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1.1 Introduction

Structure Engineering

Analysis Design

(SOM, TOS) RCC, DSS, PSC, Masonry

Equilibrium Equations Safety
Compatibility Conditions Serviceability
Energy Conditions Durability

1.1.1 Safety

Structure must be safe with appropriate factor of safety (FOS), for loading, that may
come on it during its intended life.

1.1.2 Service

Structure should provide the service for which it is constructed up to its whole life
under service load.

1.1.3 Durability

Structure should sustain loading for which it was design and should perform well
with safety and serviceability up to its intended life. Durability without serviceability
or with less margin of FOS has no meaning.

1.1.4 Economy

Design and construction of any structure should be economical without affecting

safety, serviceability and durability.

1.1.5 Aesthetic

When huge investment is involved with design and construction of a structure, then
aesthetic affects design of structure.

Considering a RCC Beam

Safety: Longitudinal reinforcement

Serviceability: Doubly reinforced in place of singly reinforcement to reduce depth.

Durability: Nominal Cover to Protect reinforcement from corrosion, material of


Economy: Design of beam, slab system as monolithically casted flanged section.

Aesthetics: Conversion of rectangular beam in to half round beam.

1.2 Concrete

It is mixture of binding material(cement), fine aggregate (FA), Coarse aggregate (CA),

water and admixture in proper proportion to achieve concrete of desired properties at
fresh state and hardened state.

1.2.1 Concrete Mix

(a) Nominal Mix:

Based on Experience
Not allowed for concrete grade higher than M 20.
Proportion may be by weight or by volume.
Water quantity is not fixed.

Grade Cement FA CA
M10 1 3 6
M15 1 2 4
M20 1 1.5 3.0

Note: 1. Above proportion is by volume.

2. Valid for all type of C, FA, CA.
(b) Design Mix:

Based on calculations as per IS -10262.


Proportion by weight.
Water quantity is not fixed.

1.2.2 Fresh/ Green Concrete

Workability is the most important property of fresh concrete which is simply defined
as Ease of Work with.

Degree of Use Slump Compacting Vee Bee

Workability mm factor time

1. Very Road Construction - 0.75-0.80 10-20

Low (Pavement below
top layer)
Road Roller used
to compact
Provided to give
friction to top
2. Low Shallow RC section 25-75 0.8-0.85 5-10
Lightly reinforced
application ease)
Mass Concrete
(low water is
acceptable as
3. Medium Heavy reinforced 50-100 0.85-0.92 2-5
section (vibrator
Pump able
4. High Piling (High Flow- 100- 0.92-above -
easily compacted) 150
5. Very Tremie pipe - 0.92-above -
High concreting
For under liquid
Water bentonite

Tests to measure workability:

1. Slump test:

(a) Very easy to perform, so widely acceptable.

(b) Settlement of concrete after removal of truncated steel cone gives idea of
degree of workability.
(c) Not used for very high and very low workability as settlement is 100% or nil

Fig: Procedure of Slump Test

Fig: Slump test Apparatus Dimension


2. Compacting factor test:

(a) Pot is filled with concrete and after standard compaction, it is weigh (w1)
(b) Now pot is made empty and concrete is poured from top.
Due to gravity and shape of apparatus, concrete gets compacted to some extent
and deposits in pot.
(c) Top surface of concrete in pot is made horizontal and weigh again (w2)
(d) Compacting factor is calculated as above.
(e) Higher value of compacting factor represents higher value of workability.

Fig: Appratus of Compaction Factor Test

CF =

Where is the weight of cylinder.
3. Vee- bee test
(a) Concrete is filled in steel cone and then cone is removed.
(b) Circular transparent glass disk is kept on the top of concrete which is partially in
contact with concrete.
(c) Vibrator is started and concrete is allowed to be horizontal. Time is measured
form start of vibrator to concrete gets completely horizontal.
(d) Higher value of to time represent lower workability.
(e) It cannot be used for high and very high workability because time requirement to
make concrete completely horizontal is very less.

Fig: Vee Bee test apparatus

4. Flow test:
(a) It is used for high and very high workability concrete.
(b) In general, workability of self-compacting concrete is measured by this method.

Fig: Flow Table Test Appratus

Note: Concrete with better consistency and homogeneity, must have better workability.

1.2.3 Hardened Concrete

After final settlement time (approx. 10 hr.) from mixing, concrete is assumed
to be hard.
Concrete keeps on gaining strength up to very long time (1 year to 5 year) Compressive Strength
(a) Compressive strength of Cube
It is the compressive strength of cube of size 150 mm, subjected to uniaxial compression
after 28 days from day of casting.
(b) Characteristic Strength of cube:
It is the strength below which not more than 5% test results are expected to fall.

Target Mean Strength

= + k.s

Definition Value of K
5% 1.65
50 % 0

K= 1.65 for 5% standard deviation as per requirement of definition.

S= standard deviation depending upon grade of concrete.

Que: Uniaxial Compression test results of 100 cubes are listed below in increasing
order. What will be the value of

26, 26.5,27,27,28.6,29,29.5,30 - - - - - - - - - - - - -42.5.

Ans: As per definition should be N/mm2, since is designated in multiple of 5

so answer will be 25 or 30 N/mm2.

In this case, 7 sample are below (>5%) 30 N/mm2, so 30 cannot be .

Now 25 can be considered as , because 0 sample (<5%), strength is below 25


(C) Characteristic compressive strength of Concrete:

It Is obtained by dividing characteristic compressive strength of cube by a factor 1.5 to
account for variation on loading Condition, other than uniaxial compressive and variation in
shape of specimen.
(d) Comparison of cylinder and cube strength.

Uniaxial compression strength of concrete can be determined by different shape of

specimen cube, Cylinder or prism etc.
Cylinder gives more approximate result for uniaxial compression of strength of
concrete because effect of friction between machine plate and end of specimen is

Note: 1. Smaller size cubes gives higher strength.
2. Strength of smaller cylinder is also higher, provided ratio of height and breadth remains

(e) Stress-Strain diagram of concrete cube under compression

1. Stress-strain diagram is non-linear.

2. For smaller stress value, stress-strain diagram can be considered as linear. In other words,
initial portion of curve can be considered as linear.
3. Maximum stress is corresponding to approx. 0.002 strain.
4. Ultimate strain lies between 0.004 to 0.006.
5. As the grade of concrete increases, brittleness increases.
6. Modulus of elasticity of concrete increases with increase in grade of concrete.
7. Falling portion of stress- strain curve is obtained by controlled strain machine. Grade of Concrete
Representation: M 20
M Stands for Mix and 20 is characteristic compressive strength of cube of concrete (N/mm2)

As per IS 456 amendment no 4, Grade of concrete available are M 10 to M 100. Tensile Strength of Concrete
1. Tensile strength of concrete is approx. 10% of compressive strength.
2. Stress- strain diagram is always linear.
3. Ratio of compressive strength to tensile strength increases with increase in grade of
4. Since tensile strength of concrete is ignored in the RCC design, it has very less importance.
5. Tensile strength of concrete is used in calculation of cracking moment.
(a) Direct tension test
Practically it is very difficult to perform direct tension test because of:
(1) brittleness of material
(2) Non-homogeneity of material
(3) Stress concentration at interface of aggregate and mortar.
(b) Flexural test:
1. third point loading is applied for pure bending (flexural) condition.
2. Value of P is increased from 0 to value corresponding to which first crack develops in
extreme tension fiber.
3. Corresponding to cracking load, bending moment is calculated in central portion and
tensile strength of concrete is calculated as given above.

4. IS 456 provides standard formula for flexural tensile strength/ modulus of rupture as
given below:


(c) Cylinder Split Test

1. A line loading along length is applied at diametrically end points. Due to this loading,
cylinder splits in to two parts.

2. Tensile strength of concrete is calculated using formula given below.


(Direct tension) < (Cylinder splits) < (Flexure test)
CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS Creep of concrete:

It is the time dependent property of material due to sustained loading (loading for very long
Example of Sustained loading (dead load, pre-stressing force)

Creep Coefficient () =

Age of concrete at the time of loading

7 Days 2.2
28 days 1.6
1 Year 1.1

1. Higher the value of implies, higher creep strain in concrete for same loading. In other
words, creep strain is higher when load is applied on concrete on at early age.
2. Creep strain in concrete is due to readjustment of micro cracks and gel water. Shrinkage of concrete
1. Concrete has shrinkage property due to presence of cement.
2. IS 456 provides standard value of shrinkage strain of concrete for design purpose.
shrinkage = 0.003 or 0.03% or 3 * 10-4 Durability

Exposure Description Min Grade Min Min Max w/c

Cond Nominal cement ratio
Cover content

1. Mild Protected M 20 20 *mm 300 kg/ m3 0.55

from rain
2. Exposure to M 25 30 mm 300 0.5
Moderate normal rain
in normal
3. Severe Coastal area M 30 45** mm 320 0.45
drying and
wetting in
in sea water

4. Very Alternate M35 50 mm 340 0.45

Severe dry and wet
in sea
water/ sea
5. Extreme Tidal Zone M40 75 mm 360 0.40

Subjected to

*--- It can be reduced to 15 mm if bar diameter is 12 mm or less, like roof slab.

**---It can be reduced to 40 mm if grade of concrete is M35 or higher.
Note- (1) M 20 is the minimum grade of concrete for RCC structure.
(2) M 20 and M30 are the minimum grade in coastal area for PCC and RCC work
Effective and Nominal Covers

Effective cover = the distance from bottom of fiber of the beam to the center
of reinforcement.
Clear cover = the distance from the bottom of fiber to bottom level of the
CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS Modulus of Elasticity

(a) Initial tangent modulus

It is defined as slope of tangent drawn at point of start of stress- strain
It is also known as dynamic modulus of elasticity which is used for analysis due
to dynamic loading.
(b) Secant Modulus
It is defined as slope of line connecting point of start to point with one third of
ultimate stress.
It is also known as static modulus of elasticity.
IS 456 provides standard formula to calculate this modulus of elasticity.

Above formula is valid for short term loading and does not includes the effect
of creep.
Value obtained from above formula may vary by 20% to actual.
After incorporating the creep effect

= Type equation here.
(c) Tangent modulus (used for research purpose)

It is defined as slope of tangent at any point on stress strain curve. It is used

incremental load analysis of a structure.
1.2.4 Admixture
Admixture is added to concrete to enhance its properties at fresh and
hardened state.
(a) Chemical Admixture-
(I) Accelerator- It is used to increase the rate of hydration of cement. Generally
used in underwater concreting, repair of wall and fast construction.
Eg- Calcium chloride.
(II) Retarder- It is used to reduce the rate of hydration of cement preferable in
mass concreting, ready mix concrete.
(III) Air Entraining Admixture-
It is used to improve the workability and resistance against freezing and
thawing. It provides no of small air bubbles in concrete which enhances
soundness pf concrete also.
(iv) Plasticizer and Superplasticizer
It is used to enhance the workability of concrete without affecting the w/c
(b) Mineral Admixture
Fly ash-
it is used to reduce the quantity of cement because of its binding
It enhances consistency and finally workability.
Since Fineness of fly ash is more than cement. So it produces dense
Replacement of cement by using fly ash should not be more than 35%.

Other examples- Silica fumes, Rice fusk ash

Note- Quantity of admixture is always represented in terms of

proportion of cement.

1.2.5 water
Ph should be more than 6.
Sea Water is note preferable.
Water preferable for mixing is also preferable for curing.
Curing water is not used for hydration. It is just used to maintain the
moisture content in concrete.

1.2.6 Testing of Hardened Concrete.

(a) Destructive testing
Sample used for destructive testing cant be utilized further for service.
(I) Load test- Precast member
(ii) Core Cut test- Used in road construction
(b) Non- Destructive testing-
(I) rebound hammer test-

Principal for Rebound Hammer Test

Plunger of this apparatus is pressed against surface of concrete.

Energy rebounded from concrete surface gives idea about surface of
Reading meter installed with this apparatus gives a value which is
multiplied by a factor to get compressive strength of concrete.

This method of testing is vague because plunger can be pressed against

mortar or aggregate.
This test gives an idea about strength of surface concrete only.

(ii) Ultrasonic pulse velocity test

It is an electronic method in which emitter and receiver are connected on
opposite surface of concrete.
Time taken by ultrasonic waves to travel through concrete is measured.
It time is more than concrete is less dense. This implies that concrete is poor.
This method can be used to detect cracking also.

1.2.7 Reinforcement
Any Material that can take tension, can be used as reinforcement.
For Example: Copper, Aluminum, Steel, Plastic Fiber, bamboo etc.
Steel is preferred because of following reasons:
(1) Economical in metals.
(2) High Tensile Strength
(3) Coefficient of thermal Expansion is approximately same as that of concrete. Size of reinforcement
Dia Act Area Approx. area Dia Act Area Approx area
6 28.27 30 25 490.8 490/500
8 50.26 50 28 618.5 600
10 78.53 75 32 804.24 800
12 113.09 110 36 1017.8 1000

16 201.06 200 40 1256.6 1250

20 314.15 314 45 1590.4 1600
22 380.13 380 50 1963.49 2000 Grade of reinforcement

1. Mild Steel- Fe 250
2. High yield strength deformed- Fe 415 and Fe 500
3. Fe 500 D & Fe 550, Fe 600 Types of Steel
1. Mild Steel
1. It is obtained by straining mild steel beyond yield point by twisting and
stretching and then unloading.
2. Above process of straining eliminates yield point from stress- strain diagram
3. HYSD bars are less ductile then mild steel.
4. In absence of definite yield point, 0.2% proof stress is defined as yield point.
3. TMT Bars (Thermo-mechanically treated)
1. These bars are produced by applying thermal and mechanical process
2. This combination of process makes steel more corrosion resistant along with
relevant features of HYSD bars.
3. Ductility of HYSD bars is relatively more than HYSD Bars.
Layers in reinforcement

Note:1. As carbon % increases in steel, brittleness and ultimate strength