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..

--

2018

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373.167.1:54
24721
444
30

. .
30 : /
.. . . 3-. / : ,
2018. 174, [1] . : . ().
ISBN 978-5-222-29877-0

,
,
.

-
.

373.167.1:54
24721
ISBN 978-5-222-29877-0
. ., 2017
, , 2017


- -
www.phoenixbooks.ru

()
: , -
.
(
) -
,
.

, , .
, , ,
,
, .
-
,
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-

.
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.
!


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1.

1.1. .

.
Z -

().

.
- -

.

14



1-
_
1s1 b
2 ` s-,
1
2
He 1s b
a
2-
_
2 1 b
Li 1s 2s
3 ` s-,
4
Be 1s22s2 b
a
5
B 1s22s22p1 _b
1s22s22p2 b
6 b
N 1s22s22p3 b
7
` p-,
8
O 1s22s22p4 b
2 2 5 b
9
F 1s 2s 2p b
10
Ne 1s22s22p6 ba

4

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3-
_
Na 1s22s22p63s1 b
11 ` s-,
Mg 1s22s22p63s2 b
12 a _ _
Al 1s22s22p63s23p1 b `
13
b a
Si 1s22s22p63s23p2 _
14 b b
P 1s22s22p63s23p3 b b
15 ` p- b
16
S 1s22s22p63s23p4 b `
Cl 1s22s22p63s23p5 b b
17 b b
Ar 1s22s22p63s23p6 b b
18
a a
4-
_
K 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 b
19 ` s-,
Ca 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 b
20 a
_
21
Sc 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d1 b
Ti 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d b
2 2 6 2 6 2 2
22 b
23
V 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d3 b
24
Cr 1s22s22p63s23p64s13d5 b b
Mn 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d5 b
25
` d-,
26
Fe 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6 b
27
Co 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d b
2 2 6 2 6 2 7
b
28
Ni 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d8 b
b
29
Cu 1s22s22p63s23p64s13d10 b
2 2 6 2 6 2 10 b
Zn 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
30 a
Ga 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p1 _ _
31 b `
Ge 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p2 b
32
2 2 6 2 6 2 10 3b _a
As 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p ` -
33
b
Se 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p4 b
34
b `
35
Br 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p5 b b
36
Kr 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6 b
a a

5

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( Z) N:

A=Z+N

: 35
17
Cl 35
+17; 17 ,
N = 35 17 = 18.

.
:
35 37
17
Cl 17
Cl
(N = 18) (N = 20)
144444424444443

(Ar) , -
,
(
) 1/12 -
126.
-
( Ar(Cl)):

- Ar - Ar - Ar
H 1 Si 28 Zn 65
C 12 P 31 Br 80
N 14 S 32 Ag 108
O 16 Cl 35,5 I 127
F 19 K 39 Ba 137
Na 23 Ca 40 Au 197
Mg 24 Fe 56 Hg 201
Al 27 Cu 64 Pb 207

6

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1.2.

, .. -
1869 ., - . , -

( ) .
-

(. . 1.1.).
(2, 3) :



1
8

-




:

7

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1.3. .

- (Mr ) -
,
, .
:
Mr [Fe2(SO4)3] = 2Ar(Fe) + 3Ar(S) + 12Ar(O) =
= 2 56 + 3 32 + 12 16 = 400.

Ar ( X ) n
( X ) ,
Mr
Ar() ;
n -;
Mr -.
, (III)
Fe2(SO4)3
Ar (Fe) 2 56 2
(Fe)= = = 0,28 (28%)
Mr [Fe2 (SO4 )3 ] 400

1.4. .
-.
-, 6,02 1023
- (, .).
6,02 1023 . :
N = 6,02 1023 1.
()
- N - n :
N
n= N = n NA
NA

8

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- M -.
- / -
-, ,
, - -
. :
Mr (H2O) = 18 M(H2O) = 18 /
Ar (Fe) = 56 M(Fe) = 56 /.

- m, - n -
- :
m
n= m = n M
M

, - 4,5
4,5
n(H2O) = = 0,25 .
18 /

1.5. .

VM .

(..) 22,4 :

VM = 22,4 /.
: 0 (273)
1 (760 . .; 101,3 ).
V, -
:

V
n= V = n VM
VM

9

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Y
Dy() (
) :
M ( X ) Mr ( X )
Dy ( X ) = =
M(Y ) Mr (Y )


DH () D.():
2

Mr ( X ) Mr ( X )
DH2 ( X ) = ; D. ( X ) =
2 29

1.6. .
, -,
( -),
- ( -).
, ,
- -, -
.
,
- -
-, ,
-.
:
2Al + 3H2SO4 = Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2
144424443 14444244443
2 Al 2 Al
6 H 6 H
3 S 3 S
12 O 12 O

-
- -.
, -:
n(Al) : n(H2) = 2 : 3;
n(Al) : n[Al2(SO4)3] = 2 : 1 . .

10

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,
. , ., -
( ..) , 10,8
:

n(Al) = m(Al)/M(Al) = 10,8 /27 / = 0,4


n(H2) = 3/2 n(Al) = 3/2 0,4 = 0,6
V(H2) = 0,6 VM = 0,6 22,4 / = 13,44 .

1.7.

.

.

( ) .
-
:

14

I II III IV V VI VII VIII


1 H He
2,1
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
0,9 1,2 1,5 1,8 2,1 2,5 3,0
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni
0,8 1,0 1,3 1,5 1,6 1,6 1,5 1,8 1,9 1,9
4 Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
1,9 1,6 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,4 2,8

11

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www.phoenixbooks.ru
(0,71,2),
(2,84,0).
,
, .
-
(),
(). -
, .
. :
1e

Na0 + Cl0 Na+ Cl


1s22s22p63s1 1s22s22p63s23p5 1s22s22p6 1s22s22p63s23p6

: 0,9 3,0
= (Cl) (Na) = 2,1 (>1,7)
0 < 1,7, -
.
-
.
:
H2

H + * H1 H * H HH
1s1 1s
1s2 1s2

H
, . . .
1, 2 3 -
:
( )
_
b
`
b
a
-;
- -;
- -.
12

- -
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( = 0) -
. -
, .,
-: H2, Cl2(ClCl), N2 (NN) .
0 < < 1,7, -
,
. -

+,
; .:
+
HCl
: 2,1 3,0
- -
; .,
H2O2:

H

,
, .
( ).
:
HO VI O
S
HO O
, -
:

H, F Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs I
O II Be, Mg, Ca, Zn, Sr, Cd, Ba II
B () Al () III

13

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,
.:





S () II HSH (H2S)
IV OSO (SO2)
HO O
VI S (H2SO4)
HO O
Cl () I HCl (HCl); HOCl (HClO)
III HOClO (HClO2)
O
V HOCl (HClO3)
O
O
VII HOCl O (HClO4)
O

1.8.
(..) -
,
.
.. 0:

Fe0, Na0, C0, H20, O20, N20 . .


,
:
) (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) +1
) II (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Zn, Cd) +2
) Al +3
) F 1
.. = +1 (-
1 1
NaH, CaH2 .).
14

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-
O
R C
.. H
O
OH,

:


RCOOH RCOO + H+
-

HCOOH, CH3COOH... C9H19COOH, C10H21COOH


144444444444424444444444443 14444244443
/.

14444444244444443
c H2O H2O


I.

HCOOH CH3COOH C2H5COOH


1.

CH3COOH + KOH CH3COOK + H2O


2.

2HCOOH + CaO (HCOO)2Ca + H2O


111

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3.

2CH3CH2COOH + 2Na 2CH3CH2COONa + H2


4. ( . . -
)

2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 2CH3COONa + CO2 + H2O


2HCOOH + Mg(HCO3)2 (HCOO)2Mg + 2CO2 + 2H2O


5.

CH3COOH + NH3 CH3COONH4




:
T O
CH3COONH4 CH3C + H2O
NH2

II. OH

1. ( )
+
H ,T
O O
CH3C + CH3CHCH3 CH3C + H2O
OH OCH(CH3)2
HO
- -2
()

2. NH3 (
)

O T O
CH3C + HNH2 CH3C + H2O
OH NH2

()

112

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3.
. -
PCl3, PCl5.
O O
CH3C + PCl5 CH3C + POCl3 + HCl
OH Cl

O O
3RC + PCl3 3RC + H3PO3
OH Cl
4. ( -
)
O
O O P2O5, T RC
RC + CR O + H2O
OH HO RC
O
[(RCO)2O]

P2O5, T
2CH3COOH (CH3CO)2O + H2O

III.
-

P(.)
HH2COOH + Cl2 ClCH2COOH + HCl

- () -

+Cl +Cl
ClCH2COOH
2
Cl2CHCOOH
2
Cl3CCOOH
HCl HCl
-
- -

113

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1.
1.1. . ......................................... 4
1.2.
........................................................... 7
1.3. . ............. 8
1.4. . ........................................................... 8
1.5. .
........................................................................................ 9
1.6. . ............ 10
1.7. ................................................................. 11
1.8. ............................................ 14
1.9. - () ........... 15
1.10.
()......................................................................... 18
1.11. (
) ............................................................................... 18
1.12. .................................................... 20
1.13. ............................................................................. 21
1.14. .
................................................................................. 22
1.15. ................................................................... 26
1.16. .......................................................................... 27

2.
2.1. ................... 29
2.1.1. ................................ 29
2.1.2. ................................... 34
2.1.3. ............................... 35
2.1.4. ..................................... 36

173

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2.1.5. ..... 36
2.1.6. ....................................... 37
2.1.7. .......................................... 38
2.2. ................................................... 39
2.2.1. (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) ...................... 39
2.2.2. (Ca, Sr, Ba) ................ 40
2.2.3. .................................................................... 41
2.2.4. ......................................................................... 41
2.2.5. ............................................................................. 42
2.2.6. ...................................................................... 43
2.3. ............................................... 44
2.3.1. ........................................................................ 44
2.3.2. .............................................................................. 45
2.3.3. ...................................................................... 46
2.3.4. .............................................................................. 47
2.3.5. .............................................................................. 49
2.3.6. ........................................................................ 52
2.3.7. ........................................................................ 53
2.3.8. ....................................................................... 54

3.
3.1. ()............................................................... 56
3.1.1. () .
() .................................................................. 57
3.1.2. . .................................. 61
3.1.3. () .
( ; )......................................... 64
3.1.4. . . ................... 69
3.1.5. . ( ) ....... 73
3.1.6. . .............. 78

174

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3.2. ............. 86
3.2.1. ()....................................................... 86
3.2.2. ......................................................................... 96
3.2.3. .................................................................. 102
3.2.4. ................................................ 108
3.2.5. . ............................................ 119
3.2.6. .................................................................... 124
3.3. ................... 136
3.3.1. ......................................................................... 136
3.3.2. ........................................................... 142
3.3.3. () ...................................................... 148
3.3.4. .............................. 153
3.3.5. () ...................................... 159
................................................................................. 166
............................................................. 167


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