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International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication Volume: 5 Issue: 5

ISSN: 2321-8169 393 395

Analysis of Channel Models for Memory Less Nonlinear System

Er. Sukhwinder Partap Rana1 Research Scholar Department: Electronics & Communication Engineering Guru Gobind Singh College of Engg. & Technology Guru Kashi University, Talwandi Sabo Bathinda (PB)

sp_rana72@yahoo.com

Er. Harisharan Aggarwal2 Head of Department Department: Electronics & Communication Engineering Guru Gobind Singh College of Engg. & Technology Guru Kashi University, Talwandi Sabo Bathinda (PB)

Abstract-- OFDM technology has become the foundation technology of Digital communication system. The high power amplifier can effectively improve the peak-average power ratio of OFDM system, but with deprived linear performance. In this paper focus to improve linear performance of Memory less non linear system, analyzes the two different channel models i.e. Saleh Model and Rapp Model for their characteristics and presents a construction method by the corresponding nonlinear performance curve, and then presents a design of pre-distorter which can improve system linear performance. The nonlinear performance curve is used to do the simulation. The paper presents result for both models.

Keywords---Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Peak To Average Power Ratio, Inter Carrier Crosstalk, Wideband Code Division Multiple Access.

*****

I. INTRODUCTION

In present Scenario OFDM technology which has high signal spectrum efficiency and strong resistance to inter- symbol interference (ISI) has become the core technology of DTMB system. While OFDM signals are composed of multiple independent modulated subcarrier signals and produced signals may produce high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) [1]. When signals go through a nonlinear amplifier with maximum power, the power amplifier nonlinearity will roots to serious distortion of the signals and destroy the orthogonality between users, and results in inter- carrier crosstalk (ICI). So, power amplifier with maximum efficiency has become the focus of OFDM system. Though the power amplifier is with high efficiency, its linear performance is unsatisfactory. Therefore it’s a need that power amplifier adopt appropriate linearization techniques to improve the linearity power amplifier. Among the various linearization techniques use of pre-distortion technology is a better choice [2]. To construct the pre-distorter successfully, one should provide appropriate nonlinear model of power amplifier firstly. Consequently, the nonlinear model of power amplifier plays a very significant role in the entire pre-distortion design system. Family of Models have also been presented by various researchers. Empirical Models of Nonlinearity such as Saleh Model, Rapp Model, have also been studied briefly. Various parameter extraction techniques for nonlinear models such as three box model, memory less and memory polynomial model have been

IJRITCC | May 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

simulated and their performance has been evaluated on the basis of modeling accuracy.

The paper has been organized as follows:

introduction to Channel Models in section I, Basics of Saleh Model And Rapp Model has been presented in section II & III respectively, simulation results have been disused in section IV and section V is the conclusion.

II. SALEH MODEL

In this model, nonlinearity is defined using a model that needs only four parameters. Originally, this model was used to model TWT amplifier but it has also been used to model solid-state power amplifiers. In this model, the AMAM and AMPM characteristics of the amplifier are given by [3]:

and

F A

[

,

f

]

a

(

( f

f )

) A

A

1

a

2

(1)

(

A

,

f

)

(

f

)

A

2

1

(

f

)

A

2

(2)

  

a

a

,

,

denote the parameter, of the model

,generally, which are frequency dependent. These parameters represent the hardness of the nonlinear characteristics and can be adjusted to give the desired

Here

and

393

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication Volume: 5 Issue: 5

ISSN: 2321-8169 393 395

nonlinear characteristics. If A is very large, F(A) is

proportional to 1/ A and (A) approaches a constant [4]. The Saleh model reduces to the memoryless case when the model parameters are frequency independent. In this case, the complex envelope of the output of the amplifier is given by

 a x t  ( ) y t  ( )  exp 2
 a x t
 ( )
y t
 ( ) 
exp
2
1 
x t
 ( )
a
 2  x t  ( )       
2
x t
 ( )
 
j
( )
t
2
1
x t
 ( )
  
  

(3)

III. RAPP MODEL

The Rapp models have a memory less nonlinearity with no AMPM conversion [6]. The Rapp model is given by

(

y

t

)

Gx  ( t ) 1/2 p   2 p  x  (
Gx
 (
t
)
1/2 p
 
2 p
x
 (
t
)
1 
V
sat
 

(4)

V sat

defines

the saturation input voltage and p is a parameter that represents the hardness of the nonlinear characteristics. The

Here G defines the linear gain of the amplifier,

Rapp model converges to a hard-limiter model when p approaches infinity.

IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

For the evaluation of the performance of communication system and implementation of nonlinear models, MATLAB is used as a tool. The simulation of performance metrics is based on the measurement of the autocorrelation function and the power spectral density of the output of nonlinearity for different input signals. The autocorrelation functions are computed from time autocorrelation functions by assuming ergodicity, which is a valid assumption for most communication signals. A memoryless nonlinearity can be produced by simulation using one of the empirical nonlinear models such as the Saleh and Rapp models. These models can be used to produce nonlinear characteristics over a range of input power by controlling the parameters of the nonlinear model such as the α, β parameters of the Saleh model and the p parameter of the Rapp model. Figure 1 shows nonlinear characteristics produced by using Rapp model and Figure 2 and Figure 3 shows the AM-AM and AM-PM nonlinear characteristics produced by using Saleh model.

nonlinear characteristics produced by using Saleh model. Fig. 1 Nonlinear Characteristics Produced By Using Rapp

Fig. 1 Nonlinear Characteristics Produced By Using Rapp Model

1 Nonlinear Characteristics Produced By Using Rapp Model Fig. 2 AM-AM Nonlinear Characteristics Produced By Using

Fig. 2 AM-AM Nonlinear Characteristics Produced By Using Saleh

2 AM-AM Nonlinear Characteristics Produced By Using Saleh Fig. 3 AM-PM Nonlinear Characteristics Produced By Using

Fig. 3 AM-PM Nonlinear Characteristics Produced By Using Saleh Model.

IJRITCC | May 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

394

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication Volume: 5 Issue: 5

ISSN: 2321-8169 393 395

Volume: 5 Issue: 5 ISSN: 2321-8169 393 – 395 Fig. 4 Frequency Response of Linear Filter

Fig. 4 Frequency Response of Linear Filter

Figure 4 shows the linear filter frequency response used in the simulation. The nonlinearity with memory generated and applies it to a WCDMA signal.

V CONCLUSION

The design of memory-less nonlinear models to linearize power amplifiers was considered. Both the model assumes that power amplifiers have no memory effects, that is, the system has no information of past events and therefore the present output signal is only a function of present input

signal. The main advantage is the simplification of the model as there is no requirement to model even order nonlinearities.

REFERENCES

[1]

Ghannouchi, “Performance-Driven Dimension Estimation Of Memory Polynomial Behavioral Models For Wireless Transmitters And Power Amplifiers”, Progress In Electromagenetics Research C, Vol. 12, 173-189, 2010. [2] Anding Zhu, Member, IEEE, and Thomas J. Brazil, Fellow, IEEE,” Behavioral Modeling of RF Power Amplifiers Based on Pruned Volterra Series”, IEEE Microwave And Wireless

Components Letters, Vol. 14, No. 12, December 2004. [3] Y. Guo and J. R. Cavallaro, "A novel adaptive pre-distorter using LSestimation of SSPA nonlinearity in mobile OFDM systems," in IEEE Symp., vol. 3, pp. 453-456, May 2002. [4] Hyunchul Ku, Student Member, IEEE, and J. Stevenson Kenney, Senior Member, IEEE,” Behavioral Modeling of Nonlinear RF Power Amplifiers Considering Memory Effects”, IEEE Transactions On Microwave Theory And Techniques, Vol. 51, No. 12, December 2003. [5] A.B.J. KokkelerUniversity of Twente,P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede,” Modeling Power Amplifiers using Memory Polynomials”, 12th Annual Symposium Of The Ieee/Cvt, Enschede, The Netherlands, Nov. 3, 2005.

[6]

Joel H. K. Vuolevi, TimoRahkonen, and Jani P. A. Manninen, "Measurement Technique for Characterizing Memory Effects in RF Power Amplifiers" IEEE Transactions On Microwave Theory And Techniques, Vol. 49, No. 8, August 2001.

O. Hammi, M. Younes, and A. Kwan, M. Smith and F. M.

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