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Marine Geodesy

ISSN: 0149-0419 (Print) 1521-060X (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/umgd20

Geodetic Datum of Indonesian Maritime


Boundaries: Status and Problems

Hasanuddin Z. Abidin , S. Sutisna , T. Padmasari , K. J. Villanueva & J. Kahar

To cite this article: Hasanuddin Z. Abidin , S. Sutisna , T. Padmasari , K. J. Villanueva & J.


Kahar (2005) Geodetic Datum of Indonesian Maritime Boundaries: Status and Problems, Marine
Geodesy, 28:4, 291-304, DOI: 10.1080/01490410500411745

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Marine Geodesy, 28: 291304, 2005
Copyright Taylor & Francis Inc.
ISSN: 0149-0419 print / 1521-060X online
DOI: 10.1080/01490410500411745

Geodetic Datum of Indonesian Maritime


Boundaries: Status and Problems

HASANUDDIN Z. ABIDIN,1 S. SUTISNA,2 T. PADMASARI,2


K. J. VILLANUEVA,1 AND J. KAHAR1
1
Department of Geodetic Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, J1,
Bandung, Indonesia
2
Centre of Regional Boundary Mapping, National Coordinating Agency for
Survey and Mapping (BAKOSURTANAL), Cibinong, Bogor, Indonesia

Indonesia has maritime boundaries with 10 countries namely: Australia, Timor Leste,
Papua New Guinea (PNG), Palau, Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore,
and India. Many treaties have been ratified concerning these boundaries. Unfortunately,
many coordinates of boundary points mentioned in the treaties are not clear in relation to
their geodetic datum. The uncertainty in geodetic datum of boundary points introduces
complications and problems in spatial management of Indonesias maritime boundaries,
since it can displace the boundary lines from their assumed true location. This study
investigates the possible original geodetic datums for the maritime boundaries between
Indonesia and neighboring countries, in the case they are not explicitly stated in the
treaties. The displacements of boundaries in WGS84 datum are generally in the order of a
few hundred meters, i.e., about 200 to 400 m, depending on the assumed original geodetic
datum being considered. These boundary displacements are spatially advantageous for
Indonesia in some cases and also disadvantageous in others. The study will sum up with
some conclusions and recommendations.

Keywords Indonesia, maritime, boundary, geodetic, datum, WGS84

Indonesia has maritime boundaries with 10 neighboring countries: Australia, Timor Leste,
Papua New Guinea (PNG), Palau, Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore,
and India as shown in Figure 1. The total length of these maritime boundaries is about
several thousand kilometers.
In delimitating its maritime boundaries, based on the UN Convention of the Law of
the Sea (UNCLOS) 1982, Indonesia has the rights to establish boundaries of four maritime
zones, namely: Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ), and
Continental Shelf (IHO 1993). The spatial extension of these maritime zones is simplisti-
cally shown in Figure 2.
Maritime boundaries between Indonesia and its neighboring countries are usually rep-
resented by the lines connecting several boundary points which with their geographic coor-
dinates are stated in the respective treaties (bilateral or trilateral). Location of the boundary
points and configuration of boundary line are usually shown in a chart, which is annexed
Received 28 April 2005; accepted 29 July 2005.
Address correspondence to Hasanuddin Z. Abidin, Department of Geodetic Engineering, Institute
of Technology Bandung, Jl Ganesha 10, Bandung, 40132, Indonesia. E-mail: hzabidin@gd.itb.ac.id
291
292 H. Z. Abidin et al.

Figure 1. Indonesia and its Neighboring Countries.

to the treaty document. Unfortunately, the geodetic datum of those geographic coordinates
is mostly not explicitly stated in the treaty. Datum information also often could not be
inferred from the attached treaty chart. However, the treaty usually contains an article that
states actual location of the above mentioned points (i.e. boundary points) at sea shall be
determined by a method to be mutually agreed upon by the competent authorities of the two
countries.
Geodetic datum can be seen as the set of parameters that describes the relationship
between the real Earth and the mathematical Earth, which is usually represented by a
reference ellipsoid. These datum parameters include the size and shape of reference ellipsoid
being used and its orientation to the real Earth. According to Torge (2001), geodetic datum
describes the orientation of any geodetic system with respect to the global geocentric system.

Figure 2. Limits of Maritime Zones (AUSLIG, 2004).


Indonesian Maritime Boundaries 293

Geodetic coordinates of a point will depend on its geodetic datum. The same geodetic
coordinates with different geodetic datum will lead to different locations on the Earth
surface. Uncertainty in geodetic datum of maritime boundary points will lead to uncertainty
of its real location on the sea surface. This will introduce not only technical but also legal
implications, since it will not only alter the listed coordinates in the treaty, but will also
shift the boundary lines that have been agreed by the neighboring countries.
This study investigates the possible original geodetic datums for the maritime bound-
aries between Indonesia and neighboring countries, in case they are not explicitly stated in
the treaties. Therefore in this case, we have to consider all existing datums in the correspond-
ing boundary regions. The spatial and nonspatial implications caused by this uncertainty in
geodetic datum of Indonesias maritime boundaries will also be discussed and analyzed in
this study.

Status of Indonesias Maritime Boundaries


The delimitation process of maritime boundaries between Indonesia and its neighboring
countries has been done since the 1960s. The maritime boundary treaties that have been
signed and ratified are shown in Table 1. This Table also shows that several boundaries
of maritime zones have yet to be agreed upon. Only with three countriesPhilippines,
Palau, and Timor LesteIndonesia has not yet signed any maritime boundary treaties.
It is interesting to note that most of the treaties did not state explicitly the geode-
tic datum being used for the geographic coordinates of boundary points stated in the
treaties.

Geodetic Datum of Indonesias Maritime Boundaries


In the maritime boundary treaties between Indonesia and its neighboring countries, the
geographic coordinates (latitude, longitude) of boundary points are usually stated, and their
locations are usually shown in the chart which is usually annexed to the treaty document.
Unfortunately, the geodetic datum of those geographic coordinates are mostly not explicitly
stated in the treaty, as has been indicated in Table 1. From all maritime boundary treaties that
have been signed by Indonesia and its neighboring countries, only the EEZ treaty between
Indonesia and Australia in 1997 and the Continental Shelf treaty between Indonesia and
Vietnam in 2003 explicitly state the geodetic datum used for the coordinates of boundary
points. Table 2 shows a text example of the territorial sea boundary agreement between
Indonesia and Singapore that did not state explicitly the geodetic datum of the coordinates
of boundary points.
In the case of maritime boundaries of Indonesia, datum information usually also could
not be inferred from the attached treaty chart. Figure 3 shows an example of the chart,
which is annexed to the territorial sea boundary treaty between Indonesia and Singapore. It
can be realized from this chart legend that it is not easy to decide what geodetic datum is
being used for the coordinates of the boundary points. Regarding the chart annexed to the
treaty, only in the maritime boundary agreement between Indonesia and Thailand, are the
type of charts being used stated explicitly in the treaty text, namely BAC (British Admiralty
Chart) No. 793 and 830. However, the geodetic datum of these BAC charts is itself also
debatable.
Since most of the Indonesias maritime boundary treaties are not explicit on the
geodetic datum of the boundary points, the possible original datum has to be studied and
294 H. Z. Abidin et al.

Table 1
Status of Indonesias maritime boundary agreements with its neighboring countries (The
Geographer 1990; Forbes 1995)

Date (dd-mm-yr)
Bordering Is Geodetic
country Type of boundary Signing Ratification datum stated?
Singapore Territorial Sea 25-05-73 29-08-74 No
Malaysia Territorial Sea 17-03-70 08-10-71 No
Continental Shelf (3) 27-10-69 07-11-69 No
Vietnam Continental Shelf (+Thailand) 21-12-71 16-07-73 No
EEZ (Economic Exclusive Zone) Not yet Not yet
Philippines Continental Shelf 26-06-03 Not yet Yes
(WGS84)
EEZ (Economic Exclusive Zone) Not yet Not yet
Continental Shelf Not yet Not yet
EEZ (Economic Exclusive Zone) Not yet Not yet
Papua New Territorial Sea (2) 12-02-73 26-11-74 No
Guinea Continental Shelf 13-12-80 10-07-82 No
EEZ (Economic Exclusive Zone) Not yet Not yet
18-05-71 No
Australia Continental Shelf (Seabed) (2) 08-11-73
09-10-72
Fishing Zone 29-10-81 01-02-82 No
Continental Shelf 11-12-89 09-02-91
(Zone of Cooperation)
EEZ (Economic Exclusive Zone) 14-03-97 Not yet Explicit
(AGD66,
WGS84)
Timor Leste Territorial Sea Not yet Not yet
EEZ (Economic Exclusive Zone) Not yet Not yet
Continental Shelf Not yet Not yet
Continental Shelf 08-08-74 17-12-74 No
India Continental Shelf 14-01-77 15-08-77 No
Continental Shelf (+ Thailand) 22-06-78 02-03-79 No
EEZ (Economic Exclusive Zone) Not yet Not yet
Continental Shelf (2) 17-12-71 16-07-73 No
11-12-75 18-02-78
Thailand Continental Shelf (+ Malaysia) 21-12-71 16-07-73 No
Continental Shelf (+India) 22-06-78 02-03-79 No
Palau EEZ (Economic Exclusive Zone) Not yet Not yet
EEZ (Economic Exclusive Zone) Not yet Not yet
Continental Shelf Not yet Not yet

analyzed, in order to prevent future complications and problems in spatial management of


Indonesias maritime boundaries. Considering the signing dates of the treaties, their ge-
ographical coverage, and the already used datum in the areas [DMA 1991; Smith 1997;
Dana 2004], possible original datum can be selected as shown in Table 3. It should be
Indonesian Maritime Boundaries 295

Table 2
Example of part of the territorial sea boundary agreement between Indonesia and
Singapore on May 25, 1973 (The Geographer 1974)

Article I
1. The boundary line of the territorial seas of the Republic of Indonesia
and the Republic of Singapore
Points Latitude North Longitude East
1 1 10 46 .0 103 40 14 .6
 
2 1 07 49 .3 103 44 26 .5
 
3 1 10 17 .2 103 48 18 .0
 
4 1 11 45 .5 103 51 35 .4
 
5 1 12 26 .1 103 52 50 .7
 
6 1 16 10 .2 104 02 00 .0
2. The co-ordinates of the points specified in paragraph 1 are geographical
co-ordinates and the boundary line connecting them is indicated on the
chart attached as Annexure A to this Treaty.
3. The actual location of the above mentioned points at sea shall be
determined by a method to be mutually agreed upon by the competent
authorities of the two countries.
4. For the purpose of paragraph 3, Competent authorities in relation to
the Republic of Indonesia means the Ketua Badan Koordinasi Survey
dan Pemataan Nasional (Chief of the Coordination Body for National
Survey and Mapping) and in relation to the Republic of Singapore
means any persons so authorized by the Government of the Republic of
Singapore.
Article II
Any disputes between the two countries arising out of the interpretation or
implementation of this Treaty shall be settled peacefully by consultation
or negotiation.

noted here that the chosen original geodetic datum should be accepted and agreed up on
by the neighboring countries, which is yet not the case in this unilateral study initiated by
Indonesia.

Transformation of Coordinates to WGS84 Datum


At the present time, WGS84 datum (DMA 1991) is widely used all over the world. In the
recent continental shelf boundary agreement between Indonesia and Vietnam, which was
signed on 26 June 2003, WGS84 is also used as the datum for boundary points. Therefore in
this study, the coordinates of boundary points in the possible original datum are transformed
to WGS84 datum, and spatial analysis is done on this WGS84 datum. Since the geodetic
datum of maritime boundary has legal implications, for transformation from the possible
datum to WGS84, only the parameters that have been widely or officially published are used.
Fortunately, in this unilateral study initiated by Indonesia, these transformation parameters
are already available from several sources.
296 H. Z. Abidin et al.

Figure 3. Chart annexed to the territorial sea boundary treaty between Indonesia and Singapore.

Considering the already available transformation model and parameters, two trans-
formation models are used in this study, namely 3-parameter (translation) model and
7-parameter (Bursa-Wolf) model. The values of parameters used in the transformation
are adopted from DMA (1991), JUPEM (2003), and PCTrans (2004).
In the case of 3-parameter (translation) model, the following model is used in this study:


X X X
Y = Y + Y m, (1)
Z WGS84 Z LOCAL DATUM Z

with the values of transformation parameters given as in Table 4.


Indonesian Maritime Boundaries 297

Table 3
Possible original geodetic datum of Indonesias maritime boundaries

Border Signing Possible original


country Boundary type date geodetic datum
Singapore Territorial Sea 25-05-73 1. KERTAU48
2. KERTAU68
3. GENUK
4. SOUTH ASIA
Malaysia Territorial Sea 17-03-70 1. GENUK
Continental Shelf, (Malacca St). 27-10-69 2. KERTAU68
Continental Shelf, 27-10-69 1. KERTAU48
South China Sea, Western part 2. KERTAU68
Continental Shelf, 27-10-69 1. TIMBALAI48
South China Sea, Eastern part 2. TIMBALAI68
Continental Shelf (+Thailand) 21-12-71 1. GENUK
2. KERTAU68
3. INDIAN54
Papua New Territorial Sea (2) 12-02-73 AGD (AUSTRALIAN
Guinea Continental Shelf 13-12-80 GEODETIC DATUM)
18-05-71 1966
Australia Continental Shelf (Seabed) (2) 09-10-72
Fishing Zone 29-10-81
India Continental Shelf 08-08-74 1. GENUK
Continental Shelf 14-01-77 2. INDIAN
Continental Shelf (+Thailand) 22-06-78

Thailand Continental Shelf (2) 17-12-71 1. GENUK


11-12-75 2. INDIAN54
Continental Shelf (+Malaysia) 21-12-71
Continental Shelf (+India) 22-06-78

Table 4
Transformation parameters from local datum to WGS84 datum (DMA 1991)

Local Y Z
datum X(m) (m) (m) Ellipsoid a(m) 1/f
AGD 1966 133 48 148 Australian National 6378160 298.25
Genuk 377 681 50 Bessel 1841 6377397.155 299.1528128
Indian 295 736 257 Everest (India 1956) 6377301.243 300.8017
Indian 1954 217 823 299 Everest (India 1830) 6377276.345 300.8017
Kertau 1948 11 851 5 Everest 6377304.063 300.8017
(Malaysia-Singapore)
South Asia 7 10 26 Modified Fischer 1960 6378155 298.3
Timbalai 1948 679 669 48 Everest 6377298.556 300.8017
(Sabah Sarawak)
298 H. Z. Abidin et al.

Table 5
Values of transformation parameters from WGS84 to KERTAU68 (JUPEM 2003)

BLOCK-I BLOCK-II BLOCK-III


Transformation : 1.0 N2.9 N : 2.9 N4.8 N : 4.8 N7.0 N
parameters : 99 E105 E : 99 E105 E : 99 E105 E
X (m) +379.947 +364.179 +369.690
Y (m) 770.555 703.220 727.644
Z (m) +88.069 +92.460 +88.868
Rx () +2.698 +2.591 +2.453
Ry () +1.522 +2.064 +2.613
Rz () 12.113 12.061 12.039
Scal (ppm) 0.791 11.654 7.697

In the case of coordinate transformation from KERTAU68 datum to WGS84, the fol-
lowing Bursa-Wolf model is used:

X Dx 1 Rz R y X
Y = Dy + (1 + Scal). Rz 1 Rx . Y , (2)
Z KERTAU68 Dz WGS84 R y Rx 1 Z WGS84

with the values of transformation parameters as given in Table 5 depending on the areas.
In the case of transformation from TIMBALAI68 and AGD66, the following Bursa-
Wolf model is used:

X X 1 Rz R y X
Y = Y + (1 + Scal). Rz 1 Rx . Y , (3)
Z WGS84 Z R y Rx 1 Z LOCAL DATUM

with the values of transformation parameters given as in Table 6.


It should be noted in this case that, theoretically speaking, the Molodensky model
is more appropriate than Bursa-Wolf for computing the seven transformation parameters
between a local geodetic datum and a 3-D global geodetic system. Moreover in case of a
local geodetic datum covering a very small geographic area, rotation parameters usually
have little significance. However, it transformation formula can improve the initial accuracy

Table 6
Transformation parameters to WGS84 datum (PC-
Trans 2004; ICSM 2002)

Parameters TIMBALAI 1968 AGD 1966


X (m) 541.80 117.808
Y (m) +667.65 51.536
Z (m) 63.42 137.784
Rx () 0.478 0.303
Ry () 0.240 0.446
Rz () 4.019 0.234
Scal (ppm) +9.139 0.290
Indonesian Maritime Boundaries 299

of boundary points coordinates. These three facts should be considered when the new model
and parameters will be bilaterally determined in the future by Indonesia and the neghboring
country.
In this study, the coordinate transformation is executed using the PCTrans commercial
software (PCTrans 2004) and also in-house transformation software.

Implications Caused by Uncertainty in Geodetic Datum


Legally speaking, the values of geographic coordinates of the maritime boundary points
given in the already ratificated treaties are final and cannot be changed unless the corre-
sponding neighboring countries agree to change them for certain valid reasons. Technically
speaking, however, the values of coordinates will change depending on their geodetic da-
tum. Uncertainty in geodetic datum of Indonesias maritime boundary datum will therefore
introduce both legal and technical implications. Some of these implications are described
and discussed in the following.

Displacement of Boundary Points


Each point on the Earths surface will have different geodetic coordinates with different
geodetic datum. The adoption of a wrong datum for the already agreed coordinates can lead
to the displacements from their true locations in the field. In case of a maritime boundary
between two countries, displacements of boundary points can introduce legal problems,
since the displacements will likely be advantageous for one party and disadvantageous for
another.
An example is shown in Figure 4, in the case of continental shelf boundary between
Indonesia and Malaysia in Malacca strait. This figure illustrates that if KERTAU68 is
assumed as the original geodetic datum for the geographic coordinates listed in the corre-
sponding treaty, then their transformed WGS84 coordinates will shift to the East toward
the Indonesian territory for about 120 to 180 m. However, if GENUK is assumed as the
original geodetic datum, then the boundary line will shift to the Southeast direction toward
Malaysian territory for about 210 to 290 m. Therefore, Malaysia will spatially be benefited if
the adopted original datum is KERTAU68 and if the adopted original datum is GENUK, then
Indonesia will be in favorable position. The displacements of other Indonesias maritime
boundaries are summarized in Table 7.
The results shown in Table 5 indicate that the displacement of Indonesias maritime
boundaries in WGS84 datum are in the order of a few hundred meters, i.e., about 200 to
400 m in general, depending on the assumed original geodetic datum of the boundaries. The
displacements also spatially vary in magnitudes.

Effects on the Other Boundary Lines


Since the coordinates of boundary points depend on their geodetic datum, then the location
and orientation of boundary lines will also depend on the adopted geodetic datum. The-
oretically speaking, geodetic datum of Indonesias maritime boundary should be unique
and consistent throughout the whole boundary lines. However since maritime boundary
agreements were conducted on country-by-country basis related to certain maritime zone,
and they were not explicitly stated in the treaties, then in reality it is difficult to expect the
existence of unique and consistent throughout the boundary lines.
300 H. Z. Abidin et al.

Figure 4. Displacements of the 1969 continental shelf boundary between Indonesia and Malaysia
on WGS84 datum, depending on the assumed original datum.

Therefore, the uncertainty in geodetic datum of certain boundary line will also affect
the other boundary lines connected to that line. If there are two adopted original geodetic
datum for two consecutive boundary lines, then after they are transformed to WGS84
datum, those two boundary lines may not be properly connected. The WGS84 coordinates
of the junction point will also be different, and indeed it will create technical and also
legal problems. This complication is illustrated in Figure 5 related to maritime boundary
between Indonesia and Thailand. From this figure it can be realized that the displacement
of maritime boundary line between Indonesia and Thailand, will not only create a problem
for Indonesia and Thailand, but also will affect the boundary lines of Indonesia-Malaysia,
Malaysia-Thailand, Indonesia-India, and IndiaThailand.

Precise Navigation Requirement


In this era where the precise navigation of vessel (submeter level accuracy) is possible with
the utilization of ECDIS and DGPS positioning system (Forbes 2004), the need for certainty
in geodetic datum of maritime boundary points is increasing. The good example in this case
is the maritime boundary between Indonesia and Singapore, which lies in the Singapore
Strait. This strait is one of the busiest navigation channels in the region, which is sailed by
various small and large vessels throughout the day.
As shown in Table 7, the maritime boundary line between Indonesia and Singapore
may be displaced by about 25 to 220 m, depending on the assumed original datum of
Indonesian Maritime Boundaries 301

Table 7
Displacements of Indonesias maritime boundaries in WGS84 datum, as function of the
assumed original datum for boundary points coordinates

Boundary
Border Possible displacement in m Advantage
country Boundary type datum (Direction) for:
Singapore Territorial Sea KERTAU48 190196 (West) Indonesia
KERTAU68 188193 (West) Indonesia
GENUK 210215 (Southeast) Singapore
SOUTH ASIA 2526 (West) Indonesia
Malaysia Territorial Sea GENUK 220250 (Southeast) Indonesia
KERTAU68 150180 (West) Malaysia
Continental Shelf GENUK 210290 (Southeast) Indonesia
(Malacca St).
KERTAU68 120-180 (West) Malaysia
Continental Shelf (South KERTAU48 195225 (West) Indonesia
China Sea, Western part) KERTAU68 150220 (West) Indonesia
Continental Shelf (South TIMBALAI48 417420 (Southeast) Indonesia
China Sea, Eastern part) TIMBALAI68 412415 (Southeast) Indonesia
India Continental Shelf GENUK 330360 (Southeast) India
INDIAN 400420 (Northwest) Indonesia
Thailand Continental Shelf GENUK 300335 (Southeast) Indonesia
INDIAN54 380420 (Northwest) Thailand
Papua New Territorial Sea (2) AGD 1966 198205 (Northeast) Indonesia
Guinea Continental Shelf
Australia Continental Shelf AGD 1966 200210 (Northeast) Australia
(Seabed) (2)
Fishing Zone

agreed boundary points coordinates. Considering that DGPS system can provide real-time
relative positioning accuracy at a meter level or better; or even absolute GPS positioning
can give a position accuracy at about 5 to 10 m level, then the certainty of geodetic datum
of Indonesia-Singapore maritime boundary is indeed necessary.
Since the ENC (Electronic Navigation Chart) which is part of ECDIS, should have
a WGS84 datum according to the IMO (International Maritime Organization) regulation,
then, in this regard, the coordinates of Indonesias maritime boundary points should also be
better expressed in WGS84 datum.

Natural Resources Exploration in Border Region


Along the Indonesias maritime boundaries there are several regions, which are potentially
rich with natural resources (e.g., natural gas and oil), such as Natuna Sea, Celebes Sea, and
Timor Sea. In exploration of these natural resources, the certainty in boundary line location
is very important since it will have a huge financial implication.
GPS positioning technologies have been widely used in marine exploration activities.
Considering the high accuracy level that can be provided in real-time by DGPS and RTK
302 H. Z. Abidin et al.

Figure 5. Maritime boundary line between Indonesia and Thailand.

(Real Time Kinematic)-GPS systems (i.e., up to dm level), then the coordinates of maritime
boundary points should also be known to that level of accuracy in WGS datum. In this regard,
the certainty in original geodetic datum of Indonesias maritime boundaries becomes very
crucial, before they can be transformed into WGS84 datum.

Complicating Matters
Based on the previous explanation, determining the real and correct geodetic datums for the
boundary points coordinates of Indonesian maritime boundaries, which were not previously
stated in their corresponding treaties, will not be an easy task. The task is also complicated
by several related matters, which are generally described in the following.
Every maritime boundary treaty has a chart that is annexed to the treaty document.
Unfortunately most of the annexed charts to the treaties of Indonesian maritime boundaries
did not mention the datum of the chart. Some charts also did not mention the projection
being used.
Accuracy and reliability of the annexed charts are also debatable. Some of them have
been compiled using various data, information gathered from several sources, and also from
various times of observation. Therefore it can be expected that the accuracy and reliability
will not be the same for the whole chart.
The accuracy level of the boundary points coordinates listed in the treaty is also ques-
tionable. Since the boundary points were usually located based on equidistance-principle
on a relatively small-scale chart (e.g., 1:100.000 to 1:1.000.000), the accuracy level can
Indonesian Maritime Boundaries 303

be expected to be not so high. The equidistance-principle is also applied in the horizontal


plane (chart) and often neglects the geodetic requirements. Moreover since the shorelines
of the bordering countries used in implementing this equidistance-principle most probably
do not have the same spatial accuracy, then accuracy of the located boundary points could
further degraded. Therefore the accuracy can be also expected to differ from point to point.
As has been mentioned, some transformation model and parameters are available for
transforming some existing local datums in and around Indonesia to WGS84 global datum.
The quality of the available transformation parameters is however questionable, since the
estimation methodology of those parameters are not so rigorous and also not well docu-
mented. The changes in the origin and orientation of WGS84 datum that have occurred
three times since its original version also complicated the matters.
Finally it should be realized that all coordinates of the boundary points are not connected
to a certain geodetic reference frame. Instead, they are connected to natural objects such the
outermost islands and shorelines, which are prone to changes caused by natural dynamics.

Closing Remarks
The uncertainty in geodetic datum of Indonesias maritime boundaries has to be resolved
as soon as possible. The discussions, talks, and negotiations with the involved countries
have to be started and conducted according to the UNCLOS procedures usually adopted in
maritime boundary delimitation process.
In this negation process there are several matters that should be discussed to be agreed
upon. The first is the original geodetic datum that should be adopted for the already listed
coordinates of boundary points in the corresponding treaty. The results of this unilateral
study can be used as an initial input for further analysis. The involved countries should also
decide the final geodetic datum that will be used for reconstruction and implementation
purposes. In this case, WGS84 seems to be the most sensible datum to choose.
After the original and final datum is decided, then the involved parties should also deter-
mine the coordinate transformation model between the two datums. Method and mechanism
for estimating the values of transformation parameters should also be discussed and settled.
It should be emphasized here that Indonesia and all related countries should legally agree
on all decisions in these matters.
As previously indicated, the transformed coordinates of boundary points in WGS84 da-
tum can be spatially in favor of a certain country and therefore disadvantageous to the other.
The mechanism for overcoming this complication should also be negotiated by Indonesia
and its neighboring countries.

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