0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

14 просмотров14 страницPID Control

Aug 16, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

PID Control

© All Rights Reserved

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

14 просмотров14 страницPID Control

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230872553

DOI: 10.1016/S0967-0661(01)00062-4

CITATIONS READS

574 600

2 authors:

Lund University Lund University

310 PUBLICATIONS 25,896 CITATIONS 109 PUBLICATIONS 6,533 CITATIONS

All content following this page was uploaded by Tore Hgglund on 24 April 2017.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. All in-text references underlined in blue are added to the original document

and are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately.

Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175

( stro. m*, T. H.agglund

K.J. A

Department of Automatic Control, Lund University of Technology, Box 118, S-22100, Lund, Sweden

Received 6 April 2001; accepted 6 April 2001

Abstract

This paper presents the state of the art of PID control and reects on its future. Particular issues discussed include specications,

stability, design, applications, and performance of PID control. The paper ends with a discussion of alternatives to PID and its

future. r 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

important, practically it has only received moderate

Feedback is a very powerful idea. Its use has often interest from theoreticians. Therefore, many important

had revolutionary consequences with drastic improve- issues have not been well documented in the literature. A

ments in performance, see e.g. Bennett, (1979, 1993). result of this is that many mistakes have been repeated

Credit is often given to a particular form of feedback when technology shifted from pneumatic, via electrical

although it is frequently feedback itself that gives the to digital. There has, however, been an increased interest

real benets and the particular form of feedback used is in the last ten years. One reason is the emergence of

largely irrelevant. The PID controller is by far the most automatic tuning, another is the increased use of model

dominating form of feedback in use today. More than predictive control which requires well tuned PID

90% of all control loops are PID. Most loops are in fact controllers at the basic level. Still most papers on single

PI because derivative action is not used very often. loop control use PID controllers with ZieglerNichols

Integral, proportional and derivative feedback is based tuning as a benchmark. This is a very unsatisfactory

on the past (I), present (P) and future (D) control error. situation because the ZieglerNichols rules are known to

It is surprising how much can be achieved with such a give very poor results in many cases.

simple strategy. A strength of the PID controller is that This paper treats the future of PID control. It will try

it also deals with important practical issues such as to answer questions like: Will the PID controller

actuator saturation and integrator windup. The PID continue to be used or will it be replaced by other

controller is thus the bread and butter of automatic forms of feedback? What additional features are

control. It is the rst solution that should be tried when desirable in a PID controller? Are there any essential

feedback is used. research issues in PID control? Our prediction will be

The PID controller is used for a wide range of based on a consideration of the current state of research

problems: process control, motor drives, magnetic and and practice in PID control.

optic memories, automotive, ight control, instrumenta-

tion, etc. The controller comes in many dierent forms, 2. Specications

as standard single-loop controllers, as a software

component in programmable logic controllers and Before going into details it is important to be aware

distributed control systems, as a built in controller in that there is a wide range of control problems. A few

robots and CD players. examples are given below.

* Design a robust controller that keeps process vari-

118. ables reasonably close to desired values without

( stro. m).

E-mail address: karl-johan.astrom@control.lth.se (K.J. A strong demands on specications.

0967-0661/01/$ - see front matter r 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 9 6 7 - 0 6 6 1 ( 0 1 ) 0 0 0 6 2 - 4

1164 K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund / Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175

* Design a controller that keeps process variables as Notice that a real PID controller uses a ltered

close as possible to desired specications. derivative dyf =dt instead of dy=dt where

* Design a controller where the process variables can Td dyf

follow variations in set points. yf y:

N dt

* Design a controller that keeps process variables

within a range. Additional lters may also be used. The controller

should make sure that the integral part does not wind up

The last situation is typical for level control in surge when the actuator saturates. This is discussed in great

tanks where it is desired that the level changes but it is detail in A ( stro. m and H.agglund (1995).

not permitted either to have the tanks ooded or to have It is essential that the controller is implemented as (2)

them empty. with one integrator only. Parameters b and c are called

Another factor that has a strong inuence is the eort set-point weights. They have no inuence on the

that can be devoted to design and tuning of a system. response to disturbances but they have a signicant

One extreme case is found in process control where one inuence on the response to set-point changes. Set-point

process engineer may be responsible for several hundred weighting is a simple way to obtain a structure with two

loops. In such a case it is not possible to devote much degrees of freedom (Horowitz, 1963). It is also worth-

eort to each loop. Simplicity of handling and robust- while to observe that the so-called PI-PD controller

ness are then primary requirements. Another case is a (Atherton, 1999) is equivalent to set-point weighting.

dedicated system that is manufactured in large quan- See Taguchi and Araki (2000).

tities, for example, a feedback loop in a CD player. In Three external signals act on the control loop, namely

this case it is possible to devote a substantial eort to set point ysp ; load disturbance l and measurement noise

design a single control loop. n: The load disturbance drives the process variables

away from their desired values and the measurement

2.1. Formalization noise corrupts the information obtained from the

sensors.

To describe a design problem the process, the The design objective is to determine the controller

environment, and the requirements on the control have parameters in Gc s and Gff s so that the system

to be characterized. A typical situation is illustrated in behaves well. This means that the eect of load

Fig. 1. The process is described as a linear system with disturbances should be reduced, that too much measure-

transfer function Gs: The controller is also linear with ment noise should not be fed into the system and that

two degrees of freedom. The transfer function Gc s the system should be robust towards moderate changes

describes the feedback from process output y to control in the process characteristics. Therefore, the specica-

signal u; and the transfer function Gff s describes the tion will express requirements on

feed forward from set point ysp to u: For PID control,

one typically has

* Load disturbance response,

* Measurement noise response,

ki * Set point response,

Gc s k kd s;

s * Robustness to model uncertainties.

ki

Gff s bk ckd s: 1 The relations between the external input signals, ysp ; l

s and n; process output x measured signal y and control

which means that the inputoutput relation for the signal u are

controller can be described as G GGc GGff

x l n ysp ;

ut kbysp t yt 1 GGc 1 GGc 1 GGc

Z t

ki ysp t yt dt G 1 GGff

y l n ysp ;

0 1 GGc 1 GGc 1 GGc

dysp t dyt

kd c ; 2 GGc Gc Gff

dt dt u l n ysp 3

1 GGc 1 GGc 1 GGc

2.2. Criteria

tance since most PID controllers operate as regulators.

Fig. 1. A block diagram describing a typical control problem. Regulation performance is often expressed in terms of

K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund / Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175 1165

the control error obtained for certain disturbances. A this section, it will be shown that the results can be

disturbance is typically applied at the process input. obtained from the Nyquist stability theorem. An

Typical criteria are to minimize a loss function of the advantage with this approach is that time delays are

form easy to deal with.

Z N

I tn jetjm dt; 4 3.1. Constant derivative gain

0

where the error is dened as e ysp y: Common cases Consider linear systems with the transfer function

are IAE (n 0; m 1) or ITSE (n 1; m 2). Gs: It is assumed that the transfer function has no

Quadratic criteria are particularly popular since they poles in the right half-plane apart from possibly a pole

admit analytical solutions. Criteria which put a penalty at the origin. Furthermore, it is assumed that G0 > 0 if

on the control signal such as the system is stable or that lims-0 sGs > 0 when the

Z N

system has a pole at the origin. It is also assumed that

I e2 t ru2 t dt 5 the controller is parameterized in terms of k; ki and kd :

0

The closed-loop characteristic equation is then

have also been used.

ki

1 k kd s Gs 0: 7

2.3. Robustness s

By analyzing this equation for small s it is seen that

It turns out that it is not sucient to minimize criteria ki > 0 to have a stable system. Next, conditions for roots

such as (4) or (5) because the solutions obtained may not on the imaginary axis will be investigated. This will

be suciently robust to uncertainties in the process represent a stability boundary. Introducing

model. Excellent insight into the robustness problem has Gio roeifo ;

been provided by the HN theory, see Panagopoulos and

Astro. m (2000). According to this theory it follows that after some calculations gives the following boundary of

the closed-loop system is robust to perturbations if the the stability region:

HN -norm of the transfer function cosfo

! k ;

1 1 G ro

;

1 GGc Gc GGc o sinfo

ki o2 kd : 8

ro

is suciently small. The norm is given by

1 jGioGc ioj Fig. 2 shows the stability region for a system with the

g max : 6 transfer function Gs 1=s 14 for dierent values of

j1 Gc ioGc ioj

kd : The gure shows that in this particular case the

In Panagopoulos and A ( stro. m (2000) it is shown that the integral gain can be increased substantially by using

norm is always less than M if the Nyquist curve of the derivative action. The gure also shows that the stable

loop transfer function of GGc is outside a circle with

diameter on the interval M=M 1; M=M 1:

3. Stability regions

using feedback there is always a risk that the closed-loop

system will become unstable. Stability is therefore a

primary requirement on a feedback system. It turns out

that much insight into PID control can be obtained by

analyzing the stability region, which is the set of

controller parameters that give stable closed-loop

systems. This is also an area where there are interesting

recent results, see Shaei and Shenton (1994), Shenton

and Shaei (1994) and Anon (1999). These results are

based either on the HermiteBieler Theorem, see Ho,

Datta and Bhattacharyya (1996, 1997), or on elaborate

polynomial calculations, see Munro, So. ylemez and Fig. 2. Stability regions for Gs 1=s 14 for kd 0 (dashed), 5,

Baki (1999) and So. ylemez, Munro and Baki (1999). In 10, 15 and 20 (dotted).

1166 K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund / Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175

controller that maximizes the integral gain has para- constant derivative gain. Additional insight can be

meters which lie in a sharp corner. For systems with obtained from another representation of the stability

monotone transfer functions the stability region is a regions. To investigate the stability, the Nyquist

convex set but for other transfer functions the stability criterion is used and the locus of the loop transfer

region may consist of several disjoint sets. function Lio GioGc io is plotted. First a xed

The robustness region lies inside the stability region value k > 0 of the proportional gain is picked and the

and has a similar shape. This state of aairs is one frequencies on ; where the Nyquist curve of kGio

explanation why it is dicult to nd appropriate values intersects the circle with the line segment 1; 0 as a

of the derivative action. Other constraints can be diameter are determined. See Fig. 4, where the critical

introduced to deal with the problem, see Panagopoulos point s 1 is denoted by C. First, the case when the

(2000). Another possibility is to postulate a given value intersection of the Nyquist curve and the circle occur in

of the ratio of integral time to derivative time. the lower half-plane is considered. The controller

Classically it was quite common to postulate Ti 4Td : transfer function can be written as

Postulating that Ti mTd it is found that k2 ki kd =m:

ki ki

Inserting this in Eq. (8) gives Gc io k i kd o k i kd o :

o o

cosfo

k ; When proportional and derivative gains are changed

ro

the Nyquist curve moves from A along the line AC. To

p avoid reaching the critical point it must be required that

1 4=m 1 cos2 fo o sinfo

ki 9 ki

2ro kd on jGion joj1 Gion j: 10

on

Fig. 3 shows the stability regions for the system Gs

1=s 14 and PID controllers with m 4; 6.25 and The same analysis can be made when the intersection of

10. The gure shows clearly that the stability region may the Nyquist curve and the circle occur in the upper half-

be increased by using derivative action. But it also shows plane. To have a stable system the point A must then be

that the stability region becomes quite sharp when the moved beyond the critical point. Combining the

parameter m is small. A comparison with Fig. 2 shows conditions give the stability regions

that the largest value of integral gain ki is substantially ki > 0;

reduced by the requirement that Ti 4Td : j1 kGion j

ki oo2n kd on for Im Gion o0;

jGi on j

3.2. Constant proportional gain j1 kGion j

ki > o2n kd on for Im Gion > 0 11

jGion j

The stability region is a subset of R3 : The calculations

performed gives the two-dimensional intersections with for all on such that

kGion 1 1: 12

2 2

the stability region is represented by several convex

polygons in the ki kd plane. In general, there may be

Td 0 (dotted), and Ti mTd ; where m 10 (dashdotted), 6.25

(dashed) and 4 (solid). The stability region for pure PI control

corresponds to the dotted curve. Fig. 4. Nyquist curve for the transfer function kGs:

K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund / Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175 1167

several polygons and each may have many surfaces. The then stability requires that kd 0: If lim sG s-N

number of surfaces of the polygons is determined by the Kv then the integral gain is limited to jkd jo1=Kv :

number of roots of Eq. (12). In many cases, the

polygons are also very simple, as is illustrated with the

following example. 4. Design and tuning

Example 1 (Four equal poles). Consider a system with Design and tuning of PID controllers have been a

the transfer function large research area ever since Ziegler and Nichols

1 1 presented their methods in 1942. There are many aspects

Gs 4 that should be taken into account when designing a PID

s 14 s 4s3 6s2 4s 1

controller. Desirable features of a design procedure are:

1

4 : * It should give a controller that meets the design

s 6s 1 4ss2 1

2

specications.

In this case Eq. (12) becomes * It should be based on the available/obtainable

o4 6o2 1 k 0: process knowledge.

* It should meet limitations on computational power

This equation has only two positive solutions

p and resources available for design.

o2 37 8 k Therefore, there is a need for several dierent design

and it is thus concluded that the stability region is procedures with varying objectives and complexity.

determined by the condition ki > 0 and two lines. Simple Some recent results are Zhuang and Atherton (1993),

calculations show that the stability conditions (11) Lieslehto (1999), Anon (1999), Yamamoto, Fujii and

become Kaneda (1999), Panagopoulos (2000) and Wallen

p p (2000).

ki o3 8 kkd 4k 56 20 8 k;

p p

ki > 3 8 kkd 4k 56 20 8 k; 4.1. Specications for design

ki > 0: 13

The design specications were discussed in Section 2.

The integral gain has its maximum ki 36 at the Basically, one has to take care of specications on

boundary of the stability region for k 8 and kd 20: responses to the three external signals ysp ; l; and n;

Notice that the stability region is needle shaped near this as well as robustness with respect to changes in the

point. This is more clear in the 3D plot of the stability process G:

region shown in Fig. 5. Since the controller has two degrees of freedom, it is

possible to separate the specications. The response to

Analyzing systems with time delay it follows from the measurement noise can be treated by designing a low-

equations that if Gs approaches a constant for large s pass lter for the measurement signal. The desired set-

point response can be obtained by feedforward. One

way is to choose a proper value of the set-point weight b

in Eq. (2). It is also possible to feed the set point through

lters or ramping modules.

Load disturbances are often the most common

disturbances in process control. See Shinskey (1996).

Most design methods should therefore focus on load

disturbances, and try to nd a suitable compromise

between demands on performance at load disturbances

and robustness. It is a great advantage if this compro-

mise can be decided by the user by a tuning parameter.

There are two types of tuning parameters, those where

the robustness is specied, and those where the

performance is specied. Gain and phase margins are

often used as robustness-related design parameters. See

Tan, Wang, Hang, and H.agglund (1999). In A ( stro. m,

Panagopoulos, and H.agglund (1998) and Panagopou-

los, A( stro. m and H.agglund (1999), the maximum

Fig. 5. The 3D plot of the stability region for the system Gs sensitivity and the complementary sensitivity are used.

1 s4 : In Panagopoulos and A ( stro. m (2000) the HN norm is

1168 K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund / Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175

used. A common performance-related tuning parameter to obtain good tuning rules that are based only on two

is the apparent closed-loop time constant. It is used in process parameters, but that fairly accurate methods

lambda-tuning and in many other analytical tuning may be obtained using three parameters, where the

methods. relative gain k may be a third parameter.

The design procedure also includes selection of

controller structure. For example, if there are no 4.2. Process knowledge

requirements on zero steady-state error, there is no

need for integral action. If the dead-time is long or if the The process knowledge required by design procedures

process dynamics is close to rst order, no derivative varies from simple characteristics described by two

action should be used. parameters (a gain and a time) as in the ZieglerNichols

The design procedure should also take limitations in rules, to higher order transfer functions.

signals into account. There are always limitation in the In process control, there is normally little time

control signal, and often also in the rate of the control available to derive detailed models of the processes.

signal. The early design methods were therefore based on very

( stro. m et al. 1998 it is shown that PI control can

In A simple models. Nowadays, there are often equipments

be very well captured so as to maximize integral gain ki ; available that makes it possible to obtain the models fast

which is equivalent to minimizing the integrated error IE and simple. In automatic tuning procedures, the process

at load disturbances, subject to a robustness constraint. models are obtained fast with very little eort from the

The reason is that the parameters k and ki that satisfy user.

the robustness constraint is a good convex set. This does Many design methods assume that the process is

not work very well for PID control because the set of known completely in terms of step responses, frequency

parameters k; ki and kd that satisfy the robustness responses or transfer functions. Actually, it is sucient

constraint can have narrow ridges. See Panagopoulos to know the frequency response in a fairly narrow

(2000). This is illustrated in Fig. 5 which shows the frequency range. For the design method in Panagopou-

stability region for a problem that appears very well los (2000) the transfer function should be known in a

behaved. region around opi* and opd* ; where

The design method given in A ( stro. m et al. 1998 can

also be used to evaluate simpler design methods. Fig. 6 1

arg Giopi* p arcsin ;

shows controller parameters obtained for a large test Ms

batch of process models. The gure also shows the

ZieglerNichols design. The controller gain is normal- * p arccos 1

arg Giopd :

ized with the ultimate gain, and the integral time is Ms

normalized with the ultimate period of the process. The

parameters are plotted versus the relative gain

jGio180 j 1 4.3. Computational aspects

k : 14

G0 Kp Ku

The equipment, the computational power, and

Results are given for two values of the design the time available for the design are also important

parameter Ms (the maximum sensitivity gain), Ms aspects that must be taken into account. The

1:4 and Ms 2: early methods were, for obvious reasons, based on

The gure shows that the ZieglerNichols method simple registrations of process characteristics and

gives too high a gain and for most processes an integral calculations that could easily be performed by hand.

time that is too long. It also shows that it is impossible There is still an interest in these methods for fast

controller settings. These methods are also useful for the

understanding and intuition needed for manual con-

troller adjustments.

Nowadays, there is often a computational power

available that admits more advanced process identica-

tion as well as controller design. In automatic tuning

procedures, the identication and design are both made

automatically. The process models used in these

procedures are normally still rather simple. The design

procedures are, however, often much more sophisti-

Fig. 6. Normalized controller parameters plotted versus relative gain k cated. It is, for example, possible to use optimization

for Ms 1:4 (circles) and Ms 2 (crosses). The ZieglerNichols rule is routines to obtain optimal solutions stated by the design

shown in dashed lines criteria given in Section 2.

K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund / Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175 1169

methods such as HN (Zhou, Doyle, & Glover, 1996)

It is useful to have tools to make an assessment of the and QFT (Horowitz, 1993). Some consequences of this

performance that can be achieved and the factors that for PID control are discussed in Panagopoulos and

limit the performance. This is a research topic that has o. stro. m (2000) and Fransson, Lennartsson, Wik, and

recently attracted much attention, see Seron, Braslavsky Gutman (2000).

and Goodwin, (1997) and A ( stro. m (2000).

For a control system the achievable performance is 5.3. When is derivative action useful?

typically limited by

In Section 3, it was found that adding derivative

* Process dynamics.

action to a PI controller increases the complexity of the

* Nonlinearities.

design considerably. There is much folklore concerning

* Uncertainties.

derivative action. Why is the derivative term hard to

* Disturbances.

tune? Why should one choose Ti 4Td ? What is the use

It is essential to be aware of the factors that are crucial of complex zeros, i.e. Ti o4Td ? Why is the derivative

for a specic application. Most of the conventional action not suitable for a pure dead-time process. To get

design methods for PID control focus on process some insight into these problems, the results on

dynamics and uncertainties. performance assessment will be used. First, a specic

example is discussed.

5.1. A preliminary assessment

Example 2 (Process with lag and delay.). Consider a

To make a preliminary assessment, the gain crossover process with a rst-order lag and a time delay, i.e.

frequency ogc will be used to characterize performance. 1

Let jm be the desired phase margin, the crossover Gs esL : 16

1 sT

frequency is the smallest frequency such that Conditions for when the process can be successfully

argGp iogc argGc iogc p jm : 15 controlled by a PI controller will rst be determined. It

follows from the discussion above that the crossover

A PD controller has a maximum phase lead of about

frequency is limited by ogc : It follows from Eq. (15) that

60 degrees, a proportional controller has zero phase

lag, and a PI controller has a phase-lag of about arctanogc T ogc L argGc io p jm :

45 degrees and a PID controller can have a phase lead Assume that a phase margin of 60 degrees is desired

of 45 degrees. If a phase margin of 45 degrees is desired it and that PI control is used. Since ogc Lo1 it follows that

follows from Eq. (15) that crossover frequencies for PI, arctanogc To2p=3 p=4 1 0:3090: It can thus be

PID and PD control are the frequencies where the

process has phase-lags of 90 degrees, 135 degrees and

195 degrees, respectively. These frequencies are denoted

as o90 ; o135 ; and o195 : These estimates are valid only if

the non minimum phase parts of the dynamics are not

dominating.

( stro. m (2000) it is shown that for minimum phase

In A

systems the phase lag of the minimum phase parts has to

be less than 60 degrees at the crossover frequency. The

system will have poor robustness if the phase lag is

larger. For a system with dead time this implies that the

crossover frequency is approximately limited to

ogc Lo1: This result can be used to determine when

the PI control can be used for processes with time delay.

control performance. Traditionally, this has been taken

into account using gain and phase margins. The design

Fig. 7. Responses in process output to steps in load disturbances for

methods developed by Kessler for motor drives used the PD, PI and PID controllers for systems with the transfer function

slowest neglected time constant as an important part of Gs Tes =1 sT with (a) T 10; (b) T 3 (c) T 1 and (d)

the specications. See Kessler (1958a,b). T 0:3:

1170 K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund / Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175

concluded that PI control can be used if To0:3L or if tive action. This shows clearly how important it is to

L > 3T: react fast in order to achieve good control. Also notice

Fig. 7 shows responses to load disturbances for PD, that at a casual inspection the dierences in the control

PI and PID controllers for four dierent systems with signal do not appear very large but that they have a

dierent ratios of dead-time to time constant. Notice profound eect on the output signal.

that derivative action gives substantial benets for

systems having large values of T: Due to the predictive The examples support the folklore that derivative

action the error starts to decrease much faster. Notice action is useful for processes that are lag dominated and

that the peak disturbance obtained for PID control is that it is less useful for systems that are dead-time

lower than for PD control. dominated, see Shinskey, (1996).

All controllers simulated in Fig. 7 are designed by

maximizing integral gain subject to the robustness

constraint Ms o 2 using the method described in 6. Competing strategies

Panagopoulos (2000), where the constraint Ti 4Td

was imposed on the PID controller, see Wallen, (2000). This section will discuss some situations where there

The gure shows that there is a signicant improve- are competing strategies that can do better than PID

ment by using derivative action for small values of L=T control. Four dierent cases will be discussed dead-time

but that the benet of derivative action decreases when dominant systems, oscillatory systems, multivariable

the ration L=T increases. systems, and nonlinear systems. It has attempted to

answer the question when it is possible to obtain drastic

To get more insight into the question, when derivative improvements over PID control.

action is useful the extreme case of an integrator with

delay will be considered.

6.1. General linear controllers

Example 3 (Integrator with delay.). Consider a system

The PID controller with only a few parameters is

with the transfer function

certainly a restricted complexity controller. An alter-

1 native would be to replace it by a general linear

Gs es : controller. A general two degree controller can be

s

represented as

For this system o90 0; o135 0:78; and o195 1:8:

These values indicate that the crossover frequency can RsUs TsYsp s SsYs;

be doubled by using integral action. To get more insight

where R; S and T are polynomials of arbitrary order.

PD, PI and PID controllers were designed to maximize

Another alternative would be to use a state space

ki subject to Ms o2 using the method described in

representation consisting of an observer with state

Panagopoulos (2000), where the constraint Ti 4Td

was imposed on the PID controller, see Wallen (2000).

The controller parameters obtained are given in Table 1.

Notice that the integrated error IE is reduced from 7.6

for PI control to 2.2 for PID control and that the

integrated absolute error IAE is reduced from 9.2 for PI

control to 3.8 for PID control.

Fig. 8 shows the responses to a step change in load

disturbance and the control signal for PD, PI and PID

controllers designed to maximize ki subject to Ms o2:

The gure shows that the major benet in reducing the

eect of the load disturbance is that the control signal

reacts much faster initially for controllers with deriva-

Table 1

Parameters of PD, PI and PID controllers for a system with the

transfer function Gs es =s:

Type k ki kd Ti Td

Fig. 8. Responses in process output to a step in the load disturbance

PI 0.488 0.131 3.739

applied at time t=0 for PD (dashdotted), PI (dashed), and PID

PID 0.864 0.462 0.404 1.869 0.467

(solid) control of a system with the transfer function Gs es =s:

K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund / Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175 1171

feedback and model following. Such controllers are where Gsp is the Smith predictor given by

straight forward extensions to PID control. Some 1

problems with these general controllers are parameter- Gsp : 17

1 G* G* c 1 esL

ization, design and tuning. General linear controllers

include PID control as a special case and can thus If G* G* c E 1 then Gsp EesL which indicates that Gsp acts

as a predictor in a certain frequency range, see A ( stro. m

always outperform a PID controller. It is however a

nontrivial question to nd good man-machine interfaces (1977).

so that the users can easily specify structure and The transfer function from the set point to the process

parameters. Tuning tools are also necessary. There are output is given by

a number of commercial linear adaptive controllers but Ys G* G* esL

they are at present much less common than PID 18

Ysp s 1 G* G* c

controllers, see Bengtsson and Egardt (1984) and

Mod!en (1995). The transfer function from load disturbance to the

process output is

6.2. Set point response Ys 1 G* G* c 1 esL * sL

Ge : 19

Ls 1 G* G* c

It has been emphasized several times that the problem

of regulation and set point response should be A particularly simple case is when G* Gpi kv =s

separated, see Fig. 1. Our approach was to rst design 1=sT: To see that Gsp acts like a predictor, a series

the feedback Gc to obtain a system that will balance the expansion in s is made

eects of load disturbances and measurement noise and 1 kv L L

Gsp E 1 s :

which is robust to process uncertainties. The feedfor- 1 kv L 1 kv L 2

ward path Gff is then designed to obtain the desired

For large kv the predictor thus predicts over a time

response to set point changes. This results in the two-

horizon of L=2: Assuming that the process has a unit

degree of freedom structure advocated in Horowitz

gain at low frequencies, the eective integral gain of a PI

(1963). For set point changes of moderate size good

controller with a Smith predictor becomes

results can often be obtained by using set point

weighting, see A ( stro. m and H.agglund (1995). In some kv 1

ki : 20

cases it may be desirable to add linear lters to reduce 1 kv L T L

the overshoot, see Panagopoulos (2000). Rapid set point It follows from this equation that it is desirable to

responses are often limited by the nonlinearities of the have a large value of kv or small values of T: The largest

process. Recent work by Wallen (2000) indicates that value that can be used is limited by the requirement on

there are substantial benets by using nonlinear control robustness.

strategies. For systems with time delays the response The sensitivity function is

time can be decreased substantially by using Smith

predictors. 1 G* G* c 1 esL G* G* c esL

Gs 1 :

1 G* G* c 1 G* G* c

6.3. Processes with time delays For the particular design the sensitivity function

becomes

There is much folklore concerning systems with time

kv esL esL

delay. Such systems can be controlled quite well with Gs 1 1 :

PID control. However, the traditional tuning rules often s kv sT 1

give very poor results. Derivative action is quite useful The maximum values of the sensitivity and the

for systems which also has lags as was found in Section complementary sensitivity are thus less than 2 for all

5. Derivative action, however is of limited value for values of T: A sensitivity analysis thus indicates that

systems that are dead time dominant. The reason for arbitrary small values of T can be used if sensitivities

this is that prediction of the output based on the linear less than 2 are admitted. This however does not tell the

extrapolation is not eective. It is much better to make full story.

predictions based on inputs that were fed into the system Fig. 9 shows the Nyquist curves for the loop transfer

than those which have not yet shown up in the output. function for dierent values of the ratio T=L: Notice

The Smith predictor accomplishes this, see Kaya and that there are loops in the Nyquist curves that increase

Atherton (1999), Kristiansson and Lennartson (1999) with decreasing values of T: Because of these loops the

and Jiya, Shao and Chai, (1999). system will be sensitive to variations in the time delay.

Let the process transfer function be G G* esL : A Systems of this type are classic cases where the

controller with a Smith predictor can be interpreted as a sensitivity functions do not give good insight into the

controller of the type shown in Fig. 1 with Gc G* c Gsp ; robustness issues. It is necessary to also ensure that the

1172 K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund / Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175

Smith predictor with kv 5 (dashed) and PI control with k 0:25 and

Ti 0:35L (solid).

Fig. 9. Nyquist curves for the loop transfer functions for T=L 0.1

and 0.2 for the nominal case (left) and for a system with a 25%

increase of the time delay (right).

delay margins are satisfactory. Fig. 9 shows, for

with PI controllers if the requirements are not too

example, that a system with T=L 0:1 becomes

high. The performance of a PID controller can,

unstable if the time delay is increased by 25% from L

however, be improved by adding lters to the control

1 to 1:25: system.

It is of interest to compare the results that can be

obtained with simple PI control. This is made in the

6.5. Multivariable systems

following example.

Many processes are multivariable. Much research

Example 4 (A pure delay process). Consider a pure

has lately been devoted to control schemes for

delay process which has the transfer function G esL :

such systems, see e.g. Morari and Lee (1991), Camacho

The integral gain obtained with Smith predictor control

and Bordons (1995). Most multivariable schemes do

is given by Eq. (20). It gives ki 0:8=L for kv 5: however operate in cascade mode, where the multi-

Designing a PI controller to maximize ki subject to a

variable controller provides set points to local PID

robustness constraint Ms o2 gives k 0:25 and Ti

controllers, see Lee, Park and Lee, (1999). The PID

0:35L; hence ki 0:71=L: The Smith predictor thus

controller is thus an essential building block, also in this

gives only a very small increase of ki compared to the PI

case, tuning can often be done iteratively, see V!asquez,

controller. Fig. 10 compared the responses to load

Morilla and Dormido (1999). It should also be

disturbances of systems with PI control and with PI

emphasized that PID controllers with static decoupling

control and a Smith predictor. Notice that the control

can do very well for multivariable systems if the

signal for the Smith predictor is smoother. This is an requirements are not too high. This is illustrated by an

advantage because it means that modes of higher

example.

frequencies are not excited.

Example 5 (Rosenbrocks system). A seemingly simple

The results indicate that for systems with pure time

multivariable system proposed by Rosenbrock has the

delays the Smith predictor only gives marginal improve-

transfer function

ments in regulation performance. These improvements 0 1

may be relevant for control of important quality control 1 1

Bs 1 s 1C

problems but not for ordinary problems. The Smith Gs B

@ 2

C:

predictor may, however, give substantial improvements 1 A

in the response to set point changes. s3 s1

K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund / Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175 1173

By static decoupling a system with the transfer function eective and can be applied to a wide range of problems.

0 1 The emerging features of automatic tuning have greatly

1

B 0 C simplied the use of PID control.

s1

Qs GsG1 0 B

@

C; More knowledge about PID control has been avail-

4s 31 s A

able for a long time. Unfortunately, it has been buried in

s 1s 3 s 1s 3

proprietary information of suppliers. There was a strong

is obtained. This shows that the system has a right half- resurgence in the interest in PID control over the last 10

plane zero which explains why it is dicult to control. It years. Many publications have appeared and it is typical

is, however, possible to control this system by PID that IFAC organized a workshop on PID control in the

controllers provided that the demands are not excessive. year 2000.

This is illustrated in the step responses shown in Fig. 11. The alternatives to PID control are:

It is also possible to provide simple estimates for how

fast the system can be made while keeping the RST: Discrete-time linear MISO controllers.

interactions at a reasonable level. SFO: State feedback and observers.

MPC: Model predictive control.

PID control, see Passino and Yurkovich (1998). Most

The PID controller being linear is not suited for fuzzy controllers used in industry have the same

strongly nonlinear systems. Excellent results can how- structure as incremental PI or PID controllers. The

ever be obtained by combining the PID controller with parameterization using rules and fuzzy membership

gain scheduling. A particularly attractive feature is the functions makes it easy to add nonlinearities, logic, and

use of auto-tuning which drastically reduces the eort additional input signals to the control law.

required to build up the gain schedule. The main advantages claimed by fuzzy control are

that it is easy to use and that it is nonlinear. Many of the

comparisons between PID and fuzzy control made in the

literature are, however, very sloppy. A textbook PID

7. Does PID control have a future?

with ZieglerNichols tuning is typically used as a

reference. Furthermore, if nonlinear behavior is desired

It is quite reasonable to predict that PID control will

continue to be used in the future. Feedback has had a gain scheduling can be added to a PID controller. Many

fuzzy controllers are also used in a cascade structure

revolutionary inuence in practically all areas where it

using PID controllers at the lower level. An advantage

has been used and will continue to do so. PI(D) control

of fuzzy control is that very good software is available.

is perhaps the most basic form of feedback. It is very

Many fuzzy controllers are, however, used in a cascade

structure using PID controllers at the lower level.

To assess the dierent alternatives it is important to

consider.

* Performance.

* Tuning.

* Ease of use.

* Maintenance.

linear behavior of the system. This is particularly useful

when dealing with systems having poorly damped

oscillatory modes. It is, however, necessary to take

actuator saturation and windup into account. This is

done very well for MPC but it requires special

consideration for RST and SFO, particularly in

combination with mode changes.

The tuning problem is a major diculty with all

alternatives. Much work is needed in order to develop

Fig. 11. Simulation of PI control with static decoupling of Rosen-

brocks system. The gure shows the response of the outputs to steps in appropriate tuning tools.

the command signals. All controllers have set point weighting with The RST controller is beginning to appear in

b 0: applications for motor drives. The improvements in

1174 K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund / Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175

performance are particularly important for high perfor- need for a wide range of tuning techniques. There

mance systems. are already many tuning methods available, but a

Controllers based on state feedback and observers are replacement of the ZieglerNichols method is long

used in special applications where the cost of the overdue. It is very easy to demonstrate that any

modeling eort can be justied. controller with reasonable tuning will outperform a

Model predictive control is typically used in super- PID with ZieglerNichols tuning. Many strategies

visory mode with PID controllers at the base level. proposed can easily be eliminated if they are compared

Much of the improvement accredited to MPC in the with a well-tuned PID.

process industry actually comes from the improved Development of suitable software is another area that

tuning of the basic loops. The MPC does, however, oer has to be developed. PID control is quite under-

drastic improvements in set point responses for multi- developed in that respect compared, for example, to

variable systems because of the coordination it provides. fuzzy control. It would be highly desirable to have

There are several interesting problems related to the software so that persons with a moderate knowledge can

integration of MPC and PID. Tuning of the PID experiment with PID control. Tools for modeling and

controller in the inner loop gives valuable modeling methods for automatic tuning should be a part of such a

information for the MPC. Since the MPC operates in a software.

supervisory mode it can deal with slow interactions very On the research side, it appears that the development

well. The lower level PID loops still have to manage fast of design methods for PID control is approaching the

interactions. point of diminishing returns. There are some dicult

Another issue is the general philosophy of approach- problems that remain to be solved. For example, there is

ing design of a complex system. Topdown approaches no characterization of the processes where PID control

to system design will clearly favor SFO and MPC. A is useful.

bottomup approach favors the use of simple building

blocks such as PID controllers. In this context, it is

interesting to see how the PID controller can be References

augmented. The set point response can be improved

substantially by exploiting a controller structure with Anon, A. (1999). Special edition on PID tuning methods. Computing &

two degrees of freedom as illustrated in Fig. 1 in this Control Engineering Journal, 10(2).

( stro. m, K. J. (1977). Frequency domain properties of Otto Smith

A

paper. Special considerations have to be given to a PID regulators. International Journal of Control, 26, 307314.

controller that will be used eectively in this way. It is ( stro. m, K. J. (2000). Limitations on control system performance.

A

particularly important that the controller output is European Journal on control.

( stro. m, K. J., & H.agglund, T. (1995). PID controllers: Theory, design

A

available for feedforward in such a way that saturation

and windup are handled properly. and tuning. Research Triangle Park, N.C. Instrument Society of

America.

More improvements can be made through proper use Atherton, D. (1999). PID controller tuning. Computing & Control

of feedforward. Other possibilities are to add lters and Engineering Journal, 4450.

blocks for dealing with measurement noise and systems Bengtsson, G., & Egardt, B. (1984). Experiences with self-tuning

having oscillatory modes. There are many good research control in the process industry. Preprints 9th IFAC world congress,

Budapest, Hungary (pp. XI: 132140).

problems in developing good approaches to bottom up

Bennett, S. (1979). A History of Control Engineering 18001930.

design techniques. The problem of exploring system London: Peter Peregrinus.

interactions is an important one. Bennett, S. (1993). A History of Control Engineering 19301955.

Even if the applications of other control strategies London: Peter Peregrinus.

increase, PID control will certainly continue to be used. Camacho, E. F., & Bordons, C. (1995). Model prediction control in the

When correctly used it is a very eective way of using process industry. Advances in industrial control. Berlin: Springer.

Fransson, C., Lennartsson, B., Wik, T., & Gutman, P. (2000). On

feedback. Good results can often be obtained if the optimizing PID controllers for uncertain plants using Horowitz

performance requirements are not extreme. The PID bounds. IFAC workshop on digital controlFpast, present, and

controller will also serve as a building block in more future of PID Control, Terrassa, Spain.

complex controllers. Most DMC controllers in fact Ho, M. T., Datta, A., & Bhattacharyya, S. P. (1996). A new

deliver set points to PID controllers. Good performance approach to feedback stabilization. In Proceedings of the

35th IEEE conference on decision and control, IEEE, vol. 4

of these PID controllers are essential. Much commis- (pp. 46434648).

sioning work for DMC control actually consists of Ho, M. T., Datta, A., & Bhattacharyya, S. P. (1997). A linear

tuning up the underlying PID loops. There are also programming characterization of all stabilizing PID controllers.

useful augmentations for PID control in the form of Proceedings of the American control conference, IEEE, Albuquer-

que, NM (pp. 39223928).

Smith predictors, gain scheduling and lters for

Horowitz, I. (1993). Quantitative feedback theory (QFT). Boulder, Co:

oscillatory systems. QFT Publications.

It is important to realize that there is a very wide Horowitz, I. M. (1963). Synthesis of feedback systems. New York:

range of control problems and consequently also a Academic Press.

K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund / Control Engineering Practice 9 (2001) 11631175 1175

Jiya, J., Shao, C., & Chai, T. Y. (1999). Comparison of PID and PPI Panagopoulos, H., A ( stro. m, K. J., and H.agglund, T. (1998). Design of

design techniques for a process with time delay. Preprints. 14th PI controllers based on non-convex optimization. Automatica,

world congress of IFAC, Beijing, China (pp. 391396). 34(5) 585601.

Kaya, I., & Atherton, D. P. (1999). A new pipd smith predictor for Passino, K. M., & Yurkovich, S. (1998). Fuzzy control. Menlo Park,

control of processes with long time delays. Preprints. 14th world CA. Addison-Welsley-Longman.

congress of IFAC, Beijing, China (pp 283288). Seron, M. M., Braslavsky, J. H., Goodwin, G. C. (1997). Fundamental

Kessler, C. (1958a). Das symmetrische Optimum, Teil I. Regelung- limitations in ltering and control. Berlin: Springer.

stechnik, 6(11), 395400. Shaei, Z., & Shenton, A. T. (1994). Tuning of PID-type controllers

Kessler, C. (1958b). Das symmetrische, Optimum Teil II. Regelung- for stable and unstable systems with time delay. Automatica,

stechnik, 6(12), 432436. 30(10), 16091615.

Kristiansson, B., & Lennartson, B. (1999). Optimal PID controllers Shenton, A. T., Shaei, Z. (1994). Relative stability for control systems

including roll o and smith predictor structure. Preprints. 14th with adjustable parameters. Journal of Guidance Control and

world congress of IFAC, Beijing, China (pp. 297302). Dynamics, 17(2) 304310.

Lee, Y., Park, S., & Lee, J. H. (1999). On interfacing model predictive Shinskey, F. G. (1996). Process control systems. Application, design and

controllers with low-level loops. Preprints. 14th world congress of tuning (4th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill.

IFAC, Beijing, China (pp. 313318). So. ylemez, M. T., Munro, N., Baki, H. (1999). Fast calculation

Lieslehto, J. (1999). Collection of java applets for PID controller of stabilizing PID controllers. Automatica, submitted for publi-

design. Preprints. 14th world congress of IFAC, Beijing, China (pp cation.

421426). Taguchi, H., & Araki, M. (2000). Two-degree-of-freedom PID

Mod!en, P. E. (1995). Experiences with adaptive control since 1982. controllerstheir functions and optimal tuning. IFAC workshop

Proceedings of the 34th IEEE conference on decision and control, on digital controlFPast, present and future of PID Control,

New Orleans, LA, pp. 667672. Terrassa, Spain.

Morari, M., & Lee, J. H. (1991). Model predictive control: The good, Tan, K. K., Wang, Q. G., Hang, C. C., & H.agglund, T. (1999).

the bad, and the ugly. Chemical process control, CPCIV, Padre Advances in PID control. Advances in industrial control. Berlin:

Island Tx (pp 419442). Springer.

Munro, N., So. ylemez, M. T., & Baki, H. (1999). Computation of D- V!asquez, F., Morilla, F., & Dormido, S. (1999). An iterative method

stabilizing low-order compensators. IEEE Trans. on Automatic for tuning decentralized PID controllers. Preprints. 14th world

Control, Submitted for publication. congress of IFAC, Beijing, China (pp. 491496).

Panagopoulos, H. (2000). PID control design, extension, application. Wallen, A. (2000). Tools for autonomous process control. Ph.D. thesis,

Ph.D. thesis, Department of Automatic Control, Lund Institute of Department of Automatic Control, Lund Institute of Technology,

Technology, Lund, Sweden. Lund, Sweden.

Panagopoulos, H., & A ( stro. m, K. J. (2000). PID control design and Yamamoto, T., Fujii, K., & Kaneda, M. (1999). A design of self-tuning

HN loop shaping, International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear PID controllers based on a pole-assignment scheme. Preprints. 14th

Control, 10, 12491261. world congress of IFAC, Beijing, China (pp. 259264).

Panagopoulos, H., & A ( stro. m, & H.aglund, T. (1999). Design of PID Zhou, J., Doyle, J., & Glover, K. (1996). Robust and optimal control.

controllers based on constrained optimization. Proceedings of the Englewood Clis, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

1999 American control conference (ACC99), San Diego, CA. Zhuang, M., & Atherton, D. P. (1993). Tuning of optimum PID

Invited paper. controllers. Proceedings of IEE, 140, 216224.

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.