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Original Title: RCC Basic Concept

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RCC Basic Concept

RCC GENERAL INTRODUCTION

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1.1 Introduction

Structure Engineering

Analysis Design

Equilibrium Equations Safety

Compatibility Conditions Serviceability

Energy Conditions Durability

Economy

Aesthetics

1.1.1 Safety

Structure must be safe with appropriate factor of safety (FOS), for loading, that may

come on it during its intended life.

1.1.2 Service

Structure should provide the service for which it is constructed up to its whole life

under service load.

1.1.3 Durability

Structure should sustain loading for which it was design and should perform well

with safety and serviceability up to its intended life. Durability without serviceability

or with less margin of FOS has no meaning.

1.1.4 Economy

safety, serviceability and durability.

1.1.5 Aesthetic

When huge investment is involved with design and construction of a structure, then

aesthetic affects design of structure.

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

beam.

1.2 Concrete

water and admixture in proper proportion to achieve concrete of desired properties at

fresh state and hardened state.

Based on Experience

Not allowed for concrete grade higher than M 20.

Proportion may be by weight or by volume.

Water quantity is not fixed.

Grade Cement FA CA

M10 1 3 6

M15 1 2 4

M20 1 1.5 3.0

2. Valid for all type of C, FA, CA.

(b) Design Mix:

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

Proportion by weight.

Water quantity is not fixed.

Workability is the most important property of fresh concrete which is simply defined

as Ease of Work with.

Workability mm factor time

(sec)

Low (Pavement below

top layer)

Road Roller used

to compact

Provided to give

friction to top

layer

2. Low Shallow RC section 25-75 0.8-0.85 5-10

Lightly reinforced

(vibrator

application ease)

Mass Concrete

(low water is

acceptable as

vibrator

accumulates

water)

3. Medium Heavy reinforced 50-100 0.85-0.92 2-5

section (vibrator

application

difficult)

Pump able

concrete

4. High Piling (High Flow- 100- 0.92-above -

easily compacted) 150

5. Very Tremie pipe - 0.92-above -

High concreting

For under liquid

concreting

Water bentonite

solution

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

1. Slump test:

(b) Settlement of concrete after removal of truncated steel cone gives idea of

degree of workability.

(c) Not used for very high and very low workability as settlement is 100% or nil

respectively.

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

(a) Pot is filled with concrete and after standard compaction, it is weigh (w1)

(b) Now pot is made empty and concrete is poured from top.

Due to gravity and shape of apparatus, concrete gets compacted to some extent

and deposits in pot.

(c) Top surface of concrete in pot is made horizontal and weigh again (w2)

(d) Compacting factor is calculated as above.

(e) Higher value of compacting factor represents higher value of workability.

CF =

Where is the weight of cylinder.

3. Vee- bee test

(a) Concrete is filled in steel cone and then cone is removed.

(b) Circular transparent glass disk is kept on the top of concrete which is partially in

contact with concrete.

(c) Vibrator is started and concrete is allowed to be horizontal. Time is measured

form start of vibrator to concrete gets completely horizontal.

(d) Higher value of to time represent lower workability.

(e) It cannot be used for high and very high workability because time requirement to

make concrete completely horizontal is very less.

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

4. Flow test:

(a) It is used for high and very high workability concrete.

(b) In general, workability of self-compacting concrete is measured by this method.

Note: Concrete with better consistency and homogeneity, must have better workability.

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

After final settlement time (approx. 10 hr.) from mixing, concrete is assumed

to be hard.

Concrete keeps on gaining strength up to very long time (1 year to 5 year)

1.2.3.1 Compressive Strength

(a) Compressive strength of Cube

It is the compressive strength of cube of size 150 mm, subjected to uniaxial compression

after 28 days from day of casting.

(b) Characteristic Strength of cube:

It is the strength below which not more than 5% test results are expected to fall.

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

= + k.s

Definition Value of K

0%

5% 1.65

50 % 0

S= standard deviation depending upon grade of concrete.

Que: Uniaxial Compression test results of 100 cubes are listed below in increasing

order. What will be the value of

so answer will be 25 or 30 N/mm2.

N/mm2.

It Is obtained by dividing characteristic compressive strength of cube by a factor 1.5 to

account for variation on loading Condition, other than uniaxial compressive and variation in

shape of specimen.

(d) Comparison of cylinder and cube strength.

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

specimen cube, Cylinder or prism etc.

Cylinder gives more approximate result for uniaxial compression of strength of

concrete because effect of friction between machine plate and end of specimen is

least.

=0.8

Note: 1. Smaller size cubes gives higher strength.

2. Strength of smaller cylinder is also higher, provided ratio of height and breadth remains

constant.

2. For smaller stress value, stress-strain diagram can be considered as linear. In other words,

initial portion of curve can be considered as linear.

3. Maximum stress is corresponding to approx. 0.002 strain.

4. Ultimate strain lies between 0.004 to 0.006.

5. As the grade of concrete increases, brittleness increases.

6. Modulus of elasticity of concrete increases with increase in grade of concrete.

7. Falling portion of stress- strain curve is obtained by controlled strain machine.

1.2.3.2 Grade of Concrete

Representation: M 20

M Stands for Mix and 20 is characteristic compressive strength of cube of concrete (N/mm2)

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

1.2.3.3 Tensile Strength of Concrete

1. Tensile strength of concrete is approx. 10% of compressive strength.

2. Stress- strain diagram is always linear.

3. Ratio of compressive strength to tensile strength increases with increase in grade of

concrete.

4. Since tensile strength of concrete is ignored in the RCC design, it has very less importance.

5. Tensile strength of concrete is used in calculation of cracking moment.

(a) Direct tension test

Practically it is very difficult to perform direct tension test because of:

(1) brittleness of material

(2) Non-homogeneity of material

(3) Stress concentration at interface of aggregate and mortar.

(b) Flexural test:

1. third point loading is applied for pure bending (flexural) condition.

2. Value of P is increased from 0 to value corresponding to which first crack develops in

extreme tension fiber.

3. Corresponding to cracking load, bending moment is calculated in central portion and

tensile strength of concrete is calculated as given above.

4. IS 456 provides standard formula for flexural tensile strength/ modulus of rupture as

given below:

=0.7

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

1. A line loading along length is applied at diametrically end points. Due to this loading,

cylinder splits in to two parts.

2

=

(Direct tension) < (Cylinder splits) < (Flexure test)

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

It is the time dependent property of material due to sustained loading (loading for very long

time)

Example of Sustained loading (dead load, pre-stressing force)

Creep Coefficient () =

7 Days 2.2

28 days 1.6

1 Year 1.1

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

1. Higher the value of implies, higher creep strain in concrete for same loading. In other

words, creep strain is higher when load is applied on concrete on at early age.

2. Creep strain in concrete is due to readjustment of micro cracks and gel water.

1.2.3.5 Shrinkage of concrete

1. Concrete has shrinkage property due to presence of cement.

2. IS 456 provides standard value of shrinkage strain of concrete for design purpose.

shrinkage = 0.003 or 0.03% or 3 * 10-4

1.2.3.6 Durability

Cond Nominal cement ratio

Cover content

from rain

2. Exposure to M 25 30 mm 300 0.5

Moderate normal rain

Permanently

submerged

in normal

water

3. Severe Coastal area M 30 45** mm 320 0.45

Alternate

drying and

wetting in

normal

water

Permanently

submerged

in sea water

Severe dry and wet

in sea

water/ sea

spray

5. Extreme Tidal Zone M40 75 mm 360 0.40

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

Subjected to

aggressive

chemicals

**---It can be reduced to 40 mm if grade of concrete is M35 or higher.

Note- (1) M 20 is the minimum grade of concrete for RCC structure.

(2) M 20 and M30 are the minimum grade in coastal area for PCC and RCC work

respectively.

Effective and Nominal Covers

Effective cover = the distance from bottom of fiber of the beam to the center

of reinforcement.

Clear cover = the distance from the bottom of fiber to bottom level of the

reinforcement

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

It is defined as slope of tangent drawn at point of start of stress- strain

diagram.

It is also known as dynamic modulus of elasticity which is used for analysis due

to dynamic loading.

(b) Secant Modulus

It is defined as slope of line connecting point of start to point with one third of

ultimate stress.

It is also known as static modulus of elasticity.

IS 456 provides standard formula to calculate this modulus of elasticity.

=5000

Above formula is valid for short term loading and does not includes the effect

of creep.

Value obtained from above formula may vary by 20% to actual.

After incorporating the creep effect

5000

= Type equation here.

1+

(c) Tangent modulus (used for research purpose)

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

incremental load analysis of a structure.

1.2.4 Admixture

Admixture is added to concrete to enhance its properties at fresh and

hardened state.

(a) Chemical Admixture-

(I) Accelerator- It is used to increase the rate of hydration of cement. Generally

used in underwater concreting, repair of wall and fast construction.

Eg- Calcium chloride.

(II) Retarder- It is used to reduce the rate of hydration of cement preferable in

mass concreting, ready mix concrete.

(III) Air Entraining Admixture-

It is used to improve the workability and resistance against freezing and

thawing. It provides no of small air bubbles in concrete which enhances

soundness pf concrete also.

(iv) Plasticizer and Superplasticizer

It is used to enhance the workability of concrete without affecting the w/c

ratio.

(b) Mineral Admixture

Fly ash-

it is used to reduce the quantity of cement because of its binding

properties.

It enhances consistency and finally workability.

Since Fineness of fly ash is more than cement. So it produces dense

concrete.

Replacement of cement by using fly ash should not be more than 35%.

proportion of cement.

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

1.2.5 water

Ph should be more than 6.

Sea Water is note preferable.

Water preferable for mixing is also preferable for curing.

Curing water is not used for hydration. It is just used to maintain the

moisture content in concrete.

(a) Destructive testing

Sample used for destructive testing cant be utilized further for service.

(I) Load test- Precast member

(ii) Core Cut test- Used in road construction

(b) Non- Destructive testing-

(I) rebound hammer test-

Energy rebounded from concrete surface gives idea about surface of

concrete.

Reading meter installed with this apparatus gives a value which is

multiplied by a factor to get compressive strength of concrete.

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

mortar or aggregate.

This test gives an idea about strength of surface concrete only.

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

It is an electronic method in which emitter and receiver are connected on

opposite surface of concrete.

Time taken by ultrasonic waves to travel through concrete is measured.

It time is more than concrete is less dense. This implies that concrete is poor.

This method can be used to detect cracking also.

1.2.7 Reinforcement

Any Material that can take tension, can be used as reinforcement.

For Example: Copper, Aluminum, Steel, Plastic Fiber, bamboo etc.

Steel is preferred because of following reasons:

(1) Economical in metals.

(2) High Tensile Strength

(3) Coefficient of thermal Expansion is approximately same as that of concrete.

1.2.7.1 Size of reinforcement

Dia Act Area Approx. area Dia Act Area Approx area

6 28.27 30 25 490.8 490/500

8 50.26 50 28 618.5 600

10 78.53 75 32 804.24 800

12 113.09 110 36 1017.8 1000

CHAPTER-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

20 314.15 314 45 1590.4 1600

22 380.13 380 50 1963.49 2000

1. Mild Steel- Fe 250

2. High yield strength deformed- Fe 415 and Fe 500

3. Fe 500 D & Fe 550, Fe 600

1.2.9.3 Types of Steel

1. Mild Steel

2. HYSD/ CTD/TOR

1. It is obtained by straining mild steel beyond yield point by twisting and

stretching and then unloading.

2. Above process of straining eliminates yield point from stress- strain diagram

3. HYSD bars are less ductile then mild steel.

4. In absence of definite yield point, 0.2% proof stress is defined as yield point.

3. TMT Bars (Thermo-mechanically treated)

1. These bars are produced by applying thermal and mechanical process

simultaneously.

2. This combination of process makes steel more corrosion resistant along with

relevant features of HYSD bars.

3. Ductility of HYSD bars is relatively more than HYSD Bars.

Layers in reinforcement

increases.

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