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PRODUCTION OF 20000 METRIC TONS/YEAR OF MONOCHLOROBENZENE BY

THE DIRECT CHLORINATION OF BENZENE

A REPORT ON
PLANT DESIGN OF MONOCHLOROBENZENE
UNDER THE GUIDENCE
OF
PROF. A. K. SAHA
BY
ABHISEK PAUL ANTARIM DUTTA BIKRAMJIT SHA
12/CH/01 12/CH/09 12/CH/13
DIPANJAN BISWAS
12/CH/17

Department of Chemical Engineering


Haldia Institute of Technology

1|P ro d uc tio n o f M o noc hlo ro be nzene


Haldia Institute of Technology

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report titled , " PRODUCTION OF 20000 METRIC
TONS/YEAR OF MONOCHLOROBENZENE BY THE DIRECT CHLORINATION
OF BENZENE" submitted by Abhisek Paul, Antarim dutta, Bikramjit Sha, Dipanjan Biswas
in partial fulfillments for the requirement for the award of Bachelor of Technology Degree in
Chemical Engineering during session 2012-2016 Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia is an
authentic work carried out by him under supervision and guidance.

Date-
Place- Prof A. k. Saha
Department of Chemical Engineering
Haldia Institute of Technology

2|P ro d uc tio n o f M o noc hlo ro be nzene


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to convey our sincere gratitude to Prof A. K. Saha(HOD of chemical


Engineering Depertment,HIT) for his invaluable suggestions, constructive criticism,
motivation and guidance for carrying out related experiments and for preparing the associated
reports and presentations. His encouragement towards the current topic helped us a lot in this
project work which also created an area of interest for our professional career ahead.

(ABHISEK PAUL) (ANTARIM DUTTA)

(BIKRAMJIT SHA) (DIPANJAN BISWAS)

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ABSTRACT

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CONTENT

Introduction ..
Properties & uses ..
Manufacturing process .
Process flow sheet ..
Material Balance ..
Energy Balance .
Cost Estimation .
Conclusion .
Reference .

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INTRODUCTION
Chlorobenzene was one of the earliest heavy organic chemicals that is, those chemicals which
were produced industrially in large amounts. The former United Alkali Company first
produced chlorobenzene industrially at Widnes, England, in 1909. Chlorobenzene first
acquired importance during the World War I, when it was required in high tonnage 8 making
phenol in picric acid manufacture.
Chlorobenzene is a colorless, mobile liquid with an almond like odor. At ordinary
temperature and pressure chlorobenzene is unaffected by the presence of air, moisture, or
light, and upon prolonged boiling, shows no tendency to split off chlorine. The chlorine atom
in chlorobenzene is unreactive at ordinary temperatures and pressures. At moderate
temperatures, chlorobenzene is unaffected by steam, alkalis, hydrochloric acid, and dilute
sulphuric acid. Even boiling for several hours with alcoholic KOH has no effect on
chlorobenzene. It is soluble in all proportions in ether, chloroform, benzene, alcohol and
carbon disulphide. It is insoluble in water. Hydrolysis, with the formation of Phenol takes
place at 450C to 500C in the presence of a catalyst or with alcoholic alkalis or with water
under pressure at high temperatures. Aniline may be prepared by reaction with concentrated
ammonium hydroxide under pressure in the presence of copper catalyst. Of technical
importance is the preparation of DDT by condensation of chlorobenzene with chloral in the
presence of fuming Sulphuric Acid. Chlorination of chlorobenzene in the presence of a
variety of catalysts produces prominently o and p-Dichlorobenzene isomers. Chlorobenzene
forms both binary and ternary azeotropic mixtures with water and a number of organic
liquids. Chlorobenzene are less toxic than benzene. Liquid chlorobenzene produces mild to
moderate irritation upon skin contact. Contact with eye tissue at normal temperature cause s
pain, mild to moderate irritation, and possibly some transient corneal injury. Prompt washing
with large quantities of water is extremely helpful. Continued contact may cause roughness or
a mild burn. Absorption through the skin is slow and with short-term exposure over a limited
period of time, no significant amounts will enter the body. Since the monochlorobenzene
vapor forms explosive mixtures with air, open flames and smoking should not be allowed
where chlorobenzene is stored or used.
PEOPERTIES & USES
MANUFACTURING PROCESS
The basic principle behind the manufacture of Chlorobenzene is the chlorination of benzene
with or without the presence of a catalyst (Friedel-Craft reaction). The products of such a
reaction would be Chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene and the higher
6|P ro d uc tio n o f M o noc hlo ro be nzene
chlorinated benzenes. In actual practice in the industry, only Chlorobenzene and small
amounts of dichlorobenzene are formed. The amounts of dichlorobenzene and higher
substituted Chlorobenzene formed can be reduced greatly by using selective catalysts and
modifying reaction conditions. Thus essentially chlorination of benzene can be considered as
taking place in three pairs of two stages each:
(1) Chlorination of benzene to monochlorobenzene and dichlorobenzene.
(2) Chlorination of dichlorobenzene to trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzenes.
(3) Chlorination of tetrachlorobenzenes to pentachlorobenzenes and hexachlorobenzene.
Chlorination can be carried out either batch wise or continuously. When minimum formation
of dichlorobenzenes is required then the latter procedure is followed. In the batch process,
benzene is contained in a deep, iron or steel vessel, fitted with lead cooling coils. The
chlorine feed-pipe enters at the bottom of the chlorinator and the catalyst is ferric chloride.
The temperature is maintained at less than 45C. HCl produced in the reaction can be
recovered after separation from benzene by washing with a refrigerated solvent. At
temperatures below 40C, the rate of formation of dichlorobenzene is very low and this fact is
used to suppress formation of dichlorobenzene in the continuous process. A typical
continuous process plant consists of a series of small, externally cooled steel vessels
containing the catalyst. Chlorine is supplied to each vessel through suitably placed inlets and
the temperature of the reaction is
maintained between 20 - 40C.
As the Chlorobenzene is formed, it leaves the chlorination zone at a speed that allows no
further chlorination to take place. Unreacted benzene and Chlorobenzene are continuously
separated by fractional distillation, returning the benzene to the chlorination stage and the
efficiency of this process can be as high as 95%.
There are different ways in which the chlorination of benzene can be brought about and these
form the different processes for the manufacture of Chlorobenzene. The first is called the
Raschig Process. In this process, benzene is chlorinated by chlorine that has been produced in
situ in the reactor by the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen chloride. A pre-heated mixture of
benzene vapour, air, steam, and HCl, at ordinary pressure, is brought into contact at 220 -
260C with a catalyst of copper oxide. 2% of the total benzene combusts, giving rise to about
one quarter of the total heat output of the process. The disadvantage of this process is that the
high temperature greatly favours high combustion rates of benzene and the reaction may
become uncontrollable. Moreover the high costs of this vapour phase chlorination process in
comparison with other available processes, allows it to be highly uneconomical for
7|P ro d uc tio n o f M o noc hlo ro be nzene
Chlorobenzene manufacture and thus renders it obsolete. In another process, chlorination of
benzene is carried out in a quartz tube at 400 - 500C. Here the principal product obtained is
Chlorobenzene along with minor amounts of dichlorobenzene. Benzene has also been
chlorinated in the gaseous phase at 425C by means of nitrosylchloride. The process of
Loeser and Schmidt, in which a mixture of benzene vapour, HCl, and air is reacted at 150
300C in contact with a copper hydroxide-alumina catalyst (in the form of a fluidised mass),
may be regarded as a variant of Raschigs Process. The disadvantages of all these processes
are low efficiency and high temperature, which may make the reaction uncontrollable leading
to formation of higher Chlorobenzene. Based on all the above considerations, the continuous
liquid phase chlorination of benzene at a temperature of about 40C is best suited for
production of large amounts of monochlorobenzene in the industry.
The process is economically viable too making it the most popular process being used in the
industry for the manufacture of monochlorobenzene all over the world.
As already known, industrial chlorination of benzene is carried out in the liquid phase at
moderate temperature with the help of a catalyst to produce monochlorobenzene and minor
amounts of dichlorobenzene. Chlorobenzene and the o- and p-dichlorobenzene are the
principal products. The reaction is a consecutive, competitive reaction. Liquid benzene is fed
to a chlorinator operating at 2.4 bars. The feed enters at 25C, at atmospheric pressure and
also contains some water. Gaseous chlorine is fed to this tank, also at atmospheric pressure
and at 25C and is considered fully pure. There may be several chlorinators operating in
series or parallel depending upon the degree of chlorination of benzene required. Ferric
chloride is usually the catalyst. This can be added as a solution in benzene, or as iron
turnings, or scrap that provides the ferric chloride in the chlorinator. Since the reaction is
exothermic cooling is required to maintain the temperature at about 40C. The HCl gas (90%
of the HCl formed) leaving the reactor is first cooled to condense the impurities (benzene and
chlorinated products) and then it is scrubbed in a scrubber using refrigerated Chlorobenzene.
The crude chlorobenzene stream leaving the reactor is washed with NaOH solution (20 wt%;
maintained slightly alkaline to protect downstream equipment from corrosion) in a pre-
neutralizer. The product stream is free of HCl. The product is fed to a Benzene Recovery
Column, which is a distillation column. Here the bottoms are almost 100 % pure
chlorobenzene. The tops contain 98 % by weight of benzene and 2% chlorobenzene and all of
the benzene is recycled to the benzene storage via a purifier. From the purifier the
monochlorobenzene is sent to the refrigeration system. The bottoms from the Benzene
column contain monochlorobenzene and dichlorobenzene. This is fed to the chlorobenzene
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column, which is again a distillation column. This may contain 12 to 20 trays and is operated
at a pressure ranging from 37 lb/in.2 abs. The temperature in the chlorobenzene column may
be between 100 - 120C. Monochlorobenzene is the overhead distillate product of a purity of
99%. Dichlorobenzene is the bottom residue product of a purity of 97%.
The reactions involved in the process are as follows:
1. C6 H6 + Cl2 C6H5Cl + HCl
2. C6H5Cl + Cl2 C6H4Cl2 + HCl
Dichlorobenzene is assumed to be a para-isomer. Formation of trichloro isomers is neglected.
When concentrations of dissolved chlorine remains essentially constant then reactions are
first order.
rb = -k1xb
rm = k1xb k2xm k1 = 1 x 10-4 s-1 at 55C
rd = k2xm k2 = 0.15 x 10-4 s-1 at 55C
Where b = benzene, m = monochlorobenzene, d = dichlorobenzene

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PROCESS FLOW SHEET

FIG-1

10 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e
MATERIAL BALANCE
Basis: 330 days/year of operation.
The plant has to produce 23.3 kmols/hr of monochlorobenzene. Assume one hour of
operation.
Balance across Chlorinator
Assume that 100% chlorination occurs in the chlorinator at 40C. It is also assumed that 10%
of the HCl produced in the chlorinator is entrained as liquid in the product. The rest leaves as
vapour along with benzene, MCB and DCB. Only the p-isomer of DCB is formed in the
chlorinator. It is assumed that from the chlorinator, the stream d is led into a condenser from
where we recover the HCl product formed.
Reaction 1: C6 H6 + Cl2 C6H5Cl + HCl
Reaction 2: C6H5Cl + Cl2 C6H4Cl2 + HCl
MCB formed = 24.03 kmols/hr
DCB formed = 3.80 kmols/hr
HCl formed = 31.63 kmols/hr
Benzene remaining = 3.80 kmols/hr
Input into chlorinator:
Benzene present = 31.63 kmols/hr
Chlorine present = 31.63 kmols/hr
Output from chlorinator:
In stream d (29.65 kmols/hr):
MCB present = 0.44 kmols/hr
DCB present = 0.15 kmols/hr
HCl present = 28.47 kmols/hr
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Benzene present = 0.59 kmols/hr
In stream a (33.46 kmols/hr) :
MCB present = 23.44 kmols/hr
DCB present = 3.65 kmols/hr
HCl present = 3.16 kmols/hr
Benzene present = 3.21 kmols/hr
Material balance across Neutralizer
To neutralize 3.16 kmol/hr of HCl, we need 3.16 kmol/hr of NaOH solution. The NaOH soln.
is made slightly alkaline so 2.5% extra soln. is taken. The strength of NaOH soln. taken is
(20+2.5) wt.%.
NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O
Input to Neutralizer:
NaOH solution = 32.82 kmols/hr.
NaOH present =3.32 kmol/hr
Water present in soln.= 29.50 kmol/hr
Stream a (33.46 kmols/hr):
MCB present = 23.44 kmols/hr
DCB present = 3.65 kmols/hr
HCl present = 3.16 kmols/hr
Benzene present = 3.21 kmols/hr
Output from Neutraliser:
In stream b (35.98 kmols/hr):
NaCl present = 3.16 kmols/hr
Water present = 32.66 kmols/hr
NaOH present = 0.16 kmols/hr
In stream c (30.3 kmols/hr) :
MCB present = 23.44 kmols/hr
DCB present = 3.65 kmols/hr
Benzene present = 3.21 kmols/hr
Balance across benzene column
It is assumed that all the entering benzene in this column goes out as distillate as the top
product. The Distillate contains 98 vol% benzene and 2 vol% MCB. Let the distillate stream
be e.
Input into the benzene recovery column:
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In Stream c (30.3 kmols/hr):
MCB present = 23.44 kmols/hr
DCB present = 3.65 kmols/hr
Benzene present = 3.21 kmols/hr
Output from the Benzene recovery column:
In stream e (3.26 kmols/hr) :
Benzene present = 3.21 kmols/hr
MCB present = 0.05 kmols/hr
In stream f (27.99 kmols/hr) :
MCB present = 24.21 kmols/hr
DCB present = 3.78 kmols/hr
Balance for Recycle stream
It is assumed that all the benzene from the benzene column goes to the purifier from which
all the benzene is recycled back into the feed stream.
Recycle r into feed stream = 3.21 kmols/hr
Fresh feed = 28.42 kmols/hr
Balance across Chlorobenzene column
The purity of the MCB in the distillate is assumed to be 99 mol% . The purity of the MCB in
the residue is assumed to be 3 mol% .
Input to the chlorobenzene column:
In stream f (27.99 kmols/hr) :
MCB present = 24.21 kmols/hr
DCB present = 3.78 kmols/hr
Output from the chlorobenzene column:
In stream g (24.23 kmols/hr)
MCB present = 23.99 kmols/hr
DCB present = 0.24 kmols/hr
In stream h (3.76 kmols/hr)
MCB present = 0.11 kmols/hr
DCB present = 3.65 kmols/hr
ENERGY BALANCE
Chlorinator

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Assumption is made that the fresh benzene and chlorine to the chlorinator are stored at a
temperature of 30 0C. The reaction temperature is 40 C. The inlet gases are to be heated to
the reaction temperature. Thus the heat required for this process is

Where
H is the heat required.
Cp is the specific heat of component
Specific heat of benzene = 1.7514 kJ/kg K
Specific heat of chlorine = 8.28 + 0.00058T
This heat may be supplied by condensing at atmospheric pressure.

Amount of steam required for producing this much of heat is


Where is the latent heat of vaporization of steam = 2256.9kJ/kg
C6 H6 + Cl2 C6H5Cl + HCl Hr = -8.5294 x 103 kJ/kmol
C6H5Cl + Cl2 C6H4Cl2 + HCl Hr = -41.1036 x 103 kJ/kmol
Thus the heat liberated within the reactor is
= 413.22 x 103 kJ/hr
The reactor is assumed to function under isothermal conditions. Hence cooling water must be
provided via jackets to keep the reactor at the constant temperature of 40 C.
Cooling water flow rate is found out by

The gases from the chlorinator go out at the temperature of 40 C.


Neutralizer
NaOH + HCl NaCl +H2O Hr = 54.213 x 103 kJ/kmol
Net heat produced in the neutralizer is H = -171.313 x 103 kJ/hr
This heat produced is utilized to increase the temperature of the outlet stream.

By a process of trial and error we find that the outlet temperature is 345 K.

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Benzene Column
Assumption is made that no heat losses occur in the column. For such a column the heat
balance may be written as
Fhf +Qw =DhD +WhW +Qc
F is feed flow rate
D is the distillate flow rate
W is the underflow flow rate.
h indicates the enthalpy of the respective stream
Qw and Qc are the reboiler and condenser heat loads.
h=
Tr is refernce temperature taken as 0 K
hf = 555.4 kJ/kg
hd = 615.33 kJ/kg
hw = 538 kJ/kg
The condenser heat load may be calculated as
QC =
is the latent heat of vaporization the values for benzene and chlorobenzene are
393.3 kJ/kg and 331.1 kJ/kg respectively.
hence QC is obtained as 7.9588 x 103 kJ/hr
Substituting the values obtained we get
QW = 3.2192 x 106 kJ/hr = 894.22 kW
Chlorobenzene Column
Assumption is made that there are no heat losses. Hence the previous equation
holds.
Fhf +Qw =DhD +WhW +Qc
The values for the enthalpies of various streams are
hf = 505.7 kJ/kg
hd = 508 kJ/kg
hw = 497.3 kJ/kg
The condenser heat load is calculated as
QC =
Thus QC = 1.3226 x 106 kJ/hr = 367.4 kW
Hence QW = 2.8017 x 103 kJ/hr = 778.25 kW

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MAJOR EQUIPMENT DESIGN
Process Design Of Chlorobenzene Distillation Column
For simplicity of calculation let us assume that the feed entering the distillation or
chlorobenzene column is a binary mixture of MCB and p-dichlorobenzene and the o-
dichlorobenzene is not entering as feed.
Vapour Pressure Data (Pressure = 48269.0 Pa)
Temperature (K) Vapour Pressure of MCB Vapour Pressure of DCB
(mm Hg) (mm Hg)
405 700 190
408 810 210
411 900 240
415 1000 260
418 1050 300
422 1150 330
426 1300 370
429 1400 400
433 1500 450
437 1700 500
441 1800 575
444 2000 625
448 2200 680
453 2400 740

(Table no i)
Vapour Liquid Equilibrium Data :
Temperature (K) xa (mole fraction of MCB in ya (mole fraction of MCB in
liquid) vapour)
419.367 0.00 0.00
416.329 0.05 0.135
413.256 0.10 0.251
410.394 0.15 0.351
407.722 0.20 0.436
405.220 0.25 0.511

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402.873 0.30 0.575
400.665 0.35 0.632
398.584 0.40 0.683
396.617 0.45 0.727
394.755 0.50 0.766
392.989 0.55 0.803
391.311 0.60 0.833
389.714 0.65 0.862
388.190 0.70 0.888
386.735 0.75 0.911
385.344 0.80 0.932
384.011 0.85 0.951
382.733 0.90 0.969
381.506 0.95 0.985
380.326 1.00 1.00

(Table no ii)
We have,
F = 27.04 kmols/hr
D = 23.52 kmols/hr
W = 3.52 kmols/hr
XF = 0.865
XD = 0.865
XW = 0.865
Average molecular weight of Feed = 117.15 kg/kmol
Average molecular weight of Distillate = 112.84 kg/kmol
Average molecular weight of Residue = 145.96 kg/kmol
D = 2653 kg/hr
W = 513.77 kg/hr
Assume that the feed is a saturated liquid at its boiling point.

So q =

q = 1.
Slope = (q\q-1) =

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From the graph ;
minimum ( Xd \Rm + 1) = 0.73
minimum reflux Rm = 0.3561 mol reflux/mol D
Operating reflux ratio (1.5 Rm ) = 0.5341
Intercept = 0.64
No. of ideal stages = 11
No. of stages in the enriching section = 4
No. of stages in the stripping section = 7
L = RD = 12.56 kmol/hr
G = L+D = 36.08 kmol/hr
= L +qF = 39.6 kmols \hr
= G +(q-1)F = 36.08 kmols \hr
Properties :

(Table no iii)

AVERAGE PROPERTIES

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(Table no iv)
ENRICHING SECTION
TRAY HYDRAULICS :
(1) Plate spacing , ts = 305 mm
(2) Hole diameter , dh =5 mm
(3) Hole pitch , lp =15 mm
(4) Tray thickness , tT =3 mm
(5) = = 0.10

Assume equilateral triangular pitch


(6) Column dia ,Dc :
Based on entrainment flooding.
All relations from Perrys handbook

Csb = Unf [ ] [ ] ft/s.

(L/G) x = 0.015

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Csb =0.23 m\s
Unf = 5.9982 ft\s
Assume Un =0.8 Unf = 1.4511 m/s.
Net area for flow , An = Ac - Ad
Vapour flow rate = 0.6583 m3/s
An = 0.6585 / 1.4511 = 0.4538 m2.
Ad = 0.0988 m2
Assume 0.77

( )

Where

Ac = = 0.785

Ad = 0.0988 Dc2
An = 0.785 Dc2 0.0988 Dc2
Dc = 0.81 m , Corrected Ad = 0.0622 m2
Ac = 0.5153 m2
Lw= 0.62 m
Active area, Aa = Ac 2Ad =0.3909 m2.
(7) Perforated area, Ap
corrected c = 99.9
= 180 - c = 80.1
Area of calming + distribution zone, Acz
Acz = 2(Lw * t) , t=thickness
Acz = 0.0351 m2 (that is 6.81% of Ac )
Awz = 0.0327 m2 .
let w = 20 mm
Aw = 0.0221 m2 (that is 4.3% of Ac )
Ad = 0.0622 m2
Ap = Ac 2 Ad Acz - Awz = 0.3231 m2
Ah = 0.1 Ap = 0.03231 m2

20 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e
(8) No. of holes, nh = 1646 holes.
(9) Weir height , hw = 12 mm
(10) Weeping check :

hd = K1 + K2 ( )

Assume sieve plates


K1 = 0 , K2 = 50.8/Cv2
Ah / Aa = 0.083
tT/dh = 0.6
Cv = 0.73
hd = 66.95 mm
Frances Weir Equation :

how= Fw x 664 x [ ]

q( liquid load ) = 3.459 x 10-4 m3/s = 6.275 gal/min


Fw = 1.005
how = 4.95 mm
Head loss due to bubble formation ,

[ ]

= 2.28 mm liq.
Now, hd + = 59.23 mm liq.
hw + how =16.95 mm
Since from the graph; actual design > minimum design there is no weeping (from fig. 18-11)
(11) Downcomer flooding :
hdc =ht + hw+ how+ hda+ hhg
Dynamic Seal; hds = hw + how +hhg/2
Q = 4.02165 x 10-4 m3/s = 6.382 gal/min
Lw = 0.62 m = 2.05 ft ; Fw = 1.005
how =5.00 mm
hds = 12 +5+0.15\2 =17.075 mm
ht = hd+hl1
hl1= hds
Ua = 1.6845 m/s = 5.5707 ft/s

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= 0.1079 lb/ft3
Fa = Ua = 1.83
= 0.59

h l= 0.59 x17.075 = 10.074 mm


ht = 66.95 + 10.074 = 77.024 mm.
Loss under downcomer, hda
hda = 165.2 ( q/Ada)2
Assume clearance C = 13 mm.
hap = 17.075 C = 4.075 mm
Ada = Lwhap = 2.5265 x 10-3 m2
hda = 3.92 mm
hdc = ht + hw + how + hda + hhg =77.024+12+5+3.92+0.15 = 98.094 mm
ts = 305 mm
As hdc < ts ,there is no downcomer flooding.
Summary of tray calculations
Dc = 0.81m
Lw = 0.62m
hw = 12 mm
ts = 305 mm
dh = 5mm
lp = 15 mm, triangular pitch.
tt = 3 mm
nh = 1646
% flooding = 80%
(12) Column Efficiency
(a)Point Efficiency, EOG

Ng=

W = liq. flow rate = (3.9589 x 10-4 /0.715)


= 8.13 x 10-3 m3 /s
Ua = 1.6845 m/s
hw = 12 mm, Nscg = (g\g Dg) = 1.02
Ng = 0.3548

22 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e
NL = KLaL
KLa = ( )
= 1.568 /s
L = (hfAat) / (1000q)
hf = 193.90 mm
L = 38.29 s
NL = 60.038

=M

= = 2.886 ; M = 0.385

= 1.111

Nog = = 0.974

EOG = 1 e-NOG = 0.2970


(b) Murphree Plate Efficiency, Emv
EOG = 0.32967

NPe =

ZL = Dc cos (L/2) = 0.52 m


DE = 6.675 * 10-3 (Ua)1.44 + 0.922 * 10-4 hL 0.00562
= 0.0120 m/s
NPe = 2.2669
= 1.09

Emv = 0.3237
(c) Overall column efficiency, Eoc

Eoc = =

Considering 80% flooding,


= 0.2
Ea = 0.29946
Eoc = 0.30789
Eoc = Nt \ NA

23 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e
NA = 12.66 12 trays
NA = 12 trays
Tower height, = ts * NA
= 305 * 12 = 3660 mm
H = 3.66 m

STRIPPING SECTION
TRAY HYDRAULICS :
(1) Plate spacing , ts = 305 mm
(2) Hole diameter , dh =5 mm
(3) Hole pitch , lp =15 mm
(4) Tray thickness , tT =3 mm

(5) = = 0.10

Assume equilateral triangular pitch


(6) Column dia ,Dc :
Based on entrainment flooding.
All relations from Perrys handbook, 6th edition.
Fig. 18-10 ,

Csb = Unf [ ]0.2 [ ]0.5 ft/s

(L/G)* ( )0.5 = 0.046


Csb = 0.21 m/s

Unf = 5.204 ft\s


Assume Un =0.8 Unf = 1.2590 m/s.
Net area for flow , An = Ac - Ad
An = 0.6121 m2.
Ad = 0.0988 m2
Assume 0.77

24 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e

=

= 100.7

Ac = = 0.785

Ad = 0.0988 Dc2
An = 0.785 Dc2 0.0988 Dc2
Dc = 0.94 m , Corrected Ad = 0.0883 m2
Ac = 0.6939 m2
Lw= 0.73 m
Active area, Aa = Ac 2Ad =0.5173 m2.
(7) Perforated area, Ap
corrected c = 99.9
= 180 - c = 80.1
Area of calming + distribution zone, Acz
Acz = 2(Lw * t) , t=thickness
Acz = 0.05446 m2 (that is 7.85% of Ac )
Awz = 0.0251 m2 (that is 3.6% of Ac )
let w = 40 mm
Ad = 0.0883 m2
Ap = Ac 2 Ad Acz - Awz = 0.4377 m2
Ah = 0.1 Ap = 0.043774 m2
(8) No. of holes, nh = 2230 holes.
(9) Weir height , hw = 12 mm
(10) Weeping check :

hd = K1 + K2

Assume sieve plates


K1 = 0 , K2 = 50.8/Cv2
Ah / Aa = 0.0846
tT/dh = 0.6
Cv = 0.73
hd = 50.75 mm

25 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e
Frances Weir Equation :

how= Fw x 664 x [ ]

q( liquid load ) = 1.239 x 10-3 m3/s = 19.68 gal/min


Fw = 1.02
how = 9.616 mm
Head loss due to bubble formation ,

[ ]

= 1.7109 mm liq.
Now, hd + = 52.54 mm liq.
hw + how =21.616 mm
Since from the graph; actual design > minimum design(10 mm) there is no weeping.
(11) Downcomer flooding :
hdc =ht + hw+ how+ hda+ hhg
Dynamic Seal; hds = hw + how +hhg/2
Q = 1.4527 x 10-3 m3/s = 22.5973 gal/min
Lw = 0.73 m = 2.395 ft ; Fw = 1.025
how =10.74 mm
hds = 12 +10.75+0.15\2 =22.815mm
ht = hd+hl1
hl1= hds
Ua = 1.388 m/s = 4.5548 ft/s
= 0.1133 lb/ft3
Fa = Ua = 1.5331
= 0.6
2
h l= 0.6 x22.185 = 13.689 mm
ht = 50.75 + 13.689 = 64.439 mm.
Loss under downcomer, hda
hda = 165.2 ( q/Ada)2
Assume clearance C = 13 mm.

26 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e
hap = 22.815 C = 9.815 mm
Ada = Lwhap = 7.164 x 10-3 m2
hda = 4.94 mm
hdc = ht + hw + how + hda + hhg = 64.439+12+10.74+4.94+0.15 = 98.094 mm
ts = 305 mm
As hdc < ts , there is no downcomer flooding.
Summary of tray calculations
Dc = 0.94m
Lw = 0.73m
hw = 12 mm
ts = 305 mm
dh = 5mm
lp = 15 mm, triangular pitch.
tt = 3 mm
nh = 2230
% flooding = 80%
(12) Column Efficiency
(a) Point Efficiency, EOG

Ng =

W = liq. flow rate = (1.3499 x 10-3 /0.835)


= 1.6166 x 10-3 m3 /s
Ua = 1.3883 m/s
hw = 12 mm, Nscg = (g\g Dg) = 0.725
Ng = 0.6522
NL = KLaL
KLa = ( )
= 1.4562 /s
L = (hfAat) / (1000q)
hf = 133.242 mm
L = 11.23 s
NL = 16.353

27 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e
=M

= = 0.911 ; M = 1.635

= 1.489

Nog = = 0.6156

EOG = 1 e-NOG = 0.4596


(b) Murphree Plate Efficiency, Emv
EOG = 0.6843

NPe =

ZL = Dc cos (L/2) = 0.59m


DE = 6.675 * 10-3 (Ua)1.44 + 0.922 * 10-4 hL 0.00562
= 7.78838 m/s
NPe = 3.979
= 1.23

Emv = 0.565
(c) Overall column efficiency, Eoc


Eoc = =

Considering 80% flooding,


From fig, = 0.2
Ea = 0.4873
Eoc = 0.5368
Eoc = Nt \ NA
NA = 13.04 13 trays
NA = 13 trays
Tower height, = ts * NA
= 305 x 13 = 3965 mm
H = 3.965 m
Overall tower height = 3.66 + 3.965 = 7.625 m

28 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e
Total number of plates = 12 + 13 = 25 plates.

COST ESTIMATION
Monochlorobenzene plant size = 62.5 T/day
Taking cost indices of (1134 in 1997) and (100 in 1926)
Fixed capital investement in 1926 = Rs 12.82 crores
Fixed capital investment = Rs 170 crores
Estimation of total investment cost:
1) Direct cost:
a) Purchased equipment cost:(15 40% of FCI )
Assume 30% of FCI
=Rs 51 crores
b) Installation cost:(35 45% of PEC)
Assume 35%
=Rs 17.85 crores
c) Instrument and control installed:(6 30% of PEC)
Assume 25% of PEC
=Rs 12.75 crores
d) Piping installation cost:(10 80% of PEC)
Assume 60%
=Rs. 30.6 crores
e) Electrical installation cost:(10 40% of PEC)
Assume 35% of PEC
=Rs 17.85 crores
f) Building process and auxilliary:(10-70% of PEC)
Assume 60%
=Rs 30.6 crores
g) Service facilities:(30-80% 0f PEC)
Assume 50%
=Rs 25.5 crores
h) Yard improvement:(10-15% of PEC)
Assume 10%
=Rs 5.1 crores
i) Land:(4-8% of PEC)
Assume 6%
=Rs 3.06 crores
Therefore direct cost =Rs 194.31 crores
Indirect cost:
Expenses which are not directly involved with material and labour of actual installation or
complete facility
a) Engineering and supervision:(5-30% of DC)
Assume 25%
=Rs 48.57 crores
b)Construction expenses:(10% of DC)
=Rs 19.431 crores
c)Contractors fee:(2-7% 0f DC)
Assume 6%

29 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e
=Rs 11.65 crores
d)Contingency:(8-20% of DC)
Assume 12%
=Rs 23.31 crores
Therefore total indirect cost =Rs 102.96 crores
Fixed capital investment:
Fixed capital investment(FCI) = DC+IC
= 102.96 + 194.31 = Rs 297.27 crores
Working capital investment:
10 20% of FCI
Assume 16%
=Rs 47.56 crores
1)Total capital investment:
= FCI + WC
=Rs 345.53 crores
Estimation of total product cost(TPC):
Fixed charges:
a) Depreciation:(10% of FCI for machinery)
=Rs 29.727 crores
b) Local taxes:(3-4% of FCI)
Assume 3%
=Rs 8.9181 crores
c) Insurances:(0.4-1% of FCI)
Assume 0.7%
=Rs 2.080 crores
d)Rent:(8-12% of FCI)
Assume 10%
=Rs 29.727 crores
Therefore total fixed charges =Rs 70.45 crores
But, Fixed charges = (10-20% of TPC)
Assume 15%
Therefore Total product cost = Rs 469.66 crores
Direct production:
a) Raw material:(10-50% 0f TPC)
Assume 40%
=Rs 187.86 crores
b)Operating labour(OL):(10-20% of TPC)
Assume 15%
=Rs 70.449 crores
c)Direct supervisory and electric labour:(10-25% of OL)
Assume 20%
=Rs 14.08 crores
b) Utilities:(10-20% of TPC)
Assume 15%
=Rs 70.449 crores
Maintainence:(2-10% of FCI)
Assume 8%
=Rs 23.381 crores
c) Operating supplies (OS):(10-20% of maintainence)
Assume 15%

30 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e
=Rs 3.50 crores
d) Laboratory charges:(10-20% of OL)
Assume 12%
=Rs 8.45 crores
e) Patent and royalties:(2-6% of TPC)
Assume 4%
=Rs 18.78 crores
Plant overhead cost:
50-70% of (OL+OS+M)
Assume 65%
=Rs 63.40 crores
General expenses:
a) Administration cost:(40-60% of OL)
Assume 50%
=Rs 35.22 crores
b) Distribution and selling price:(2-30% of TPC)
Assume 20%
=Rs 93.932 crores
c) Research and development cost:(3% of TPC)
=Rs 14.0898 crores
Therefore general expenses(GE) =Rs 143.24 crores
Therefore manufacturing cost(MC)= Product cost+fixed chages+Plant overhead expenses
=Rs 603.51 crores
Total production cost:
Total production cost =MC + GE
=Rs 746.75 crores
Gross earnings and rate of return:
The plant is working for say 320 days a year
Selling price =Rs. 25 /kg
Total income =62.5320100025
=Rs 500 crores
Gross income =Total income total product cost
=Rs 30.34 crores
Tax =50%
Net profit =Rs 15.17 crores
Rate of return =net profit/total capital investment
= 4.41 %

31 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e
CONCLUSION

REFERENCE

32 | P r o d u c t i o n o f M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e