 k

These forces, FBL and FBR, will be applied at the midwidth of the effective
slab section on either side of the collector line. For the purposes of this ex-
ample, the effective slab width will be assigned assuming a 30 influence
line on both sides of the collector line originating at the point of zero force
on the collector diagram, which in this case occurs at midlength of the wall
in accordance with Figure 1-42. Note that 45 is recommended in the Blue
Book but in order to reduce the eccentricity, 30 is used here. The total
effective width is then calculated as:

L 1 ft 30 ft
B EFFTOT = t wall + 2 wall tan 30 = (12 in.) + 2 tan 30 = 18.3 ft
2 12 in. 2

The effective width on each of the collector line is:

B EFFTOT 18.3 ft
B EFF = = = 9.15 ft
2 2

The effective slab area on each side of the collector line is:

12 in
AC = (B EFF )(t slab ) = (9.15 ft ) (6.5 in.) = 714 in.
2

1 ft

10b. Determine Required Steel Area to Resist Collector Tension.

The amount of steel required to resist collector tension must now be cal-
culated. Since there is no prestressing force on the slab, the net collector
tension force, TNET, is equal to the collector force as calculated above.

For the left side of the collector line:

TNETL = FBL = 90.4 k

TNETL 90.4 k
AsL = = = 1.67 in.2
Fy (0.9)(60 ksi)

1.67 in.2
= 0.18 in.2/ft
9.15ft

Use #4 @ 12 inches o.c. (As = 0.20 in.2/ft)

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Design Example 1 65

Note that the temperature and steel reinforcement of #4 @ 12 inches o.c.


can be used to resist the collector tension, and no additional steel is
required.

For the right side of the collector line:

TNETR = FBR = 169.6 k

TNETR 169.6 k
AsR = = = 3.14 in. 2
Fy (0.9)(60 ksi)

3.14 in.2
= 0.34 in.2/ft
9.15ft

Use #4 @ 12 inches o.c. in addition to temperature and shrinkage


reinforcement of #4 @ 12 inches o.c. such that Astot = 0.40 in2/ft.

Note that this reinforcement shall be placed symmetrically about mid-depth of the
concrete section so as to prevent additional out-of-plane bending stresses in the slab.

10c. Check Collector Compression Stress.

The slab must now be checked for the compression stress on the effective
width. As with designing the slab for tension forces, the net compression
force, CNET, is equal to the collector force as calculated above since there
is no prestressing force on the slab. As discussed in Part 9a, special
transverse reinforcement must be provided if the resulting compression
stress on the effective slab width exceeds 20 percent of f'c in accordance
with ACI 318-05 21.9.5.3.

For the left side of the collector line:

C NETL = FBL = 90.4 k

C NETL 90.4 k
= = 0.13 ksi = 0.032 f ' c < 0.5 f ' c
AC 714 in.2

special transverse reinforcement is not required

For the right side of the collector line:

C NETR = FBR = 169.6 k

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66 Design Example 1

C NETR 169.6 k
= = 0.24 ksi = 0.060 f ' c < 0.5 f ' c
AC 714 in.2

special transverse reinforcement is not required

10d. Check Diaphragm Segments for Eccentricity.

Figure 1-41. Diaphragm segment reinforcement

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Design Example 1 67

Figure 1-42. Free body diagram for slab element on left and right sides of collector Line B

For the left side of the collector line:

FCL = C NETL + TNETL + VdL

where

VdL = portion of shear force that goes directly into wall

VdL = (v dL )( Lwall ) = (1.00 klf )(30ft ) = 30.0 k

and

FBL 90.4k
v dL = = = 1.00 klf
Ldiaph 90ft

Therefore,

FCL = 90.4 k + 90.4 k + 30.0 k = 210.8 k

The collector force, FCL , is then applied at midwidth of the slab element as
shown in Figure 1-42, thus inducing an in-plane bending moment, Me, in
the slab due to the eccentricity of the slab element midwidth to the collector
line. The slab reinforcement must be designed to resist the seismic shear

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68 Design Example 1

and in-plane bending moment due to this eccentric collector load. Note that
the slab reinforcement provided to resist gravity loads is not used here to re-
sist seismic loads, and all slab reinforcement calculated below is to be
provided in addition to the gravity reinforcement consisting of #5 at 12
inches o.c. top and bottom.

B EFF 9.15 ft
e= = = 4.58 ft
2 2

M eL = FCL e = ( 210.8 k )(4.58ft ) = 965.5 k ft

Summing moments about point a:

M eL = VeL L*wall + M 1L + M 2 L + M 3 L

where

L *wall = moment arm factor (j*) times wall length (Lwall)

In this case, since the eccentricity, e, is small relative to the wall length (30
ft), the moments M2L and M3L may be neglected (see the Blue Book article
for explanation). Thus, the equation reduces to:

M eL = VeL L*wall + M 1L

where

M1L = resisting moment contribution of added steel reinforcement


(As1) (see Figure 1-41)

VeL = strength of steel reinforcement parallel to sections ab and dc


(A*s) (see Figure 1-41)

Since the added steel As1 is distributed evenly over the length of the slab
segment, the moment arm j1.Lwall is assumed to be equal to 75 percent of the
wall length. Also, since the additional reinforcement, A*s, begins at the end
of the wall in this example, the moment arm j*.Lwall is assumed to be equal
to 90 percent of the length of the wall. Referring to Figure 1-42, the mo-
ment arms j1.Lwall and j*.Lwall are thus calculated as follows:

j1 .Lwall = (0.9)(0.75)(30 ft ) = 20.3 ft


j * .Lwall = (0.9)(30 ft ) = 27 ft

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Design Example 1 69

Try #5 at 12 inches o.c. along the full length of the wall for As1 and solve
for A*s (note that both As1 and A*s are perpendicular to the wall):

F y As1 ( j1 .Lwall ) + Fy As* ( j * .Lwall ) M eL

M1L VeLL*wall

in.2
As1 = (#5 @ 12" o.c.)(0.5)( Lwall ) = (0.31 )(0.5)(30 ft ) = 4.65 in.2
ft
M 1L = (0.9)(60ksi)(4.65 in. 2 )(20.3ft ) = 5,097 k ft >> 965.5 k ft

Since the moment capacity of the slab element with the added As1 rein-
forcement greatly exceeds the required moment, MeL, this reinforcement is
unnecessary and shall be neglected. Only the added steel at the end of the
wall, A*s, shall be used to resist the required moment. (Note: this is true
only for this particular example. The user should check for additional
reinforcement, As1, due to moment, M1L. In the case where M1L is less than
MeL, both As1 and A*s may be required.) The required steel, A*s, is
calculated as follows:

M eL (965.5 k ft )
As* = *
= = 0.66 in.2
F y ( j .Lwall ) ( 0 . 9 )( 60 ksi )( 27 ft )

use two #6 bars at each end of the wall (As = 0.88 in.2)

For the right side of the collector line (similar to the procedure used for
the left side):

FCR = C NETR + TNETR + VdR

where

VdR = portion of shear force that goes directly into wall

VdR = (v dR )( Lwall ) = (1.88 klf )(30ft ) = 56.4 k

and
FBR 169.6 k
v dR = = = 1.88 klf
Ldiaph 90ft

Therefore,

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70 Design Example 1

FCR = 169.6 k + 169.6 k + 56.4k = 395.6 k

B EFF 9.15ft
e= = = 4.58ft
2 2

M eR = FCR e = (395.6 k )(4.58 ft ) = 1811.8 k ft

By inspection, only the added reinforcement at each end of the wall is re-
quired since MeR exceeds M1L as calculated above. Therefore, the rein-
forcement required at the end of the wall, A*s, is calculated as:

M eR (1811.8 k ft )
As* = *
= = 1.24 in. 2
F y ( j .Lwall ) (0.9)(60 ksi)(27ft )

use three #6 bars at each end of the wall (As = 1.32 in.2)

Since two #6 bars are required at the end of the wall for the collector forces
on the left side of the wall, these bars will run continuous through the wall
and be used at the right side of wall as well. Additionally, one #6 bar is
provided at the right side, which extends beyond the wall to the left side a
distance equal to the development length of the bar as shown in Figure 1-
43. Note that since the layout of the wall is symmetrical, the same amount
of steel will be required at the opposite end of the wall when the load is
reversed.

10e. Check Diaphragm Segment Shear Strength.

For the left side of the collector line:

(
Vu Acv f ' c + n F y )
where

Vu = FCL = 210.8 k

= 0.75
12 in. 2
Acv = (t slab )( Lwall ) = (6.5 in.)(30 ft ) = 2,340 in.
ft
B 9.15 ft
= EFF = = 0.305
Lwall 30 ft

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Design Example 1 71

Calculate the amount of steel (n) required to resist the diaphragm shear:

1 Vu
n = f 'c
Fy Acv

1 210.8k 1 ksi
n = 2
(0.305) 4000psi = 0.0017
60ksi (0.75)(2,340 in. ) 1000 psi

12 in. 2
Asreq'd = n bd = (0.0017)(6.5 in.)(30ft.) = 3.98 in.
ft

Since two #6 bars are provided perpendicular to the wall at each end as cal-
culated in Part 10d (four #6 total, As = 1.76 in.2), calculate the additional
amount of steel required the resist the diaphragm shear. This additional
steel will be distributed over the length of diaphragm in between the two #6
bars at each end.

Additional Asreq'd = 3.98 in.2 1.76 in.2 = 2.22 in. 2

2.22 in. 2 in.2


Asreq'd = = 0.07
30ft 1ft ft.

provide #4 @ 12 o.c. (As = 0.20 in2/ft, see Figure 1-43)

For the right side of the collector line:

(
Vu Acv f ' c + n F y )
where

Vu = FCR = 395.6 k

(all other parameters are the same as for the left side)

Calculate the amount of steel (n) required to resist the diaphragm shear:
1 395.6 k 1 ksi
n = 2
(0.305) 4000psi = 0.0034
60ksi (0.75)(2,340 in. ) 1000 psi

12 in. 2
Asreq'd = n bd = (0.0034)(6.5 in.)(30ft ) = 7.96 in.
ft

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72 Design Example 1

Since three #6 bars are provided perpendicular to the wall at each end as
calculated in Part 10d (six #6 total, As = 2.64 in.2), calculate the additional
amount of steel required the resist the diaphragm shear. This additional
steel will be distributed over the length of diaphragm in between the three
#6 bars at each end.

Additional Asreq'd = 7.96 in. 2 2.64 in.2 = 5.32 in. 2

5.32 in.2 in. 2


Asreq'd = = 0.18
30ft 1ft ft

provide #4 @ 12 o.c. (As = 0.20 in2/ft, see Figure 1-43)

Since #4 @ 12 inches o.c. is required for the left side, this reinforcement
will extend across the wall line to be used as diaphragm shear
reinforcement for the right side of the wall as shown in Figure 1-43.

10f. Check Shear-Friction at Wall-to-Slab Interface.

Since the diaphragm shear reinforcement as calculated in Part 10e is con-


tinuous through the wall, checking for shear friction is not needed here.

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Design Example 1 73

Figure 1-43. Plan detail at slab collector on third floor, Line B (see Figure 1-44 for Section E)

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74 Design Example 1

Figure 1-44. Section detail at slab collector on third floor, Line B

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Design Example 1 75

References

2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Volume 1Code Application


Example.

ACI 318-05Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and


Commentary.

FEMA 310, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Handbook for the


Seismic Evaluation of BuildingsA Prestandard. Washington, D.C., 1998.

FEMA 369, Federal Emergency Management Agency, NEHRP Recom-


mended Provisions For Seismic Regulations For New Buildings And Other
Structures, Part 2 Commentary. Washington, D.C., 2001.

Ambrose, James and Dimitry Vergun, Simplified Building Design to Wind


and Earthquake Forces. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1995.

Department of the Army, Navy and the Air Force, Seismic Design for
Buildings.

Naeim, Farzad, The Seismic Design Handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold,


New York, 1989.

Prasad, Badri K. and Warren R. Pottebaum, Behavior of Diaphragms with


Openings. DASSE Design Inc. In-house study (Unpublished), 2005.

Structural Engineers Association of Northern California, Seismology and


Structural Standards Concrete Subcommittee, Concrete Slab as a Collector
Element. 100th Anniversary 2006 Earthquake Conference, San Francisco,
CA, April 2006.

Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC), Seismology


Committee, Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary.

Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) Seismology


Committee (2007). Concrete slab collectors, The SEAOC Blue Book:
Seismic Design Recommendations, Sacramento, CA, August 2008. Acces-
sible at: http://www.seaoc.org/bluebook/index.html.

Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC), Struc-


tural/Seismic Design Manual, Volumes 2 & 3. Sacramento, CA, 2006.

Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC), Seismology and


Structural Standards Committee, Using a Concrete Slab as a Seismic Col-
lector, March 2005.

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76 Design Example 1

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77

Design Example 2
Wood Diaphragm (Flexible Diaphragm) for
Seismic Design Category B, C & DThree-Story Building

Overview

This design example illustrates the seismic design of diaphragms, chords


and collectors for a three-story office building structure in accordance with
the provisions of the 2006 International Building Code. The gravity load-
resisting system consists of glu-laminated wood beams supported by
independent steel columns. The second floor diaphragm contains a large
opening. The lateral load resisting system consists of concrete masonry unit
(CMU) shear walls. Typical floor plans and sections of the structure are
shown in Figures 2-1 and 2-2. The wood roof and floor diaphragms are
framed with engineered wood I-joists. The floors have a 11/2-inch
lightweight concrete topping. The roof has built-up roofing.

The following steps provide a detailed analysis of some of the important


seismic requirements of the diaphragm, chord and collector design in
accordance with the 2006 IBC. The diaphragm is permitted to be idealized
as flexible for the lateral analysis procedure.

This example is not a complete building design. Many aspects have not
been included and only selected steps of the seismic design related to por-
tions of the diaphragm and representative collectors have been illustrated.

Outline
This example will illustrate the following parts of the design process:

1. Determination of Diaphragm Demands for Seismic Design


Category B.

2. Diaphragm Design without Opening for Seismic Design


Category B.

3. Diaphragm Design with Opening for Seismic Design


Category B.

4. Collector Design for Seismic Design Category B.

5. Brief Discussion on Seismic Design Category C, D, E and F.

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78 Design Example 2

6. Determination of Diaphragm Demands for Seismic Design


Category D.

7. Diaphragm Design for Seismic Design Category D.

8. Diaphragm Nailing for Seismic Design Category D.

9. Collector Design for Seismic Design Category D.

10. Collector Connection Design for Seismic Design


Category D.

Given Information

Roof weights: Floor weights:


Roofing + Reroof 4.0 psf Flooring 1.0 psf
1
/2" sheathing 2.2 Lt. wt. concrete 14.0
23
Trusses + Blocking 3.8 /32" sheathing 2.5
Insulation + Sprinklers 2.0 Trusses + Blkg 5.0
Ceiling + Miscellaneous 3.0 Ceiling + Misc 5.0
Beams 2.0 Beams 2.5
DL 17.0 psf 30.0 psf
LL 20.0 psf 50.0 psf

Weights of respective diaphragm levels, including tributary exterior and


interior CMU walls and interior partitions:
North-south direction:
Wroof = 1126 k
W3rd floor = 1737 k
W2nd floor = 1737 k
W = 4600 k
East-west direction:
Wroof = 794 k
W3rd floor = 1327 k
W2nd floor = 1327 k
W = 3448 k
Weights of diaphragms are typically determined by taking one-half of the
height of walls at the third floor to the roof and one-half of the height of
walls above and below for the third and second floor diaphragms. Dia-
phragm weights are different in their respective directions because wall
weights parallel to the direction of loading are not included since they are
resisting lateral loads. The weights of walls parallel to lateral loading will
be included in the respective shear wall analysis. Parapet weight has been
included in the roof weight.

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Design Example 2 79

A partition weight of 15 psf is included for designing of vertical members


(ASCE 7-05 Section 4.2.2). A partition weight of 10 psf is included in the
seismic weight (ASCE 7-05 Section 12.7.2).

The roof is 1/2-inch-thick DOC PS-1 or DOC PS-2-rated sheathing (APA or


TECO performance-rated sheathing), 32/16 span rating with Exposure I glue.

The floor is 23/32-inch-thick DOC PS-1 or DOC PS-2-rated Sturd-I-Floor 24


inches o.c. rating (APA or TECO performance-rated sheathing), 48/24 span
rating) with Exposure I glue.

Where DOC PS-1 or DOC PS-2 are the U.S. Department of Commerce
(DOC) Voluntary Product Standards for Plywood and OSB.

Glu-laminated beams (GLB Girders in Figure 2-1) are:


24F-V4 DF/DF 24F-1.8E NDS Table 5A
Fb = 2,400 psi
Fc = 1,650 psi
Ft = 1,100 psi
Ex = 1,800,000 psi Bending
Ey = 1,600,000 psi Bending
E = 1,700,000 psi Axial
Cm=1.0
Ct=1.0

Common wire nails are used for diaphragms and straps.

Figure 2-1. Floor framing plan (second and third floors)

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80 Design Example 2

In Figure 2-1 the engineered wood I-joists run east-west spanning to the
GLB girders running north-south at 26 feet on center along the numbered
grid lines.

Re-entrant corners exist at lines 2 and 11 requiring a collector (strut). The


design of the collectors at the re-entrant corners are not part of this design
example. Dimensions shown are to outside face of walls and to column
centerlines.

The second and third floor diaphragms will be analyzed in the north-south
direction. Concrete masonry unit shear walls are located at grid lines 1, 2, 4,
9, 11 and 12 (Figures 2-1 and 2-3).

Calculations and Discussion Code Reference

1. Determination Diaphragm Demands for Seismic Design Category B. 12.8.1

Building is regular and qualifies for the equivalent lateral force procedure
to be used.

1a. Design Base Shear.

Determine building period (see Figure 2-2 for section through structure),
using the ASCE 7-05 equation as opposed to being calculated from a com-
puter model.

Ta = C t (hn ) = 0.020(42.0)
x 3/ 4
= 0.33 sec Eq. 12.8-7

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Design Example 2 81

Figure 2-2. Typical cross-section through building

Seismic and site data:

Seismic Design Category B

For building frame systems with intermediate reinforced masonry shear


walls,

R = 4.0 Table 12.14-1

This building has an independent steel frame supporting the floors and roof
and is considered a building frame system. Note that the R-value would be
lower for load-bearing intermediate reinforced masonry shear walls.

Redundancy factor = 1.0. 12.3.4.2

Design base shear is:

V = C sW Eq. 12.8-1

Note: design base shear is a strength design basis.

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82 Design Example 2

S DS
Cs = Eq. 12.8-2
R

I

where

Site Class D (Stiff Soil)

Site Class D has been determined by a geotechnical investigation. Without


a geotechnical investigation, Site Class D shall be used as the default value.

I = 1.0

R = 4.0

Values for Ss and S1 can be determined from ASCE 7-05 maps or from the
USGS web site which calculates the values by either zip code or longitude
and latitude coordinates.

S s = 0.28
Figure 22-1

S1 = 0.08
Figure 22-2

Fa = 1.6 Table 11.4-1

Fv = 2.4 Table 11.4-2

S MS = Fa S S = 1.6(0.28) = 0.45 Eq. 11.4-1

S M 1 = Fv S1 = 2.4(0.08) = 0.192 Eq. 11.4-2

2 2
S DS = S MS = (0.45) = 0.30 Eq. 11.4-3
3 3

2 2
S D1 = S M 1 = (0.192) = 0.128 Eq. 11.4-4
3 3

Values for TL (long-period transition period) are obtained from ASCE 7-05
maps and are used in formula 12.8-3 for determining the cut-off value of Cs
below.

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Design Example 2 83

TL = 4 sec
Figure 22-15

0.30
Cs = = 0.075
4.0

1.0

The seismic response coefficient need not exceed:

S D1 0.128
Cs = = = 0.097
R 4.0
T 0.33
I 1.0 (12.8-3)

For T TL

The seismic response coefficient shall not be less than:

C s = 0.01
Eq. (12.8-5)

V = 0.075W

For the north-south direction of forces:

W = 4600 k

V = C sW = 0.075 4600 = 345 k

For the east-west direction of forces:

W = 3448 k

V = C sW = 0.075 3448 = 259 k

1b. Vertical Distribution of Forces. 12.8.3

The base shear must be distributed to each level. This is done as follows:

Fx = CVX V Eq. 12.8-11

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84 Design Example 2

wx hx
C vx = n
Eq. 12.8-12
w h
i =1
i i
k

Where h x is the average height at level i of the sheathed diaphragm in feet


above the base.

k is a distribution exponent related to the building period.

Since T = 0.33 second < 0.5 seconds, k = 1

Determination of Fx is shown in Tables 2-1 and 2-2. 12.8.3

Table 2-1. Vertical distribution of seismic forces for the north-south direction of forces

wx hx
Fx
Level w x (k) h x (ft) w x h x (k-ft)
w h i i
Fx (k)
wx
Ftot (k)
(%)
Roof 1126 42 47,292 39.3 135.6 0.120 135.6
3rd Floor 1737 28 48,636 40.5 139.7 0.080 275.3
2nd Floor 1737 14 24,318 20.2 69.7 0.040 345.0
4600 120,246 100.0 345.0

Table 2-2. Vertical distribution of seismic forces for the east-west direction of forces

w x hx
Fx
Level w x (k) h x (ft) w x h x (k-ft)
wi hi Fx (k) Ftot (k)
wx
(%)
Roof 794 42 33,348 37.4 96.9 0.122 96.9
3rd Floor 1327 28 37,156 41.7 108.0 0.081 204.9
2nd Floor 1327 14 18,578 20.9 54.1 0.041 259.0
3448 89,082 100.0 259.0

Tables 2-1 and 2-2 comments:

Tables 2-1 and 2-2 are needed to determine building forces to the shear
walls and will be compared with the diaphragm design forces shown in
Table 2-3.

1c. Diaphragm Design Forces.

The diaphragm is to be designed for the larger of:

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Design Example 2 85

(1) Minimum Diaphragm Design Forces


(2) Diaphragm Seismic Forces Acting at the Floor Level

Minimum Diaphragm Design Forces:

The floor diaphragm must be designed to resist seismic forces in each di-
rection. The following formula is used to determine the total seismic force,
Fpx, on the diaphragm at a given level of the building.

The diaphragm design forces must be calculated at each level, as follows:

F
i=x
i
F px = n
w px Eq. 12.10-1
w
i=x
i

Diaphragm Seismic Forces at the Floor Level:

For forces in the north-south direction, the second-floor seismic force using
the distributed forces from Table 2-1:

Fxfloor = 69.7 k

Where x = 2 for the second floor

For forces in the north-south direction, the third-floor seismic force using
the distributed forces from Table 2-1:

Fxfloor = 139.7 k

Where x = 3 for the third floor

The diaphragm design force at each level need not exceed:

0.4 S DS Iw px = 0.4(0.30)(1.0) w px = 0.12 w px 12.10.1.1

The diaphragm design force at each level shall not be less than:

0.2 S DS Iw px = 0.2(0.30)(1.0) w px = 0.06 w px 12.10.1.1

Determination of Fpx is shown in Table 2-3

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86 Design Example 2

Table 2-3. Vertical distribution of diaphragm seismic forces for the north-south direction

Minimum Code
Diaphragm Force

w x (k) w Fx F i
F px
Level i
(k) (k ) F x
Fpx =
Fx
(k )
w x (k )
Roof 1,126 1,126 135.6 135.6 0.120 135.6 1.00
3rd Floor 1,737 2,863 139.7 275.3 0.096 166.7 1.19
2nd Floor 1,737 4,600 69.7 345.0 0.075 130.3 1.86
4,600 345.0

Table 2-3 comments:

Note that the Fx and Fpx values at the roof level are the same.
Note that the minimum and maximum forces of Section 12.10.1.1 do not
control.

2. Diaphragm Design without Opening (at Third Floor) for SDC B.

Diaphragm Flexibility:

Since IBC Section 1613.6.1.3 requires the vertical elements of the lateral-
force-resisting system to be light framed, and this building has masonry
shear walls, it does not meet the requirement for assuming flexible
diaphragms. In addition, since the diaphragms have light-weight concrete
topping, the diaphragm deflection will need to be checked for verification
of flexible diaphragm assumptions. This verification is done in section 2d.

The wood structural panel roof system is permitted to be idealized as a


flexible diaphragm in accordance with 12.3.1.1 and IBC Section 1613.6.1.

Span-to-Depth Limitations:

The IBC places limits for wood diaphragms. The limit for wood structural
panel diaphragms is 4:1. These limits not only apply to the diaphragm as a
whole, but also to individual segments of the diaphragm. These segments of
the diaphragm can be individual spans, such as Diaphragms I, II and III (see
Figure 2-3), but also the solid areas adjacent to openings, such as the seg-
ments between grid lines 4 and 5 at the second floor opening (see Figure 2-
4). The depth of the diaphragm is taken in the direction of the load and the
span is the distance between supports that are providing support for the
diaphragm. These supports may be vertical lateral force resisting elements
or collectors and cross-ties.

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Design Example 2 87

Check critical span-to-depth ratios:

Diaphragm III:

Span 130.0 ft
= = 1.44 < 4.0 OK
Depth 90.0 ft

Segment between grid lines 4 and 5 at opening:

Span 26.0 ft
= = 0.86 < 4.0 OK
Depth 30.0 ft

Figure 2-3. Third floor diaphragm plan

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88 Design Example 2

2a. Determine Diaphragm Shears at Interior Boundaries in North-South Direction


(see Figure 2-3).

A presumed assumption by most engineers designing wood diaphragms is


that the shear in the diaphragm (web) is constant (or uniform) across the
depth of the diaphragm. This is usually the case for regular buildings with-
out diaphragm openings; however, this may require continuous ties
between diaphragm chords. The diaphragm in this design example has
multiple support lines. The traditional approach for analyzing a diaphragm
of this type is to assume that the diaphragm is infinitely flexible. In other
words, the diaphragm is considered as a series of simple span beams with
no continuity at diaphragm support locations. Section 12.3.1.3 of ASCE 7-
05 requires a diaphragm deflection check to substantiate using flexible dia-
phragm assumptions. This verification is done in section 2d.

Determine unit weight, f pfloor .

Third floor area = 24,675 sq ft (assuming no floor openings)

For diaphragm analysis with openings totaling less than 10 percent of the
floor area, the entire floor area is usually used (for simplicity).

166.7 1,000
f pfloor = = 6.75 psf
24,675

The uniform loads W1 and W2 in the north-south direction are computed


using the diaphragm depths.

W1 = 6.75 psf 90 ft = 608 plf


W2 = 6.75 psf 70 ft = 473 plf

The maximum diaphragm shear occurs on the east side of line 4 (and on the
west side of line 9) is (Diaphragm III):

wl 608 plf (130 ft )


V4 = R = = = 39,520 lb
2 2

39,520 lb
v= = 440 plf
90 ft

The diaphragm shear on the west side of line 4 and the east side of line 9 is
(Diaphragm II):

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Design Example 2 89

wl 608 plf (51.33 ft )


V4 = R = = = 15,600 lb
2 2

15,600 lb
v= = 210 plf
(90 ft 15 ft )

Where 15 is the length of the stairwell opening that is subtracted from the
diaphragm length.

2b. Determine Diaphragm Nailing.

Due to the large depths of diaphragms and their small span-to-depth ratios,
their behavior differs slightly from the usual shallow beam analogy. Dia-
phragm shear stresses have been proven to be essentially uniform across the
depth of the diaphragm, as opposed to the parabolic distribution that would
occur in a sawn wood beam.

When designing a wood structural panel diaphragm, the vertical (gravity)


loading need not be considered in conjunction with the lateral diaphragm
shears. In accordance with 12.3.4.1, for typical diaphragms, the
redundancy factor equals 1.0. Where there are vertical irregularities with
offsets, where the diaphragm is used to transfer the horizontal forces
between the offsets, the redundancy factor () must conform to 12.3.4 and
12.10.1.1. In this design example, equals 1.0 for the diaphragm.

The floor diaphragm is sheathed with 23/32 inch DOC PS-2-rated (wood
structural panel) OSB sheathing. The loading case is 2 for a staggered panel
layout. The diaphragm shears are strength level loads. The designer has the
choice of using the ASD allowable unit shear capacities or LRFD factored
unit resistance capacities. The nominal unit shear capacities (vs) are ob-
tained from NDS Table 4.2A. The nominal capacities are converted to ASD
capacities by dividing by a factor of safety of 2.0 and are converted to
LRFD capacities by multiplying by a D factor of 0.80 (NDS 4.2.3)

Diaphragm Blocking:

A diaphragms lateral load-carrying capacity varies considerably depending


on whether the panel edges are blocked or unblocked. Blocking usually
consists of flat 2 by 4s framed between the joists (or other framing
members) for the purpose of connecting the edges of the panels. The reason
for providing the blocking in the diaphragm is to allow for the connection
of the panels at all edges for better (more direct) shear transfer. Unblocked

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90 Design Example 2

diaphragms lateral load-carrying capacities are controlled by buckling of


unsupported panel edges, and hence, the addition of more nails at the sup-
ported edges will not necessarily increase the capacity. For the same nail
spacing, lateral load capacities of blocked diaphragms are from 1.5 to 2.0
times the capacities of their unblocked counterparts.

For areas of high nailing, see splitting of framing members comments in


section 8.

Minimum Nail Penetrations:

Recent tests have been conducted by APA on dowel bearing strength on


nail penetrations for wood structural panel connections in shear walls and
diaphragms. The results determined that the minimum penetrations were
not affected by going from (the past standard penetrations) 15/8 inches to
11/2 inches for 10d common nails and from 11/2 inches to 13/8 inches for 8d
common nails. The diaphragm tables in the 2006 IBC and the NDS-05
SDPWS reflect the new decreased minimum penetrations.

Diaphragm Nailing:

The following will determine the required edge spacing for the nails.
(Maximum nail spacing at intermediate supports or field nailing is 12
inches on center).

LRFD Factored Unit Resistance Design Using NDS-05 / SDPWS:

The difference between the two conversions is 1.6 and conversion in


ASCE 7 is:

1
= 1 .4
0 .7

Assuming that designing for a lower level force is advantageous, this would
give a 14 percent advantage to using LRFD capacities over the traditional
ASD capacities. Since the loads to the diaphragms and shear walls are al-
ready strength level loads (from the ASCE 7 seismic equations), it makes
the designers decision rather easy to use the LRFD capacities and utilize
the advantage at the same time avoiding converting to ASD capacities.

Using NDS Table 4.2A:

At Line 4, the maximum diaphragm shear is 440 plf. For ease in using the
NDS Table the diaphragm shears will be divided by a D factor of 0.80:

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Design Example 2 91

440 plf
vs = = 550 plf
0.80

For Load Case 2, the maximum vs for a blocked diaphragm with 3-inch
nominal framing members is 720 plf > 550 plf, (or 0.80 x 720 > 440); there-
fore, a blocked diaphragm with 10d common nails (0.148 inch diameter)
having a penetration of at least 11/2 inches into framing members spaced 6
inches on center at edges is adequate.

ASD Design Using NDS-05 / SDPWS:

At line 4, the maximum diaphragm shear is 440 plf (strength).

Converting to ASD:

v = 440 plf ( 0.7 ) = 310 plf

Using NDS-05 SDPWS Table 4.2A:

For Load Case 2, the allowable vs for a blocked diaphragm with 3-inch nominal
framing members is:

440 plf
vs = = 360 plf > 310 plf
2 .0

Therefore a blocked diaphragm with 10d common nails (0.148 inch diame-
ter) having a penetration of at least 11/2 inch into framing members spaced 6
inches on center at edges is adequate.

ASD Design using IBC Table 2306.3.1:

Converting to ASD:

v = 440 plf ( 0.7 ) = 310 plf

For Load Case 2, the allowable shear for a blocked diaphragm with 3-inch
nominal framing members is:

360 plf > 310 plf

Therefore a blocked diaphragm with 10d common nails (0.148-inch di-


ameter) having a penetration of at least 11/2 inch into framing members
spaced 6 inches on center at edges is adequate.

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92 Design Example 2

2c. Determine Diaphragm Chord Forces.

The maximum chord force occurs at the longest diaphragm span (Dia-
phragm III) between line 4 and line 9.

wl 2 608 plf (130 ft ) 2


M = = = 1, 284 , 400 ft - lb
8 8

M 1, 284 , 400 ft - lb
C =T = = = 14 ,300 lb
d 90 .0 ft

Chord members for the diaphragm will utilize steel reinforcing bars in a
horizontal bond beam of the CMU wall near the diaphragm location.

2d. Verification of Flexible Diaphragm Assumptions.

In accordance with Section 12.3.1.3 the diaphragm may be permitted to be


idealized as flexible when the computed maximum in-plane deflection of
the diaphragm under lateral load is more than two times the average story
drift of the adjoining vertical elements (see ASCE 7-05 Figure 12.3-1). The
code specifies that the deflection be calculated based upon the prescribed
loads in Section 12.8. In other words, the diaphragm deflection should be
based on the same load as the load used for the lateral resisting elements,
not the Fpx force at the level considered.

The diaphragm deflection dia is permitted to be calculated by the following


equation:

5vL3 0.25 vL ( xc )
dia = + +
8 EAW 1000 G a 2W SDPWS Eq. 4.2-1
where

E = Modulus of elasticity of diaphragm chords


E = 29,000,000 psi
A = area of chord cross-section
A = 2 0.31 = 0.62 in2 (for two # 5 bars)
Ga = apparent diaphragm shear stiffness from nail slip and panel shear
deformation (from Column A SDPWS Table 4.2A). For 6-inch
nailing in a blocked diaphragm:
Ga = 17.0 kips/in.
L = diaphragm length

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Design Example 2 93

L = 130 feet
v = incurred unit shear in diaphragm

Diaphragm shear force of Fx can be made by a simple conversion by the


ratio of

F px
= = 1.19 (See Table 2-3 at third floor)
Fx

1
v = 440 plf = 370 plf
1.19

W = diaphragm width
W = 90 feet
X = distance from chord splice to nearest support (inches)
c = diaphragm chord splice slip. Since our diaphragm will utilize steel
reinforcing bars (lapped spliced), the slip distance equals zero
inches
dia = maximum midspan diaphragm deflection determined by elastic
analysis (inches)

5(370 )130 3 0.25 (370 )130 (0)


dia = 6
+ + = 1.0 inch
8( 29 x10 ) 0.62 (90 .0) 1000 (17 .0) 2(90 )

By inspection, the concrete masonry shear walls are going to drift less than
one half of 1.0 inch and hence, the flexible diaphragm assumptions apply.
Note the actual drifts of the masonry shear walls should be computed but
are not part of this design example.

3. Diaphragm Design with Opening at (Second Floor) for SDC B.

Just about every building diaphragm is penetrated by shafts, chases, stair-


wells, atriums, skylights and elevators. The weakening effect of the
opening in the diaphragm can be offset by designing for the increased shear
around the opening due to the reduced web area, the compression and
tension forces at each corner of the opening and the resultant diaphragm
chords. The larger the opening in the diaphragm, in proportion to the
diaphragm size, the more the secondary effects of the opening can
contribute to the diaphragm (web) shears and chord (flange) forces. These
secondary effects change the unit shear stresses (by adding and subtracting)
in the diaphragm around the opening. In addition, larger openings require
the addition of collectors to distribute the forces around the opening into the

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94 Design Example 2

diaphragms around the opening. Presently, there is no code requirement for


what size of opening requires a full analysis (versus nominal strap-
ping/blocking) and this is left to the judgment of the design engineer.

Section 12.14.7.2 requires diaphragm openings to be provided with rein-


forcement at the edges of the opening designed to transfer the openings
effects into the structure far enough to develop the force. This method is
called Force Transfer around Openings (FTAO).

The analysis of the opening is based upon a design method described in


ATC 7, Design of Horizontal Wood Diaphragms, and in APA Research
Report 138. This type of analysis assumes that the wood flexible diaphragm
with openings behaves analogous to a Vierendeel truss. This methodology
has been verified to some extent by tests performed mostly on shear walls
with openings using the Force Transfer around Opening (FTAO) method
and is permitted in the code in IBC Section 2305.1.1.

This design example is similar to an example illustrated in APA Research


Report 138 with one fundamental difference. In APA Research Report 138,
the diaphragm segments are only loaded from one side of the building. This
design example has the exterior wall weights pushing on one side at the
same time the exterior wall weights are pulling on the opposing side of
the building, representative of the fundamental mode of the diaphragm.
Thus, a symmetrical diaphragm such as the one illustrated in this example
will have an equal distribution of loading on each side of the diaphragm
segments.

The diaphragm is first analyzed without the effects of an opening (or open-
ings) to determine the chord and web forces of the diaphragm (beam).

The wood structural panel floor system is permitted to be idealized as a


flexible diaphragm in accordance with 12.3.1.3 based upon the
calculations from section 2d above.

Determine unit weight f pfloor


.

Second floor area = 24,675 sq ft (neglecting floor openings as discussed


previously)

130.3 1,000
f pfloor = = 5.28 psf
24,675

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Design Example 2 95

The uniform loads W1, and W2, in the north-south direction are computed
using the diaphragm depths.

W1 = 5.28 psf 90 ft = 475 plf


W2 = 5.28 psf 70 ft = 370 plf

Figure 2-4. Second floor diaphragm plan

Figure 2-4 comments:

See Figure 2-3 for diaphragm numbers and opening sizes.

3a. Determine Diaphragm III Shears at Interior Boundaries at Grids 4 and 9 (see Figure
2-4).

The maximum diaphragm shear occurs on the east side of line 4 (and on the
west side of line 9) is:

wl 475(130)
V4 = R = = = 30,875 lb
2 2

30,875 lb
v= = 345 plf
90'

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96 Design Example 2

The diaphragm shear on the west side of line 4 and the east side of line 9 is:

wl 475plf (51.33ft )
V4 = R = = = 12,190 lb
2 2

12,190lb
v= = 165 plf
(90ft 15ft )

Where 15 is the length of the stairwell opening that is subtracted from the
diaphragm length.

Figure 2-5. Partial second floor diaphragm plan with diaphragm segments

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Design Example 2 97

3b. Determine Diaphragm III Chord Forces at Lines A, F and Web Shears at Lines 5, 5.5,
6 and at the Center of the Diaphragm at Line 6.5 (see Figure 2-5).

Since the applied force on the diaphragm is to the south, the chord force
along grid A will be in compression and the chord force along grid F will
be in tension.

At line 5:
L 130
V 5= w x = 475 plf 26 = 18,525 lb
2 2

At the east side of line 5:

18,525 lb
v5 = = 309 plf
60 ft

At the west side of line 5:

18,525 lb
v5 = = 206 plf
90 ft

2
wL
M= (x ) wx = wx (L x )
2 2 2

M5 =
wx
(L x ) = 475 26 (130 26 ) = 642,200 ft - lb
2 2

M 642,200
F5 @ A = = = 7,135 lb = C
d 90

At line 5.5:

12,350 lb
v5.5 = = 206 plf
60 ft

M 5.5 =
wx
(L x ) = 475 39 (130 39) = 842,887 ft - lb
2 2

M 842,887
F5.5 @ A = = = 9,365 lb = C
d 90

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98 Design Example 2

At line 6:
L 130
V6 = w x = 475 plf 52 = 6,175 lb
2 2

At the west side of line 6:

6,175 lb
v6 = = 103 plf
60 ft

At the east side of line 6:

6,175 lb
v6 = = 69 plf
90 ft

M6 =
wx
(L x ) = 475 52 (130 52) = 963,300 ft lb
2 2

M 963,300
F6 @ A = = = 10,700 lb = C
d 90

At line 6.5 (center of Diaphragm III span):

L 130
V6 .5 = w x = 475 plf 65 = 0 lb
2 2

M 6.5 =
wx
(L x ) = 475 65 (130 65) = 1,003,400 ft lb
2 2

M 1,003,400
F6.5 @ A = = = 11,150 lb = C
d 90

At line 7:

L 130
V7 = w x = 475 plf 78 = 6,175 lb
2 2

6,175
v7 = = 69 plf
90 ft

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Design Example 2 99

3c. Determine Free-body Equilibrium Forces of Segments (FTAO method).

The diaphragm areas adjacent to the opening are subdivided into four seg-
ments (Segments 1, 2, 3 and 4 in Figure 2-5). The midpoint of the opening
is assumed to be an inflection point for the chords (see Figure 2-7). The
shear forces, chord forces and diaphragm shears of the segments are deter-
mined by using free-body sketches (see Figure 2-6), and summing forces
and moments to equal zero of the free-body segments to maintain static
equilibrium. Seismic forces are applied in the southern direction.

Figure 2-6. Second floor diaphragm III segments at opening

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100 Design Example 2

Segment 1:

Since the opening is at the center of the diaphragm width, the forces are
split to each side of the diaphragm. If the opening was not centered on the
diaphragm width, the force ratios would be based upon their respective
segment widths. The segment widths (30 feet) have been included below
illustrating this.

w 475
= = 237.5 plf
2 2

F5.5 @ A = 9,365 lbC

F5.5 @ C = 0 lb

30 30
V5 = V5 = 18 ,525 = 9262 .5 lb
60 60

9,262 .5
v= = 309 plf
30.0

12 ,350
V 5.5 ( A C ) = = 6,175 lb
2

M 5 .5 @ C = 0 :

13 .0 2
(9,365 30 .0 ) (9, 262 .5 13 .0 ) + ( 237 .5 plf
2
F5 @ A =
30 .0 ft

= 6,020 lb C < 7,135 lb

Note: chord freebody forces usually will not equal chord forces when effect
of opening was not considered. See Section 3d below.

F5 . 5 @ C = 0 :

F5 @ C = 9,365 6,020 = 3,345 lbC

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Design Example 2 101

Segment 2:

w 475
= = 237.5 plf
2 2

F5.5 @ A = 9,365 lbC

F5.5 @ C = 0 lb

30 30
V6 = V6 = 6 ,175 = 3,087 .5 lb
60 60

M 5 .5 @ C = 0 :

3,087 .5
v= = 103 plf
30 .0

13 .0 2
(9,365 30 .0 ) (3,087 13 .0 ) ( 237 .5 plf
F6 @ A =
2
30 .0 ft



= 11,372 lb C > 10,700 lb

Note: chord freebody forces usually will not equal chord forces when effect
of opening was not considered. See Section 3d below.

F6 @ C = 0 :

F6 @ C = 11,372 + 9,365 = 2,007 lb = T

Note that due to symmetry, the forces in the segments 3 and 4 are equal to
and opposite of segments 1 and 2 respectively.

3d. Determine Resultant Diaphragm Chord Forces.

The 26-foot wide opening with a depth of 30 feet in Figure 2-5 is 33 per-
cent of the total width of the diaphragm. Large openings such as this one
can significantly alter the shear distribution and chord forces. ASCE 7-05
Table 12.3-1 states that diaphragm openings exceeding 50 percent are clas-
sified as a horizontal structural irregularity Type 3 and require increased

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102 Design Example 2

forces for Seismic Design Category D through F. The following diaphragm


analysis is based upon a methodology developed by Edward F. Diekman in
the Wood Engineering Construction Handbook and can be used as a good
resource for further reading.

The effect of an opening in the diaphragm both increases and decreases the
chord forces at the diaphragm boundary. In addition, the opening also ap-
plies point loads into the diaphragm edge adjacent the opening (see
Figures 2-7, 2-8, 2-9 and 2-10). The first step is to determine the resultant
chord force and applied forces by summing the diaphragm chord forces
without the opening with the chord forces with the opening as tabulated in
Table 2-4.

Table 2-4. Resultant diaphragm III chord forces and applied forces

Chord Force/Applied Force


Grid Location
Without Opening With Opening Using FTAO Resultant Due to Opening

5 A 7,135C 6,020C 1,115T


C 0 3,345C 3,345C
D 0 3,345T 3,345T
F 7,135T 6,020T 1,115C
6 A 10,700C 11,372C 672C
C 0 2,007T 2,007T
D 0 2,007C 2,007C
F 10,700T 11,372T 672T
6.5 A 11,150C 11,486C 336C
C 0 663T 663T
D 0 663C 663C
F 11,150T 11,486T 336T

Table 2-4 comments:

The chord force values in the column Without Opening (Table 2-4) were
previously determined in Section 3b. The chord force values in the column
With Opening Using FTAO (Table 2-4) were previously determined in
Section 3c. And the values in the column Resultant Due to Opening (Ta-
ble 2-4) are determined by taking the difference between the two columns.

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Design Example 2 103

Forces calculated at Grid 6.5 show that chord forces extend beyond just the
corners of the opening. If the chord member were spliced at Grids 6.5 and
C, the connection would have to be designed for a tension force of 663
pounds.

Figure 2-7. Diaphragm III segments 1 through 4 and inflection point

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104 Design Example 2

Figure 2-8. Resultant diaphragm III forces and shears at Grid 5 due to opening

Local Diaphragm Forces:

Figure 2-8A. Free-body Diagram of Diaphragm Portion

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Design Example 2 105

Figure 2-8A comments:

Figure 2-8A illustrates the free-body of the diaphragm portion between


grids A-C and 4-5 (grids D-F and 4-5 similar). The resultant changes in
chord force due to opening generated a force of 1,115 pounds.

M 5C = 0:

1,115 lb (30 .0 ft )
R 4 C = = 1, 287 lb
26 .0 ft

Change is diaphragm shear using FTAO:

1, 287 lb
v= = 43 plf
30 .0 ft

Resultant shear at line 4 between A and C due to opening:

v = + 345 plf 43 plf = + 302 plf

Resultant shear at line 5 between A and C:

v = +206 plf 43 plf = +163 plf

Figure 2-8B. Free-body diagram of diaphragm portion

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106 Design Example 2

Figure 2-8B comments:

Figure 2-8B illustrates the free-body of the diaphragm portion between


grids C-D and 4-5. The resultant changes in chord force due to opening
generated a force of 3,345 pounds.

M 5 D = 0:

( + 3,345 lb 1,115 lb )( 30 .0 ft )
R4 D = = + 2,573 lb
26 .0 ft

Change is diaphragm shear using FTAO:

+ 2,573 lb
v= = + 86 plf
30 .0 ft

Resultant shear at line 4 due to opening between C and D:

v = +345 plf + 86 plf = + 431 plf

Resultant shear at line 5 between C and D:

v = +206 plf + 86 plf = + 292 plf

Figure 2-9. Resultant diaphragm III forces and shears at Grid 6 due to opening

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Design Example 2 107

Figure 2-10. Resultant diaphragm III unit shear flow in segments

3e. Chord Design.

The maximum chord force (from Table 2-4) is 11,486 pounds. Chord forces
at lines A and F will be resisted by either steel reinforcing bars in the CMU
wall (they could also be resisted by the ledger at the diaphragm boundary).

The resultant forces at lines C and D (from Table 2-4) will need special
framing members and connectors designed to resist these forces. The de-
signer should consider how far the point load forces need to be developed
into the diaphragm (forces at grid 6.5). The framing plans (and possibly a
special detail) also need to specify a double row of nails (fasteners) for
these opening reinforcing collectors/chords.

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108 Design Example 2

3f. Determine Resultant Diaphragm Shears.

Table 2-5. Resultant diaphragm III shears

Diaphragm Shear
Grid Location (plf)
Without Opening With Opening Using FTAO Resultant Due to Opening

4 A-C +345 -43 +302


C-D +345 +86 +431
D-F +345 -43 +302
5 A-C +206 -43 +163
C-D +206 +86 +292
D-F +206 -43 +163
6 A-C +69 -26 +43
C-D +69 +51 +120
D-F +69 -26 +43
7 A-C -69 +26 -43
C-D -69 -51 -120
D-F -69 +26 -43

Table 2-5 comments:

The values in the column Without Opening (Table 2-5) were previously
determined in Section 3a for line 4 and Section 3b for lines 5, 6 and 7. The
values in the column With Opening using FTAO (Table 2-5) were previ-
ously determined in Figures 2-8 and Figure 2-9. The values in the column
Resultant Due to Opening (Table 2-5) are determined by taking the
difference between the two columns.

Effect of diaphragm opening and development of point loads is trans-


ferred (designed) in 26 feet (Figures 2-8 and Figure 2-9).

Note that the diaphragm shears for the collectors at line 4 (A to C and D to
F) have been reduced from 345 plf to 302 plf as a result of the opening in
the diaphragm. The design engineer has the choice of using either the re-
duced force from the opening or the higher force without considering the
effects of the opening. This design example will not utilize the reduced dia-
phragm shears.

Note that the sign convention changes at grid line 7 due to location is on
other side of diaphragm center.

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Design Example 2 109

For diaphragm shears between grid Lines 5 and 6, see Figure 2-6.

Statics Check:

(The slight differences in numerical results are due to rounding of the unit
shears)

Line 4:

F N S :

(302 plf 30 .0 ft ) + ( 431 plf 30 .0 ft ) + (302 plf 30 .0 ft ) = 31,050 lb

From section 3a:

V 4 = 30 ,875 lb 31,050 lb okay

Line 5:

F N S :

(163 plf 30 .0 ft ) + ( 292 plf 30 .0 ft ) + (163 plf 30 .0 ft ) = 18 ,540 lb

From section 3b:

V 5 = 18 ,525 lb 18 ,540 lb okay

Line 6:

F N S :

( 43 plf 30 .0 ft ) + (120 plf 30 .0 ft ) + ( 43 plf 30 .0 ft ) = 6,180 lb

From section 3b:

V 6 = 6,175 lb 6,180 lb okay

Line 7:

F N S :

( 43 plf 30 .0 ft ) + ( 120 plf 30 .0 ft ) + ( 43 plf 30 .0 ft ) = 6,180 lb

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110 Design Example 2

From section 3b:

V 7 = 6,175 lb 6,180 lb OK

3g. Determine Diaphragm Nailing.

When designing the structural use panel diaphragm, the vertical (gravity)
loading need not be considered in conjunction with the lateral diaphragm
shears. In accordance with 12.3.4.1, for typical diaphragms, the
redundancy factor equals 1.0. Where there are vertical irregularities with
offsets, where the diaphragm is used to transfer the horizontal forces
between the offsets, the redundancy factor () must conform to 12.3.4 and
12.10.1.1. In this design example, equals 1.0 for the diaphragm.

The floor diaphragm is sheathed with 23/32 inch DOC PS-2-rated (wood
structural panel) OSB sheathing. The loading case is 2 for a staggered panel
layout. The diaphragm shears are strength level loads. The designer has the
choice of using the ASD allowable unit shear capacities or LRFD factored
unit resistance capacities. The nominal unit shear capacities (vs) are ob-
tained from NDS Table 4.2A. The nominal capacities are converted to ASD
capacities by dividing by a factor of safety of 2.0 and are converted to
LRFD capacities by multiplying by a D factor of 0.80.

The difference between the two conversions is 1.6 and conversion in ASCE
7 is:
1
= 1 .4
0. 7

Assuming that designing for a lower level force is advantageous, this would
give a 14 percent advantage to using LRFD factored unit resistance capaci-
ties over the traditional ASD capacities. Since the loads to the diaphragms
and shear walls are already, strength level loads (from the ASCE 7 seismic
equations), it should make the designers decision rather easy to use the
LRFD factored unit resistance capacities and utilize the advantage at the
same time avoiding converting to ASD capacities.

This design example will follow the conventional approach using ASD val-
ues and the diaphragm values listed in the IBC (Tables 2306.3.1 and
2306.3.2).

At Line 4, the maximum diaphragm shear (431 plf) occurs between grid
lines C and D. Since one segment has a larger shear value, design entire

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Design Example 2 111

diaphragm width between grids A and F for 431 plf and not the average
force of 345 plf.
Converting to ASD:

v = 431 plf (0.7 ) = 302 plf

For Load Case 2, the allowable shear for a blocked diaphragm with 3-
inch nominal framing members is 325 plf > 302 plf, therefore a blocked
diaphragm using 10d common nails (0.148 inch diameter with 1 inch
penetration in framing member) with 6-inch boundary and edge nail
spacing is adequate. Maximum nail spacing at intermediate supports
(field nailing) is 12 inches on center.

Figure 2-11. Second floor diaphragm III nailing key plan

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112 Design Example 2

Figure 2-11A. Enlarged diaphragm III shear diagram

Figures 2-11 and 2-11A comments:

The diaphragm shear between grid lines 4 and 5 is the higher shear between
grid lines C and D. The diaphragm shear between A-C and D-F is 302 plf
(Table 2-5). The designer may choose to provide different nailing zones at
these locations.

The diaphragm shear at grid line 6 of 95 plf is the higher shear between
lines A-C and D-F, note that the diaphragm shear between C-D is 18 plf
(Table 2-5).

See section 8 of this design example for additional comments and require-
ments about diaphragm nailing, blocking, framing members and special
inspections.

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Design Example 2 113

Figure 2-12. Collector force diagram and framing elevation

4. Collector Design for Seismic Design Category B.

Design of collectors at lines 4 and 9 (second floor diaphragm):

A collector is required at lines 4 and 9 to collect the diaphragm shear forces


and transfer the forces to the CMU shear walls.

The length of the collectors is 30 feet (span length is 29.0 feet).

The total diaphragm shears for the collector are 345 plf + 165 plf = 510 plf
(see section 3a).

Note that this design example has chosen to use the diaphragm shear value
of 345 plf and is not using the value using the reduction of 43 plf shown in
Table 2-5. The larger value has been conservatively selected for the collec-
tor design.

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114 Design Example 2

Since the inertial forces for the diaphragm were calculated using Eq. 12.10-
1, and there are no transfer diaphragm forces, the redundancy factor, , is
1.0.

Since this building is in Seismic Design Category B, the collector elements,


splices and their connections do not require using the load combinations
with overstrength of 12.4.3.2.

The collector force (Figure 2-12) at 4-C, 4-D, 9-C and 9-D is:

F = 510 plf 30 ft = 15,300 lb

4a. ASD versus LRFD Design.

The NDS-05 has design provisions for both ASD and LRFD for the design
of wood members. The method illustrated in this design example will be
ASD.
4b. Load Combinations for Collector Design Using ASCE7-05. 12.4.2.3

Since this building structure is in SDC B, the load combinations with over-
strength factor do not apply.

In accordance with Section 12.4.2.3, the following load combinations shall


be used in lieu of the seismic load combinations in either Section 2.3.2 or
2.4.1. The basic combination for allowable stress design is:

(1.0 + 0.14 S DS ) D + H + F + 0.7Q E Eq. 5

(1.0 + 0.105S DS ) D + H + F + 0.525Q E + 0.75 L + 0.75( Lr or S or R) Eq. 6

(0.6 0.14S DS ) D + 0.7Q E + H Eq. 8

where the dead load, D, is increased for vertical accelerations by the SDS
coefficient.

Since H, F, Lr, S and R are not present on the collector, the simplified load
combinations are:

(1.0 + 0.14 S DS ) D + 0.7Q E Eq. 5

(1.0 + 0.105S DS ) D + 0.525Q E + 0.75L Eq. 6

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Design Example 2 115

(0.6 0.14S DS ) D + 0.7Q E Eq. 8

where QE is the horizontal seismic force F equals 15,300 pounds and


equals 1.0. 12.4.2.1

Note that for the ASCE 7-05 load combinations, the traditional one-third in-
crease for allowable stress design is no longer permitted except for the load
duration factor (CD) in NDS. However, the load combination using 0.525
QE in lieu of 0.7 QE has reduced the strength load by the same amount
resulting in designing for an equivalent force.

1
0 .7 = 0.525
1.33

As stated above, since there are no transfer diaphragm forces, the redun-
dancy factor, , is 1.0.

Where

0.105S DS = 0.105(0.30) = 0.03

0.14 S DS = 0.14(0.30) = 0.04

Collector Analysis:

The diaphragm distributes a uniform force along the collector. The maxi-
mum axial force (F) in the collector is where the collector connects to the
shear wall (Figure 2-12). At this location, the moment (M) in the collector
is zero. Since the collector supports gravity loads and is a simple span beam
the location of maximum moment (M) is at the center of the collector, at
this location the collector force (F) is half the end force. An exact analysis
of the collector would entail checking the combined axial and bending
stresses at many locations where the moment (M) and the collector force
(F) are variant along the beam length. This type of collector analysis can
easily be done with a spread sheet program. Some design engineers will use
the maximum moment and the collector force at location of maximum
moment. While this may satisfy the analysis requirements for a collector
with a large moment (M) and a small collector force (F), it may be uncon-
servative for larger collector forces. For simplicity and illustrative purposes,
this design example will use the maximum collector force (F) and the
maximum moment (M) for the combined bending and axial load checks.

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116 Design Example 2

Alternatively, some engineers will argue that the transfer of the diaphragm
to the shear wall is assumed fully stressed and the remaining stresses (force)
are collected resulting in a nonuniform diaphragm shear stress distribution
and hence, have smaller collector forces. This would mean that the dia-
phragm is acting as a collector (and not the collector itself). This design
example will utilize the uniform shear stress distribution.

4c. Determine Loads and Forces on Collector.

Dead load, D, on collector:

(30.0 psf + 15.0 psf )( 26.0 ft ) = 1,170 plf

Where the required partition loading of 15 psf is used IBC 1607.5

Live load, L, on collector:

AT = 26ft (29 ft ) = 754 ft 2

Live load reduction:

15
L = Lo 0.25 + Eq.4-1

K LL AT

Lo = 50 psf for office buildings Table 4-1

KLL = 2 for interior beams Table 4-2

15
L = 50 0.25 + = 32 psf
2 754

Live load, L, on collector:

32 psf ( 26.0 ft ) = 832 plf

Vertical load on collector:

For Equation 5:

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Design Example 2 117

w = (1.0 + 0.14S DS )D = (1.0 + 0.04)1,170 = 1,220 plf


wl 2 1,220 plf (29.0) 2
M= = = 128,300 f - lb
8 8

For Equation 6:

w = (1.0 + 0.105S DS )D = (1.0 + 0.03)1,170 + (0.75)832 = 1,829 plf

wl 2 1,829 plf (29.0) 2


M= = = 192,300 f - lb
8 8

For Equation 8:

w = (0.6 0.14S DS )D = (0.6 0.04)1,170 = 655 plf

wl 2 655plf (29.0) 2
M= = = 68,800 f - lb
8 8
Horizontal earthquake load on collector:

Q = 15,300 lb

For Equations 5 and 8:

0.7QE = 0.7(1.0)15,300 = 10,710 lb

For Equation 6:

0.525QE = 0.525(1.0)15,300 = 8,035 lb

4d. Load Combinations for Collector Design using 2006 IBC.

IBC Section 1605.3.2 has alternate basic load combinations to ASCE 7-05.
For allowable stress design, the basic load combination is:

E
D+L+S + IBC Eq.16-20
1 .4
Since S is not present on the collector, the simplified load combination is:

E
D+L+
1 .4

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118 Design Example 2

Where E = the horizontal seismic force (F) = 15,300 lb


Dead load on collector:

1,170 plf

Live load on collector:

832 plf

Vertical load on collector:

W = 1,170 + 832 = 2,002 plf

Axial force on collector:

15 ,300 lb
F = = 10 ,930 lb
1 .4

Note that this load combination produces a higher vertical load and higher
axial force on the collector:

W = 2,002 vs 1,829 plf

F = 10,930 vs 8,035 lb

These loads are IBC alternate load combination; the load combinations used
for this design example will use the ASCE7-05 ASD load combinations.

4e. Check Collector for Combined Loading.

The typical floor girder is 6 3/4 x 341/2 glu-laminated beam (GLB). Try
using typical beam for collector. The equations used for the combined
loading are:

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Design Example 2 119

Combined bending and axial tension:

The simplified equation for bending about one axis is:

ft fb
+ * 1 .0 NDS Eq. (3.9-1)
F '
t Fb

fb ft
1 .0 NDS Eq. (3.9-2)
F **
b

Combined bending and axial compression:

2
fc fb
+ 1.0 NDS Eq. (3.9-3)
Fc ' f
Fb ' 1 c
FcE

However, since the collector connections are not concentric to the centroid
of the collector (see Figure 2-16), the collector is subjected to a combina-
tion of bending from the eccentricity and the vertical loads. The equation
for the loading condition is NDS Eq. 15.4-1:

Since there is no biaxial bending, the equation can be simplified to:

e fc
2
f b + f c 6 1 1 + 0.234
fc d1 FcE
+ 1 .0
Fc ' f
Fb ' 1 c
FcE

Try 63/4 x 341/2 GLB:

where

A = 6.75 34.5 = 232.8 in. 2


I bh 2 6.75 34.5 2
Sx = = = = 1,339.0 in. 3
c 6 6
C D = 1 .6
E ' x min = 930,000 psi

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120 Design Example 2

E ' y min = 830,000 psi

Compression:
The collector has different unbraced lengths (see Figure 2-14) about the x
and y axes. Since E'x min and E'y min are different material properties, a full
analysis of the column stability factor (Cp) is necessary for each axis.

e1 = eccentricity measured parallel to the wide face (beam depth)


from the centerline of beam to centerline of collector connection
at the shear wall.

34.5 in.
e1 = 4.5 = 12.75 in.
2

(See Figure 2-16)

d1 = wide face dimension (beam depth)


d1 = 34.5 in.

e1 12.75 in.
= = 0.369
d1 34.5 in.
Ke1 = 1.0

l e1 = 29 12 = 348 in.
l e1
= 348 = 10.0
d1 34.5

Beam bottom edge will be braced at midspan to prevent local buckling (see
Figures 2-13 and 2-14).

Ke2 = 1.0

l e 2 = 14.5 12 = 174 in.


le2
= 174 = 25.8
d2 6.75

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Design Example 2 121

Figure 2-13. GLB bottom edge bracing

Figure 2-14. Collector bracing diagram

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122 Design Example 2

Analyze collector buckling about x (strong) axis:

Use Ex min to analyze buckling about the x axis.

E ' x min = E x min C M C t = 930,000 1.0 1.0 = 930,000 psi

Column stability factor for x (strong) axis:

c = 0.9 for GLB

0.822 E ' x min 0.822 x 930,000


FcE = = = 7,645 psi NDS Eq. 3.7-1
l e1
2
(10.0)2
d
1

*
Fc = FC C D C M C t = 1,650 1.6 1.0 1.0 = 2,640 psi

FcE 7,645
* = = 2.896
Fc 2,640

F FcE
2
FcE
1 + cE * 1+ *
Fc
F c F * c = 0.953
Cp =
2c 2 c c
NDS Eq. 3.7-1

Analyze collector buckling about y (weak) axis:

Use Ey min to analyze buckling about the y axis.

E ' y min = E y min C M C t = 830,000 1.0 1.0 = 830,000 psi

Column stability factor for y (weak) axis:

c = 0.9 for GLB

0.822 E ' y min 0.822 830,000


FcE = = = 1,025 psi
le2
2
(25.8)2 NDS Eq. 3.7-1
d
2

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Design Example 2 123

*
Fc = FC C D C M C t = 1,650 1.6 1.0 1.0 = 2,640 psi

FcE 1,025
* = = 0.3883
Fc 2,640

F FcE
2
FcE
1 + cE *
Fc
1 +
F *c F * c = 0.367
Cp =
2c 2c c
NDS Eq. 3.7-1

The y axis produces the smaller value of the column stability factor; hence
the y axis is critical for column (collector) buckling.

F ' c = Fc C D C P C M C t = 1,650 1.6 0.367 1.0 1.0 = 970 psi

Likewise, the y axis produces the smaller value of the critical buckling de-
sign value for compression members, FcE.

FcE = 1,025 psi

Tension:

F ' t = Ft C D C M C t = 1,100 1.6 1.0 1.0 = 1,700 psi

Bending:

A beam subject to lateral torsional buckling is governed by stability about


the y axis. Hence, the modulus of elasticity used in determining the beam
stability factor (CL) is Ey min.

If the combined stress (bending plus axial compression) on the bottom edge
is tension, then CL may be assumed to be 1.0. However, if the combined
stress is compression, a bending analysis is required to determine CL.

Determine CL for condition when fc > fb:

lu = 174 inches

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124 Design Example 2

l u 174
= = 5 .0 < 7
d 34.5

l e = 2.06l u = 2.06 (174 inches ) = 358 inches NDS Table 3.3.3

le d
RB = < 50 max
b2

358 x34.5
RB = = 16.46 < 50 NDS Eq. 3.3-5
6.75 2

E ' y min = E y min C M C t = 830,000 1.0 1.0 = 830,000 psi

1.20 E ' y min 1.20 830,000


FbE = = = 3,675 psi NDS Eq. 3.3-6
RB
2
(16.46)2
**
Fb = F * b = Fb x C D C M C t = 2,400 1.6 1.0 1.0 = 3,840 psi
NDS Eq. 3.9-1 and 3.9-2

FbE 3,675
* = = 0.957
Fb 3,840

F Fb E
2
FbE
1 + bE * 1+ *
Fb
F b F * b = 0.798 1.0
CL =
1 .9 1 . 9 0.95

NDS Eq. 3.3-6

1 1 1 1 1 1
21 x 12 x 5.125 x
21 10
12 10
5.125 10
CV = = = 0.847 1.0
L d b 29 34.5 6.75
NDS Eq. 5.3-1
CL<CV

Note: Lateral stability governs over volume effect

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Design Example 2 125

When fc > fb:

F ' b = Fb C D C M C t C L = 2,400 1.6 1.0 1.0 0.798 = 3,065 psi

When fc < fb:

CL = 1.0

F ' b = Fb C D C M C t CV = 2,400 1.6 1.0 1.0 0.847 = 3,250 psi

Table 2-6. Collector combined loading checks

Load Combination Equation

5 6 8
F (kips) 10.71 8.035 10.71
ft=fc (ksi) 0.046 0.034 0.046
Ft (ksi) 1.760 1.760 1.760
Fc (ksi) 0.970 0.970 0.970
M (ft-k) 128.3 192.3 68.8
fb (ksi) 1.150 1.723 0.617
Fb (ksi) 3.250 3.250 3.250
CL 1.0 1.0 1.0
CV 0.847 0.847 0.847
* **
Fb = Fb (ksi) 3.840 3.840 3.840
fc/FcE 0.045 0.034 0.045
Eq. 3.9-1 0.325 0.468 0.187
Interaction
Check Eq. 3.9-2 0.288 0.440 0.149
Eq. 15.4-1 0.406 0.574 0.234

Table 2-6 comments:

The governing load combination is ASCE 7-05 Equation 6 with NDS


Equation 15.4-1: 0.574 < 1.0 therefore the 6 x 34 GLB collector is
adequate.

Note: when fc < fb the bottom edge of the beam still remains in tension and
CL is assumed to be 1.0. However from a technical perspective, the l e /d in
the weak axis (unbraced) would be 51.6 > 50 maximum, therefore a brace
to the bottom of the beam at midspan will be added. With a brace at
midspan (Figure 2-13), the l e /d is now 25.8 < 50. Where le = (Ke)l.
Since fc < fb the value of CL = 1.0 is used with the higher value of Fb.

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126 Design Example 2

Current ASCE 7 requirements with multiple load combinations and the


complex NDS equations are quite cumbersome and subject to first trying
a member size, and then analyzing the member. If the member is over-
stressed by any of the load combinations, the process needs to be repeated
again with the new member size and so on. The collector illustrated in this
design example required three different loading combinations and three dif-
ferent equations for a total of nine interaction checks. Without the aid of
computer software, the process can be overwhelmingly time consuming and
increases the chance for computational error.

4f. Diaphragm Nailing to Collector.

It is important that the design drawings specify two rows of diaphragm


fasteners at all interior collectors. These are diaphragm boundaries and
hence need the required boundary nailing (B.N.) (see Figure 2-15). Since
the diaphragm shears are collected on both sides of the collector, having
two rows of fasteners (nails) will insure that the capacities of the dia-
phragms can be developed onto the collector.

Figure 2-15. Diaphragm nailing to collector

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Design Example 2 127

4g. Collector Connection Design.

From section 4d above, the collector connection force is 15,300 pounds.


The connection to masonry wall will utilize a knife (kerf) plate slotted
through the steel column and the glu-laminated beam. Allowing for the kerf
cut in the beam to be 1/2 inch, nets a thickness of 6.25 inches for the beam
width and allowing for the kerf cut may be made for the full depth of the
beam. This also produces two main members of 31/8 inch thickness with a
3
/8 inch steel side plate. For this loading condition, the allowable lateral
design (shear) for a bolt is twice the single shear two member (31/8 inch and
3
/8 inch steel plate) value. The values for 1/4 inch steel plate will be used
from NDS-05.

For a 3/4 inch diameter bolt in Douglas-Fir Larch member (G=0.50):

Z 11 = 1,540 lb 2 = 3,080 lb NDS Table 11D

Z 11 ' = Z 11 C D = 3,080 x 1.6 = 4,925 lb

Try 43/4 inch diameter bolts:

The allowable load for the connection is:

4 4,925 0.99 = 19,500 lb15,300 lb

where Cg = 0.99 for 2 rows of bolts NDS 10.3.6

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128 Design Example 2

Figure 2-16. Second floor collector connection

Figure 2-16 comments:

1. The force of 15,300 pounds must be developed into the CMU wall, and
the CMU stresses be checked to complete the connection detail.
2. Grouting of blockout pocket and treatment of jamb reinforcing steel at
wall boundary needs to be considered to complete connection detail.
3. Diaphragm cross-tie connection (if necessarysee section 5) at grid
lines C and D and connection to steel column needs to be considered to
complete connection detail.

5. Brief Discussion on Seismic Design Category C, D, E and F.

Due to out-of-plane forces on masonry and concrete walls, Section


12.11.2.2.1 requires diaphragms in structures assigned to Seismic Design
Categories (SDC) C through F to have continuous ties or struts between

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Design Example 2 129

diaphragm chords whereas the design example for Seismic Design Cate-
gory B would not require these. Since the GLB girders run north-south
across the building, these in themselves could be the continuous struts.
However, the east-west direction would require strut lines at lines C and D
(or at some other locations at the discretion of the design engineer).

The continuous tie requirement would classify the collectors at lines 4 and
9 as having to meet both requirements. Section 12.10.2.1 requires collector
elements, their splices and connections to be designed with load combina-
tions with the overstrength factor (0). This requirement is also repeated in
Section 12.14.7.3.

IBC Section 2305.1.4 states that toenail connections shall not be used in
Seismic Design Categories D, E and F when calculating transfer of lateral
forces in excess of 150 plf from diaphragm to shear walls.

See section 2b for comments on diaphragm blocking.

6. Determination of Diaphragm Demands for SDC D.

Note: This section and subsequent sections are condensed versions, for am-
plification of the following, see sections 1 through 4 of this design example.

6a. Design Base Shear.

Design base shear is:

V = C sW Eq.12.8-1

Note: design base shear is a strength design basis.

S DS
Cs = Eq.12.8-2
R

I

where

Site Class D (Stiff Soil)

Site Class D has been determined by a geotechnical investigation. Without


a geotechnical investigation, Site Class D shall be used as the default value.

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130 Design Example 2

I = 1.0

R = 4.0

Values for Ss and S1 can be determined from ASCE 7-05 maps or from the
USGS web site which calculates the values by either zip code or longitude
and latitude coordinates.

S s = 1.5 Figure 22-1

S1 = 0.30 Figure 22-2

Fa = 1.0 Table 11.4-1

Fv = 1.8 Table 11.4-2

S MS = Fa S S = 1.0(1.50) = 1.50 Eq. 11.4-1

S M 1 = Fv S1 = 1.8(0.30) = 0.54 Eq. 11.4-2

2 2
S DS = S MS = (1.50 ) = 1.0 Eq. 11.4-3
3 3

2 2
S D1 = S M 1 = (0.54 ) = 0.36 Eq. 11.4-4
3 3

Values for TL (Long-Period Transition Period) are obtained from ASCE 7-


05 maps and are used in formula 12.8-3 for determining the cut-off value of
Cs below.

TL = 12 sec
Figure 22-15

1.0
Cs = = 0.250
4.0

1.0

The seismic response coefficient need not exceed:

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Design Example 2 131

S D1 0.36
Cs = = = 0.273 Eq. 12.8-3
R 4.0
T 0.33
I 1.0

For T TL

The seismic response coefficient shall not be less than:

C s = 0.01 Eq. (12.8-5)

V = 0.250W

For the north-south direction of forces:

W = 4600 k

V = C sW = 0.250 4600 = 1150 k

For the east-west direction of forces:

W = 3448 k

V = C sW = 0.250 3448 = 862 k

6b. Vertical Distribution of Forces (see Table 2-7). 12.8.3

Table 2-7. Vertical distribution of seismic forces for the north-south direction of forces

w x hx
Fx
Level w x (k) h x (ft) w x h x (k-ft)
wi hi Fx (k) Ftot (k)
wx
(%)
Roof 1126 42 47,292 39.3 452.0 0.401 452.0
3rd Floor 1737 28 48,636 40.5 465.7 0.268 917.7
2nd Floor 1737 14 24,318 20.2 232.3 0.134 1150.0
4600 120,246 100.0 1150.0

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132 Design Example 2

6c. Diaphragm Design Forces. Eq. 12.10-1

Table 2-8. Vertical distribution of diaphragm seismic forces for the north-south
direction

Minimum Code

F
Diaphragm Force
Fx
Level w x (k) w i
(k) (k )
i
F x
Fpx =
F px
(k ) Fx
w x (k )
Roof 1,126 1,126 452.0 452.0 0.401 452.0 1.00
3rd Floor 1,737 2,863 465.7 917.7 0.320 555.8 1.19
2nd Floor 1,737 4,600 232.3 1,150.0 0.250 434.3 1.86
4,600 1,150.0

Table 2-8 comments:

Note that the Fx and Fpx values at the roof level are the same.

7. Diaphragm DesignSDC D.

7a. Diaphragm Design with Opening.

Determine unit weight f pfloor


.

Second floor area = 24,675 ft2 (assuming no floor openings)

434.3 1,000
f pfloor = = 17.60 psf
24,675

The uniform loads W1 and W2 in the north-south direction are computed using the
diaphragm depths.

W1 = 17.60psf 90ft = 1584 plf


W2 = 17.60 psf 70 ft = 1232 plf

See Figure 2-3 for diaphragm numbers.

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Design Example 2 133

7b. Determine Diaphragm Shears at Interior Boundaries (see Figure 2-4 ).

The diaphragm shear on the east side of line 4 for Diaphragm III (and on
the west side of line 9) is:

wl 1,584(130)
V4 = R = = = 102,960 lb
2 2

102,960 lb
v= = 1,144 plf
90 ft

The diaphragm shear on the west side of line 4 for Diaphragm II (and the
east side of line 9) is:

wl 1,584(51.33)
V4 = R = = = 40,655 lb
2 2

40,655 lb
v= = 542 plf
(90 ft 15 ft )

7c. Determine Diaphragm Chord Forces at Lines A and F and Web Shears at Lines 5,
5.5, 6 and at the Center of the Diaphragm at Line 6.5 (see Figure 2-5).

At line 5:

L 130
V 5= w x = 1,584 plf 26 = 61,775 lb
2 2

At east side of line 5:

61,775 lb
v5 = = 1,030 plf
60 ft

At west side of line 5:

61,775 lb
v5 = = 686 plf
90 ft

M5 =
wx
(L x ) = 1,584 26 (130 26) = 2,141,568 ft - lb
2 2

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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134 Design Example 2

M 2,141,568
F5 @ A = = = 23,795 lb = C
d 90

At line 5.5:
L 130
V 5.5 = w x = 1,584 plf 39 = 41,185 lb
2 2

41,185 lb
v 5.5 = = 686 plf
60 ft

M 5.5 =
wx
(L x ) = 1,584 39 (130 39) = 2,810,810 ft - lb
2 2

M 2,810,810
F5.5 @ A = = = 31,230 lb = C
d 90
At line 6:

L 130
V6 = w x = 1,584 plf 52 = 20,590 lb
2 2

At west side of line 6:

20,590 lb
v6 = = 343 plf
60 ft

At east side of line 6:

20,590 lb
v6 = = 229 plf
90 ft

M6 =
wx
(L x ) = 1,584 52 (130 52 ) = 3,212,350 ft - lb
2 2

M 3,212,350
F6 @ A = = = 35,690 lb = C
d 90

At line 6.5 (center of diaphragm III span):

L 130
V6 .5 = w x = 1,584 plf 65 = 0 lb
2 2

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 2 135

M 6 .5 =
wx
(L x ) = 1,584 65 (130 65) = 3,346,200 ft - lb
2 2

M 3,346,200
F6.5 @ A = = = 37,180 lb = C
d 90

At line 7:

L 130
V7 = w x = 1,584 plf 78 = 20,590 lb
2 2

20,590
v7 = = 229 plf
90'

7d. Determine Free-body Equilibrium Forces of Segments (see Figure 2-17).

Figure 2-17. Second floor diaphragm III segments at opening

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136 Design Example 2

7e. Determine Resultant Diaphragm Chord Forces.

Table 2-9. Resultant diaphragm III chord forces and applied forces
Chord Force/Applied Force

Grid Location
With Opening
Without Opening Resultant Due to Opening
Using FTAO

5 A 23,795C 20,076C 3,719T


C 0 11,154C 11,154C
D 0 11,154T 11,154T
F 23,795T 20,076T 3,719C
6 A 35,690C 37,920C 2,230C
C 0 6,690T 6,690T
D 0 6,690C 6,690C
F 35,690T 37,920T 2,230T
6.5 A 37,180C 38,295C 1,115C
C 0 2,230T 2,230T
D 0 2,230C 2,230C
F 37,180T 38,295T 1,115T

Table 2-9 comments:

The chord force values in the column Without Opening (Table 2-9) were
previously determined in Section 7c. The chord force values in the column
With Opening Using FTAO (Table 2-9) were previously determined in
Section 7d. The values in the column Resultant Due to Opening (Table 2-
9) are determined by taking the difference between the two columns.

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 2 137

7f. Determine Resultant Diaphragm Shears.

Table 2-10. Resultant diaphragm III shears

Diaphragm Shear
(plf)
Grid Location
With Opening Resultant Due to
Without Opening
Using FTAO Opening

4 A-C +1144 -143 +1001


C-D +1144 +286 +1430
D-F +1144 -143 +1001
5 A-C +686 -143 +543
C-D +686 +286 +972
D-F +686 -143 +543
6 A-C +229 -86 +143
C-D +229 +171 +400
D-F +229 -86 +143
7 A-C -229 +86 -143
C-D -229 -171 -400
D-F -229 +86 -143

Table 2-10 comments:

See Table 2-5 for comments related to derivation of numbers in table.

Statics Check:

(The slight difference in numerical results are due to rounding of the unit
shears)

Line 4:

F N S :

(1,001 plf 30 .0 ft ) + (1, 430 plf 30 .0 ft ) + (1,001 plf 30 .0 ft ) = 102 ,960 lb

From section 7b:

V 4 = 102 ,960 lb OK

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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138 Design Example 2

Line 5:

F N S :

(543 plf 30 .0 ft ) + (972 plf 30 .0 ft ) + (543 plf 30 .0 ft ) = 61,740 lb

From section 7c:

V 5 = 61,775 lb 61,740 lb OK

Line 6:

F N S :

(143 plf 30 .0 ft ) + ( 400 plf 30 .0 ft ) + (143 plf 30 .0 ft ) = 20 ,580 lb

From section 3b:

V 6 = 20 ,590 lb 20 ,580 lb OK

Line 7:

F N S :

( 143 plf 30 .0 ft ) + ( 400 plf 30 .0 ft ) + ( 143 plf 30 .0 ft )


= 20,580 lb

From section 3b:

V 7 = 20 ,590 lb 20 ,580 lb OK

7g. Chord Design:

The maximum chord force (from Table 2-9) is 38,295 pounds. Chord forces
at lines A and F will be resisted by either steel reinforcing bars in the ma-
sonry wall or by the ledger at the diaphragm boundary.

The resultant forces at lines C and D (from Table 2-9) will need special
framing members and connectors designed to resist these forces. The
framing plans (and possibly a special detail) also need to specify a double
row of nails (fasteners) for these opening reinforcing collectors/chords.

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 2 139

8. Diaphragm Nailing for SDC D (see Figures 2-18 and 2-19).

Figure 2-18. Diaphragm III nailing key plan

Figure 2-18A. Enlarged diaphragm III nailing key plan

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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140 Design Example 2

Grid 4 to 5:

At line 4, the maximum diaphragm shear occurs between grid lines C and
D.

Converting diaphragm shear values to ASD:

v = 1,430 plf (0.7) = 1,000 plf

The diaphragm in this zone will require multiple lines of fasteners (high
load diaphragm). High load diaphragms are not listed in the NDS Special
Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic; therefore, the design engineer
must use IBC Table 2306.3.2 where values are listed in allowable values
(ASD).

Nailing zone A

Using two lines of 10d common nails (0.148 inch diameter with 11/2 inch
penetration in framing member) spaced at 21/2 inches at boundaries and 3
inches at other panel edges has an allowable shear of 1,255 plf > 1000 plf.
The joist width may need to be increased (changed) for this area. See split-
ting of framing members comments below Table 2-11.

For areas between grid lines 5 and 6:

Maximum diaphragm shear is 877 plf. Converting diaphragm shear values


to ASD:

v = 877 plf (0.7) = 615 plf

For panel layout, load case 2 for a blocked diaphragm and Structural I
sheathing with 3-inch nominal framing members is 720 plf > 615 plf, there-
fore a blocked diaphragm using 10d common (0.148 inch diameter with 11/2
inch penetration in framing member) with 21/2 inch boundary spacing and
4-inch edge spacing at other panel edges is adequate (Nailing Zone C).

Grid 9:

The maximum diaphragm shear is 1,144 plf. Converting diaphragm shear


values to ASD:

v = 1,144 plf (0.7) = 800 plf

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 2 141

For panel layout, load case 2, the allowable shear for a blocked dia-
phragm with 3-inch nominal framing members is 820 plf > 800 plf,
therefore a blocked diaphragm using 10d common nails (0.148 inch
diameter with 11/2 inch penetration in framing member) with 2-inch
boundary spacing and 3-inch edge spacing at other panel edges is adequate
(Nailing Zone B).

At some locations, nailing Zone D (480 plf) will become acceptable as the
diaphragm shears reduce farther from the diaphragm boundary. The dis-
tance between nailing zones B and D may be located as follows using ASD
allowable shears.

Shear demand (ASD) = Shear capacity (ASD)

0.7[102,960lb (1,584 plf ) x ] = 480 plf (90.0 ft )

where

x = the distance from the diaphragm boundary

Solving for x obtains:

x = 26.0 ft

Since the diaphragm consists of 4-foot wide panels, the distance is in-
creased to the next 4 foot increment or x = 28.0 feet.

A similar process is done to determine the distance locations for the other
nailing zone areas of the diaphragm.

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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142 Design Example 2

Figure 2-19. Second floor diaphragm nailing zone key plan


(for north-south seismic)

Figure 2-20. Second floor nailing requirements at Grid Lines 4 and 5

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Design Example 2 143

Table 2-11. Diaphragm nailing zones

Nail Spacing IBC


Nailing
10d Common Nails Sheathing Allow
Zone
(0.148 x 1 min. penetration) (plf)
1
2 Rows 2 /2 o.c. B.N. 15
/32 Structural I 1,255
A
2 Rows 3 o.c. E.N.
2 o.c. B.N. 15
/32 Structural I 820
B
3 o.c. E.N.
2 1/2 o.c. B.N. 15
/32 Structural I 720
C
4 o.c. E.N.
4 o.c. B.N. 15
/32 Structural I 480
D
6 o.c. E.N.
6 o.c. B.N. 15
/32 Structural I 360
E
6 o.c. E.N.

Table 2-11 comments:

The above nailing pattern is required for seismic forces in the north-south
direction. A nailing pattern still needs to be determined for the seismic
forces in the east-west direction.

In addition, the nailing patterns need to be determined for the anchorage of


the masonry walls to the diaphragm (Section 12.11). It is not uncommon to
have nailing patterns for subdiaphragms (Section 12.11.2.2.1) to govern the
nailing patterns (zones) for portions of the diaphragm. Structural drawings
need to call out all boundary members, cross-ties and collectors, so that
they may get the required nailing patterns (Figure 2-1 and 2-20).

Splitting of framing members:

Nails are to be located at least 3/8 inch from the edges of the panels. At ad-
joining panel edges, 3-inch nominal framing members (wood I-joist, beams
and blocking) and nails are to be staggered when both conditions are met:
(1) 10d common nails (0.148 inch diameter) having penetration into fram-
ing of more than 11/2 inches and (2) nails are spaced 3 inches on center or
less.

The design engineer should consider the type of chord in the joists and the
manufacturers recommended maximum nailing to avoid splitting of the
chords. This may require special joists (or even glu-laminated beams as
joists) at areas of heavy nailing.

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144 Design Example 2

The design engineer should consider and specify the type of blocking mate-
rial to be used. It is recommended for this diaphragm that a blocking
material be made of engineered lumber (LVL or LSL) to avoid splitting of
the blocking members. For instance if the joist spacing is 16 inches on
center and the joist flange width is 21/2 inches, the actual length of the
blocking would only be 131/2 inches long and could receive multiple rows
of 10d nails at 2 inches on center. The shorter the length of the block and
the larger the nail diameter, the more likely the block may split.

Special inspections for seismic resistance: IBC 1707.3

Special inspection of diaphragm nailing and shear walls (IBC 1707.3) for
SDC C, D, E or F is required when the nail spacing is 4 inches on center or
less. Periodic special inspection is required for nailing and bolting of the
diaphragms and collectors. A higher level of special inspection is required
for high-load diaphragms (IBC 1704.6.1). Special inspection is required for
grade and thickness of wood structural panels, nominal size of framing
members at adjoining panel edges, nail diameter and length, the number of
fastener lines and the spacing between the fasteners in each line and at edge
margins agree with the approved plans (drawings must show this informa-
tion).

It should be noted that there is a code requirement for the special inspec-
tion, but at the present time, there isnt a certification available for special
inspectors in this category.

9. Collector Design for SDC D.

The length of the collectors is 30 feet (span length is 29.0 feet). See Figure
2-12 for similar collector framing layout.

The total diaphragm shears for the collector are 1,144 + 542 = 1,686 plf
(see section 7b).

Since the inertial forces for the diaphragm were calculated using Eq. 12.10-
1, and there are no transfer diaphragm forces, the redundancy factor is
1.0.

Since this building is in Seismic Design Category D, the collector elements,


splices and their connections do require using the load combinations with
overstrength of 12.4.3.2.

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Design Example 2 145

The collector force at 4-C, 4-D, 9-C and 9-D is:

F = 1,686 plf 30 ft = 50,580 lb

9a. Load Combinations for Collector Design Using ASCE 7-05. 12.4.3.2

In accordance with Section 12.4.3.2, the following load combinations shall


be used for basic combinations for allowable stress design, the load
combinations with overstrength factor:

(1.0 + 0.14 S DS ) D + H + F + 0.7 0 Q E Eq. 5

(1.0 + 0.105S DS ) D + H + F + 0.525 0 Q E + 0.75 L + 0.75( Lr or S or R ) Eq. 6

(0.6 0.14 S DS ) D + 0.7 0 Q E + H Eq. 8

Where the dead load, D, is increased (or decreased) for vertical accelera-
tions by the SDS coefficient.

Since H, F, Lr, S and R are not present on the collector, the simplified load
combinations with overstrength are:

(1.0 + 0.14 S DS ) D + 0.7 0 Q E


Eq. 5

(1.0 + 0.105S DS ) D + 0.525 0 Q E + 0.75 L


Eq. 6

(0.6 0.14 S DS ) D + 0.7 0 Q E


Eq. 8

Where QE = the horizontal seismic force F = 50,580 lb 12.4.2.1

0.105S DS = 0.105(1.0) = 0.105

0.14 S DS = 0.14(1.0) = 0.14

0 = 2.5

9b. Determine Loads and Forces on Collector.

Dead load, D, on collector:

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146 Design Example 2

(30.0psf + 15.0psf )( 26.0 ft ) = 1,170 plf

Where the required partition loading of 15 psf is considered.

Live load, L, on collector:

32 psf ( 26.0 ft ) = 832 plf

Vertical load on collector:

For Equation 5:

w = (1.0 + 0.14S DS )D = (1.0 + 0.14)1,170 = 1,335 plf

wl 2 1,335 plf (29.0) 2


M= = = 140,350 ft - lb
8 8

For Equation 6:

w = (1.0 + 0.105S DS )D = (1.0 + 0.105)1,170 + (0.75)832 = 1,920 plf

wl 2 1,920 plf (29.0) 2


M= = = 201,840 ft - lb
8 8

For Equation 8:

w = (0.6 0.14S DS )D = (0.6 0.14)1,170 = 540 plf

wl 2 540 plf (29.0) 2


M= = = 56,800 ft - lb
8 8

Horizontal earthquake load on collector:

QE = 50,580 lb

For Equations 5 and 8:

0.7 0 QE = 0.7(2.5)50,580 = 88,500 lb

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 2 147

For Equation 6:

0.525 0 QE = 0.525(2.5)50,580 = 66,400 lb

9c. Check Collector for Combined Loading.

The typical floor girder is 63/4 x 341/2 glu-laminated beam (GLB); try using
typical beam for collector. The equations used for the combined loading
are:

Combined Bending and Axial Tension:

ft fb
+ * 1 .0 NDS Eq. (3.9-1)

Ft ' Fb

fb ft
1 .0 NDS Eq. (3.9-2)
F **
b

The collectors connection will be concentric to the centroid of the collector


(see Figure 2-21); therefore, the eccentric formula used in section 4e need
not be used.

Combined Bending and Axial Compression:

2
fc fb
+ 1 .0 NDS Eq. (3.9-3)
Fc ' f
Fb ' 1 c
FcE

Try 63/4 x 34 GLB:

where

A = 6.75 34.5 = 232.8 in. 2


I bh 2 6.75 34.5 2
Sx = = = = 1,339.0 in.3
c 6 6
C D = 1.6 1.2 = 1.92

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148 Design Example 2

E ' x min = 930,000 psi


E ' y min = 830,000 psi

Note that the additional allowable stress increase (CD) for load combina-
tions with overstrength is permitted in section 12.4.3.3.

Compression:
The collector has different unbraced lengths (see Figure 2-14) about the x
and y axes. Since Ex min and Ey min are different material properties, a full
analysis of the column stability factor (Cp) is necessary for each axis.

d1 = wide face dimension (beam depth)


d1 = 34.5 in.

Ke 1 = 1.0

l e1 = 29 x 12 = 348 in.
l e1
= 348 = 10.0
d1 34.5

Beam bottom edge will be braced at midspan to prevent local buckling (see
Figures 2-13 and 2-14).

Ke 2 = 1.0

l e 2 = 14.5 12 = 174 in.


le2
= 174 = 25.8
d2 6.75

Analyze collector buckling about x (strong) axis:

Use Ex min to analyze buckling about the x axis.

E ' x min = E x min C M C t = 930,000 1.0 1.0 = 930,000 psi

Column stability factor for x (strong) axis:

C = 0.9 for GLB

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 2 149

0.822 E ' x min 0.822 x930,000


FcE = = = 7,645 psi NDS Eq. 3.7-1
l e1
2
(10.0)2
d
1

*
FC = FC C D C M C t = 1,650 1.92 1.0 1.0 = 3,170 psi

FcE 7,645
* = = 2.412
Fc 3,170

F FcE
2
FcE
1 + cE * 1+ *
Fc
F c F * c = 0.940
Cp =
2c 2 c c
NDS Eq. 3.7-1

Analyze collector buckling about y (weak) axis:

Use Ey min to analyze buckling about the y axis.

E ' y min = E y min C M C t = 830,000 1.0 1.0 = 830,000 psi

Column stability factor for y (weak) axis:

c = 0.9 for GLB

0.822 E ' y min 0.822 x 830,000


FcE = = = 1,025 psi
le2
2
(25.8)2 NDS Eq. 3.7-1
d
2

*
FC = FC C D C M C t = 1,650 1.92 1.0 1.0 = 3,170 psi

FcE 1,025
* = = 0.3233
Fc 3,170

F FcE
2
FcE
1 + cE *
Fc 1 +
F *c F * c = 0.309
Cp =
2c 2c c
NDS Eq. 3.7-1

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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150 Design Example 2

The y axis produces the smaller value of the column stability factor; hence
the y axis is critical for column (collector) buckling.

F ' c = Fc C D C P C M C t = 1,650 1.92 0.309 1.0 1.0 = 980 psi

Likewise the y axis produces the smaller value of the critical buckling de-
sign value for compression members FcE.

FcE = 1,025 psi

Tension:

Ft ' = Ft C D C M C t = 1,100 1.92 1.0 1.0 = 2,100 psi

Bending:

A beam subject to lateral torsional buckling is governed by stability about


the y axis. Hence, the modulus of elasticity used in determining the beam
stability factor (CL) is Ey min.

If the combined stress (bending plus axial compression) on the bottom edge
is tension, then CL may be assumed to be 1.0. However, if the combined
stress is compression, a bending analysis is required to determine CL.

Determine CL for condition when fc > fb:

lu = 174 in.

l u 174
= = 5 .0 < 7
d 34.5

l e = 2.06l u = 2.06(174 in.) = 358 in. NDS Table 3.3.3

le d
RB = < 50 max
b2

358 34.5
RB = = 16.46 < 50 NDS Eq. 3.3-5
6.75 2

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Design Example 2 151

E ' y min = E y min C M C t = 830,000 1.0 1.0 = 830,000 psi

1.20 E ' y min 1.20 830,000


FbE = = = 3,675 psi NDS Eq. 3.3-6
RB
2
(16.46)2
**
Fb = F * b = Fb x C D C M C t = 2,400 1.92 1.0 1.0
= 4,600 psi NDS Eq. 3.9-1 and 3.9-2

FbE 3,675
* = = 0.799
Fb 4,600

F Fb E
2
FbE
1 + bE * 1+ *
Fb
F b F * b = 0.711 1.0
CL =
1 .9 1 . 9 0.95

NDS Eq. 3.3-6

1 1 1 1 1 1
21 x 12 x 5.125 x
21 10
12 10
5.125 10
CV = = = 0.847 1.0
L d b 29 34.5 6.75

NDS Eq. 5.3-1


CL<CV

Note: Lateral stability governs over volume effect

When fc > fb:

F ' b = Fb C D C M C t C L = 2,400 1.92 1.0 1.0 0.711 = 3,275 psi

When fc < fb:

CL = 1.0

F ' b = Fb C D C M C t CV = 2,400 1.92 1.0 1.0 0.847 = 3,900 psi

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152 Design Example 2

Table 2-12. Collector combined loading checks

Load Combination Equation

5 6 8
F (kips) 88.5 66.4 88.5
ft =fc (ksi) 0.380 0.285 0.380
Ft (ksi) 2.100 2.100 2.100
Fc (ksi) 0.980 0.980 0.980
M (ft-k) 140.3 201.8 56.80
fb (ksi) 1.257 1.809 0.509
Fb (ksi) 3.900 3.900 3.900
CL 1.0 1.0 1.0
CV 0.847 0.847 0.847
* **
Fb = Fb (ksi) 4.600 4.600 4.600
fc/FcE 0.371 0.278 0.371
Eq. 3.9-1 0.454 0.529 0.292
Interaction
Check Eq. 3.9-2 0.191 0.331 0.028
Eq. 3.9-3 0.663 0.727 0.358

Table 2-12 Comments:

The governing load combination is ASCE 7-05, Equation 6 with NDS-05


Equation 3.9-3: 0.727 < 1.0 therefore the 63/4 x 341/2 GLB collector is
adequate.

Note: when fc < fb the bottom edge of the beam is still in tension and CL is
assumed to be 1.0. However from a technical perspective, the le/d in the
weak axis (unbraced) would be 51.6 > 50 maximum; therefore, a brace to
the bottom of the beam at midspan will be added. With a brace at midspan
(Figure 2-13), the le/d is now 25.8 < 50, where le=(Ke)l.

Since fc < fb the value of CL = 1.0 is used with the higher value of F'b.

Current ASCE 7 requirements with multiple loading combinations and the


complex NDS equations are quite cumbersome and subject to first trying
a member size, and then analyzing the member. If the member is over-
stressed by any of the load combinations, the process needs to be repeated
again with the new member size and so on. The collector illustrated in this
design example required three different loading combinations and three dif-
ferent equations for a total of nine interaction checks. Without the aid of

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Design Example 2 153

computer software, the process can be overwhelmingly time-consuming


and increases the chance for computational error.

10. Collector Connection Design for SDC D.

Wood connections using the load combinations with overstrength in Seis-


mic Design Category D can be problematic if not practical at all. As an
example, if the connection illustrated in Figure 2-16 were utilized, it would
require 203/4 inch diameter bolts. An obvious alternative would be to use a
steel beam in lieu of the glue-laminated beam. Figure 2-21 is another ap-
proach to the problem by utilizing the channel (or angle) to transfer all of
the force to the shear wall.

Figure 2-21. Second floor drag connection

Figure 2-21 comments:

1. Checking of rods in compression needs to be considered to complete


connection detail.

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154 Design Example 2

2. The designer must develop horizontal drag force into the CMU wall
with the proper number of bolts and check the CMU shear stress to
complete the connection detail.
3. The designer must develop the load path from the GLB to the steel
channels by the through bolts to complete the connection detail.
4. Diaphragm cross-tie connection at lines C and D at connection to steel
column needs to be considered to complete connection detail.
5. Ledger for floor framing is not shown in detail and needs to consider
possible interference with MC 10x below.
6. Floor framing into GLB is not shown and needs to consider possible
interference with MC 10x below.

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Design Example 2 155

References

APA, Design/ Construction GuideDiaphragms and Shear Walls. Report


105, The Engineered Wood Association, Tacoma, WA, 1997.

APA, Diaphragms and Shear Walls. The Engineered Wood Association,


Tacoma, WA, 2007.

APA, Plywood Diaphragms, Research Report 138. Tacoma, WA, 1988.

APA, Minimum Nail Penetration for Wood Structural Panel Connections


Subject to Lateral Load. Report TT-0458. The Engineered Wood Asso-
ciation, Tacoma, WA, 2007.

Applied Technology Council, Guidelines for Design of Horizontal Wood


Diaphragms, ATC-7. Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, CA,
1981.

Applied Technology Council, Proceedings of a Workshop on Design of


Horizontal Wood Diaphragms, ATC-7-1. Applied Technology Council,
Redwood City, CA, 1980.

Breyer, Donald E., Kenneth J. Fridley, David G. Pollack, Jr. And Kelly E.
Cobeen,. Design of Wood Structures ASD/ LRFD. McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
New York, NY, 2007.

Cobeen, K., J. Russell, J. and J.D. Dolan, Recommandations for Earthquake


Resistance in the Design and Construction of Woodframe Buildings.
Volume 1-Recommendations, Report W-30. Consortium of Universities for
Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE), Richmond, CA, 2004.

Dolan, J.D., Experimental Results from Cyclic Racking Tests of Wood


Shear Walls with Openings. Timber Engineering Report No. TE- 1996-001.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 1996.

Dolan, J. D. and C.P. Heine, Monotonic Tests of Wood Frame Shear Walls
with Various Openings and Base Restraint Configurations. Timber
Engineering Report No. TE-1997-001, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University, Blacksburg, VA, 1997a.

Faherty, Keith F., and Thomas G. Williamson, Wood Engineering Con-


struction Handbook. McGraw Hill, Washington D.C., 1995.

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156 Design Example 2

Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC), Struc-


tural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol 2. Sacramento, CA, 1996.

Thompson, Michael D., Report of the Design and Testing of a Force


Transfer Around Openings Wood Shearwall. Department of Civil Engi-
neering, California Polytechnic University Pomona. Pomona, CA, 2007.

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157

Example 3
Steel Deck Diaphragm with Opening (Flexible Diaphragm)
for Seismic Design Category DFour-Story Building
Example

Overview
This design example illustrates the design of the roof diaphragm and its
components for a four-story office building structure using the provisions
of the 2006 International Building Code. Figure 3-1 shows the roof plan of
the building, and the braced-frame elevations are shown in Figures 3-2 and
3-3. The lateral system utilizes buckling restrained braced frames (BRBF)
to carry the inertial forces from the diaphragms down to the foundation.
The gravity system consists of steel columns, beams and girders. The roof
is made of bare metal deck while all of the floors are concrete fill over
metal deck. Example 3 covers the design of the untopped diaphragm at the
roof; Example 4 covers the design of the diaphragm with composite deck at
the third floor.

Note: No lateral-resisting system has been provided along gridline E for the
purpose of demonstrating cantilever diaphragm design, specifically for this
design example. A well-designed building should always have a minimum
of two lines of parallel lateral-resisting-system elements in each orthogonal
direction of the buildings footprint.

Outline
This example will illustrate the following parts of the design process:

1. Determination of Diaphragm Forces.

2. Roof Diaphragm Analysis without Opening.

3. Diaphragm Analysis at Opening.

4. Collector Design.

5. Collector Connection Design.

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158 Design Example 3

Given Information

Site soil properties in acordance with soils report by ACME Geotechnical


Company:

Site Class B

Ss = 1.50 g
S1 = 0.624 g
TL = 12 sec.
Buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBF), nonmoment-resisting beam-
column connections
R = 7.0 ASCE 7 Table 12.2.1
o = 2.0

Roof Loading:
Dead Load = 40 psf
Live Load = 20 psf (Reducible)
Typical Floor Loading:
Dead Load = 80 psf (includes 10 psf seismic
weight for partitions) ASCE 7 12.7.2
Live Load = 50 psf (Reducible)
Exterior Cladding = 25 psf
(Accounts for floor/roof slab framing weight from perimeter beam
centerline to edge of slab)

Weights of respective diaphragm levels, including tributary exterior and


interior walls:

Wroof = 977 k
W4th floor = 1953 k
W3rd floor = 1953 k
W2nd floor = 1953 k
Wtotal = 6836 k

Beams and columns: A992


Plates: A572, Grade 50
Welds: FEXX = 70 ksi.
3
Bolts: /4 ASTM A490X in standard holes.
3
Welded studs: /4 x 3
Fu = 65 ksi
Reinforcement: Fy = 60 ksi
ABC-ES Report #1 for ACME Steel Deck Company:

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Design Example 3 159

Roof Deck:
vall = 800 plf 16 gage deck with 11/2 rib height, 4-weld pattern
per sheet to supports, with 1 top seam welds at
side laps @ 24o.c. for beam spans of 10-0

vall = 1500 plf 16 gage deck with 11/2 rib height, 7-weld pattern
per sheet to supports, with 1 top seam welds at
side laps @ 12o.c. for beam spans of 10-0
Floor Deck:
vall = 4350 plf 16 gage deck with 2 rib height, 31/4 lightweight
concrete fill, and headed shear studs at 12 o.c.

Analytical results:
Tx = 1.072 sec.
Ty = 0.940 sec.
Torsional Irregularity 1a in accordance with ASCE 7 Table 12.3-1
applies.
Torsional Irregularity 1b in accordance with ASCE 7 Table 12.3-1
does not apply.

Figure 3-1. Roof framing plan

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160 Design Example 3

Figure 3-2. Elevation of Grid A

Figure 3-3. Elevation of Grids 1 and 7

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Design Example 3 161

Calculations and Discussion Code Reference

1. Determination of Diaphragm Forces. ASCE 7 12.10.1

The base shear must be determined in order to obtain diaphragm design


forces.

1a. Design Base Shear. ASCE 7 12.8.1

The base shear of the building is determined using a number of equations


that essentially define a generic response spectrum. An upper bound equa-
tion (12.8-2) governs the base shear of short-period buildings. One of three
lower-bound equations governs the base shear for longer-period buildings.
It is necessary to determine the approximate building period in order to de-
termine the governing equation.

To determine building period for minimum design base shear, the calcu-
lated periods (in the Given section) are compared to the approximate
period (Ta) which is identical in each direction:

Ta = C t (hn ) = 0.030(60)
x 3/ 4
= 0.647 sec ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-7

Ct = 0.030, x = 0.75 AISC 341 Appendix R

Tx = 1.072 sec. (from analysis)


Ty = 0.940 sec. (from analysis)

Cu = 1.4 since SD1 > 0.4 ASCE 7 Table 12.8.1


Cu Ta = 1.4(0.647 sec.) = 0.905 sec.

Design base shear is:

V = C sW ASCE 7 Eq.12.8-1

S DS
Cs ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-2
R

I

where

I = 1.0

R = 7.0

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162 Design Example 3

S s = 1.5
Fa = 1.0
ASCE 7 Table 11.4-1
Site Class B

S MS = Fa S S = 1.5 ASCE 7 Eq. 11.4-1

S DS = 2 3 S MS = 2 3 (1.5) = 1.00 ASCE 7 Eq. 11.4-3

S DS 1.00
Cs = = 0.143 (upper bound for Cs)
R 7.0

I 1.0

The lower bound value of Cs used for computing base shear must conform
to the largest of four minimum values:

S D1
Cs ASCE 7 Eq.12.8-3
R
T
I

For T TL

TL = 12

S1 = 0.624

Fv = 1.0 ASCE 7 Table 11.4-2

S M 1 = Fv S1 = 0.624 ASCE 7 Eq.11.4-2

S D1 = 2 3 S M 1 = 2 3 (0.624) = 0.416 ASCE 7 Eq. 11.4-4

Controls
S 0.416
C s D1 = = 0.0657
R 7.0
T 0.905
I 1.0

C s 0.01 ASCE 7 Eq.12.8-5


C s 0.044 S DS I = 0.044 1.00 1.0 = 0.044 ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-5
(Supplement Number 2)

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Design Example 3 163

0.5S1
Cs = 0.0446 ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-6
R

I

Therefore Eq. 12.8-3 governs, and

V = C sW = 0.0657(6836k ) = 448.9 k

Additionally the Seismic Design Category (SDC) can be determined:


ASCE 7 Table 11.6-1
Table 11.6-2
SDC = D since SDS > 0.50 and SD1 > 0.20

1b. Vertical Distributions of Forces. ASCE 7 12.8.3

The static base shear must be distributed to each level as a preliminary step
in determining diaphragm forces. This is done using the procedure for an
equivalent lateral force analysis, regardless of the analysis used for the de-
sign of the vertical elements of the lateral load resisting system.

Fx = C vxV ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-11

k
wx hx
C vx = n
ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-12
w h
i =1
i i
k

Where h x is the average height at level i of the diaphragm in feet above


the base.

k is a distribution exponent related to the building period.

Since T = 0.905 s, k = 1.203 by linear interpolation.

Determination of Fx is shown in Tables 3-1. ASCE 7 12.8.3

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164 Design Example 3

Table 3-1. Vertical distribution of seismic forces

k
wx hx Story
k
Fx
w x (k) h x (ft) w x h x (k-ft)
w h
Level k (k) Shear
i i
Fx (k)
(%)
Roof 977 60 134,314 27 122.6 122.6
4th Floor 1953 45 189,972 39 173.5 296.1
3rd Floor 1953 30 116,665 24 106.5 402.6
2nd Floor 1953 15 50,693 10 46.3 448.9
6836 491,645 100 449

Note that in accordance with ASCE 7 Table 12.6-1 a modal response


spectrum (MRS) analysis is required for the design forces for the braced
frames due to the horizontal irregularity type 1a (torsional irregularity).
Some engineers have proposed using MRS analysis to determine diaphragm
accelerations from which diaphragm design forces can be determined.
ASCE 7-05 does not formally recognize this analytical method for
diaphragm design; however, it is allowed for the determination of
component forces in Eq. 13.3-4.
Engineers must always be careful to extract meaningful information from
MRS analysis. Quantities of interest must be tracked mode by mode and
combined using an appropriate combination rule, typically the square root
of the sum of the squares (SRSS) or the complete quadratic combination
(CQC). Subtracting the modal-combination of story shears at one level
from modal-combination of story shear at the level below does not repre-
sent the MRS analysis story force; rather, this force is properly determined
by calculating the story force mode by mode and then performing the ap-
propriate combination.

1c. Diaphragm Force Coefficient.

The basic equation to determine seismic forces on a diaphragm is

F
i=x
i
F px = n
w px ASCE 7 Eq. 12.10-1
w
i=x
i

Fpx need not exceed ASCE 7 12.10.1.1

F px , max = 0.4 S DS Iw px

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Design Example 3 165

But shall not be less than

F px , min = 0.2 S DS Iw px

Table 3-2. Diaphragm design forces

Level w p x (k) Fx (k) F px (k) F px ,min (k) F px ,max (k) F px (k)


Roof 977 122.6 122.6 195.3 390.6 195.3
4th Floor 1953 173.5 197.4 390.6 781.2 390.6
3rd Floor 1953 106.5 161.0 390.6 781.2 390.6
2nd Floor 1953 46.3 128.2 390.6 781.2 390.6

Based on Table 3-2, F p , roof = 195.3 k

The redundancy factor, , is equal to 1.0 in accordance with 12.10.1.1


because the inertial forces were calculated in accordance with Equation
12.10-1.

2. Roof Diaphragm Analysis without Opening.

The roof diaphragm will first be analyzed without the effects of an opening
(or openings) to determine the forces acting on it.

The untopped steel deck system is permitted to be idealized as a flexible


diaphragm in accordance with 12.3.1.1 and IBC 1613.6.1.

A flexible diaphragm can be idealized as a beam that is supported at the


shear resisting lines (in this example, the braced-frame lines). The beam has
a uniform load applied to it equal to the distributed seismic load of the roof
(calculated by dividing the seismic force by the roof area) multiplied by the
depth of the diaphragm. Figures 3-4 and 3-5 show the beam diagrams for
the diaphragm loading. For north-south loading the diaphragm is analyzed
as a simply-supported beam. For east-west loading it acts as a cantilever.

Roof area = 21,600 sq ft

Fp 195.3 k 1000 lbs/kip


fp = = = 9.042 psf
A 21,600 sf

Uniform diaphragm loading w:

wE W = 9.042 psf (180 ft) = 1628 plf

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166 Design Example 3

wN S = 9.042 psf (120 ft) = 1085 plf

Figure 3-4. North-south loading of roof diaphragm simply-supported beam

Figure 3-5. East-west loading of roof diaphragm cantilevered beam

2a. Diaphragm Shears.

The maximum shear along each beam occurs at a support, and so the dia-
phragm is designed for this maximum shear. For north-south loading,

wl 1085 plf 180 ft


V1 = V 7 = = = 97.7 k
2 2

Although 12.8.4.2 does not require the inclusion of accidental torsion for
flexible diaphragms, it is recommended here that it be considered in all
cases for the same reason that it is considered for rigid diaphragms: to pro-
vide some capacity to resist load redistributions resulting from nonuniform
inelastic behavior of lateral-load-resisting elements.

For a simply supported beam a five percent offset in the centroid of the load
results in a 10 percent change in the reactions (45 percent and 55 percent in
the offset case; 50 percent and 50 percent in the centered case). Therefore,

V max = 97.7 k 1.1 = 107 k

For a cantilevered beam an offset in the centroid of the load does not affect
the shear reaction at the base at grid A. Therefore in the east-west direction,

V max = V A = wl = 1628 plf 120 ft = 195.3 k

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Design Example 3 167

A diaphragm is designed for unit shear, that is, it is designed for the total
shear divided by its depth. The unit shears in each direction are:

V max 107 k
v1 = v 7 = = = 0.895 klf
L1, 7 120 ft

V A 195.3 k
vA = = = 1.09 klf
LA 180 ft

These perimeter diaphragm shears correspond to collector design forces in


each direction. Chord forces necessary for the diaphragm to deliver forces
to the collectors likewise produce shear; diaphragm shear at chords is typi-
cally much lower. In this design example it is necessary to consider both
diaphragm chord and collector forces simultaneously at Lines 1 and 7 due
to the cantilever diaphragm geometry. Diaphragm shear at these lines will
be checked after chord forces are determined.

2b. Chord Forces.

The chord forces are a result of the moment imposed upon the diaphragm
by the applied distributed seismic load. This moment resolves itself in a
tension-compression couple with an arm equal to the depth of the building.
The maximum chord forces will occur at the location of maximum moment.
For North-South loading, based on the moment diagram shown in Figure 3-
6, the maximum moment occurs at the midpoint of the span at grid 4. The
chord forces, which occur in lines A and E, are calculated as follows:

wL2 2
Qe = C = T = M = 8 = 1.09 klf (180 ft) = 36.6 k
D D 8 120 ft

Figure 3-6. Simple span diaphragm moment diagram for north-south loading

For east-west loading, based on the moment diagram shown in Figure 3-7,
the maximum moment occurs at the support at grid A. The chord forces,
which occur in lines 1 and 7, are calculated as follows:

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168 Design Example 3

wL2 2
Qe = C = T = M = 2 = 1.63 klf (120 ft) = 65.6 k
D D 2 180 ft

Figure 3-7. Cantilever diaphragm moment diagram for east-west loading

This moment diagram is somewhat misleading. Typically chord forces in a


simple span diaphragm are resolved by reversing shear in the diaphragm
(that is, the integration of the shear diagram results in zero moment at each
support). In this case the cantilever diaphragm chord force is the means of
delivering the diaphragm torsional moment to the orthogonal frames along
grids 1 and 7. The chord forces along grids 1 and 7 do not therefore reach a
maximum where the moment diagram is greatest (at grid A) due to the lo-
cation of the frames along grids 1 and 7 between grids D and E. The beams
on lines 1 and 7 serve both as chords and as drag beams that deliver the
chord forces to the braced frames (such drag forces are separate from col-
lector forces due to north-south loading). This can be conceptualized as a
chord member connected to a drag beam via a pulley, as shown below in
Figure 3-8, with the pulley corresponding to gridline A.

Increasing cantilever chord force


Grid A

Drag forces back to Braced


Frames at Grid C.5

Figure 3-8. Conceptual diagram of forces along a combined chord and drag beam

The primary chord forces along lines 1 and 7 increase geometrically from
grid E to grid A, as one would expect for a cantilever diaphragm with shear
resisted at the boundary (grid A). This primary chord force diagram is
shown below in Figure 3-10. However, the moment corresponding to these
chord forces is resisted by braced frames on Lines 1 and 7. These braced
frames exert their forces at C.5 and D.5 (where the braces attach to the
chord beams). At each line (Lines 1 and 7) the sum of these two braced-
frame forces is equal to the maximum chord force.

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Design Example 3 169

As shown in Figure 3-9 below, the location of the braced frames on grids 1
and 7 determines for each chord whether the diaphragm loading in a given
direction causes tension or compression. In Figure 3-9a, tension develops in
Line 1, the top chord of the cantilevered diaphragm. However in Figure
3-9b, which more closely resembles the design example, Line 1 goes into
compression because of the location of the reaction.

Figure 3-9. Diagram of frame reactions on lines 1 and 7


The braced-frame forces are shown in Figure 3-10 below. The superposi-
tion of the primary chord force and the braced-frame axial force diagrams
gives the net axial force in the chords due to loading in the east-west di-
rection. Note that design for the primary chord forces would underestimate
the required chord strength significantly.

80.0

60.0
Primary Chord force
40.0

20.0
Force (kips)

0.0 Net Chord Force


0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120
-20.0

-40.0
Braced-Frame Force
-60.0

-80.0
Location (ft.)

Figure 3-10. Chord force diagram along lines 1 and 7

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170 Design Example 3

The maximum chord force occurs along lines 1 and 7 in the braced-frame
beam at grid C.5 and is 56.3 kips. The maximum chord force occurs in a
nonbraced-frame beam at grid C is 49.1 kips.

In Seismic Design Categories C and higher, collectors are required to be


designed for 12.10.2.1 load combinations 5 and 7, which include the over-
strength factor o (the amplified seismic load). Chords are not required to
be designed using this combination, regardless of Seismic Design Category.
Consequently, if a line serves as both a collector line and a chord line, the
chord forces will rarely govern over the collector forces. The reason for this
distinction is unclear; it is recommended here that any diaphragm element
or action considered to be nonductile be designed for the amplified seismic
load. Chord buckling, being no different from collector buckling, is there-
fore recommended to be checked using the amplified seismic load.

Typically collector and chord forces are considered separately; design of


these elements is not one of the conditions for which ASCE 7 12.5.4 re-
quires consideration on loading in a direction other than the building prin-
cipal axes. Nevertheless it is the authors opinion that such loading should
always be considered, although not necessarily calculated. Explicit calcula-
tion is recommended in cases where engineering judgment indicates a
significant increase in required strength; this applies to both the design of
the diaphragms and the design of the braced frames. Therefore the chord
forces calculated for lines 1 and 7 above will be combined with the collec-
tor forces calculated below. Designers should be alert to situations in which
such simplifications miss important interactions.

2c. Collector Forces.

The BRBFs on each braced-frame line have equal stiffnesses, so the shears
in each frame are considered to be equal (neglecting collector axial
deformation):

195.3k
V Brace, A = = 65.1 k
3
107.4k
V Brace,1 = V brace, 7 = = 53.7 k
2

Figures 3-11 and 3-12 are the collector diagrams for loading in the east-
west and north-south directions, respectively. Minimum and maximum
forces are reported, as are forces at connections.

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Design Example 3 171

Collector Forces

140
120 113.9
100 97.7
80 81.4
60 65.1 65.1
Kips

48.8 48.8
40
32.6 32.6
20 16.3
0 0.0 0.0
-20 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165-16.3
180
-40
Drag Line

Figure 3-11. Collector diagram for line A

Collector Forces

80
67.1
60
53.7
Qe (Kips)

40 40.3
26.9 26.9
20
13.4
0 0.0 0.0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105-13.4 120
-20
Drag Line (Feet)

Figure 3-12. Collector diagram for lines 1 and 7

The maximum collector force occurs at 90 feet along Line A at grid 4: 97.7
kips. The 113.9 kip force that occurs at the beam mid-span between grids 4
and 5 is neglected since the beam is part of the BRBF bay. The collector
force will be combined with the corresponding chord force acting on the
same line using the methods defined in ASCE 7 12.5. For simplicity the
maximum chord forces and collector forces are combined, although these
do not occur at precisely the same location.

At Lines 1 and 7:
C = 1.0C collector + 0.3C chord = 53.7 k + 0.3(49.1 k) = 68.4 k

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172 Design Example 3

At Line A:
C = 1.0C collector + 0.3C chord = 97.7 k + 0.3(36.6 k) = 109 k

Note that this 100 percent + 30 percent combination method is an approxi-


mation of the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) method,
which corresponds to linearly independent modes. For response that is sig-
nificantly nonlinear these combination rules may underestimate forces
substantially.

The design example will show the design of one beam of the collector at
Line A. The design of other collector and chord beams is similar.

In accordance with ASCE 7 12.10.2.1, collector elements, splices and


connections in Seismic Design Categories C, D, E and F must be designed
to resist load combinations with overstrength.

5. (1.2 + 0.2SDS)D + oQE + L + 0.2S


7. (0.90.2SDS)D + oQE + 1.6H

These overstrength forces correspond to the base shear calculated using the
R factor for the ductile system. They do not apply to the maximum and
minimum diaphragm forces (0.2SDSIwpx and 0.4SDSIwpx), which are inde-
pendent of the system, but they do apply to Eq. 12.10-1. Therefore, the
controlling collector design force is obtained by comparing the diaphragm
forces (considering the maximum and minimum) with the R-based collector
forces amplified by the overstrength factor . In this example the mini-
mum diaphragm force governs at all levels. The diaphragm analysis can
simply be scaled to obtain the collector force at a level of Fp corresponding
to Eq. 12.10-1 (instead of the minimum).

F px = 122.6 k
F px (min) = 195.3 k
Pu Q FP min = 109 k
122.6 k
Pu o Q FP = 2.0 109 k = 136 k
195.3 k
Pu = 136 k

Note that the collector force along this line need not exceed the adjusted
brace strengths at this level (as this is the roof level and braces receive load
only through the collector). It is given here that the adjusted brace strengths
(including appropriate overstrength factors) are reached at a collector force
of 180 kips.

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Design Example 3 173

The beam shown in Figure 3-13 represents the collector beam, with axial
forces as calculated above, combined with transverse loading due to the
supported beams and cladding. It will be conservatively designed for the
maximum axial force and the maximum moment acting on it. Note that
these will not actually occur at the same location along the beam. The
maximum moment occurs at the center of the beam while the maximum
axial load occurs at the end of the beam. The beam is a W24 62. Second-
order moments must be calculated for the beam.

Figure 3-13. Collector axial and flexural loading

The exterior cladding is attached to the building at 10 feet o.c. Vu is calcu-


lated as:

Vu = (1.2 + 0.2 1.0) 10 ft (0.5 40 psf 30 ft + 0.5 25 psf 15 ft) = 11.0 k

Roof live load is not considered in combination with seismic forces.

M nt = 11.0 k 10 ft = 110 k - ft

This moment is not due to lateral translation and is magnified only by the
axial force present in the beam:
B1 = Cm AISC 360 Eq. C2-3
P
1 u
Pe

Cm = 1.0 for a pin-end beam with transverse loading.

PE = 2 EA
[KL r ] 2

KL = 1(360 in.)/(9.23 in.) = 39.0


rx

2 (29,000 ksi)(18.2 in. 2 )


PE = = 3420 k
(39.0 )2

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174 Design Example 3

1.0
B1 = = 1.04
(
1 136 k
3420 k
) 2

M u = B1 M nt = 114k - ft

2d. Diaphragm Design.

Maximum diaphragm shears at collector lines were previously determined:

v1 = v 7 = 0.895 klf
v A = 1.09 klf

This diaphragm shear corresponds to collector forces in each direction. As


stated earlier, for the cantilever diaphragm under consideration simultane-
ous chord and collector shears at Lines 1 and 7 must also be determined.
From the chord-force calculations the chord-related shear is:

65.6 k
v 1Chord = v 7Chord = = 0.547 klf
120 ft

Following the procedure used above to analyze orthogonal earthquake


effects:


v1 = 1.0v1 + 0.3v1Chord = 0.895 klf + 0.3(0.547 klf ) = 1.06 klf

The diaphragm will be designed for vmax = 1060 plf.

In accordance with Section 104.11 of the 2006 IBC, design values are ob-
tained from a properly certified evaluation report produced by an accredited
service. ABC-ES Report #1 for ACME Steel Deck Company specifies that
their 16 gage deck vall = 800 plf (see given information).

At allowable stress level,

v max = 1090 plf 0.7 = 760 plf v all = 800 plf

The diaphragm is adequate.

In accordance with ASCE 7 12.3.3.4, certain irregularities trigger a 25


percent increase in the design force for the shear transfer from the

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Design Example 3 175

diaphragm to the collectors. The type 1a irregularity is such a trigger, and


the transfer needs to be designed for:

v max = (1.25) 1090 plf (0.7) = 954 plf

The capacity of the deck, based on the attachments to the supporting mem-
bers, is 1500 plf at allowable stress level; the diaphragm is OK (see given
information).

3. Diaphragm Analysis at Opening.

For simplicity, only the analysis of the effects of the opening in the north-
south direction will be performed, but the effects in both directions must be
considered. An opening in the diaphragm creates a concentration of forces
at the portions of the diaphragm adjacent to the opening. The unit shear
within the diaphragm is increased because there is a shorter segment of dia-
phragm to distribute the shear. At this opening, the highest unit shear is
along line 5.6 (on the north side of the opening) because this is the line
closest to a support of all of the lines affected by the opening. At line 5.6
the total diaphragm shear is computed based on the linear shear diagram
between zero shear at gird 4 and maximum shear at grid 7:

97.7 k (90 ft 40 ft)


V 5 .6 = = 54.3 k
90 ft

The unit shear over the reduced length is:

54,300 lbs
v 5.6 = = 603 plf v all
(120 ft 30 ft)

Therefore the unit shear in the diaphragm is still at an acceptable level.

Next, the local chord forces from the portion of the diaphragm adjacent to
the opening will be analyzed. A local uniform load, equal to the weight of
that portion of the diaphragm divided by the depth of that portion, is ap-
plied to this portion of the diaphragm, as shown in Figure 3-14.

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176 Design Example 3

Figure 3-14. Portion of diaphragm adjacent to opening

This portion of the diaphragm will be treated as a beam with fixed ends
on each side, and the resulting chord forces, which occur in lines C and E,
are

wL2
12 = (9.042 psf 30 ft ) (20 ft) = 0.3 k
2
C =T = M =
D D 12 30 ft

The addition of these local chord forces to those calculated for the dia-
phragm as a whole is negligible.

4. Collector Design.

The chord and collector forces have been determined in the diaphragm
analysis. Now the W24 62 collector will be checked for the combined ef-
fects of axial and flexural forces.

4a. Calculate Compressive Strength of Collector.

Compressive strength calculated in accordance with Chapter E, Design of


Members for Compression, of the 2005 Specification for Structural Steel
Buildings.

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Design Example 3 177

Check beam web and flanges for slenderness based on Table B4.1:

b E
= 5.97 0.38 = 9.15 AISC 360 Table B4.1
t Fy

Therefore, flanges are compact for bending and are not slender for
compression.

h E
= 50.1 1.49 = 35.88 AISC 360 Table B4.1
tw Fy

Therefore, the web is slender for compression and compact for flexure.

Determine beam flexural buckling stress:

k yly 1.0 120 in.


= = 86.96
ry 1.38 in.
k x l x 1.0 360 in.
= = 39.0
rx 9.23 in.

Buckling in the y-direction governs. Note that because the steel deck layout
(longitudinal direction of steel deck flutes) is parallel to the beam being de-
signed, it does not brace the beam. Only perpendicular beams provide
bracing in this design example. The perpendicular beams are spaced at 10
feet on center. The connection of the perpendicular beams should be de-
tailed to provide bracing of the top and bottom flanges.

The torsional buckling length equals the minor-axis buckling length; under
these circumstances torsional buckling need not be checked for an I-shaped
member as minor-axis buckling has a lower value for design strength.

kl E
= 86.96 4.71 = 113.43 AISC 360 E3
r Fy
2E
Fe = 2
= 37.85 ksi
Kl
r

Fy
Fe
Fcr = 0.658 Fy = 28.76 ksi

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178 Design Example 3

Consider slenderness effects:

From Section E7,

QF y

F
Fcr = Q 0.658 e Fy AISC 360 E7


where Q = QsQa

Qs = 1.0 because the flanges are compact.

Aeff
Qa =
A

h E
1.49
tw f cr

E 0.34 E
be = 1.92t w 1 b
f cr h f cr
tw

In this case,

29,000 ksi 0.34 29,000 ksi


be = 1.92(0.430 in.) 1 = 20.6
28.76 ksi 50.1 28.76 ksi

be tw = 20.6 in.(0.430 in.) = 8.843 in.2

(h 2tf)tw = (23.7 in. 2[0.590 in.])(0.430 in.) = 9.684 in.2

Aef = A [(h 2tf)tw be tw] = 18.2 in.2 [9.684 in.2 8.843 in.2 ]
= 17.4 in.2

17.4 in. 2
Qa = = 0.954
18.2 in. 2

Q = QsQa = Qa = 0.954

QFy = 47.7 ksi

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Design Example 3 179

QF y

F
Fcr = Q 0.658 e Fy

Fcr = 28.14 ksi

Pn = 0.9(18.2 in.2)28.14 ksi = 461 kips

4b. Calculate Flexural Strength of Collector.

Flexural strength calculated in accordance with Chapter F, Design of


Members for Flexure, of the 2005 Specification for Structural Steel
Buildings. Because a W24 62 has compact flanges and a compact web (for
flexural compression), local buckling is not a concern.

1. Check beam yielding:

M n = M n = 0.9 F y Z x = 573.75 k - ft AISC 360 F2

2. Check beam lateral-torsional buckling:


From Table 3-2 of the 2005 Steel Construction Manual,

Lp = 4.87 ft = 58.44 in.


Lr = 14.4 ft = 172.8 in.
Lp < Lb = 120 in. < Lr

Lb L p
M n = C b M p (M p 0.7 F y S x ) = 441.8k ft M p

L r Lb
The value for Cb is 1.0 for the center portion for this loading condition.

4c. Calculate Combined Loading Capacity.

Strength for members under combined loading calculated in accordance


with Chapter H, Design of Members for Combined Forces and Torsion,
of the 2005 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.

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180 Design Example 3

Pu 136 k
= = 0.30 0.2
Pn 461 k
Pu 8 Mu
+ 1.0 AISC 360 H1
Pn 9 M n
136k 8 114 k - ft
+ = 0.52 1.0
461k 9 441 k - ft

Therefore the W2462 can adequately resist the combination of axial and
flexural loads. The member is assumed to have adequate shear strength.

5. Collector Connection Design.

This design example will illustrate the design of a simple welded shear tab
connection, shown in Figure 3-15, to resist vertical and horizontal loads.
For forces greater than the ones used in this example, connections with
greater strength will be necessary. There are many ways to design such
connections. Refer to Steel Tips and AISC Steel Design Guides for some
examples.

Figure 3-15. Welded single plate collector connection

Pu = 136 k

Vu = 12 .0 k (given)

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Design Example 3 181

Check Plate Yielding:

Plate yielding is checked for the combined effects of shear (vertical) and
axial (horizontal) forces. The axial force also causes an eccentric moment in
the weak axis of the plate due to the offset between the centerline of beam
web and centerline of shear plate.

2 2
Vu P 8 Mu
+ u + 1.0
V n Pn 9 M n

V n = 0.6 F y th = 1.0 0.6 50 ksi 1 in. 21 in. = 315 k


2

KL 1.0 3 in. E
= = 20.8 4.71 = 133.68
r 1 in. Fy
2
12

2E
Fe = 2
= 663 ksi
KL

r AISC 360 J4
Fy

Fcr = 0.658 Fe F y = 48 .4 ksi


Pn = Fcr A g = 0.9 48 .4 ksi 21 in. 1 in . = 458 k


2

1 in.
M u = Pu t = 136 k 2 = 34 .0 k - in.
2 2

M n = d t
2
Fy
(1 in.)
= 0.9 21 in . 2
2

50 ksi = 59 .1 kip - in .
4 4

2 2 2 2
Vu P 136 k 8 34 .0 k in .
=
12 k
+ u + + = 0.66 1.0
V n Pn 315 k 458 k 9 59 .1 k in.

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182 Design Example 3

Check Plate Rupture:

2 2
Vu Pu
+ 1.0
V n Pn

[ (
Anet = 1 in. 21 in. 7 3 in. + 1 in. 1 = 7.44 in. 2
2 4 8 2
) ]
V n = 0.6 Fu Anet = 0.75 0.6 65 ksi 7.44 in. 2 = 218 k

Pn = Fu Anet = 0.75 58 ksi 7.44 in. 2 = 363 k

2 2 2 2
Vu Pu
=
12 k 136 k
+ + = 0.14 1.0
V n Pn 218 k 363 k

Check Bolt Shear:


The plate is sized to be weaker in bearing than the bolt in shear. This per-
mits inelastic deformation in the plate rather than bolt fracture to occur, and
satisfies the requirement of a ductile limit state governing the connection
(AISC 341 7.2). Bolt shear is checked in accordance with J3.6 of the
2005 AISC 360 (Specification for Structural Steel Buildings).

2 2
Vu + Pu = 12 2 + 123 2 = 137 k
AISC 360 Eq. J3-1

Rn = nFyAb = 7 0.75 75 ksi


3
4

4
(
in. = 174 k )2

Check Bolt Bearing:


Bolt bearing strength is checked in accordance with Section J3.10 of the
2005 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. Because the axial force is
so much larger than the shear force, the bolt bearing in the vertical direction
can be neglected, and bolt bearing will be checked for loading in the hori-
zontal direction only.

The beam web controls over the shear plate because tpl = 1/2 in. > tbw =
0.430 in.

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Design Example 3 183

1
(
1.2 Lc = 1.2 2 in. 3 in. + 1 in. = 1.875 in.
2 4 8
)
2.4d b = 2.4 3 in. = 1.8 in. < 1.2 Lc
4
Therefore bearing controls:

rn = 2.4d b t bw Fu = 0.75 1.8 in 0.430 in 65 ksi = 37.7 k


R nv = 7 37.7 k = 264 k
AISC 360 Eq. J3-6a

Check Weld Size:


The 3/8-inch double fillet weld is OK by inspection because the weld size is
three-fourths of the shear plate thickness. In such a case the plate will yield
prior to weld fracture under any direction of loading for A572 plate and 70
ksi weld material.

Block Shear:
Block shear is checked in accordance with Section J4.3 of the 2005 Specifi-
cation for Structural Steel Buildings. Because the axial force is so large
compared to the shear force, block shear in the vertical direction can be
neglected, and block shear will be checked for the horizontal direction only.
Also, because the shear tab is thicker than the beam web, the beam web will
govern for block shear. Failure planes for the block-shear limit state are
shown in Figure 3-16.

Figure 3-16. Block shear failure planes

R n = (0.6 Fu Anv + U bs Fu Ant ) (0.6 F y Agv + U bs Fu Ant )


AISC 360 Eq. J4-5

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184 Design Example 3

where

An = net area subject to shear


An = net area subject to tension
Agv = gross area subject to shear
Ubs = 1.0 for uniform tension stress

therefore
1
(
Anv = 0.430 in. 2 2 in. 3 in. + 1 in. = 1.34 in. 2
2 4 8
)

[ (
Ant = 0.430 in. 6 3 in. 3 in. + 1 in. = 5.48 in. 2
4 8
)]
Agv = 2 0.430 in. 2 in. = 1.72 in. 2

R n = 0.75 (0.6 65 ksi 1.343 in. 2 + 1.0 65 ksi 5.48 in. 2 )


0.75 (0.6 50 ksi 1.72 in. 2 + 1.0 65 ksi 5.48 in. 2 )
= 444 k 442 k = 442 k

The shear plate connection is therefore adequate to resist the required col-
lector force. Note that the calculations are simplified by the fact that the
shear is quite small compared to the collector force. Where the shear is
significant, the block-shear calculations must take this into account. See
Astaneh (2005) for a more detailed method.

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Design Example 3 185

References

ANSI/AISC 341-05, AISC 341: Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel


Buildings. American Institute of Steel Construction Inc., Chicago, IL
(2005).

ANSI/AISC 360-05, AISC 360: Specification for Structural Steel Build-


ings. American Institute of Steel Construction Inc., Chicago, IL (2005).

ASCE/SEI 7-05: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures (including Supplement No. 1). American Society of Civil
Engineers, Reston, VA, (2005).

Astaneh-Asl, A., Design of Shear Tab Connections for Gravity and Seis-
mic Loads, Steel Technical Information and Product Report. Structural
Steel Educational Council, CA, 2005.

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186 Design Example 3

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187

Example 4
Steel Deck with Concrete Fill Diaphragm for
Seismic Design Category DFour-Story Building Example

Overview

This design example illustrates the design of the floor diaphragm with steel
framing members and composite metal deck. It is a continuation of the de-
sign of the building in Design Example 3. In this example the design of the
third-floor diaphragm will be addressed.

Outline
This example will illustrate the following parts of the design process:

1. Diaphragm Analysis.

2. Determination of Chord Forces.

3. Determination of Collector Forces.

4. Diaphragm Design.

5. Collector Design.

Given Information

See Design Example 3.

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188 Design Example 4

Figure 4-1. Floor framing plan

Figure 4-2. Elevation of Grid A

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Design Example 4 189

Figure 4-3. Elevation of Grids 1 and 7

Calculations and Discussion Code Reference

1. Diaphragm Analysis (See Figures 4-1 through 4-5). ASCE 7 12.8.1

The diaphragm analysis, including the determination of diaphragm shears,


chord forces and collector forces, is conducted similar to Design Example
3. For a more thorough discussion of the analysis see that example.

From Example 3, Fp = 391.0 k (the force from Eq. 12.10-1 is 161 kips, but
the minimum of 0.2 SDSIwpx governs). The redundancy factor, , is equal to
1.0 in accordance with 12.10.1.1 because the inertial forces were
calculated in accordance with Equation 12.10-1.

The concrete fill over steel deck system is permitted to be idealized as a


rigid diaphragm in accordance with 12.3.1.2 and IBC 1613.6.1. When a
diaphragm is rigid, static indeterminacy is resolved by distributing the
lateral forces in each direction to the resisting elements in proportion to
their rigidity. In this example the diaphragm is statically determinate, and
thus the analysis of this diaphragm follows the same procedure as the
flexible-diaphragm analysis in the previous example. See Design Example
1 for a diaphragm rigidity analysis.

The diaphragm is idealized as a beam that is supported at the shear resisting


lines (in this example, the braced-frame lines). The beam has a uniform
load applied to it equal to the distributed seismic load of the floor

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190 Design Example 4

(calculated by dividing the seismic force by the floor area) multiplied by the
depth of the diaphragm.

Floor area = 21,600 sq ft

Fp 391 k 1000 lb/kip


fp = = = 18.1 psf
A 21,600 sf

Uniform Diaphragm Loading w:

wE W = 18.1 psf 180 ft = 3258 plf

wN S = 18.1 psf 120 ft = 2172 plf

Figure 4-4. North-south loading of floor diaphragm simply-supported beam

Figure 4-5. East-west loading of floor diaphragm cantilevered beam

1a. Diaphragm Shears.

The maximum shear along each beam occurs at a support, and so the dia-
phragm is designed for this maximum shear. For north-south loading,

wl (2172 plf) 180 ft


V1 = V7 = = = 195 k
2 2

In accordance with 12.8.4.2, accidental torsion must be included in the


design of rigid diaphragms. For a simply supported beam a 5 percent offset
in the centroid of the load results in a 10 percent change in the reactions (45
percent and 55 percent in the offset case; 50 percent and 50 percent in the

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Design Example 4 191

centered case). In other, more typical cases, the increase due to torsion can
be calculated using a rigid-diaphragm analysis; the 10 percent increase is
the upper bound when frames are at the diaphragm boundaries (that is, the
increase is 10 percent when orthogonal frames do not provide torsional
resistance and is less when they do). Therefore,

Vmax = 195 k 1.1 = 215 k

For a cantilevered beam an offset in the centroid of the load does not affect
the reaction. Therefore in the east-west direction,

Vmax = V A = wl = 3258 plf 120 ft = 391 k

A diaphragm is designed for unit shear, that is, it is designed for the total
shear divided by its depth. The unit shears in each direction are:

Vmax 215 k
v1 = v7 = = = 1.79 klf
L1, 7 120 ft

V A 391 k
vA = = = 2.17 klf
L A 180 ft

This diaphragm shear corresponds to collector forces in each direction.


Chord forces necessary for the diaphragm to deliver forces to the collectors
likewise produce shear; diaphragm shear at chords is typically much lower.
In this design example it is necessary to consider both diaphragm collector
and chord forces simultaneously at Lines 1 and 7 due to the geometry. Dia-
phragm shear at these lines will be checked after chord forces are
determined.

2. Determination of Chord Forces.

Chord forces are determined similar to Design Example 3. For a more thor-
ough discussion of the analysis see that example.

For north-south loading, based on the moment diagram shown in Figure 4-


6, the maximum moment occurs at the midpoint of the span. The chord
forces, which occur in lines A and E, are calculated as follows:

wL2 2
Qe = C = T = M = 8 = 2.172 klf (180 ft) = 73.3 k
D D 8 120 ft

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192 Design Example 4

Figure 4-6. Simple span diaphragm moment diagram for north-south loading

For east-west loading, based on the moment diagram shown in Figure 4-7,
the maximum moment occurs at the support at grid A. The chord forces,
which occur in lines 1 and 7, are calculated as follows:

wL2 2
Qe = C = T = M = 2 = 3.258 klf (120 ft) = 130 k
D D 2 180 ft

Figure 4-7. Cantilever diaphragm moment diagram for east-west loading

As was done in Design Example 3, the chord forces are superimposed on


the braced-frame forces required to resist them (see Figure 4-8).

160.0
140.0
120.0
100.0 Primary Chord force
80.0
60.0
40.0
Force (kips)

20.0
0.0 Net Chord Force
-20.0 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120
-40.0
-60.0
-80.0
-100.0 Braced-Frame Force
-120.0
-140.0
-160.0
Location (ft.)

Figure 4-8. Chord force diagram along lines 1 and 7 (between Grids E and A)

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Design Example 4 193

The maximum chord force occurs along lines 1 and 7 in the braced-frame
beam at grid C.5 and is 113 kips. The maximum chord force occurs in a
nonbraced-frame beam at grid C is 98.3 kips.

3. Determination of Collector Forces.

The BRBFs on each braced-frame line have equal stiffnesses, so the shears
in each frame are considered to be equal (neglecting collector axial
deformation):

391 k
Vbrace, A = = 130 k
3 bays
215 k
Vbrace,1 = Vbrace, 7 = = 113 k
2 bays

Figures 4-9 and 4-10 are the collector diagrams for loading in the east-west
and north-south directions, respectively.

Collector Forces

250
228.1
200 195.5
162.9
150
130.3 130.3
Kips

100 97.8 97.8


65.2 65.2
50
32.6
0 0.0 0.0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165-32.6180
-50
Drag Line

Figure 4-9. Collector diagram for line A

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194 Design Example 4

Collector Forces

150
134.4

100 107.5
Qe (Kips)

75.6
50 53.8 48.8
21.9
0 0.0
-10.0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120
-36.9
-50
Drag Line (Feet)

Figure 4-10. Collector diagram for lines 1 and 7

The maximum collector force occurs at 90 feet along Line A at grid 4: 195
kips. The collector force will be combined with the corresponding chord
force acting on the same line using the methods defined in ASCE 7 12.5:

At Lines 1 and 7:
C = 1.0C collector + 0.3C chord = 107 k + 0.3(98.3 k) = 136 k

At Line A:
C = 1.0C collector + 0.3C chord = 195 k + 0.3(73.3 k) = 217 k

The design example will show the design of one beam of the collector at
Line A. The design of other collector and chord beams is similar.

In accordance with ASCE 7 12.10.2.1, collector elements, splices and


connections in Seismic Design Categories C, D, E and F must be designed
to resist load combinations with overstrength.

5. (1.2 + 0.2SDS)D + oQE + L + 0.2S


7. (0.90.2SDS)D + oQE + 1.6H

These overstrength forces correspond to the base shear calculated using the
R factor for the ductile system. They do not apply to the maximum and
minimum diaphragm forces (0.2SDSIwpx and 0.4SDSIwpx), which are inde-
pendent of the system, but they do apply to Eq. 12.10-1. Therefore, the
controlling collector design force is obtained by comparing the diaphragm
forces (considering the maximum and minimum) with the R-based collector

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Design Example 4 195

forces amplified by the overstrength factor . In this example the mini-


mum diaphragm force governs at all levels. The diaphragm analysis can
simply be scaled to obtain the collector force at a level of Fp corresponding
to Eq. 12.10-1 (instead of the minimum).

F px = 161k
F px (min) = 391k
Pu Q FP min = 217 k
161 k
Pu o Q FP = 2.0 217 k = 177 k
391 k
Pu = 217 k

Note that unlike in Design Example 3 the collector force along this line
cannot be determined from the adjusted brace strengths at this level. The
braced-frame strength will be well in excess of the collector force because
braces are sized for the story shear, which far exceeds the story force except
at the roof.

The beam shown in Figure 4-12 will be conservatively designed for the
maximum axial force and the maximum moment acting on it. Note that
these will not actually occur at the same location along the beam. The
maximum moment occurs at the center of the beam while the maximum
axial load occurs at the end of the beam. The beam is assumed to be a
W24 62 acting compositely with the 2-inch deck and 3-inch fill.

The composite properties of the beam are determined as follows:

The concrete flange on the exterior is 6 inches. The effective flange on the
interior is limited by:

L/8 = 360 in./8 = 45 in.


s/2 = 360 in./2 = 180 in. AISC 360 I3.1a

Therefore

bef = 45 in. + 10 in. = 55 in.

Neglecting the deck and ribs,

V' = 0.85 f 'c A c = 0.85 (3 ksi)(55 in.)(3.25 in.) AISC 360 EQ. I3-1a
= 456 kips

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196 Design Example 4

The deck area includes the topping only; a marginal increase can be ob-
tained considering the area of concrete in the ribs.

Sufficient shear studs will be placed on the beam to transfer this force.
These will be supplemented by studs necessary to transfer diaphragm shear.
The shear stud capacity is calculated in accordance with Section I1g of the
2005 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. Figure 4-11 below shows
a section through a composite beam.

Figure 4-11. Composite beam

Use 3/4-inch by 4-inch studs.

l s,req'd = 2 in. + 1.5 in. = 3.5 in. < 4 in.

Qn = 0.5 Asc f ' c E c R g R p Asc Fu

Asc =
3
4
(4
2
)
in. = 0.44 in. 2

AISC 360 Eq. I3-3


f c ' = 3000 psi

1 .5
E c = wc f ' c = (115pcf )1.5 3 ksi = 2136 ksi

Rg = 1.0 for deck parallel with wr/hr=3.5 in./2 in. = 1.75 > 1.5

Rp = 0.75 for deck parallel with wr/hr=3.5 in./2 in. = 1.75 > 1.5

Fu = 65 ksi

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Design Example 4 197

Q n = 0.5 0.44 in. 2 3 ksi 2136 ksi 1.0 0.75 0.44 in. 2 65 ksi
= 17.6 k 21.5 k

The number of studs required can be calculated by:

456 kips/(17.6 k/stud) = 27

Twenty-seven studs will be provided on each segment of the beam between


the supported concentrated load and the column.

The composite flexural strength of the beam can be accurately calculated


using plastic theory. Using this theory, the steel beam is assumed to be at
failure when it has fully yielded, and the portion of the concrete slab in
compression is assumed to be stressed to 0.85 f'c over a width, be, and a
height, a. The first step in determining the composite flexural strength,
then, is to determine the location of the plastic neutral axis.

First compare the steel tension strength with the concrete compression
strength calculated above.

C = 0.85 f 'c A c = 456 kips AISC 360 EI3.2d

T = A s Fy = 910 kips

Because T > C, the plastic neutral axis is located in the beam and not in the
slab. Assume the plastic neutral axis falls in the flange of the steel beam.
Calculate the distance x from the top of the flange to the plastic neutral axis
by setting compression equal to tension:

0.85 f ' c be t + Fy b fl x = Fy As Fy b fl x

0.85 3 ksi 51 in. 5.25 in. + 50 ksi 7 in. x = 50 ksi 18.2 in. 2
50 ksi 7 in. x

x = 0.354 in.

x tf
Therefore the plastic neutral axis is in the beam flange, as assumed.

Next the flexural capacity of the composite section can be calculated by


summing the moments about the plastic neutral axis (Cormac, 2007).

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198 Design Example 4

M n = 0.85 f ' c be t (t / 2 + x ) + 2 F y b fl x( x / 2) + Fy As (d / 2 x )

M n = 0.85 3 ksi 55 in. 3.25 in.( 3.25 in. / 2 + 0.354 in. )

+ 2 50 ksi 7 in. 0.354 in. ( 0.354 in. / 2 )

+ 50 ksi 18.2 in. 2 ( 23.7 in. / 2 0.354 in. )


= 12699 k in. = 1058 k ft
Alternatively, the composite flexural strength can be determined by linear
interpolation from Table 3-19 of the AISC 2005 Manual, with y2 =3.5
inches (approximating the actual dimension of 3.25 in./2 + 2 in. = 3.625
inches):

Mp = 984 kip-ft

The lower-bound moment of inertia can be interpolated from Table 3-20 of


the Manual similarly:

ILB = 2905 in.4

This value will be used in calculating moment magnification.

Figure 4-12. Collector axial and flexural loading

The exterior cladding is attached to the building at 10 feet o.c., Vu is calcu-


lated as:

Vu = (1.2 + 0.2 1.0) 10 ft (80 psf 0.5 30 ft + 25 psf 15 ft)


+ 0.5 (50 psf 0.5 30 ft) 10 ft = 25.8k

The load factor for live load is 0.5 because Lo is less than 100 psf.

M nt = 25.8k 10 ft = 258k - ft

This moment is not due to lateral translation and is magnified only by the
axial force present in the beam:

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Design Example 4 199

Cm
B1 = P
1 u
Pe

Cm = 1.0 for a pin-end beam with transverse loading.

2 EA
2 EI
PE = ( )
KL
r
2 =
(KL )2

2 (29,000 ksi)(2905 in 4 )
PE = = 6415 kips
(360 in )2
1.0
B1 = = 1.04 AISC 360 Eq. C2-3
(
1 217 k
6415 k
)2

M u = B1 M nt = 268 k ft

4. Diaphragm Design.

Maximum diaphragm shears at collector lines were previously determined:

Vmax 215 k
v1 = v 7 = = = 1.79 klf
L1, 7 120 ft

V A 391 k
vA = = = 2.17 klf
L A 180 ft

This diaphragm shear corresponds to collector forces in each direction. As


stated earlier, for the cantilever diaphragm under consideration simultane-
ous chord and collector shears at lines 1 and 7 must also be determined.
From the chord-force calculations the chord-related shear is:

130 k
v1Chord = v 7 Chord = = 1.08 klf
120 ft

Following the procedure used above to analyze orthogonal earthquake


effects:


v1 = 1.0v1 + 0.3v1Chord = 1.79 + 0.3(1.08 klf ) = 2.11 klf

The diaphragm will be designed for vmax = 2.17 plf

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200 Design Example 4

In accordance with Section104.11 of the 2006 IBC, design values are ob-
tained from a properly certified evaluation report produced by an accredited
service. ABC-ES Report #1 for ACME Deck Company specifies that their
16 gage deck with 2-inch rib height with 3 1/4-inch lightweight concrete fill
with shear studs at 16 inches o.c. has vall=4350 plf.

At allowable stress level,

v max = 2170 plf 0.7 = 1520 plf v all = 4350 plf

Neither ASCE 7 nor AISC 341 require shear studs to be designed for the
amplified seismic load (which includes the overstrength factor o ), but it is
good practice to do so because of the limited ductility of this connection.
Thus the seismic shear required to be resisted by the studs within this span
is:

o(161 k/180 ft)(30 ft) = 54 kips

From the minimum Fpx force:

(391 k/180 ft)(30 ft) = 65 kips

65 kips/ 17.2 k/stud = 4 studs

A minimum of four additional studs will be added to transfer in the seismic


forces from the diaphragm.

5. Collector Design.

The flexural strength of the collector has been calculated previously in the
determination of collector forces.

5a. Calculate Compressive Strength of Collector.

The compressive strength of the collector is calculated here using noncom-


posite properties. Noncomposite strength in compression is defined in
Chapter E, Design of Members for Compression, of the 2005 Specifica-
tion for Structural Steel Buildings.

Check beam web and flanges for slenderness based on Table B4.1:

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Design Example 4 201

b E
= 5.97 0.38 = 9.15 AISC 360 Table B4.1
t Fy

Therefore, flanges are compact.

h E
= 50.1 1.49 = 35.88 AISC 360 Table B4.1
tw Fy

Therefore, the web is slender.

Note that because the composite deck provides bracing against minor-axis
flexural buckling. It does not, however, fully restrain torsional buckling. In
most cases the torsional buckling length equals the minor-axis buckling
length; under these circumstances it is common to calculate the minor-axis
buckling strength in lieu of the more complicated torsional-buckling equa-
tions. In this example torsional buckling is checked explicitly and compared
to the major-axis compressive buckling stress.

For torsion,

2 EC w 1
FE = + GJ AISC 360 E4
(K z l ) I x + I y
2

2 (29,000 ksi )(4620 in.6 )


Fe = + (11,200 ksi ) 1.71 in.4 ( 1
)= 70.0 ksi
(120 in.) 2 4
1550 in. + 34.5 in.
4

For flexural buckling in the major axis:

k x l x 1.0 360 in.


= = 39.0
rx 9.23 in.

kl E
= 39.0 4.71 = 113.43
r Fy

2 E
Fe = 2
= 188ksi
kl

r

Torsional buckling controls.

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202 Design Example 4

Fy

Fe
Fcr = 0.658 Fy = 37.1 ksi AISC 360 E3


Consider slenderness effects:

From section E7,

QF y

F
Fcr = Q 0.658 e Fy AISC 360 E7


where Q = QsQa

Qs = 1.0 because the flanges are compact.

Aeff
Qa =
A

h E
1.49
tw f cr


E 0.34 E
be = 1.92t w 1 b
f cr h f cr

tw
In this case,

h
= 47.4
tw

E 29,000 ksi
1.49 = 1 .4 9 = 41.7
f cr 37.1 ksi

29,000 ksi 0.34 29,000 ksi


be = 1.92(0.430 in.) 1 = 18.7 in.
37.1 ksi 50.1 37.1 ksi

be tw = 18.7 in.(0.430 in.) = 8.04 in.2

(h 2tf)tw = (23.7 in. 2[0.590 in.])(0.430 in.) = 9.684 in.2

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


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Design Example 4 203

Af = A [(h 2tf)tw be tw] = 18.2 in.2 [9.684 in.2 8.04 in.2 ]


= 16.6 in.2

16.6 in. 2
Qa = = 0.910
18.2 in. 2

QFy

F
Fcr = Q 0.658 e Fy = 34.7 ksi


Pn = Fcr Ag = 0.9 34.7 ksi 18.2 in. 2 = 568 k

5b. Calculate Combined Loading Capacity.

Strength for members under combined loading calculated in accordance


with Chapter H, Design of Members for Combined Forces and Torsion,
of the 2005 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.

Pu 217 k
= = 0.38 0.2
Pn 568 k

Pu 8 Mu
+ 1.0 AISC 360 H1
Pn 9 M n

217 k 8 268 k - ft
+ = 0.61 1.0
568 k 9 1058 k - ft

Therefore the W2462 can adequately resist the combination of axial and
flexural loads. The demand-to-capacity ratio would have been calculated to
be approximately 10 percent higher had minor-axis buckling been used in
lieu of torsional buckling. The member is assumed to have adequate shear
strength.

For collector connection to the column see example 3.

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


Copyright 2009 NCSEA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Accessed by Kevin Kirkland on May 28, 2016 11:35:44 AM pursuant to License Agreement with NCSEA. No further
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204 Design Example 4

References

ANSI/AISC 341-05, AISC 341: Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel


Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction Inc., Chicago, IL
(2005).

ANSI/AISC 360-05, AISC 360: Specification for Structural Steel Build-


ings, American Institute of Steel Construction Inc., Chicago, IL (2005).

ASCE/SEI 7-05: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures (including Supplement No. 1), American Society of Civil
Engineers, Reston, VA (2005).

McCormac, J., Structural Steel Design (4th Edition). Prentice Hall, Upper
Saddle River, NJ (2007).

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


Copyright 2009 NCSEA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Accessed by Kevin Kirkland on May 28, 2016 11:35:44 AM pursuant to License Agreement with NCSEA. No further
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205

About the Authors

Badri K. Prasad

Badri received his BS degree from Bangalore University, India, and MS


degree from Mysore University, India. He also obtained his MS degree
from the University of Arizona in 1989. He is currently a principal at
DASSE Design Inc., Oakland, California. He is a registered SE in
California and registered PE in Washington State. He has twenty years
of experience in the design of various types of structures, such as
healthcare facilities, biotechnology facilities, mid- and high-rise
structures, schools, seismic retrofit, etc. He is currently the chair of the
SEAONC seismologys concrete subcommittee and was instrumental in
publishing the committees work titled, Concrete Slab as a Collector
Element, in the 2008 SEAOC Blue Book and is the project manager for
this Guide. He has published several papers on buckling restrained
braced frames and research papers on base-isolation system.

Douglas S. Thompson

Doug received his BS degree from Cal Poly-San Luis Obispo in 1976
and is a partner at STB Structural Engineer in Lake Forest, California.
He is a registered SE in California, Arizona and Nevada, the author of
three design examples in the Structural/Seismic Design Manual, and a
coauthor of timber manuals for license review classes for the
Professional Engineer and Structural Engineer license exams. He also
teaches timber design. Mr. Thompson is a past director of the SEAOSC
and is a past chair of the SEAOSC Code Committee, and has been
involved with code changes to the UBC and IBC for over 20 years.

Rafael Sabelli

Rafael is a principal and Director of Seismic Design at Walter P. Moore.


He is the corecipient of the 2008 AISC T.R. Higgins Lectureship, and is
a member of the AISC Task Committee on the Seismic Provisions for
Structural Steel Buildings, the ASCE 7 Seismic subcommittee, and the
NCSEA Seismic Code Advisory Committee. He is a coauthor (with
Michel Bruneau) of AISC Design Guide 20: Steel Plate Shear Walls, as
well as the author of numerous research papers on conventional and
buckling restrained braced frames. Rafael was the 2000 NEHRP
Professional Fellow in Earthquake Hazard Reduction and is the past
chair of the Seismology Committee of the Structural Engineers
Association of California. Rafael is currently the Vice President of the
Structural Engineers Association of California.

Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors


Copyright 2009 NCSEA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Accessed by Kevin Kirkland on May 28, 2016 11:35:44 AM pursuant to License Agreement with NCSEA. No further
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LICENSE AGREEMENT, AND SUBJECT TO CIVIL AND CRIMINAL PENALTIES THEREUNDER.
206

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Copyright 2009 NCSEA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Accessed by Kevin Kirkland on May 28, 2016 11:35:44 AM pursuant to License Agreement with NCSEA. No further
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LICENSE AGREEMENT, AND SUBJECT TO CIVIL AND CRIMINAL PENALTIES THEREUNDER.
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