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TUDELFT

RENSHIBO

ANALYSISOFTENTSTRUCTURES
Implementationofnonlinearmaterialbehaviorinmembranestructuralanalysis

AnalysisofTentStructures

Implementationofnonlinearmaterialbehaviorinmembranestructuralanalysis

AdditionalMasterThesis

RenShibo
StudentID1330209

ReportsubmittedinfulfillmentforanadditionalMasterThesisProject
inStructuralEngineering,attheDelftUniversityofTechnology.

Supervisors:
Dr.ir.P.C.J.Hoogenboom
Prof.dr.ir.J.G.Rots

DelftUniversityofTechnology
FacultyofCivilEngineeringandGeosciences

March2008

iii

































iv

TableofContents
PREFACE ............................................................................................................................................ VI
SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................VII
1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 PTFE COATED FIBERGLASS FABRIC................................................................................................ 2
2 STRUCTURAL MODEL FOR TEXTILE ...................................................................................... 4
3 MEMBRANE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN ANSYS ................................................................. 7
3.1 GEOMETRY .................................................................................................................................... 7
3.2 ELEMENT ....................................................................................................................................... 8
3.3 LOAD AND PRESTRESS ................................................................................................................... 9
3.4 ISOTROPIC MATERIAL MODEL ..................................................................................................... 10
3.5 ISOTROPIC MATERIAL MODEL-LINEAR ANALYSIS ....................................................................... 11
3.6 ISOTROPIC MATERIAL MODEL-GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR ANALYSIS ............................................ 12
3.6.1 Settings for nonlinear analysis ............................................................................................ 12
3.6.2 Prestress by temperature load ............................................................................................. 14
3.6.3 Nonlinear analysis under wind load .................................................................................... 16
3.6.4 Verification by membrane element-SHELL41 ..................................................................... 19
4 ANSYS USER MATERIAL SUBROUTINE USERMAT ............................................................ 21
4.1 SETTING UP A USERMAT ........................................................................................................... 21
4.2 COMPILING AND LINKING USERMAT ........................................................................................ 23
4.3 VERIFICATION OF USERMAT ..................................................................................................... 24
5 ANALYSIS WITH NONLINEAR USERMAT MODEL ............................................................. 26
5.1 USERMAT-I ............................................................................................................................... 26
5.2 USERMAT-I RESULT .................................................................................................................. 29
5.3 USERMAT-II.............................................................................................................................. 32
5.4 USERMAT-II LOAD STEP I PRESTRESS ...................................................................................... 35
5.5 USERMAT-II LOAD STEP II WIND LOAD ................................................................................... 37
6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................... 40
6.1 CONCLUSIONS .............................................................................................................................. 40
6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................................................... 41
REFERENCE ...................................................................................................................................... 43
APPENDIX-I TIPS FOR USERMAT LINKING ......................................................................... 44
APPENDIX-II USERMAT LINEAR ISOTROPIC MODEL ...................................................... 46
APPENDIX-III USERMAT-I AND APDL SCRIPT-I ..................................................................... 48
APPENDIX-IV USERMAT-II AND APDL SCRIPT-II .................................................................. 51
APPENDIX-V USERMAT - TRANSFER BETWEEN XY AND PRINCIPAL DIRECTION .... 55
APPENDIX-VI CD ROM CONTENTS ............................................................................................ 58

Preface


ThisreportdocumentstheeightweekadditionalthesisprojectwhichIundertookinFaculty
ofCivilEngineeringandGeosciencesattheDelftUniversityofTechnology.

ThisstudywouldnthavebeensuccessfullycompletedwithoutthehelpofDr.ir.P.C.J.
HoogenboomandthereforeIwouldliketosincerelythankhim.IamalsoindebtedtoProf.dr.ir.
J.G.Rotsforhiskindnesstobeoneofthecommitteemembersforthisproject.



Delft,March2008

vi

Summary


Inthisadditionalmasterthesis,thepossibilitiesofimplementinganonlinearmaterialmodel
inanalysisoftentstructuresareinvestigated.Thestructuralmodelfortextileisprogrammedin
theFORTRANlanguageandislinkedtothegeneralpurposefiniteelementsoftwareANSYS.
Severalsubroutineshavebeencreatedandtestedinordertoimprovetheapplicability.Atent
structurehasbeenmodeledandanalyzedwiththisnonlinearmaterialmodel.Prestressis
introducedbyatemperatureincrementandsubsequentlyaverticalloadisapplied.The
computedbehaviorisrealistic,bothgloballyandinaselectedelement.Effortisalsospenton
convergencematterstomakethecalculationtimeacceptableforengineeringapplication.



vii
1Introduction

1.1General

Tensionedmembranestructuresarewidelyusedincurrentpractice.Thebehaviorofsuch
structuresiscomplicatedduetothenonlinearstructuralbehaviorandthenonlinearmaterial
behavior.Fordesignthecomplexmaterialbehaviorisnormallysimplifiedwithalinearelastic
model.However,theseanalysisarenotaccurateandverylargepartialsafetyfactorsneedtobe
used.Therehasbeendonesomeresearchtoobtainaccuratematerialcharacteristics.Inthe
M.Sc.projectofP.H.vanAsselt,biaxialloadingtestsonPTFEcoatedfiberglassfabrichavebeen
performedintheStevinLabattheFacultyofCivilEngineering,DelftUniversityofTechnology.

Basedontheexperimentalresultseveralattemptshavebeenmadetomodelthefabrics
stressstrainbehavior.Itwasnotsuccessfultofitcurvedsurfacesthroughtheexperimentaldata
(P.H.vanAsselt,2007).Whenthestrainrangeisdecreasedtoacertainextent,thenonlinear
behaviorcanbemodeledaslinearly.Butthisapproachisstillnonusableforanindustrial
application.Thereforethephenomenologicalapproachwasleftandanonlineartextilemodel
hasbeendeveloped(P.C.J.Hoogenboom,2007).Basedonthefibersgeometryandinteraction
mechanism,severalequationsareusedtorepresentthenonlinearbehaviorofthefabric.

ThismodelhasbeenimplementedsuccessfullybyMr.P.H.vanAsselttoanalyzeasquare
pieceoffabric,whichresultsinareasonableaccuracyforbiaxialstresssituations.Nonetheless,
theconvergenceissuescausedalargecalculationtime.Attemptstoanalyseatentstructure
failedduetoconvergenceproblems.

Inthisreporttheapplicabilityofthisnonlineartextilemodelisimproved.Itisimplemented
infiniteelementsoftwareANSYS(UserMaterialSubroutineUSERMAT)toanalyzecomplextent
structuresunderrealisticloadingcases.Initialprestressonthemembranestructureisaddedto
thetextilemodelbytemperatureincrement.Multipleloadstepsaredefinedbyacombination
oftheUSERMATandANSYSscript(APDL).Effortisalsospentonconvergencematterstomake
thecalculationtimeacceptableforengineeringapplication.


Figure1MunichStadium,FreyOtto.FEmodelbyTensysEngineering/Analysis,www.tensys.com

1
1.2PTFEcoatedfiberglassfabric

Fabricthatisusedformembranestructuresisbuiltupoutofawovenstructuralbase
material.Itiscoveredonbothsidestoprotectitfromwaterandpollutants.Therearevarious
waystoestablishacoherentwovencloth.Forstructuraluse,basketbondandpanamabondare
normallyused,asshowninFigure2(HoutmanandOrpana,2000).


Figure2BasketbondandPanamabond(HoutmanandOrpana,2000)

Polytetrafluoroethene(PTFE)isasyntheticfluoropolymerwhichfindsalotofapplications.
TheTefloncoatedfiberglassfabricisthemostpermanentoneofthearchitecturalfabrics.After
firstlyemployedforaroofin1973,ithasbeenwidelyusedascoatingmaterialforlightweight
structures.



Figure3Polytetrafluoroethenemolecule,www.wikipedia.org

ThemechanicalpropertiesofPTFEcoatedfiberglassfabricisquitecomplexwhencompared
withtraditionalbuildingmaterials.Thefabricishighlynonlinear,anisotropyandnonelastic.As
canbeseenfromthetestresultinFigure4,thefabricshowsnonlinearstressstrainbehavior
andvariousbiaxialinteractionsfordifferentstressratios.


Figure4Strainmeasurementsforloadratio1:1and1:2(P.H.vanAsselt,2007)

2

Becausethefabricisbuiltupoutofwovenbasematerial,thematerialhastwodominant
headdirections,warpandweft.Thethreadsinthewarpdirectionrunstraightintheweaving
process,whiletheweftthreadssneakaroundthewarpthreads,goingoverandunderneath.



Figure5Warpandweftconfigurationbeforeandafterstressing(Houtman,2000)

Thisconfigurationwillcauseadifferentstraininwarpandweftdirection.Whenthefabricis
tensioned,therewillbelessdeformationinwarpdirectionthanweftdirection.Notethatinthis
reportthiseffectisnotconsideredanditisassumedthepropertiesforbothwarpandweft
fibersareequivalent.

3
2StructuralModelforTextile

ThenonlinearstructuralmodelfortextileproposedbyP.C.J.Hoogenboom,isbasedonthe
fiberinteractionmechanismasshowninFigure6.


x
y

z s Ny
Nx 1 d 1w
1a 2 2
2 x 1w
2
1s 1a
2 x 2
1s s
2 y
1 d + 1w
2 2 Nx
Ny 1a
2 y

Ny

Tx N
Ty
Nx N

Figure6Theoryoffiberinteraction(Hoogenboom,2007)

Thekinematicequationscanbeexpressedas:

s s sy s
xx = x , yy = (2.1)
s s
a2 = s2 + d 2 (2.2)
ax2 = sx2 + ( d w )
2
(2.3)
ay2 = sy2 + ( d + w )
2
(2.4)
where
a lengthoftheundeformedwire
d diameteroftheundeformedwire
s spacingoftheundeformedwires
w displacementofthecrossingoverpointduetotension

4
ax lengthofthestretchedwireinthexdirection
ay lengthofthestretchedwireintheydirection
sx projectionofaxontheplaneofthefiber
sy projectionofayontheplaneofthefiber

Theconstitutiveequationcanbedefinedas:

a a
Tx = EA x
a
(2.5)
ay a
Ty = EA
a
where
Tx,Ty tensileforceinthewires
E Youngsmodulus
A areaofawire,A=1/4d2

TheequilibriumequationscanbeobservedfromFigure6:

Tx a Ty ay
= x , = (2.6)
N d w N d +w
N x sx Ny sy
= , = (2.7)
Tx ax Ty ay
N Ny
nxx = x , nyy = (2.8)
s s
where
N verticalforceatcrossingoverpoint
Nx,Ny externaltensileforce
nxx,nyy tensilestress


Thesenonlinearequationscanbesolvedbyaprogram,whichusesiterationuntilthe
unbalanceRintheforceNissufficientlysmall(seetheMATLABcodeonnextpage).This
algorithmisusedtocalculatethefabricstressasafunctionoffabricstrain.Threeparameters,
YoungsmodulusE,spacings,anddiameterdneedtobeproperlysetinordertodescribethe
behaviorofthePTFEcoatedfiberglassfabrictestedatStevinLab.Whenthethicknessofthe
fabricis1.5mm,thesesparameterscanbesetas:


E=77500N/mm=51667N/mm2
s=0.9mm
d=0.18mm

5




MATLABcodeI


%stressinmembranematerial
%writtenbasedontheMAPLEmodelcreatedbyDr.ir.P.C.J.Hoogenboom,2007
%
%input
E=51667; %[N/mm2]Young'sModulusofthewiresplusmatrix
G=500; %[N/mm2]shearmodulusofthematrix
D=0.18; %[mm] diameterofthewires
s=0.9; %[mm]spacingofthewires(0<2d<s)
epsilonxx=0.003; %[]straininthexdirection
epsilonyy=0.003; %[]strainintheydirection
gammaxy=0.01; %[]shearstraininthexydirection
epsilonxxp=0.0; %[]strainduetoprestressinxdirection
epsilonyyp=0.0; %[]strainduetoprestressinydirection
alpha=0.0; %[]lineartemperatureextensioncoefficient
dT=0.0; %[C] temperatureincrease
%computation
%
a=sqrt(s^2+d^2);
A=1/4*pi*d^2;
sx=s*(1+epsilonxx+epsilonxxp);
sy=s*(1+epsilonyy+epsilonyyp);
w=0;
R=100;
whileabs(R)>0.000001*a*d
ax=sqrt(sx^2+(dw)^2);
ay=sqrt(sy^2+(d+w)^2);
Tx=(ax/a1alpha*dT);
Ty=(ay/a1alpha*dT);
ifTx<0
Tx=0;
end
ifTy<0
Ty=0;
end
R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w);
w=w+R/a;
end
Tx=E*A*Tx;
Ty=E*A*Ty;
Nx=sx/ax*Tx;
Ny=sy/ay*Ty;
nxx=Nx/s;
nyy=Ny/s;
nxy=G*d*gammaxy;
%
%output
nxx
nyy
nxy

6
3MembraneStructuralAnalysisinANSYS

Toimplementthenonlineartextilemodelintheanalysisoftentstructuresisvery
chandelling,duetobothnonlinearmaterialbehaviorandgeometricalnonlinearbehaviorofthe
membranestructure.Thematerialmodelwillbeincludedinanexternalscriptwhichis
programmedintheFORTRANlanguage(USERMAT),andthenlinkedtotheANSYSsoftware.In
thecalculationprocess,ANSYSwillcalltheUSERMATtoconvertelementstrainsintostressesfor
eachiteration,andtoobtainthetangentstiffnessmatrix(Jacobianmatrix).

Sincethisprocessisquitecomplex,linkingerrorsandconvergenceproblemsarelikelyto
occur.Inthefollowingsectionswewillstartwithmodelingandanalyzingastructurewitha
linearisotropicmaterialmodel,toverifythatapropermodelhasbeencreated,therighttypeof
elementhasbeenchosen,andcorrectsettingshavebeenmade.Insmallstepsthemodelingwill
bemademorerealistic.

3.1Geometry

AconeshapetentstructureismodeledbyANSYSAPDLcommands.TwoparametersDand
Haredefinedtorepresentthespanandtheheight.Thesurfaceofthetentcanbeeasily
generatedbyrotatingalineaboutanaxis.

Thetriangletypeelementischosentomeshthearea.Thesizeformeshingis1000mmand
theentiremodelconsistsof1536elements.


Figure7ModelingandMesh

7

Themodelisfixedatthetopnodeandallthenodesonthebottomsurface.Allthesix
displacementdegreesoffreedomandrotationaldegreesoffreedomforeachnodeare
restrained.


Figure8BoundaryConditions

APDLcode

/UNITS,MPA
D=20000 MSHAPE,1,2D
H=10000 MSHKEY,0
AMESH,all
K,1,0,H,0
K,2,D/2,0,0 NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.1,0.1
L,1,2 NSEL,A,NODE,,0.5,1.5
K,1000,0,0,0 D,all,all
AROTAT,1,,,,,,1,1000,360

3.2Element

ANSYShasamembraneelementSHELL41formembranestructureanalysis.Itisa3D
elementwithmembranestiffnessbutnobendingstiffness.Therearethreetranslational
degreesoffreedomateachnode.ItissuitabletomodelthemembraneactionofthePTFE
coatedfiberglassfabricwhenlinearelasticmaterialbehaviorisassumed.

However,inordertoimplementthetextilemodelinANSYS,theUSERMATmustbecreated
toprovidethenonlinearconstitutivelaw.Thisusersubroutineisonlyapplicabletoelements
from18Xfamily:LINK180,SHELL181,PLANE182/183,SOLID185/186/187andBEAM188/189
(ANSYSInc.,1999).ThereforeSHELL181willbeusedforthemembraneanalysisinthisreport.In
caseofanisotropicmaterialmodel,themembraneelementSHELL41isalsousedtoverifythe
membraneactionofSHELL181element.

8

Figure9SHELL181Geometry(ANSYSInc.,2005)


SHELL181isa4nodeelementwithsixdegreesoffreedomateachnode.Thebending
stiffnesscanbechosentobeactivatedornot.Thegeometry,nodelocations,andthecoordinate
systemforthiselementareshowninFigure9.

ThethicknessoftheshellelementisdefinedusingRealConstantsSets.Thethicknessofthe
PTFEcoatedfiberglassfabricissettobe1.5mm.

T=1.5

ET,1,SHELL181
KEYOPT,1,1
R,1,T

3.3LoadandPrestress

Anupwardwindloadperpendiculartothetentsurface,withamagnitudeof2.0kN/m2=
0.002N/mm2,isappliedonthestructure.

Whenalinearisotropicmaterialmodelisused,thedesiredinitialprestresscanbeproduced
byatemperatureloadinthetentmodel.Inordertogetanidenticalprestressstatewiththebi
axialtestatStevinLab,thefollowingprestressforcewillbeused:

P=500N/18cm=2.7778N/mm (3.1)

Thhethermalstressneededforthisprestressis:

=P/Thickness=2.7778/1.5=1.8519MPa (3.2)

Thethermalstrainis:
=/E=(TreferenceT) (3.3)

Thereforethetemperatureforprestresscanbecalculatedby:

9
T=/(E)+Treference=1.8519/(1.0e5*E)=185190/E (3.4)
where
coefficientofthermalexpansion,=1.0E5
Treference referencetemperature,Treference=0

3.4IsotropicMaterialModel

Asmentionedbefore,theanalysiswillstartfromusinganisotropicmaterialmodel.For
smallfabricstrains,thelinearsimplificationofafabricbehaviorisapplicable.Parametersforan
isotropicmodelcanbeobtainedbyfittingasurfacethroughthetestdata(upto1%strain).

Basedonthefittedsurface,theYoungsModulusandPoissonsRatioforthistypeoftextile
areobtained(P.H.vanAsselt,2007):

=0.90 (3.5)
E=434561N/m/1.5mm=289.7073MPa (3.6)

NotethatthemaximumvalueofPoissonsRatioinANSYSis0.5thus=0.49isused.This
willleadtoadifferentconstitutiverelationbetweenstressandstraincomparedwiththe
experimentaldata.However,thisisotropicmodelisonlymadetocomparewiththenonlinear
textilemodel(USERMAT)innextchapterandtoverifytheANSYSnonlinearanalysis.

BasedonEquation(3.4)theinitialtemperatureforprestresscanbecalculatedas:

T=/(E)+Treference=1.8579/(1.0e5*289.7073)=639.23C (3.7)


Figure10FittedsolutionforWeftandWarpDirection(P.H.vanAsselt,2007)

10
3.5IsotropicMaterialModelLinearAnalysis

Alinearanalysisisfirstperformedusingtheisotropicmodel,seeFigure11and12.Alarge
strainasmuchas4.61%canbeobservedfromthestraincontoursunderwindloads.Obviouslya
geometricalnonlinearanalysisisdesirableformoreaccurateresults.


Figure11FirstPrincipalStressDistribution,[MPa]


Figure12FirstPrincipalStrainDistribution

11
3.6IsotropicMaterialModelGeometricNonlinearAnalysis

ANSYSemploystheNewtonRaphsonapproachtosolvenonlinearproblems.Inthis
approach,theloadisfirstsubdividedintoaseriesofloadincrementsandtheneachloadstepis
subdividedintoaseriesofsubsteps.

Duringthesolutionprocess,theNewtonRaphsonmethodevaluatestheoutofbalanceload
vector,whichisthedifferencebetweentherestoringforces(theloadscorrespondingtothe
elementstresses)andtheappliedloads.Theprogramthenperformsalinearsolution,usingthe
outofbalanceloads,andaddstheresultingdisplacementstothecurrentdisplacements.If
convergencecriteriaarenotsatisfied,theoutofbalanceloadvectorisreevaluated,the
stiffnessmatrixisupdated,andanewsolutionisobtained.Thisiterativeprocedurecontinues
untiltheproblemconverges(ANSYSInc.,2005).


Figure13NewtonRaphsonApproach

3.6.1Settingsfornonlinearanalysis


ANSYSprovidesanumberofcommandstohelptheusergetaproperresultfroma
nonlinearanalysis.Someconvergenceenhancementandrecoveryfeatures,suchasautomatic
timesteppingandbisection,canalsobeactivatedtohelpincaseofconvergingproblems.The
commandsandsettingswhichhavebeenusedinthemodelareexplainedasbelow:

NLGEOM,on

WhenNLGEOMisactive,theanalysiswillincludelargedeflectioneffectsandthedirection
ofapressureloadwillchangefollowingthedeflectedelementsurface.

12

Figure14LoadDirectionbeforeandafterDeflection(ANSYSInc.,2005)

SOLCONTROL,on

Itwillactivateoptimizeddefaultsforasetofcommandswhichareapplicabletononlinear
solutionsandsomeenhancedinternalsolutionalgorithms,includingthestressstiffnesseffects,
usingapredictoronsubstepsafterthefirststep,etc.

TIME,1
NSUBST,100,10000,1,on
AUTOTS,on

Thetimeattheendoftheloadstepissettobe1.Incaseofothertwocommandsareactive
atthesametime,numberofsubstepstobeusedforthisloadstepwillfirstlybesetas100.This
willgivethesizeofthefirstsubstep.Thenautomatictimesteppingwilltakeovertherest
substepsusingbothtimesteppredictionandtimestepbisection.Theallowednumberof
substepsisbetween1and10000.

NEQIT

Thedefaultmaximumnumberofequilibriumiterationsallowedineachsubstepisset
between15and26,whenSOLCONTROLissetON.

KBC,0

KBCwillspecifysteppedorrampedloadingwithinaloadstep.Ifaloadisramped(0),then
itsvalueincreasesgraduallyateachsubstep,withthefullvalueoccurringattheendoftheload
step.Ifaloadisstepped(1),thenitsfullvalueisappliedatthefirstsubstepandstaysconstant
fortherestoftheloadstep.


Figure15SteppedversusRampedLoads(ANSYSInc.,2005)

13
LNSRCH,auto

ANSYSwillautomaticallyswitchlinesearchingonandoffbetweensubstepsofaloadstepas
needed.

CNVTOL

Thiscommandwillsetconvergencevaluesfornonlinearanalyses.WhenSOLCONTROL,on,
thetolerancevaluesdefaultto0.5%forforceandmoment,and5%fordisplacement.

OUTRES,ALL,1
OUTPR,ALL,1
NCNV,1
/GST,on

Thesecommandsspecifythesettingsforsolutiontrackingandsolutiondatacontrol.

3.6.2Prestressbytemperatureload

Toverifytheinitialstresscausedbythetemperaturedecrease,anonlinearanalysiswith
TemperatureLoadonlyisperformed.ThestressdistributionisshowninFigure16.


Figure16FirstPrincipalStressDistribution,TemperatureLoad,[MPa]

Notethatthestresscausedbytemperatureisnotuniformlydistributed.Formostpartsof
thetentsurface,valuesbetween0.4625MPaand1.591MPacanbeseen,whileinthetopof
theconeitraisesupto11.891MPa.

14
Thisprestressstateisdifferentthanwhatisexpected,whichis1.8519MPawithauniform
distribution.Apossiblewaytoobtainthedesiredstressistouseaproperamplificationfactor,
tohavemostpartsofthetentsurfaceunderthedesiredstressstate.

Figure17showstheinitialstressdistributionwhenamplificationfactor0=2.0hasbeen
used.


Figure17FirstPrincipalStressDistribution,TemperatureLoad,AmplificationFactor=2.0,[MPa]


Alternatively,theelementSHELL181hasanoptiontodefineinitialstressbyusinguser
subroutineUSTRESS.Forthisendtheelementkeyoption,KEYOPT(10),shouldbesetas1
insteadofthedefaultvalue.TheprestresswillbereadfromtheusersubroutineUSTRESSwhich
iswritteninFOTRANlanguage.Theeffectofthismethodontentstructuresneedsafurther
study.

15
3.6.3Nonlinearanalysisunderwindload

Thegeometricnonlinearanalysisunderwindloadisperformedwithalltheoptimized
settings.Forceandmomentconvergencecriteriaareusedwiththedefaulttolerancevalue0.5%.
ANSYScomputestheconvergencenormwithcorrespondingconvergencecriterionforeach
iterationequilibrium.ThesolutionisgraphicallytrackedasshowninFigure18.11substepshave
beenautomaticallychosenbyANSYSasshowninTable1.


Figure18ConvergenceNormsDisplayedbytheGraphicalSolutionTracking



Table1SubstepandSize
Substep Time 6 0.14188
1 1.00E-02 7 0.21781
2 2.00E-02 8 0.33172
3 3.50E-02 9 0.50258
4 5.75E-02 10 0.75887
5 9.13E-02 11 1

16

Element50ischosenforreviewandcheckingoftheiterationhistory.Thelocationof
Element50isshowninFigure19.

Element50


Figure19LocationofElement50

ThefirstandsecondprincipalstressstrainrelationsatElement50areplottedinFigure20
and21.ThestressstraincurveinFigure21ismainlycausedbythelargePoissonsratiousedin
thiscase.Theresultsshowasmoothresponsehistoryandthusareasonabletimestephasbeen
chosen.

Figure20FirstPrincipalStressStrainatEle.50 Figure21SecondPrincipalStressStrainatEle.50


ThefirstprincipalstressandstraindistributionsareshowninFigure22and23.Thetent
surfacedeformsmoothlywithamaximumstrainof3.14%.Itdecreasescomparedwiththe
previousresultfromalinearanalysiswithavalueof4.61%.Themaximumprincipalstressalso
decreasesfrom17.365MPato12.485MPa.

Itisnotedthattheisotropicmodelisalinearsimplificationoffabricbehaviorupto1%
fabricstrain,andthemaximumstrainobtainedinFigure23isasmuchas3.14%.Sothismaterial
modelisactuallynotapplicableforsuchalargedeflectionandanonlinearmaterialmodelis
desirable.

17


Figure22FirstPrincipalStressDistributionunderWindLoad,[MPa]


Figure23FirstPrincipalStrainDistributionunderWindLoad

18
3.6.4VerificationbymembraneelementSHELL41

TheresultsfromSHELL181elementcanbeverifiedbyusingadifferentANSYSmembrane
elementSHELL41.Asimilarnonlinearanalysisisperformedwiththismembraneelement.The
POST26resultsofprincipalstressandstraincomponentsareprintedforelement50.Ascanbe
seeninthetablesbelow,themembraneelementandSHELL181elementgiveclosedresults.



Table2Element50POST26OutputSHELL41
ANSYS POST26 VARIABLE LISTING
SHELL41

TIME 1st principal 2nd principal 1st principal 2nd principal


stress stress strain strain
1.00E-02 0.114008 5.60E-02 2.99E-04 3.56E-07
2.00E-02 0.228317 0.112649 5.98E-04 2.67E-06
3.50E-02 0.400454 0.198329 1.05E-03 7.27E-06
5.75E-02 0.659853 0.327719 1.72E-03 1.52E-05
9.13E-02 1.05126 0.523238 2.74E-03 2.80E-05
0.14188 1.64283 0.819294 4.28E-03 4.94E-05
0.21781 2.53691 1.26909 6.61E-03 8.98E-05
0.33172 3.88193 1.95522 1.01E-02 1.83E-04
0.50258 5.88141 3.00519 1.52E-02 4.26E-04
0.75887 8.79727 4.61258 2.26E-02 1.04E-03
1 11.4328 6.1469 2.91E-02 1.88E-03



Table3Element50POST26OutputSHELL181
ANSYS POST26 VARIABLE LISTING
SHELL181

TIME 1st principal 2nd principal 1st principal 2nd principal


stress stress strain strain
1.00E-02 0.114504 5.63E-02 3.00E-04 8.32E-07
2.00E-02 0.229276 0.112976 6.00E-04 2.17E-06
3.50E-02 0.402031 0.198314 1.05E-03 4.55E-06
5.75E-02 0.662746 0.327195 1.73E-03 8.46E-06
9.13E-02 1.05776 0.522439 2.77E-03 1.43E-05
0.14188 1.65881 0.819452 4.34E-03 2.29E-05
0.21781 2.57577 1.27373 6.74E-03 4.00E-05
0.33172 3.97191 1.97294 1.04E-02 9.22E-05
0.50258 6.07922 3.05581 1.58E-02 2.66E-04
0.75887 9.21176 4.74088 2.38E-02 7.84E-04
1 12.0965 6.37708 3.10E-02 1.55E-03

19


Figure24FirstPrincipalStressDistributionunderWindLoad,SHELL41,[MPa]


Figure25FirstStrainDistributionunderWindLoad,SHELL41

20
4ANSYSUserMaterialSubroutineUSERMAT

ThenonlinearfabricmodelinChapter2isprogrammedintoanoutersubroutineinthe
FORTRANlanguage.ThisusermaterialroutineUSERMATisanANSYSuserprogrammable
featureforusewith18xfamilyelements.Itallowsuserstowritetheirownmaterialconstitutive
equations.

4.1SettingupaUSERMAT


Figure26IterativeProcess

ThematerialmodelUSERMATdefinesthemechanicalconstitutivebehaviorbasedonthe
fiberinteractionmechanism.ForeveryNewtonRaphsoniteration,USERMATiscalledatevery
materialintegrationpoint.ANSYSpassesinstresses,strains,strainincrements,andstate
variablesatthebeginningofthetimeincrement.USERMATthenupdatesthestrainsand
stressesastheoutputofthemodel.MaterialJacobianmatrixisalsoprovidedforconvergence
matters.

ForSHELL181element,aplanestressalgorithmforthematerialconstitutiveintegration
mustbeused.Inthatcasethetotalnumberofthestressorstraincomponentsatmaterialpoint
willbethree.Thiswilldefinethesizesforstrainvector,strainincrementvector,stressvector
andJacobianMatrix.

ncomp=3 (4.1)

Atthebeginningofeachstep,thestrainwillbeupdatedas:

21
Strain(i)=Strain(i)+dSrain(i) (4.2)
where
Strain Doubleprecisionarraycontainsthetotalstrains
dStrain Doubleprecisionarraycontainscurrentstrainincrements
i i=1,2,,ncomp

TheupdatedstrainvectorStrain(i)willbeusedtocalculatethestressesbyusingthefiber
modelinChapter2.TheresultsarestoredinthestressvectorStress(i).

Stress(i)=fi[Strain(1),Strain(2),,Strain(ncomp)] (4.3)
where
Stress Doubleprecisionarraycontainsthestresses
fi[x] NonlinearconstitutivelawforPTFEcoatedfiberglassfabric

InUSERMATtheJacobianmatrixisalsocalculatedanditisstoredindsdeP1(ncomp,ncomp).
dsdeP1(i,j)denotethechangeintheithstresscomponentattheendofthetimeincrement
causedbyachangeofthejthstraincomponent.Itwillbeusedforconvergencemattersonly,
thereforeitdoesnotneedtobetheexactmatrixbutcanbeageneralone.

BecauseANSYSassumesthattheelementstiffnessmatrixissymmetric,thereforea
symmetricmaterialJacobianmatrixmustbeprovidedbyUSERMATevenitisunsymmetric.
TherearevariouswaystocreateanestimationoftheexactJacobianmatrix.Threedifferent
approaches(JacobianI,JacobianII,JacobianIII)havebeenstudiedinthisreport.

JacobianIisthesimplestmatrixwhichusestheconstitutivelawoflinearelasticmaterial.
Thematrixcanbeexpressedas:
E vE
0
1 v 1 v2
2

JacobianI=dsdeP1(ncomp,ncomp)= vE E
0
1 v 1 v2
2

0 0 G


JacobianIIiscalculatedbasedonatwostepstrainincrementonthenonlinearfibermodel.
ThematrixwillbemadesymmetricbyhavingdsdeP1(1,2)anddsdeP1(2,1)equaltotheir
averagevalue.Inaddition,ShearmodulusGisusedandfourelementswithzerovalueare
assumedasshowninFigure27.

Figure27JacobianMatrixII

22

JacobianIIIisobtainedbyathreestepstrainincrementasshowninFigure28,whichmight
leadtoaslowerprocessbutamoreaccuratematrixcomparedwithothertwo.


Figure28JacobianMatrixIII

Basedonthesedifferentapproaches,severalUSERMATshavebeencreatedandtested.The
JacobianMatrixIIshowstoworkwellinmostofthetestcases,andthecalculationtimefora
twoloadstepcaseisnomorethan10minuteswithapropernonlinearsetting.Incasethat
JacobianIorJacobianIIIhasbeenused,convergenceproblemswereencounteredforafew
cases.HoweverfromthiswecannotconcludethatJacobianIIisthemostsuitablesolutionfor
thenonlineartextilemodel.Thenonlinearanalysisisacomplexprocessandmanyfactorscan
influencetheresult.

Inaddition,forthePLANEelementandSOLIDelementofthe18xfamilyelements,
unsymmetricJacobianmatrixisallowedwhenanelementkeyoption,KEYOPT(5)issettobe1.
ThismaybeapossibleapproachifanunsymmetricJacobianmatrixisdesirableinafuture
development.

4.2CompilingandLinkingUSERMAT

AftercreatingaUSERMAT,thesourcefilesneedtobecompiledandlinkedtoANSYS.By
usingtheRelinkoptionfromtheANS_ADMINutility,ANSYScompilesallFORTRANfilesandC
filesinaspecifieddirectory.ThereforetheUSERMATmustbeplacedinthisfolder.The
procedurethenloadsallobjectfilesandthedefaultANSYSobjectsandlibraries.Atlastanew
executablefileiscreated.

IttookalottimebeforewehadthecompilingandlinkingofUSERMATrightandsuccessful.
AsuitableversionofIntelFORTRANCompilerandCCompilerarerequiredforthisoperation.
Theenvironmentvariablesmustbeproperlyset.Forconvenienceofafutureworksometipson
theUSERMATcompilingandlinkinghavebeenwrittenandincludedinAppendixI.

ThenewexecutablefilecanbeselectedbyrunningtheANSYSProductLauncher.USERMAT
thenisavailabletobeused.Toimplementthismaterialmodel,theTBUSERcommandmustbe
firstissuedintheANSYSscript(APDL)as:

TB,USER,matID,NTEMPS,NPTS

23
Withthiscommandthematerialreferencenumber,numberoftemperaturepointsand
numberofmaterialconstantsatagiventemperaturepointwillbedefined.

ThematerialconstantsthatwillbeusedasinputforUSERMATcanbedefinedinAPDLas

TBDATA,StartingLocation,C1,C2,C3

ThetotalnumberofmaterialconstantsdependsonthealgorithmcontainedinUSERMAT.In
thisreportthreedifferenttypesofUSERMAThasbeenincluded:alinearUSERMAT,anonlinear
USERMATwithoutinitialstress,andanonlinearUSERMATwithprestressandmultipleload
steps.Theywillrequiretwo(E,v),three(E,d,s)andfive(E,d,s,a1,a2)materialconstants
respectively.

4.3VerificationofUSERMAT

AlinearUSERMATisfirstlywrittentoverifythecompilingandlinkingbetweenUSERMAT
andANSYSscript.ThisUSERMATmodelconsistsofalinearmaterialconstitutivelawand
JacobianImatrix.TheresultisexpectedtobeidenticalwiththeresultinChapter3wherean
ANSYSisotropicmaterialmodelisused.



Figure29IterativeProcesswithaLinearUSERMAT


TheUSERMATstatementscoverthelinearmaterialmodelandtheJacobianMatrixI,where
strainsandstresseswillbeupdatedandstored.ThematerialconstantsaredefinedinAPDL
scriptinordertofacilitatequickmaterialadaptationswithoutrecompilingandrelinkingthe
USERMAT.Twomaterialconstantsareneededforthismodel:

=0.49 (4.4)
E=289.7073MPa (4.5)

ThePOST26resultsforElement50arelistedinTable4.Itturnsouttobeexactlythesame
withpreviousresultsinTable3.Sotheentireiterativeprocessiswellbuilt.

24


TheStatementsinUSERMAT,Linearconstitutivelaw

getYoung'smodulusandPoisson'sratio doi=1,ncomp1
young=prop(1) doj=i+1,ncomp
posn=prop(2) dsdePl(j,i)=dsdePl(i,j)
twoG=young/(ONE+posn) enddo
enddo
calculateelasticstiffnessmatrix(3d)
c1=ONEposn*posn calculateelasticstrain
c2=young/c1 doi=1,ncomp
c3=posn*c2 wk1(i)=Strain(i)+dStrain(i)
dsdePl(1,1)=c2 enddo
dsdePl(1,2)=c3
dsdePl(1,3)=ZERO updatestresses
dsdePl(2,2)=c2 stress(1)=wk1(1)*c2+wk1(2)*c3
dsdePl(2,3)=ZERO stress(2)=wk1(1)*c3+wk1(2)*c2
dsdePl(3,3)=HALF*twoG stress(3)=wk1(3)*HALF*twoG


SeeAppendixIforthefullUSERMATcode.

Table4Post26OutputforElement50withaLinearUSERMAT
Element50POST26OutputLinearUSERMAT

TIME 1st stress 2nd stress 1st strain 2nd strain

1.00E-02 0.114504 5.63E-02 3.00E-04 8.32E-07


2.00E-02 0.229276 0.112976 6.00E-04 2.17E-06
3.50E-02 0.402031 0.198314 1.05E-03 4.55E-06
5.75E-02 0.662746 0.327195 1.73E-03 8.46E-06
9.13E-02 1.05776 0.522439 2.77E-03 1.43E-05
0.14188 1.65881 0.819452 4.34E-03 2.29E-05
0.21781 2.57577 1.27373 6.74E-03 4.00E-05
0.33172 3.97191 1.97294 1.04E-02 9.22E-05
0.50258 6.07922 3.05581 1.58E-02 2.66E-04
0.75887 9.21176 4.74088 2.38E-02 7.84E-04
1 12.0965 6.37708 3.10E-02 1.55E-03





25
5AnalysiswithNonlinearUSERMATModel

BuildingandusinganonlinearfiberUSERMATsubroutinewithANSYSrequiressomecaution
intheanalysis.Tokeepinsightintheprocessandtohavethebehavioroftheroutinemonitored,
theUSERMATmodelisadaptedandimprovedatsmallsteps.Duringthestudydifferentversions
ofUSERMAT,fromthesimplelinearmaterialmodeltothenonlinearfiberinteractionmodel
withprestressandmultipleloadsteps,havebeenwritten,testedandimplementedinthetent
structuralanalysis.Twoofthemwillbeintroducedinthischapter:USERMATIandUSERMATII.

BothofthistwomodelsarebasedonfiberinteractionmechanismasexplainedinChapter2
(Figure6)andtheJacobianIImatrixasexplainedinChapter4isused.InUSERMATIthe
prestressintentstructuresisnotevolvedanditislinkedtoanAPDLthatonlyoneloadstepis
defined;whileUSERMATIIincludestemperaturevariablestointroduceinitialstressesandis
combinedwithamultipleloadstepAPDLscript.

Inaddition,differentconvergencefeatureshavebeimplementedtoevaluatetheireffect.In
caseofUSERMATI,automatictimesteppingandbisectionareactivated,whilefixedstepsare
usedforUSERMATII.

5.1USERMATI


Figure30USERMATModelI


USERMATIconsistsofthenonlinearmaterialmodelthatusesseveralequationsand
iterationtorepresentthenonlinearfiberinteractionmechanismasmentionedinChapter2.It
requiresthreematerialconstants,Youngsmodulus,diameterandspacingoftheundeformed
wires,whichwillbeprovidedbyAPDL.

E=77500N/mm=51667N/mm2 (5.1)
d=0.18mm (5.2)
s=0.9mm (5.3)

26
TheStatementsusedinUSERMATItoupdatestrainsandcalculatestressesareshownas
follows:


TheStatementsinUSERMATI,Nonlinearfiberinteractionmodel

bisect/cut ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO)
keycut=0 Tx=(ax/aONE)
Ty=(ay/aONE)
getmaterialconstants
young=prop(1) if(Tx.LT.0)then
d=prop(2) Tx=0
s=prop(3) endif
G=500.d0 if(Ty.LT.0)then
Ty=0
getinitialstress,diameterandspacing endif
epsxxp=ZERO
epsyyp=ZERO R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w)
incr=ONEDM01 w=w+R/a
enddo
updatestrains
doi=1,ncomp Tx=young*Ad*Tx
wk1(i)=Strain(i)+dStrain(i) Ty=young*Ad*Ty
enddo Nx=(sx*Tx/ax)
Ny=(sy*Ty/ay)
computation
a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO) nxxp=Nx/s
Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO) nyyp=Ny/s
sx=s*(ONE+wk1(1)+epsxxp) nxyp=G*wk1(3)*d
sy=s*(ONE+wk1(2)+epsyyp)
w=ZERO updatestresses
R=100.0d0 stress(1)=nxxp
dowhile(abs(R).gt.ONEDM04*a*d) stress(2)=nyyp
ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO) stress(3)=nxyp


TheJacobianIImatrixisusedforconvergencematterswithatwostepstrainincrementas
showninFigure27.AproperlengthforsubstepmustbedefinedinAPDLtoassistinafast
convergenceduringthecalculation.


TheCodeforcalculationofJacobianII

addsmallstrainincrementinxdirection Tx=(ax/aONE)
epsxxinc=wk1(1)+incr Ty=(ay/aONE)

a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO) if(Tx.LT.0)then
Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO) Tx=0
sx=s*(ONE+epsxxinc+epsxxp) endif
sy=s*(ONE+wk1(2)+epsyyp) if(Ty.LT.0)then
w=ZERO Ty=0
R=100.0d0 endif
dowhile(abs(R).gt.ONEDM04*a*d)
ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO) R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w)
ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO) w=w+R/a

27
enddo
if(Tx.LT.0)then
Tx=young*Ad*Tx Tx=0
Ty=young*Ad*Ty endif
Nx=(sx*Tx/ax) if(Ty.LT.0)then
Ny=(sy*Ty/ay) Ty=0
endif
nxx=Nx/s
nyy=Ny/s R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w)
w=w+R/a
dsdePl(1,1)=(nxxnxxp)/incr enddo
dsdePl(2,1)=(nyynyyp)/incr
dsdePl(3,1)=0 Tx=young*Ad*Tx
Ty=young*Ad*Ty
addsmallstrainincrementinydirection Nx=(sx*Tx/ax)
epsyyinc=wk1(2)+incr Ny=(sy*Ty/ay)

a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO) nxx=Nx/s
Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO) nyy=Ny/s
sx=s*(ONE+wk1(1)+epsxxp)
sy=s*(ONE+epsyyinc+epsyyp) dsdePl(1,2)=(nxxnxxp)/incr
w=ZERO dsdePl(2,2)=(nyynyyp)/incr
R=100.0d0 dsdePl(3,2)=0
dowhile(abs(R).gt.ONEDM04*a*d) dsdePl(2,1)=dsdePl(1,2)
ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO) dsdePl(1,3)=0
ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO) dsdePl(2,3)=0
Tx=(ax/aONE) dsdePl(3,3)=G*d
Ty=(ay/aONE)

Thismaterialmodelisimplementedintheanalysisofthetentstructurewhereanupward
windloadisapplied.Theprestressisnotincludedwithinthismodel.

P=2kN/m2 (5.4)

ThecommandsinAPDLtoprovidematerialconstantsandtolinkwithUSERMATIare:

MAT,1
TB,USER,1,1,3
TBTEMP,1.0
TBDATA,1,51667,0.18,0.9
TB,STATE,1,,6

Intheprocessofthenonlinearanalysis,fullNewtonRaphsonisusedandtheautomatic
timestepping,bisectionandlinesearchareactivated:

NLGEOM,on
SOLCONTROL,on
TIME,1
NSUBST,100,10000,1,on
AUTOTS,on
KBC,0
LNSRCH,auto
EQSLV,front
NROPT,full

28

5.2USERMATIResult

USERMATIhasbeenimplementedintheanalysisofthetentstructuremodeledinChapter
3.Duringtheprocess,193substepshavebeendefinedbyANSYS,whichleadstoalargeamount
ofcalculationtime(morethaneighthours).Thisisprobablybecauseoftheautomatictime
steppingandbisectionusedforthecomputation.InthesecondmodelUSERMATIIafixedstep
willbeusedtoevaluatetheeffect.

Element50ischosenagaintochecktheresult.SeeFigure19forthelocationofthiselement.
ThestressstrainrelationisplottedasshowninFigure31.


Figure31FirstPrincipalStressStrainforElement50

Thestressesratioforelement50afterthefinalstepis:

13.9362
nele 50 = 1 = = 1.55 (5.5)
2 8.9954

Figure31showsagoodagreementwiththecurveobtainedfromthebiaxialloadingtestat
StevinLabwhenaloadratio2:1isapplied.





29

ThestressandstraindistributionsareshowninFigure3235.


Figure32FirstPrincipalStressDistribution,USERMATI,WindLoad,[MPa]


Figure33SecondPrincipalStressDistribution,USERMATI,WindLoad,[MPa]

30


Figure34FirstPrincipalStrainDistribution,USERMATI,WindLoad


Figure35SecondPrincipalStrainDistribution,USERMATI,Windload

31

5.3USERMATII


Figure36AnalysisProcesswithUSERMATII

USERMATIIconsistsofthesamematerialmodelasUSERMATI,butitrequiresfivematerial
constantfromAPDL.ExceptfortheYoungsmodulus,diameterandspacingoftheundeformed
wires,twoprestresscoefficientsa1anda2areneededtoapplytheinitialstressonthetent
structure.

TheinitialstraincausedbyprestresswithineachiterationwillbecalculatedbyUSERMATII
as:

prestress ,1 = a1 (temp + dtemp)
(5.6)
prestress ,2 = a2 (temp + dtemp)

32

wherethecoefficientsa1anda2canbecalculatedas:

prestress ,1,total
a1 =
T
(5.7)
prestress ,2,total
a2 =
T

TisthetemperatureincrementdefinedbyAPDL.prestress,1,totalandprestress,2,totalarethetotal
initialstrainscausedbytheprestressandcanbecalculatedusingtheMATLABCodeII.

TheStatementsusedinUSERMATIItoupdatethestrains,stresses,aswellasthe
temperaturevectorandprestressareshownasfollows:


TheStatementsinUSERMATII,Nonlinearmodelwithprestress

bisect/cut ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO)
keycut=0 ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO)
Tx=(ax/aONE)
getmodulus Ty=(ay/aONE)
young=prop(1)
G=500.d0 if(Tx.LT.0)then
Tx=0
getdiameterandspacing endif
d=prop(2) if(Ty.LT.0)then
s=prop(3) Ty=0
endif
initialstrainbyprestress
c1=temp+dtemp R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w)
epsxxp=prop(4)*c1 w=w+R/a
epsyyp=prop(5)*c1 enddo
incr=ONEDM01
Tx=young*Ad*Tx
updatestrains Ty=young*Ad*Ty
doi=1,ncomp Nx=(sx*Tx/ax)
wk1(i)=Strain(i)+dStrain(i) Ny=(sy*Ty/ay)
enddo
nxxp=Nx/s
computation nyyp=Ny/s
a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO) nxyp=G*wk1(3)*d
Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO)
sx=s*(ONE+wk1(1)+epsxxp) updatestresses
sy=s*(ONE+wk1(2)+epsyyp) stress(1)=nxxp
w=ZERO stress(2)=nyyp
R=100.0d0 stress(3)=nxyp
dowhile(abs(R).gt.ONEDM04*a*d)

33


Figure37MultipleLoadstepsinAPDL

AnAPDLscriptthatcanhandlemultipleloadstepsisconstructedforUSERMATII,asshown
inFigure37.ThedataforeachloadstepisstoredintheloadstepfileJobname.S01,
Jobname.S02,etc.andwillbereadsequentiallyforsolution.Duringthecomputationprocess,
USERMATIIiscalledateverymaterialintegrationpoint.Resultsforeachsubsteparewritten
intooutputfilesforpostprocessing.ForacompletecodeseeAppendixIV.

MATLABcodeII

%straininmembranematerial
%writtenbasedontheMAPLEmodelcreatedbyDr.ir.P.C.J.Hoogenboom,2007
%input
E=51667;%[N/mm2]Young'sModulusofthewiresplusmatrix
d=0.18; %[mm]diameterofthewires
s=0.9; %[mm]spacingofthewires(0<2d<s)
nxx=2.7778; %[N/mm]initialforceinthexdirection
nyy=2.7778; %[N/mm]initialforceintheydirection
%computation
a=sqrt(s^2+d^2); ax=a*(1+Tx/(E*A));
A=1/4*pi*d^2; ay=a*(1+Ty/(E*A));
Nx=nxx*s; sx=sqrt(ax^2(dw)^2);
Ny=nyy*s; sy=sqrt(ay^2(d+w)^2);
ifNx<0 w=d*(Nx*syNy*sx)/(Nx*sy+Ny*sx+1e8);
Nx=0; Tx=ax/sx*Nx;
end Ty=ay/sy*Ny;
ifNy<0 end
Ny=0; epsilonxxp=sx/s1;
end epsilonyyp=sy/s1;
w=d*(NxNy)/(Nx+Ny+1e8); %output
Tx=Nx; epsilonxxp
Ty=Ny; epsilonyyp
fori=1:1:4

34
5.4USERMATIILoadStepIPrestress

FromEquation(3.2),thedesiredinitialprestressis1.8519MPa.Thentheinitialstrainscan
becalculatedbyusingMATLABCodeIIinSection5.3.Theresultsare:

prestress ,1,total = 0.2%
(5.8)
prestress ,2,total = 0.2%

ThetemperatureincrementTisdefinedas10.FromEquation(5.7)theprestress
coefficientsa1anda2canbecalculatedas:

prestress ,1,total
a1 = = 0.0002
T
(5.9)
prestress ,2,total
a2 = = 0.0002
T

Havingobtainedalltheparameters,theAPDLscriptwhichprovidesmaterialconstantscan
bedefinedas:

MAT,1
TB,USER,1,1,5
TBTEMP,1.0
TBDATA,1,51667,0.18,0.9,0.0002,0.0002
TB,STATE,1,,6

Thestressdistributionafterfirstloadstep(prestress)isshowninFigure38.


Figure38FirstPrincipalStressDistribution,USERMATII,InitialStress,[MPa]

35

Anonuniformstressdistributioncanbeseeninthecontourandmostpartsofthetent
surfaceareunderastresslevelthatissmallerthantheexpectedone,aswhathasbeen
observedinalinearmodelshowninFigure16.Hereanamplificationfactor0isalsousedto
obtainthedesiredprestresslevel.

Figure39showsthestressdistributionwhentheamplificationfactor0=5.0hasbeenused.


Figure39FirstPrincipalStressDistribution,InitialStress,AmplificationFactor=5.0,[MPa]


Incaseof0=5.0,theprestresscoefficientsa1anda2are:

prestress ,1,total
a1 = 0 = 0.001
T
(5.10)
prestress ,2,total
a2 = 0 = 0.001
T

TheAPDLthatprovidesmaterialconstantsshouldberedefinedas:

MAT,1
TB,USER,1,1,5
TBTEMP,1.0
TBDATA,1,51667,0.18,0.9,0.001,0.001
TB,STATE,1,,6

36
5.5USERMATIILoadStepIIWindLoad

Adownwardwindloadisappliedonthetentstructureasthesecondstepload.

P=1kN/m2 (5.11)

SincetheautomatictimesteppingandbisectionusedinUSERMATIhavecausedalarge
amountofcalculationtime,fixedstepsareusedinUSERMATII.Differentlengthsofsubstep
havebeentestedfrom10to60.Itisfoundthatthemostefficientwaytoobtainthenonlinear
resultistodefine10fixedsubstepsforeachloadstepwhenthemeshingtypeisspecifiedas
FreeMesh.Ittakesapprox.fiveminutesforeachloadstepandtheentirecomputational
processcanbefinishedwithin10minutes.

WhileaMapMeshisspecified,itcausessomeconvergenceproblemincaseof10fixed
substeps.Anumberaround50issuggestedforthetentmodeltestedinthisreport.The
calculationtimeincreasedconsequentlytofourhours.OneadvantageusingaMapMeshisthat
theresultismuchsmoothercomparedwiththeresultfromaFreeMesh.

ThestressandstraindistributionsafterthefinalloadstepsareshowninFigure4043.The
displacementsaremagnifiedbyafactorinordertoshowtheeffect.


Figure40FirstPrincipalStressDistribution,USERMATII,FinalStep,[MPa]

37




Figure41SecondPrincipalStressDistribution,USERMATII,FinalStep,[MPa]


Figure42FirstPrincipalStrainDistribution,USERMATII,FinalStep

38


Figure43SecondPrincipalStrainDistribution,USERMATII,FinalStep

39
6ConclusionsandRecommendations

6.1Conclusions

Thelinearisotropicmaterialmodelforfabricislimiteduptoastrainof1%and
thereforeisnotsuitableforthetentstructurewithamaximumstrainaround3%.

ElementfromANSYS18Xfamilymustbechoseninordertoimplementthe
USERMATsubroutine.TheelementSHELL181isusedtomakethemodel.Itproves
tobesuitableforanonlinearanalysisandgivesidenticalresultswhencomparedto
theANSYSmembraneelementSHELL41.

Foranisotropicmaterialmodel,theprestresscausedbytemperatureisunrealistic
andneedtobeadjustedbyaproperfactor.

ThethicknessofthePTFEcoatedfiberglassfabricwillbedefinedbyANSYSReal
ConstantsSetsandlinkedtotheSHELL181element.Thereforeitisnotnecessaryto
passthethicknessconstanttotheUSERMATsubroutine.

ThecompilingandlinkingoftheUSERMATSubroutinecanbeverifiedbycreatinga
routinethatconsistsofalinearmaterialmodel.Thisusermodelshowsgood
agreementwiththeANSYSmaterialmodel.

ANSYSiscapableofperformingthegeometricnonlinearanalysisfortentstructures
usingaphysicallynonlinearfabricmodelprovidedbyanexternalUSERMAT
subroutine.

OfthethreeJacobianMatricesthathavebeenstudied,JacobianIIgivesthemost
efficientsolutionbyusingatwostepstrainincrement.

ThestressstrainrelationfromananalysiswiththenonlinearUSERMATmodel
showsgoodresemblancewiththeresultfromthebiaxialtestinStevinLab.

BycombiningANSYSscriptandtheUSERMATsubroutine,multipleloadcasescanbe
defined.

Forthenonlinearmodel,theprestresscanbeintroducedbyusingatemperature
incrementandaprestresscoefficientinUSERMATsubroutine.

Theautomatictimesteppingandbisectionareabletoassistinconvergencebut
causelargecalculationtimes.Attheothersideaproperfixedstepcombinedwitha
MapMeshinANSYShaveshownitsefficiencytofindthesolution.Thetotal
calculationtimecanbereducedwithin10minutes.

40

6.2Recommendations


TheelementSHELL181hasanoptiontodefineinitialprestressbyusinguser
subroutineUSTRESS.Thismightprovideamoreaccuratewaytoapplytheprestress
inthetentstructure.

TheJacobianMatrixcalculatedbytheUSERMATmustbesymmetricatthecurrent
stage.Ifunsymmetricmatrixisdesiredinafuturedevelopment,usingthePLANE
elementfrom18xfamilyisapossiblesolution.Becausewhentheelementkey
optionKEYOPT(5)issettobe1,unsymmetricJacobianmatrixisallowedforthistype
ofelement.

Thedifferentmethodsusedinthisreporttoobtainanestimationoftheexact
Jacobianmatrixneedafurtherstudywhenlesscalculationtimeisdesiredfora
morecomplextentstructure.

Theeffectsofautomatictimestepping,bisection,fixedstep,typeofmeshing,etc.
onconvergencemattersneedafurtherstudyforamorecomplexstructuralmodel.

Inthecurrentmaterialmodelitisassumedthatthepropertiesforbothwarpand
weftdirectionsareequivalent.Actuallythematerialconstantsmayvaryslightlyin
differentdirections.ThisdifferencemightbeaddedtotheUSERMATsubroutineto
improvethequalityoftheModel.

Foragooddesignofatentstructure,thewarpandweftdirectionofthefabricwill
coincidewiththeprincipaldirection.ThustheUSERMATmodelcanbeimproved
thatittransfersstrainandstressbetweenXYdirectionsandprincipaldirections.
EffortshavealreadybeenspentforthisimprovementasshowninFigure44.The
USERMATforthisendisincludedinAppendixV.However,ithasnotbeen
successfullyimplementedinananalysisduetoconvergenceproblem.Sinceonly
eightweeksareallottedtothisadditionalthesis,thisproblemislefttobesolvedin
afutureproject.

41

Figure44TransferbetweenXYDirectionandPrincipalDirection

42
Reference


[1] P.C.J.Hoogenboom,Structuralmodelfortextile,internalreport,DelftUniversityof
Technology,Jun.2007
[2] P.H.vanAsselt,Analysisofstressedmembranestructures,MasterofSciencereport,
DelftUniversityofTechnology,Dec.2007,online:http://www.mechanics.citg.tudelft.nl
/~pierre/MSc_projects/reportVanAsselt.pdf
[3] R.Houtman,M.Orpana,BauenmitTextilenHeft,4/2000
[4] ANSYS,Inc.,ANSYSUSERMaterialSubroutineUSERMAT,Nov.1999
[5] ANSYS,Inc.,GuidetoANSYSUserProgrammableFeatures,Aug.2005

43
APPENDIXI TipsforUSERMATLinking



AsuitableversionofIntelFORTRANCompilerandCCompilermustbeproperly
installedforthecompilingandlinkingofUSERMATwithANSYS.

IncaseofANSYS11.0,theIntelFORTRAN8.1orahigherversionisrequired.Incase
ofIntelFORTRAN8.1,VisualStudio2002or2003issuggested.

A30daystrailversionofIntelFORTRANCompilercanbedownloadedat
www.intel.com/cd/software/products/asmona/eng/download/eval/219690.htm.

AfullversionofVisualStudiocanbedownloadedatwww.MA3D.comafter
registrationusingtheEmailwithadomainnameofTUDelft.

Ifanyoldversionofthecompilerhasalreadyexisted,itissuggestedtoremove
themcompletelybeforetheinstallationofanewversion.

TheUSERMATsourcefilemustbeplaceinthesubdirectory[\AnsysInc\V110\ansys
\custom\user\Intel].ItwillbelinkedtoANSYSbyselectthe[RelinkANSYS]option
fromtheANS_ADMINutility.Anewexecutablefilenamed[ansys.exe]willbe
createdinthesamefolder.

TherelinkedversionoftheANSYSprogramcanbeexecutedby[ConfigureANSYS
Products].

IfanymodificationhasbeenmadetotheUSERMATsourcefile,the[RelinkANSYS]
needtoberunagain.ANSYSwillthenupdatetheexisting[ansys.exe]file.
Nevertheless,itisstillsuggestedtodeleteanyexisting[ansys.exe]filebefore
runninganewrelink.Thisisbecausesometimestheupdatemayfail,butANSYS
alwaysgivesamessagethattheexecutablefilehasbeensuccessfullyupdated.

Ifthecompilersarenotproperlyinstalledortheenvironmentvariablesarenot
correctlysetthelinkingwillfail.Incaseoflatter,somepossibleerrormessages,as
wellastherelevantsolutionstosolvetheproblems,arecollectedinTable5.

Whenusing[RelinkANSYS]tocompileandlink,itisnotedthatthetypingerrorand
thesyntaxerrorintheUSERMATwillnotbereported.Inthatcaseitispossibleto
generateawrong[ansys.exe]whichleadstountrueresultswithoutanywarning.
ThereforethesourceFORTRANfileshouldbecarefullychecked.


44
AtrickforcheckingofthetypingerrorsorsyntaxerrorsinUSERMAT:Createanew
folderandcopythefollowingfiles:USERMAT.f(thesourcefilecreatedbyusers),
ANSCUST.bat,ansyslarge.def,ansyssmall.defandMAKEFILEunderthesubdirectory
[\AnsysInc\V110\ansys\custom\user\Intel]andpastethemtothenewfolder.
ThenbyrunningANSCUST.battheUSERMATwillbecheckedandANSYSwillmakea
reportifanyerrorhasbeendetected.

Table5PossibleErrorMessagesduringLinkingProcessandtheSolutions

ErrorMessageduringRelink Solution
[addtoEnvironmentVariable]
'nmake'isnotrecognizedasan PATH>
internalorexternalcommand, [\MicrosoftVisualStudio.NET2003\Common7\IDE]and
operableprogramorbatchfile. [\MicrosoftVisualStudio.NET2003\Vc7\bin]
LINK:fatalerrorLNK1181:
cannotopeninputfile LIB>
'kernel32.lib' [\MicrosoftVisualStudio.NET2003\Vc7\lib]
LINK:fatalerrorLNK1181:
cannotopeninputfile LIB>
'advapi32.lib' [\MicrosoftVisualStudio.NET2003\Vc7\PlatformSDK\Lib]
ANSZIP.C(6):fatalerrorC1083:
Cannotopenincludefile: INCLUDE>
'stdio.h':Nosuchfileor [\MicrosoftVisualStudio.NET2003\Vc7\include]
directory
ANSZIP.C(10):fatalerrorC1083:
Cannotopenincludefile: INCLUDE>
'windows.h':Nosuchfileor [\MicrosoftVisualStudio.NET2003\Vc7\PlatformSDK\Include]
directory

Note:IfadifferentversionofMicrosoftVisualStudiootherthanv2003hasbeenused,thepathslisted
aboveneedtobechangedinaccordancewiththedirectory.

45
APPENDIXIIUSERMATLinearIsotropicModel


ThisUSERMATconsistsofalinearplainstressalgorithmandiswritteninthepurposeof
verificationofthecompilingandlinkingwithANSYS.



*deck,usermatparallelusergal PARAMETER(ZERO=0.d0,
subroutineusermat( &HALF=0.5d0,
&matId,elemId,kDomIntPt,kLayer, &THIRD=1.d0/3.d0,
kSectPt, &ONE=1.d0,
&ldstep,isubst,keycut, &TWO=2.d0,
&nDirect,nShear,ncomp,nStatev,nProp, &THREE=3.d0,
&Time,dTime,Temp,dTemp, &SMALL=1.d08,
& &sqTiny=1.d20,
stress,ustatev,dsdePl,sedEl,sedPl,epseq, &ONEDM02=1.d02,
&Strain,dStrain,epsPl,prop,coords, &ONEDM05=1.d05,
&rotateM,defGrad_t,defGrad, &TWOTHIRD=2.0d0/3.0d0,
&tsstif,epsZZ, &SQTWOTHIRD=
&var1,var2,var3,var4,var5, 0.816496580927726030d0,
&var6,var7,var8) &SQTWO1=
c 0.707106769084930420d0,
#include"impcom.inc" &NEWTON=20,
c &mcomp=6
INTEGER &)
&matId,elemId, c
&kDomIntPt,kLayer,kSectPt, ctemperaryvariablesforsolutionpurpose
&ldstep,isubst,keycut, c
&nDirect,nShear,ncomp,nStatev,nProp EXTERNALvmove,vzero,vapb1,rotVect
DOUBLEPRECISION DOUBLEPRECISIONsigElp(mcomp),
&Time,dTime,Temp,dTemp, dsdeEl(mcomp,mcomp),
&sedEl,sedPl,epseq,epsZZ &wk1(3),wk2(3),wk3(3),wk4(3)
DOUBLEPRECISION
&stress(ncomp),ustatev(nStatev), DOUBLEPRECISIONvar1,var2,var3,var4,var5,
&dsdePl(ncomp,ncomp), &var6,var7,var8
&Strain(ncomp),dStrain(ncomp),
&epsPl(ncomp),prop(nProp), INTEGERi,j,k
&coords(3),rotateM(3,3), DOUBLEPRECISIONpleq_t,sigy_t,sigy,
&defGrad(3,3),defGrad_t(3,3), &dpleq,pleq,twoG,et,
&tsstif(2) &young,posn,sigy0,dsigdep,tEo1pm,
c &gamma,dgamma,dfdga,dplga,
c*****************Userdefinedpart &funcFb,funcFb2,funcf,dFdep,fratio,
************************************* &con1,con2,con3,con4,
c &con2p1,ocon2p1,
cparameters &ocon2p2,con4p1,ocon4p1,ocon4p2,
c &c1,c2,c3,c4,c5
INTEGERNEWTON,mcomp c*******************************************
DOUBLEPRECISIONHALF,THIRD,ONE,TWO, ******************************
THREE,SMALL, c***nobsect/cut
&SQTWOTHIRD,SQTWO1, keycut=0
&ZERO,TWOTHIRD,ONEDM02, c
ONEDM05,sqTiny c***getYoung'smodulusandPoisson'sratio

46
young=prop(1) doj=i+1,ncomp
posn=prop(2) dsdePl(j,i)=dsdePl(i,j)
twoG=young/(ONE+posn) enddo
ncomp=THREE enddo
c c
c***calculateelasticstiffnessmatrix(3d) c***calculateelasticstrain
c doi=1,ncomp
c1=ONEposn*posn wk1(i)=Strain(i)+dStrain(i)
c2=young/c1 enddo
c3=posn*c2 c
dsdePl(1,1)=c2 c***updatestresses
dsdePl(1,2)=c3 stress(1)=wk1(1)*c2+wk1(2)*c3
dsdePl(1,3)=ZERO stress(2)=wk1(1)*c3+wk1(2)*c2
dsdePl(2,2)=c2 stress(3)=wk1(3)*HALF*twoG
dsdePl(2,3)=ZERO
dsdePl(3,3)=HALF*twoG return
doi=1,ncomp1 end

47
APPENDIXIIIUSERMATIandAPDLScriptI


TheUSERMATIincludesthenonlinearfiberinteractionmodelandaJacobianIImatrixwith
atwostepstrainincrement.Prestressisnotincluded.TheAPDLscriptIdefinesthematerial
constantsandappliesanupwardwindloadonthetentstructure.


*deck,usermatparallelusergal PARAMETER(ZERO=0.d0,
subroutineusermat( &HALF=0.5d0,
&matId,elemId,kDomIntPt,kLayer, &THIRD=1.d0/3.d0,
kSectPt, &FORTH=1.d0/4.d0,
&ldstep,isubst,keycut, &ONE=1.d0,
&nDirect,nShear,ncomp,nStatev,nProp, &TWO=2.d0,
&Time,dTime,Temp,dTemp, &THREE=3.d0,
& &SMALL=1.d08,
stress,ustatev,dsdePl,sedEl,sedPl,epseq, &sqTiny=1.d20,
&Strain,dStrain,epsPl,prop,coords, &ONEDM01=1.d01,
&rotateM,defGrad_t,defGrad, &ONEDM02=1.d02,
&tsstif,epsZZ, &ONEDM04=1.d04,
&var1,var2,var3,var4,var5, &TWOTHIRD=2.0d0/3.0d0,
&var6,var7,var8) &SQTWOTHIRD=
c 0.816496580927726030d0,
#include"impcom.inc" &SQTWO1=
c 0.707106769084930420d0,
INTEGER &PI=3.1415926d0,
&matId,elemId, &NEWTON=20,
&kDomIntPt,kLayer,kSectPt, &mcomp=6
&ldstep,isubst,keycut, &)
&nDirect,nShear,ncomp,nStatev,nProp c
DOUBLEPRECISION ctemperaryvariablesforsolutionpurpose
&Time,dTime,Temp,dTemp, c
&sedEl,sedPl,epseq,epsZZ EXTERNALvmove,vzero,vapb1,rotVect
DOUBLEPRECISION DOUBLEPRECISIONsigElp(mcomp),
&stress(ncomp),ustatev(nStatev), dsdeEl(mcomp,mcomp),
&dsdePl(ncomp,ncomp), &wk1(3),wk2(3),wk3(3),wk4(3)
&Strain(ncomp),dStrain(ncomp),
&epsPl(ncomp),prop(nProp), DOUBLEPRECISIONvar1,var2,var3,var4,var5,
&coords(3),rotateM(3,3), &var6,var7,var8
&defGrad(3,3),defGrad_t(3,3),
&tsstif(2) INTEGERi,j,k
c DOUBLEPRECISIONpleq_t,sigy_t,sigy,
c*****************Userdefinedpart &dpleq,pleq,twoG,et,
************************************* &young,posn,sigy0,dsigdep,tEo1pm,
c &gamma,dgamma,dfdga,dplga,
cparameters &funcFb,funcFb2,funcf,dFdep,fratio,
c &con1,con2,con3,con4,
INTEGERNEWTON,mcomp &con2p1,ocon2p1,
DOUBLEPRECISIONHALF,THIRD,ONE,TWO, &ocon2p2,con4p1,ocon4p1,ocon4p2,
THREE,SMALL, &c1,c2,c3,c4,c5,
&SQTWOTHIRD,SQTWO1,PI,FORTH, &epsxxp,epsyyp,epsxxinc,epsyyinc,
&ZERO,TWOTHIRD,ONEDM01, &G,d,s,incr,a,Ad,sx,sy,w,R,ax,ay,
ONEDM02,ONEDM04,sqTiny

48
&Tx,Ty,Nx,Ny,nxxp,nyyp,nxyp,nxx,
nyy,nxy a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO)
c******************************************* Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO)
****************************** sx=s*(ONE+epsxxinc+epsxxp)
c***bisect/cut sy=s*(ONE+wk1(2)+epsyyp)
keycut=0 w=ZERO
c R=100.0d0
c***getYoung'smodulus dowhile(abs(R).gt.ONEDM04*a*d)
young=prop(1) ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO)
G=500.d0 ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO)
c Tx=(ax/aONE)
c***getinitialstress,diameterandspacing Ty=(ay/aONE)
d=prop(2) c
s=prop(3) if(Tx.LT.0)then
epsxxp=prop(4) Tx=0
epsyyp=prop(5) endif
incr=ONEDM01 if(Ty.LT.0)then
c Ty=0
c***calculateelasticstrain endif
doi=1,ncomp c
wk1(i)=Strain(i)+dStrain(i) R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w)
enddo w=w+R/a
c enddo
c***computation
a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO) Tx=young*Ad*Tx
Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO) Ty=young*Ad*Ty
sx=s*(ONE+wk1(1)+epsxxp) Nx=(sx*Tx/ax)
sy=s*(ONE+wk1(2)+epsyyp) Ny=(sy*Ty/ay)
w=ZERO
R=100.0d0 nxx=Nx/s
dowhile(abs(R).gt.ONEDM04*a*d) nyy=Ny/s
ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO)
ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO) dsdePl(1,1)=(nxxnxxp)/incr
Tx=(ax/aONE) dsdePl(2,1)=(nyynyyp)/incr
Ty=(ay/aONE) dsdePl(3,1)=0
c c
if(Tx.LT.0)then c***addsmallstrainincrementinydirection
Tx=0 epsyyinc=wk1(2)+incr
endif
if(Ty.LT.0)then a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO)
Ty=0 Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO)
endif sx=s*(ONE+wk1(1)+epsxxp)
c sy=s*(ONE+epsyyinc+epsyyp)
R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w) w=ZERO
w=w+R/a R=100.0d0
enddo dowhile(abs(R).gt.ONEDM04*a*d)
ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO)
Tx=young*Ad*Tx ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO)
Ty=young*Ad*Ty Tx=(ax/aONE)
Nx=(sx*Tx/ax) Ty=(ay/aONE)
Ny=(sy*Ty/ay) c
if(Tx.LT.0)then
nxxp=Nx/s Tx=0
nyyp=Ny/s endif
nxyp=G*wk1(3)*d if(Ty.LT.0)then
c Ty=0
c***addsmallstrainincrementinxdirection endif
epsxxinc=wk1(1)+incr c

49
R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w) dsdePl(3,2)=0
w=w+R/a dsdePl(2,1)=dsdePl(1,2)
enddo dsdePl(1,3)=0
dsdePl(2,3)=0
Tx=young*Ad*Tx dsdePl(3,3)=G*d
Ty=young*Ad*Ty c
Nx=(sx*Tx/ax) c***updatestresses
Ny=(sy*Ty/ay) stress(1)=nxxp
stress(2)=nyyp
nxx=Nx/s stress(3)=nxyp
nyy=Ny/s
return
dsdePl(1,2)=(nxxnxxp)/incr end
dsdePl(2,2)=(nyynyyp)/incr




APDLScriptI


/filname,UPF,1 MSHKEY,1
/title,UPF AMESH,all
FINISH
/UNITS,MPA
/PREP7 /SOLU
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.1,0.1
D=20000 NSEL,A,NODE,,0.5,1.5
H=10000 D,all,,,,,,all
ALLSEL
ET,1,SHELL181 SFE,all,1,pres,,0.002
KEYOPT,1,1,0
KEYOPT,1,3,2 NLGEOM,on
R,1,1.5 SOLCONTROL,on
TIME,1
MAT,1 NSUBST,100,10000,1,on
TB,USER,1,1,5 AUTOTS,on
TBTEMP,1.0 KBC,0
TBDATA,1,51667,0.18,0.9,0,0 LNSRCH,auto
TB,STATE,1,,6 EQSLV,front
NROPT,full
K,1,0,H,0
K,2,D/2,0,0 OUTRES,ALL,1
L,1,2 OUTPR,ALL,1
K,1000,0,0,0 /GST,on
AROTAT,1,,,,,,1,1000,360, NCNV,2

AATT,1,1,1,0 ALLSEL
AESIZE,all,1000 SOLVE
MSHAPE,1,2D FINISH


50
APPENDIXIVUSERMATIIandAPDLScriptII


ThisUSERMATIIincludesthenonlinearfiberinteractionmodelandaJacobianIImatrixwith
twostepstrainincrements.


*deck,usermatparallelusergal &THIRD=1.d0/3.d0,
subroutineusermat( &FORTH=1.d0/4.d0,
&matId,elemId,kDomIntPt,kLayer, &ONE=1.d0,
kSectPt, &TWO=2.d0,
&ldstep,isubst,keycut, &THREE=3.d0,
&nDirect,nShear,ncomp,nStatev,nProp, &SMALL=1.d08,
&Time,dTime,Temp,dTemp, &sqTiny=1.d20,
& &ONEDM01=1.d01,
stress,ustatev,dsdePl,sedEl,sedPl,epseq, &ONEDM02=1.d02,
&Strain,dStrain,epsPl,prop,coords, &ONEDM04=1.d04,
&rotateM,defGrad_t,defGrad, &TWOTHIRD=2.0d0/3.0d0,
&tsstif,epsZZ, &SQTWOTHIRD=
&var1,var2,var3,var4,var5, 0.816496580927726030d0,
&var6,var7,var8) &SQTWO1=
c 0.707106769084930420d0,
#include"impcom.inc" &PI=3.1415926d0,
c &NEWTON=20,
INTEGER &mcomp=6
&matId,elemId, &)
&kDomIntPt,kLayer,kSectPt, c
&ldstep,isubst,keycut, ctemperaryvariablesforsolutionpurpose
&nDirect,nShear,ncomp,nStatev,nProp c
DOUBLEPRECISION EXTERNALvmove,vzero,vapb1,rotVect
&Time,dTime,Temp,dTemp, DOUBLEPRECISIONsigElp(mcomp),
&sedEl,sedPl,epseq,epsZZ dsdeEl(mcomp,mcomp),
DOUBLEPRECISION &wk1(3),wk2(3),wk3(3),wk4(3)
&stress(ncomp),ustatev(nStatev),
&dsdePl(ncomp,ncomp), DOUBLEPRECISIONvar1,var2,var3,var4,var5,
&Strain(ncomp),dStrain(ncomp), &var6,var7,var8
&epsPl(ncomp),prop(nProp),
&coords(3),rotateM(3,3), INTEGERi,j,k
&defGrad(3,3),defGrad_t(3,3), DOUBLEPRECISIONpleq_t,sigy_t,sigy,
&tsstif(2) &dpleq,pleq,twoG,et,
c &young,posn,sigy0,dsigdep,tEo1pm,
c*****************Userdefinedpart &gamma,dgamma,dfdga,dplga,
************************************* &funcFb,funcFb2,funcf,dFdep,fratio,
c &con1,con2,con3,con4,
cparameters &con2p1,ocon2p1,
c &ocon2p2,con4p1,ocon4p1,ocon4p2,
INTEGERNEWTON,mcomp &c1,c2,c3,c4,c5,
DOUBLEPRECISIONHALF,THIRD,ONE,TWO, &epsxxp,epsyyp,epsxxinc,epsyyinc,
THREE,SMALL, &G,d,s,incr,a,Ad,sx,sy,w,R,ax,ay,
&SQTWOTHIRD,SQTWO1,PI,FORTH, &Tx,Ty,Nx,Ny,nxxp,nyyp,nxyp,nxx,
&ZERO,TWOTHIRD,ONEDM01, nyy,nxy
ONEDM02,ONEDM04,sqTiny c*******************************************
PARAMETER(ZERO=0.d0, ******************************
&HALF=0.5d0, c***bisect/cut

51
keycut=0 Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO)
c sx=s*(ONE+epsxxinc+epsxxp)
c***getYoung'smodulus sy=s*(ONE+wk1(2)+epsyyp)
young=prop(1) w=ZERO
G=500.d0 R=100.0d0
c dowhile(abs(R).gt.ONEDM04*a*d)
c***getdiameterandspacing ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO)
d=prop(2) ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO)
s=prop(3) Tx=(ax/aONE)
c Ty=(ay/aONE)
c***prestressbytemperature c
c1=temp+dtemp if(Tx.LT.0)then
epsxxp=prop(4)*c1 Tx=0
epsyyp=prop(5*c1 endif
incr=ONEDM01 if(Ty.LT.0)then
c Ty=0
c***calculateelasticstrain endif
doi=1,ncomp c
wk1(i)=Strain(i)+dStrain(i) R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w)
enddo w=w+R/a
c enddo
c***computation
a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO) Tx=young*Ad*Tx
Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO) Ty=young*Ad*Ty
sx=s*(ONE+wk1(1)+epsxxp) Nx=(sx*Tx/ax)
sy=s*(ONE+wk1(2)+epsyyp) Ny=(sy*Ty/ay)
w=ZERO
R=100.0d0 nxx=Nx/s
dowhile(abs(R).gt.ONEDM04*a*d) nyy=Ny/s
ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO)
ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO) dsdePl(1,1)=(nxxnxxp)/incr
Tx=(ax/aONE) dsdePl(2,1)=(nyynyyp)/incr
Ty=(ay/aONE) dsdePl(3,1)=0
c c
if(Tx.LT.0)then c***addsmallstrainincrementinydirection
Tx=0 epsyyinc=wk1(2)+incr
endif
if(Ty.LT.0)then a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO)
Ty=0 Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO)
endif sx=s*(ONE+wk1(1)+epsxxp)
c sy=s*(ONE+epsyyinc+epsyyp)
R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w) w=ZERO
w=w+R/a R=100.0d0
enddo dowhile(abs(R).gt.ONEDM04*a*d)
ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO)
Tx=young*Ad*Tx ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO)
Ty=young*Ad*Ty Tx=(ax/aONE)
Nx=(sx*Tx/ax) Ty=(ay/aONE)
Ny=(sy*Ty/ay) c
if(Tx.LT.0)then
nxxp=Nx/s Tx=0
nyyp=Ny/s endif
nxyp=G*wk1(3)*d if(Ty.LT.0)then
c Ty=0
c***addsmallstrainincrementinxdirection endif
epsxxinc=wk1(1)+incr c
R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w)
a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO) w=w+R/a

52
enddo dsdePl(2,1)=dsdePl(1,2)
dsdePl(1,3)=0
Tx=young*Ad*Tx dsdePl(2,3)=0
Ty=young*Ad*Ty dsdePl(3,3)=G*d
Nx=(sx*Tx/ax) c
Ny=(sy*Ty/ay) c***updatestresses
stress(1)=nxxp
nxx=Nx/s stress(2)=nyyp
nyy=Ny/s stress(3)=nxyp

dsdePl(1,2)=(nxxnxxp)/incr return
dsdePl(2,2)=(nyynyyp)/incr end
dsdePl(3,2)=0



APDLScriptII


/filname,TwoLoadSteps,1
/title,TwoLoadSteps !LoadStep1:

/UNITS,MPA ALLSEL
/PREP7 TREF,0
BFE,all,temp,1,10
D=20000
H=10000 NLGEOM,on
SOLCONTROL,on
ET,1,SHELL181 TIME,1
KEYOPT,1,1,0 NSUBST,10
KEYOPT,1,3,2 AUTOTS,off
R,1,1.5 KBC,0
LNSRCH,auto
MAT,1 EQSLV,front
TB,USER,1,1,5 NROPT,full
!TBTEMP,1.0 NEQIT,2000
TBDATA,1,51667,0.18,0.9,0.001,0.001
TB,STATE,1,,6 OUTRES,ALL,1
OUTPR,ALL,1
K,1,0,H,0 /GST,on
K,2,D/2,0,0 NCNV,0
L,1,2
K,1000,0,0,0 LSWRITE
AROTAT,1,,,,,,1,1000,360
!LoadStep2:
AATT,1,1,1,0
AESIZE,all,1000 ALLSEL
SFE,all,1,pres,,0.001
MSHAPE,1,2D
MSHKEY,1 NLGEOM,on
AMESH,all SOLCONTROL,on
FINISH TIME,2
NSUBST,10
/SOLU AUTOTS,off
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.1,0.1 KBC,0
NSEL,A,NODE,,0.5,1.5 LNSRCH,auto
D,all,,,,,,all EQSLV,front

53
NROPT,full NCNV,0
NEQIT,2000
LSWRITE
OUTRES,ALL,1
OUTPR,ALL,1 LSSOLVE,1,2
/GST,on FINISH

54
APPENDIXVUSERMATTransferbetweenXYandPrincipalDirection


*deck,usermatparallelusergal &THREE=3.d0,
subroutineusermat( &SMALL=1.d08,
&matId,elemId,kDomIntPt,kLayer, &sqTiny=1.d20,
kSectPt, &ONEDM01=1.d01,
&ldstep,isubst,keycut, &ONEDM02=1.d02,
&nDirect,nShear,ncomp,nStatev,nProp, &ONEDM04=1.d04,
&Time,dTime,Temp,dTemp, &TWOTHIRD=2.0d0/3.0d0,
& &SQTWOTHIRD=
stress,ustatev,dsdePl,sedEl,sedPl,epseq, 0.816496580927726030d0,
&Strain,dStrain,epsPl,prop,coords, &SQTWO1=
&rotateM,defGrad_t,defGrad, 0.707106769084930420d0,
&tsstif,epsZZ, &PI=3.1415926d0,
&var1,var2,var3,var4,var5, &NEWTON=20,
&var6,var7,var8) &mcomp=6
c &)
#include"impcom.inc" c
c ctemperaryvariablesforsolutionpurpose
INTEGER c
&matId,elemId, EXTERNALvmove,vzero,vapb1,rotVect
&kDomIntPt,kLayer,kSectPt, DOUBLEPRECISIONsigElp(mcomp),
&ldstep,isubst,keycut, dsdeEl(mcomp,mcomp),
&nDirect,nShear,ncomp,nStatev,nProp &wk1(3),wk2(3),wk3(3),wk4(3)
DOUBLEPRECISION
&Time,dTime,Temp,dTemp, DOUBLEPRECISIONvar1,var2,var3,var4,var5,
&sedEl,sedPl,epseq,epsZZ &var6,var7,var8
DOUBLEPRECISION
&stress(ncomp),ustatev(nStatev), INTEGERi,j,k
&dsdePl(ncomp,ncomp), DOUBLEPRECISIONpleq_t,sigy_t,sigy,
&Strain(ncomp),dStrain(ncomp), &dpleq,pleq,twoG,et,
&epsPl(ncomp),prop(nProp), &young,posn,sigy0,dsigdep,tEo1pm,
&coords(3),rotateM(3,3), &gamma,dgamma,dfdga,dplga,
&defGrad(3,3),defGrad_t(3,3), &funcFb,funcFb2,funcf,dFdep,fratio,
&tsstif(2) &con1,con2,con3,con4,
c &con2p1,ocon2p1,
c*****************Userdefinedpart &ocon2p2,con4p1,ocon4p1,ocon4p2,
************************************* &c1,c2,c3,c4,c5,
c &epsxxp,epsyyp,epsxxinc,epsyyinc,
cparameters epsxyinc,
c &G,d,s,incr,a,Ad,sx,sy,w,R,ax,ay,
INTEGERNEWTON,mcomp &TX,Ty,Nx,Ny,nxxp,nyyp,nxyp,nxx,nyy,
DOUBLEPRECISIONHALF,THIRD,ONE,TWO, nxy,
THREE,SMALL, &aa,bb,rr,cc,dd,sine,cosine,
&SQTWOTHIRD,SQTWO1,PI,FORTH, &nxxx,nyyy,nxyxy,nxxinc,nyyinc,nxyinc,
&ZERO,TWOTHIRD,ONEDM01, &jacobian(3,3)
ONEDM02,ONEDM04,sqTiny c
PARAMETER(ZERO=0.d0, c*******************************************
&HALF=0.5d0, ******************************
&THIRD=1.d0/3.d0, c***bisect/cut
&FORTH=1.d0/4.d0, keycut=0
&ONE=1.d0, c
&TWO=2.d0, c***getYoung'smodulus

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young=prop(1) nyyy=cc+dd*cosine
G=500.d0 nxyxy=dd*sine
cncomp=THREE c
c c***updatestresses
c***getdiameterandspacing stress(1)=nxxx
d=prop(2) stress(2)=nyyy
s=prop(3) stress(3)=nxyxy
epsxxp=ZERO c
epsyyp=ZERO c***addsmallstrainincrementinxdirection
incr=ONEDM01 epsxxinc=wk2(1)+incr
c c
c***calculateelasticstraininxydirection c***transferxystraintoprincipalstrain
doi=1,ncomp aa=wk2(2)+epsxxinc
wk2(i)=Strain(i)+dStrain(i) bb=wk2(2)epsxxinc
enddo rr=sqrt(bb**TWO+wk2(3)**TWO)
c wk1(1)=HALF*(aa+rr)
c***transferxystraintoprincipalstrain wk1(2)=HALF*(aarr)
aa=wk2(2)+wk2(1) if(rr.EQ.0)then
bb=wk2(2)wk2(1) cosine=ONE
rr=sqrt(bb**TWO+wk2(3)**TWO) sine=ZERO
wk1(1)=HALF*(aa+rr) else
wk1(2)=HALF*(aarr) cosine=bb/rr
if(rr.EQ.0)then sine=wk2(3)/rr
cosine=ONE endif
sine=ZERO c
else c***calculateprincipalstress
cosine=bb/rr a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO)
sine=wk2(3)/rr Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO)
endif sx=s*(ONE+wk1(1)+epsxxp)
c sy=s*(ONE+wk1(2)+epsyyp)
c***computation w=ZERO
a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO) R=100.0d0
Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO) dowhile(abs(R).GT.ONEDM04*a*d)
sx=s*(ONE+wk1(1)+epsxxp) ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO)
sy=s*(ONE+wk1(2)+epsyyp) ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO)
w=ZERO Tx=(ax/aONE)
R=100.0d0 Ty=(ay/aONE)
dowhile(abs(R).GT.ONEDM04*a*d) R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w)
ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO) w=w+R/a
ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO) enddo
Tx=(ax/aONE)
Ty=(ay/aONE) Tx=young*Ad*Tx
R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w) Ty=young*Ad*Ty
w=w+R/a Nx=(sx*Tx/ax)
enddo Ny=(sy*Ty/ay)

Tx=young*Ad*Tx nxx=Nx/s
Ty=young*Ad*Ty nyy=Ny/s
Nx=(sx*Tx/ax) c
Ny=(sy*Ty/ay) c***transferprincipalstresstoxystress
cc=HALF*(nxx+nyy)
nxxp=Nx/s dd=HALF*(nxxnyy)
nyyp=Ny/s nxxinc=ccdd*cosine
c nyyinc=cc+dd*cosine
c***transferprincipalstresstoxystress nxyinc=dd*sine
cc=HALF*(nxxp+nyyp)
dd=HALF*(nxxpnyyp) jacobian(1,1)=(nxxincnxxx)/incr
nxxx=ccdd*cosine jacobian(2,1)=(nyyincnyyy)/incr

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jacobian(3,1)=(nxyincnxyxy)/incr aa=wk2(2)+wk2(1)
c bb=wk2(2)wk2(1)
c***addsmallstrainincrementinydirection rr=sqrt(bb**TWO+epsxyinc**TWO)
epsyyinc=wk2(2)+incr wk1(1)=HALF*(aa+rr)
c wk1(2)=HALF*(aarr)
c***transferxystraintoprincipalstrain if(rr.EQ.0)then
aa=epsyyinc+wk2(1) cosine=ONE
bb=epsyyincwk2(1) sine=ZERO
rr=sqrt(bb**TWO+wk2(3)**TWO) else
wk1(1)=HALF*(aa+rr) cosine=bb/rr
wk1(2)=HALF*(aarr) sine=epsxyinc/rr
if(rr.EQ.0)then endif
cosine=ONE c***calculateprincipalstress
sine=ZERO a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO)
else Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO)
cosine=bb/rr sx=s*(ONE+wk1(1)+epsxxp)
sine=wk2(3)/rr sy=s*(ONE+wk1(2)+epsyyp)
endif w=ZERO
c R=100.0d0
c***calculateprincipalstress dowhile(abs(R).GT.ONEDM04*a*d)
a=sqrt(s**TWO+d**TWO) ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO)
Ad=FORTH*PI*(d**TWO) ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO)
sx=s*(ONE+wk1(1)+epsxxp) Tx=(ax/aONE)
sy=s*(ONE+wk1(2)+epsyyp) Ty=(ay/aONE)
w=ZERO R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w)
R=100.0d0 w=w+R/a
dowhile(abs(R).GT.ONEDM04*a*d) enddo
ax=sqrt(sx**TWO+(dw)**TWO) Tx=young*Ad*Tx
ay=sqrt(sy**TWO+(d+w)**TWO) Ty=young*Ad*Ty
Tx=(ax/aONE) Nx=(sx*Tx/ax)
Ty=(ay/aONE) Ny=(sy*Ty/ay)
R=Tx*ay*(dw)Ty*ax*(d+w)
w=w+R/a nxx=Nx/s
enddo nyy=Ny/s
c***transferprincipalstresstoxystress
Tx=young*Ad*Tx cc=HALF*(nxx+nyy)
Ty=young*Ad*Ty dd=HALF*(nxxnyy)
Nx=(sx*Tx/ax) nxxinc=ccdd*cosine
Ny=(sy*Ty/ay) nyyinc=cc+dd*cosine
nxyinc=dd*sine
nxx=Nx/s
nyy=Ny/s jacobian(1,3)=((nxxinc
c nxxx)/incr+jacobian(3,1))/TWO
c***transferprincipalstresstoxystress jacobian(3,1)=jacobian(1,3)
cc=HALF*(nxx+nyy) jacobian(2,3)=((nyyinc
dd=HALF*(nxxnyy) nyyy)/incr+jacobian(3,2))/TWO
nxxinc=ccdd*cosine jacobian(3,2)=jacobian(2,3)
nyyinc=cc+dd*cosine jacobian(3,3)=(nxyincnxyxy)/incr
nxyinc=dd*sine
doi=1,3
jacobian(1,2)=((nxxincnxxx)/incr+ doj=1,3
jacobian(2,1))/TWO dsdeP1(i,j)=jacobian(i,j)
jacobian(2,1)=jacobian(1,2) enddo
jacobian(2,2)=(nyyincnyyy)/incr enddo
jacobian(3,2)=(nxyincnxyxy)/incr
c***addsmallshearstrain return
epsxyinc=wk2(3)+incr end
c***transferxystraintoprincipalstrain

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APPENDIXVICDROMContents


ACDRomcontainsthefollowinginformationisincluded:

ThisreportinPDF
USERMATsubroutines
ANSYSAPDLscripts
Resultsfromtheanalysis
Referencesandarticles

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