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History and historiography often need a revision. A history once written

need not be the final. As history was considered to be the craft of the historian,1

the craft varies from hand to hand and brain to brain. The study of history is to

understand the network of relations, basically, as proved and attested by the true

historical facts, which were considered to be sacred. The opinion of the

historian, which is free2 and considered by certain historians as the core of the

fruit of history3, is often disputed. The way in which the historian select the facts

is also often questioned, on the plea, that, the historian, of whatever nature he

may be, can not have a carte-blanche to adjudge the fact of history as final, and,

in the same way, the opinion of the historian is also not final.

Thus, history has a scope - written between the two elements fact and

opinion, both of which are not the final and infinite.This is a basic principle, which

is often, ravaging all values of history and values in historical - writing4 This

dwindling situation is there to lure the researchers, often, who may take to the

varying permutations and combinations in understanding the facts, opinions and


values.This prismatic system - facts, opinions and values - is also luring the

researcher under activity. This can be taken as the basic reason to attempt for a

study of the history and culture of Western Andhra Pradesh, within a

chronological limit of 900-1323 A.D.

The study of history and culture in Western Andhra Pradesh may appear,

at the outset, a revisive study.5 But, the cultural variants, rather, cultural

variables, in the views of Anthropologists like Kroeber, Redfield 6 etc., remained

not simply variables, but determinants. The political activity with distinctive

operational values had gone deep into the rise, growth and fall of the empires.

The empire of the Calukyas of Kalyani, which enjoyed a glory during 957

AD to 1128 AD7 from the period of Taila-ll onwards, wherein Tilapa-I was

considered to be an officer under Krishna-Ill, Rashtrakuta.8 From 900-997 AD,

the Rashtrakuta rulers from Krishna-ll (880-915A.D) gradually grew weak and

their weaknessess gave a way for the kingdom of the Calukyas of Kalyani.

In turn, fall of the Calukyas of Kalyani created certain vacuum, occupied

by smaller kingdoms like the Calukyas of Mudigonda9 , Kayasthas10 and the like.

From this period political situation evolved the Kakatiya dynasty, with very much *

questioned origin as well.11

The Kakatiya dynasty despite many hardships, contributed for keeping off

the political fluidity in Western Andhra. Gradually, the Kakatiya kingdom was

evolved and its rule was first over a small principality and later they made it a

kingdom. The entire Kakatiya kingdom remained a pseudo-federation and the


auto-cratic rule decided the politico - cultural personality, not only of Western

Andhra, but also the major portion of the politico-graphical unit, presently named

Andhra Pradesh.

The Kakatiya rule was hailed as one of the glorious epochs, with a wild

and amazing imagery, and, at the same time, the kingdom was dismantled by

the invasion of the rulers of the Khalji and Thughluq dynasties in the first quarter

of the 14th century AD (C. 1310-1323 A.D). These two invasions subordinated this

region to the rulers of Delhi. Thereafter, there was much bitterness, signalling the

end of a period of cultural enlightenment, glory and territorial unity of this region.

This process is reexamined under the title History and Culture of Western

Andhra Pradesh (900-1323A.D).


The objectives of the present study are, to provide a thematic study of the

epigraphic and literary sources, chronologically relevant to this period and to

display the network of political relations;

to understand the land-man relations with reference to the Manjira-Krishna doab

in particular, and the present Western Andhra Pradesh in general;

to specify the changes in cultural matrix; To provide a sketch of socio-cultural

introversion and extroversion; and to identify the principles of rise, growth and fall

of a kingdom, or empire.

These objectives methodologically need a check in the context of politico-

geographical evolution. This type of check has three sets. The first set includes

network of political relations, with special reference to the principles12 of rise,

growth and fall. The second set includes the socio-cultural identities 13 their inter

relations and intra-relations and the third set includes land-man relations in

Krishna - Manjira doab. The land-man relations are defined within the context of

the social structure and cultural ethos garbed in the fabric of political activity.

Methodologically, the present study is not banking in toto, on economic

need14 of a society, though the same was not totally ignored. It is so because,

the activities in most of the peninsular kingdoms, princedoms of this age, did not

ralley around the economic needs only to make history of economy, for economy

and by economy. Certain religious motivation often disturbed the social activity

and, in turn, the political aspirations too. Such motivation was duly dealt with.


The present study is based on an objective analysis. By and large, it is

understood that the riverine zones had given rise to the seats of power or


Hypothetically it can be told that water, land, cultivation and trade clubbed

the different sections of society under the banner of a power. But, it must also be

not forgotten that, the synthesis through power is often lagged behind due to the

forces of decentralisation15 . Any kingdom must suppress the forces of


decentralisation, to make any state, a territorial society under organised central


This hypothesis is very much to be examined in scoring victories, for the

formation of a state, against the odds of decentralisation. The relation between

power, water, land, cultivation and trade also need an examination.


Methodologically, the present study is more deductive in nature16 . The

facts, which are found in different sources, are put together under thematic

expression of politico-geographical evolution. It is so, because, due to many

invading forces during 900-1323 AD, this part of the peninsula could not remain

simply a canvas for a closed society.

The social structure and the cultural ethos of the society had undergone

many a change, influencing the politico-geographical evolution.The solidification

of a state, change in the nuclea of activity, wider variants in the frontiers17 -

formed the agencies to grout the interpretation.

In the guidelines of methodology (stated already) to examine the above-

mentioned hypothesis, as valid or invalid certain sources are considered. The

historian does not select these sources, but they are all merely found in the

inventory of cultural heritage.

In order to make the implementation of methodology, undisputed and for

an interpretation, without bias, such sources, which can not be disputed by the

variations in date, place, name, authorship and context are preferred to the

others. The methodological approach makes its goal to examine the hypothesis

in a synthesis of the information provided in the following sources.


The sources for the present study can be classified as primary sources

and the secondary sources. The primary sources were the part of cultural

heritage and material culture; and the secondary sources are works attempting to

interpret the cultural heritage through research.

The primary sources include the epigraphical sources and literary sources.

The published works of state Department of Archaeology and Government

Museums are considered as a basic source. Corpus Telingana Inscriptions,

Inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh Series - Nalgonda, Warangal and Karimnagar

were consulted. Records published in Epigraphia Andhrica, Epigraphia Indica

and South Indian Inscriptions were also consulted. Generally dated records are

preferred to the undated.

It is found that many inscriptions are particulalry dated. The dated

inscriptions presented the saka dating18, dating in Chalukya Vikrama era19

(commencing from 1076 A.D.) and regnal dating. They are included the Tithi,

Vara20 and some records have identified the astrological situations like transit of

Jupiter and Solar eclipse,21 (generally indicating the context called Pusukara) the

important transit of Sun into Cancer, Capricorn,22 Sagittarius23 and Leo are also

found. They were considered to be very much auspicious in nature and certain

traditional and ritual practices like donating lands 24 to the temples and

brahmanas; building temples25, donating cows26, tanks27, groves, 28 gardens, 29

and oil for lamps30.

Many records, which are not dated, presented votive records. Very few

records are found directly issued by the ruling kings and the records other than

the votive records, included the records of such donations made by the officials

like Dandanathas, Senanis, Preggadas and also the members of the subsidiary

dynasties like the Calukyas of Vemulavada, Mudigonda, rulers of Koravi etc.

These inscriptions are having two more important features. All these were

written in Telugu - Kannada language of the 10th and 11th centuries and gradually

one can also see the ushering of the Telugu script basically traced in the

Kakatiya inscriptions.

One more feature that is related with the records is that they were written

in Telugu, Kannada and Sanskrit languages. In the case of the records found in

Nalgonda and Warangal districts, more than 90 records were drafted in Kannada

language and they all belong to the Kalyani Chalukya dynasty. Similarly the

records of the Chalukyas of Vemulavada, found in Karimnagar District were also

written in Kannada. All the votive records were very much bilingual, as such one

can see them written in Sanskrit and Telugu. It had been more, almost a

protocol, for the records of royal dynasties and personnel to be written in Sanskrit

and Telugu. There are records in the Kakatiya period, belonging to the royal

members, being written only in Telugu language.


As such, it can be understood that the inscriptions, which had an equal

bearing with Telugu, Kannada and Sanskrit languages, gradually lapsed to prefer

one of the three, Telugu being important.

Similarly paleography of these records led for deducing a Telugu script,

which in turn evolved in three, stages that of the Kakatiyas, the Reddis and the

Rayas of Vijayanagara. The change of script can be seen from the Reddi kings

and the Rayas of Vijayanagara from 1325 AD (1336) onwards and the Vilasa

grant of Prolaya Nayaka can be taken as the highest watermark of the Kakatiya

script, immediately inherited by the Velamas of Musunuri family.

The subject in the inscriptions requires lot of attention. There is an in

vocation for the record31 which is followed by the particulars of donor32, date if

were to be any, context of the donations33; details of donation and donee 34. All

these records were followed by the benedictory verses for protecting the previous

and current donations; and imprecations in case of neglecting protection. The

imprecatory verses generally included three points (a) one can get the sin of
killing a Brahmana and or cow in Varanasi,35 (b) reaping the bad luck of eating

the food in the skull of his first male child 36 (c) and being reduced to the life of

an insect 37 The benedictory verses lay more stress on protecting previous

grants. They say that we can lose the benefit of current donation in case of
neglecting the previous ones38.

The benedictory verses and imprecatory verses cannot be contradictory;

but they give significance to see that a tradition of donor - donee relation through

keeping up donation or upholding donation be continued. This is a base of the

system of donations traced epigraphically since 2nd century B.C. in the context of

Andhra Pradesh.

In the case of the inscriptions, the undated records help to the extent of

providing some information; but in such cases the researcher has to take more

pains to fit the same into chronological context. Inspite of this drawback, it is

attempted to incorporate such information also, under the most possible head

that can be checked and verified.

LITERARY SOURCES:- Basically the works of Palkuriki Somanatha are very

important. Being a poet and pontiff to propagate the ideals of Vira Saiva Sect,

pronounced by Vira Basava or more popularly known as Basavesvara - Palkuriki

Somanatha took to 'Dvipada metrics in Janu Telugu39 and brought to the notice

of all the major events, which marked the biography of Basava. The text was

named as Basava purana. The same writer had written; Panditaradhya Caritra

dealing with Mallikarjuna Pandita. He had many Ragada,40 and Sisa,41 metrical

compositions. As this propoganda covered more parts of the western Andhra,

Palakuri Somanatha was became pioneer in this direction.

Ekamranathas 'Pratapa Charitramu was a prose composition the helps in

understanding the metropolitan features of the capital city of Kakatiyas Orugallu.

Agastya Vidyanathas Prataparudra Yasobhushanamu popularly called

Prataparudiryam. It is a text on poetics and rhetorics. It tells that the Lord

Vishnu had three incornations, Rama, Krishna and Prataparudra, where in


Kausalya, Devaki and Mummadamma became the mothers.42 It is allegorical

and full of imagery. The examples refered in the work mostly ralley around

Prataparudra only.

The other works like SivaTattva Sara of Kolanu Ganapati, Basavapurana

by Pidaparti Samana are not having original text be called historical. A later

work, rather of post - Kakatiya age, preserved the memories of the Kakatiya

period, can be found in Kridabhiramamu. It was considered to be a vithi variety

of text, composed by Vinukonda Vallabharaya. It is not considered to be original

but a translation of Premabhiramamu in Sanskrit by Ravipati Tripurantaka.

Despite its nature, it has much relevant material, which can be dated prior to

1323 A.D.

SECONDARY SOURCES:- Vaidehi, Kambhampati Satya Narayana, Y.

Balarama Murty, B.S.L. Hanumantha Rao, Y. Gopala Reddy, K. Satya Murty,

attempted a study of this period in a general context. H.K. Sherwanis (edited)

History of Deccan Dr. P.V.P. Sastrys the Kakatiyas where as the works of

Altekars Rashtrakutas, B.R. Gopals the Calukyas of Kalyani Somasekhara

Sarma with his Forgotten chapter in the History of Andhra Pradesh came down to

the posterior rather immediately after 1323 A.D. Suravaram Pratapa Reddis,

Andhrula Sanghika Charitra, which was more a say from literature. Radha

Krishna Sarmas, Temples of Telengana and G. Jawaharlals, History of Jainism

have a wider bearing to this study to make use in case of making role on religion,

religious institutions, religious monuments and relics. Narasimha Raos


Corporate Life in Medieval Andhra has a considerable bearing to understand the

economy and economic organisations of the period of the Kakatiyas.

All the relevant literary sources and the secondary sources are made use

to provide a logical comprehension to the problem of the present study.


The study, History and Culture of Western Andhra Pradesh, is

presented in the following chapters.


The first chapter is an introductory in nature and presents the objectives,

methodology, hypothesis need , and the significance of the study.


The second chapter deals with the geomatic location, topological features of

the active political action area, which falls under the present connotation western

Andhra Pradesh.


The third chapter is not basically intended to provide a political biography. It is to

study the political dialectics to establish the index of power over land and man.

The political biography is not totally ignored but it was not to eulogise the rulers

and their associates, especially the Kakatiyas, are dicussed in brief to provide a

political canvass. It has an aim of understanding expansionism and consolidation

or vice versa on a medieval scenario.


In the fourth chapter two aspects are identified. The first aspect is the

social hierarchy; inter and inter-social sectional relations, who defined the pattern

of the organisation of man power, through the dining, the marriage and claim.

The second aspect throws light on the economic organizations and economic

identities of the land and profession, which knitted the people together into a

socio-economic system under the bondage of power.


The fifth chapter deals with the beliefs of the then society in Western Andhra

Pradesh, prevalent religious practices, segmentation of cultural relations form the

major dimensions for the sake of their historical narratives and to understand

them as auxiliaries for keeping the bondage between land and power, through

man and human ideals.


The last chapter is to bring about the totality of thought, identified to be

embedded in different sources. Conclusion also includes and invokes certain

sense of historical explanation over the activity studied.



The above identified chapterisation leads for a study, which is significant

in Understanding politico-geographical evolution in land-man relations, extending

over the canvas of Krishna-Manjira doab. Providing the qualifiable personality of

political activity vis-a-vis political relations. Identifying the cultural upsurge in a

socio-economic bondage and defining the chronological personality in a diagonal

relation with land and man.



1. Carr.E.H. (Ed.) What is History P.10.

2. According to Grand grind in Hard times facts are sacred and opinion is
free-Ibid. P. 12.

3. If Kitson Clark were to stand on his head History is a fruit with a hard core
of opinion and pulp of disputable facts" - Ibid. P.11.

4. The values of History and values in writing history are frequently

questioned to such an extent that, with the fall of Russia only one history
that is capitalist history remains, and hence history has came to an end.
These arguments are again questioned. In the context of India, History is

suffering from the problems of scientificisation through Marxian ideals,

safflonisation through Hindutva and globalisation through capitalisation. It
is surprising to note that nowhere the history-land, history-race relations
are relevantly identified.

5. This can be a revisive study in the sense this aspect is already touched;

but yet this is a revisit in the jargon of Romila Thapar.

6. Koreber and Clyde Kluckhohn under the pattern theory of culture verified

the cultural patterns which are explicit and implicit. They identify the
variables, David S.Sills (Ed) International Encyclopaedia of Social
Sciences Vol.3 P.528

7. Dr. Altekar suggests that Tailapa was ruling since 957 A.D. Tripathi R.S.

1992 (1942) 'History of Ancient India P.418.

8. Whereas Sastri K.A.N. identifies the Calukyas of Kalyani between 973-

1200 A.D. Sastri K.A.N. 1997 (1955) A History of South India P.206
Sastri P.V.P. identifies Rashtrakutas suddenly collapsed by 973A.D. it
indicates the date of Tailapa. Sastri P.V.P 1978 The Kakatiyas P.

9. Dr. Sastri K.A.N. Op.Cit. P.18


10. Mudigonda is located 3 Kms west to the Khajipet Railway Junction. This
village is named as a prefix for the Calukya family which ruled from
Manchikonda - Isvaradutt .K. 1963, Prachinandhra Caritraka Bhugolamu.
P.267 AP Sahitya Academy, Hyderabad.

11. The Kayastha chiefs included Gangayasahani, Jannigadeva, Tripurari I,

Amhadeva II and Tripurari II: Sastri P.V.P. 1978 The Kakatiyas Pp. 157-

12. Identities are never permanent says Romila Tapar. R. Thapar 2000
'Hindutva and History: Front Line Oct. 13 P.15

13. Economic need is brought into light by Historical materialism sponsored

by Marx in his theory of Communism.

14. According to Spykman Specific boundaries at given historical period

become then merely the political geographic expression of the existing
balance of forces at that period. Satya Murty .K (1989) 'Political
Geography of India P.

15. Generally social sciences can have any principle or law how it was
precisely called in the physical sciences. Here the word principle is used
to denote certain path of symmetry in which the rise, growth and fall of an
empire takes place.

16. The Kakatiyas had mystic origin from the goddess Kakatamma,
mythological origin from the Sun and political origin from the Calukyas of
Vengi, Rashtrakutas and the Calukyas of Kalyani

17. Deduction is a logical method, wherein a general law observation can be

inferred through some facts.

18. The forces of decentralisation generally alienate one section of the people
in a society from the rest of the society.

19. For instance Bekkallu inscription of Rudradeva is dated in Saka 1117 -

1195 A.D. A.P. Warangal-Pp.114-118.

20. For exampel Gudur (Janagaon) record is dated in Calukya Vikrama Era
4th; Venkataramanayya .N inscriptions of A.P. Warangal Dt. Pp. 76-92.

21. Palampet record is dated Caitra Su. Ashtami Bhanuvara Ibid. ),149
LI. 187-184.

22. Govindapuram record of Medaraja P.742.66 The transit of Jupiter is

called Pushkara kala and takes place once in 12 years for one river.

23. This is called as Uttarayana Sankranti - Govindapuram record of Medaraja

A.P. Warangal P.74 LI.63-64.

24. This is called Dhanurumasa and commences from 15th Dec. to 15th Jan. of

every year.
25. Palampeta record identifies donating villages Upparapalle, Borlapalle and
Nadakunde to three temples -1.A.P. Warangal Pp. 148-149.

26. Kondaparti record dt.1203 A.D. - I.A.P. Warangal Pp.131-141.

27. Ingurti record identifies donation of cows P.181 L.48

28. Op.cit Kondaparti record.

29. I.A.P. Nalgonda Vol.l P.173: LI.20-22

30. Ingurti record identifies donation of flower gardens IAP Warangal .181

31. Ramannapeta record keeps vema as guard of temple Op.Cit .158- L.28

32. For instance Pamulapadu record says

Svasti Samadhigata Pancamahasabda Maha mandalesvara - I.A.P.
Nalgonda Vol. I P.62 LI. 1-3.
33. Ibid LI.4-10 mention Mallikarjuna Maharajulu of Kanduri Coda family.

34. Ibid. LI. 11-13 mention Calukya Vikramagalamu 22 gu Nisvarasamvatsara.

35. Ibid. LI. 15-18 mention donation of seven Putti land to donor Uparikoduku


36. Ibid. P.63 LI.26-28 metnions - Dharmuvu dappinavaru ganga kartam

gavilalam jampinavaru.

37. In the same way imprecation also goes to say that one can have a birth as
a dog - kukka kadupunam buttuvadu - IAP Nalgonda Vol.l P.269-L.122

38. Sradattam Paradattam va

Yo hareti vasundharam
Shastirvarsha sahasrani vishtayam jayate krimih - IAP Nalgonda Vo. I
Pp.96-97 LI. 94-100 Kolanupaka record (1111)
39. Svadatta dvigunam punyam Paradattanupalanam
Paradattapaharena svadattam Nishphalam bhvet and also
Satmapi Krtodharmah palaniyo prayatnatah
Satrurevahi satrsyat dharmah satr ma kasya cit - IAP Nalgonda Vol. I
P.139 LI. 78-82
39. Urutaragadya padyoktulakante Sarasamai paragina janu Telugu - is the
definition is given by Palkurki Somanatha himself. - Palkurki Somanatha
Basavapuranamu Pp.8-9

40. The Ragadas of of Palkuriki Somana were mentioned as Basava Ragada,

Basavadhya Ragada and the like.

41. Cennamallu Sisamulu are attributed Palkurki Somanatha.

42. Kausalyasit prathamajanani Devakica Dvitiya

Vishnormata yadi na sahate Mummadamba tritiya - Agasya Vidyanatha
Prataparudra Yasobushana.