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Metropolis 781 km2 (302 sq mi)

Elevation 122 m (400 ft)


Population (2015)[1]
Metropolis 3,117,000
Urban 2,050,000
Demonym(s) Multani
Languages
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Area code(s) 061
Website www.multan.gov.pk
Multan (Punjabi and Urdu: ???????; About this sound pronunciation (helpinfo)), is
a Pakistani city located in Punjab province. Located on the banks of the Chenab
River, Multan is Pakistan's 5th most populous city,[4] and is the premier cultural
and economic centre of southern Punjab.

Multan's history stretches deep into antiquity. The ancient city was site of the
renowned Multan Sun Temple, and was besieged by Alexander the Great during the
Mallian Campaign.[5] Multan was one of the most important trading centres of
medieval Islamic India, and attracted a multitude of Sufi mystics in the 11th and
12th centuries, earning the city the nickname City of Saints. The city, along with
the nearby city of Uch, is renowned for its large collection of Sufi shrines dating
from that era.

Contents
1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Ancient
2.1.1 Greek invasion
2.2 Early Islamic
2.2.1 Abbassid Amirate
2.2.2 Qarmatian Amirate
2.3 Medieval
2.3.1 Ghaznavid era
2.3.2 Ghurid conquest
2.3.3 Turkic rule
2.3.4 Tughluq era
2.3.5 Timurid invasion
2.3.6 Langah Sultanate
2.3.7 Suri invasion
2.3.8 Medieval trade
2.4 Mughal period
2.4.1 Dar al-Aman era
2.5 Post-Mughal
2.6 Sikh era
2.6.1 1848 Multan Revolt
2.7 British Raj
2.8 Climate
3 Demographics
3.1 Language
4 Civic Administration
5 Economy
6 Transportation
6.1 Motorways
6.2 Rail
6.3 Bus rapid transit
6.4 Air
7 Education
8 Heritage
8.1 Prahladpuri Temple
8.2 Notable saints of Multan
9 Sports
10 Notable people from Multan
11 Sister cities
12 See also
13 References
14 External links
Etymology[edit]
The origin of Multan's name is unclear. It has been postulated that Multan derives
its name from the Sanskrit word for the pre-Islamic Hindu Multan Sun Temple, called
Mulasthana.[6][7][7] Hukm Chand in the 19th century suggested that the city was
named after an ancient Hindu tribe that was named Mul.[8]

History[edit]
Main articles: History of Multan and Multan Fort
Ancient[edit]
The Multan region has been continuously inhabited for at least 5,000 years. The
region is home to numerous archaeological sites dating to the era of the Early
Harappan period of the Indus Valley Civilisation,[9] dating from 3300 BCE until
2800 BCE.

According to Hindu mythology, Multan was founded by the Hindu sage Kashyapa.[10]
According to the Persian historian Firishta, the city was founded by a great
grandson of Noah.[8]

Hindu mythology also asserts Multan as the capital of the Trigarta Kingdom ruled by
the Katoch dynasty at the time of the Kurukshetra War that is central the Hindu
epic poem, the Mahabharata. Ancient Multan was the centre of a solar-worshipping
cult that was based at the ancient Multan Sun Temple.[11] While the cult was
dedicated to the Hindu Sun God Surya, the cult was influenced by Persian
Zoroastrianism.[11] The Sun Temple was mentioned by Greek Admiral Skylax, who
passed through the area in 515 BCE. The temple is also mentioned in the 400s BCE by
the Greek historian, Herodotus.[12]

Greek invasion[edit]
Multan is believed to have been the Malli capital that was conquered by Alexander
the Great in 326 BCE as part of the Mallian Campaign. During the siege of the
city's citadel, Alexander leaped into the inner area of the citadel,[13] where he
killed the Mallians' leader.[14] Alexander was wounded by an arrow that had
penetrated his lung, leaving him severely injured.[15] During Alexander's era,
Multan was located on an island in the Ravi river, which has since shifted course
numerous times throughout the centuries.[10]

In the mid-5th century CE, the city was attacked by a group of Hephthalite nomads
led by Toramana. By the mid 600s CE, Multan had been conquered by the Chach of
Alor,[16] of the Hindu Rai dynasty.

Early Islamic[edit]
After his conquest of Sindh, Muhammad bin Qasim in 712 CE captured Multan from the
local ruler Chach of Alor following a two-month siege.[17] Following bin Qasim's
conquest, the city's subjects remained mostly non-Muslim for the next few
centuries.[18]

Abbassid Amirate[edit]
By the mid-800s, the Banu Munabbih (also known as the Banu Sama), who claimed
descent from the Prophet Muhammad's Quraysh tribe came to rule Multan, and
established the Amirate of Banu Munabbih, which ruled for the next century.[19]
During this era, the Multan Sun Temple was noted by the 10th century Arab
geographer Al-Muqaddasi to have been located in a most populous part of the city.
[11] The Hindu temple was noted to have accrued the Muslim rulers large tax
revenues,[20][21] by some accounts up to 30% of the state's revenues.[18] During
this time, the city's Arabic nickname was Faraj Bayt al-Dhahab, ("Frontier House of
Gold"), reflecting the importance of the temple to the city's economy.[18]

The 10th century Arab historian Al-Masudi noted Multan as the city where Central
Asian caravans from Islamic Khorasan would assemble.[22] The 10th century Persian
geographer Estakhri noted that the city of Multan was approximately half the size
of Sindh's Mansura, which along with Multan were the only two Arab principalities
in South Asia. Arabic and Sindhi were spoken in both cities,[23] though the
inhabitants of Multan were reported by Estakhri to also have been speakers of
Persian,[22] reflecting the importance of trade with Khorasan. Polyglossia rendered
Multani merchants culturally well-suited for trade with the Islamic world.[22] The
10th century Hudud al-'Alam notes that Multan's rulers were also in control of
Lahore,[22] though that city was then lost to the Hindu Shahi Empire.[22] During
the 10th century, Multan's rulers resided at a camp outside of the city named
Jandrawar, and would enter Multan once a week on the back of an elephant for Friday
prayers.[24]

Qarmatian Amirate[edit]
By the mid 10th century, Multan had come under the influence of the Qarmatian
Ismailis. The Qarmatians had been expelled from Egypt and Iraq following their
defeat at the hands of the Abbasids there. Qarmatians zealots had famously sacked
Mecca,[25] and outraged the Muslim world with their theft and ransom of the Kaaba's
Black Stone, and desecration of the Zamzam Well with corpses during the Hajj season
of 930 CE.[26] They wrested control of the city from the pro-Abbasid Amirate of
Banu Munabbih,[27] and established the Amirate of Multan, while pledging allegiance
to the Ismaili Fatimid Dynasty based in Cairo.[22][21]

The Qarmatian Ismailis opposed Hindu pilgrims worshipping the sun,[28] and
destroyed the Sun Temple and smashed its revered Aditya idol in the late 10th
century.[27] The Qarmatians built an Ismaili congregational mosque atop to the
ruins to replace the city's Sunni congregational mosque that had been established
by the city's early rulers.[18]

Medieval[edit]

Multan is famous for its large number of Sufi shrines, including the unique
rectangular tomb of Shah Gardez that dates from the 1150s and is covered in blue
enameled tiles typical of Multan.

The shrine of Shamsuddin Sabzwari dates from 1330, and has a unique green dome.

The Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar dating from the 1580s was built in the regional
style that is typical of Multan's shrines.
Ghaznavid era[edit]
Mahmud of Ghazni in 1005 led an expedition against Multan's Qarmatian ruler Abdul
Fateh Daud. The city was surrendered, and Fateh Daud was permitted to retain
control over the city with the condition that he adhere to Sunnism.[29] In 1007,
Mahmud led an expedition to Multan against his former minister and Hindu convert,
Niwasa Khan, who had renounced Islam and attempted to establish control of the
region in collusion with Abdul Fateh Daud of Multan.[29] In 1010, Mahmud led a
punitive expedition against Daud to depose and imprison him,[29][11] and suppressed
Ismailism in favour of the Sunni creed.[30] He destroyed the Ismaili congregational
mosque that had been built atop the ruins of the Multan Sun Temple, and restored
the city's old Sunni congregational mosque.[18]
The 11th century scholar Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi reported that thousands of Ismailis
were killed or mutilated during Mahmud's invasion, though the community was not
extinguished.[11] Mahmud's rule over the region was noted by Al-Biruni to have
ruined the region's former prosperity.[22] Following the Ghaznavid invasion of
Multan, the local Ismaili community split, with one faction aligning themselves
with the Druze religion,[11] which today survives in Lebanon, Syria, and the Golan
Heights. Following Mahmud's death, the city regained its independence from the
Ghaznavid empire and came under the sway of Ismaili rule once again.[29]

By the early 1100s, Multan was described by the Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi
as being a "large city" commanded by a citadel that was surrounded by a moat.[8] In
the early 12th century, Multani poet Abdul Rahman penned the Sandesh Rasak,[18] the
only known Muslim work in the medieval Apabhra?sa language.[31]

Ghurid conquest[edit]
In 1175, Muhammad Ghori conquered Qarmatian-ruled Multan,[32][33] after having
invaded the region via the Gomal Pass from Afghanistan into Punjab, and used the
city as a springboard for his unsuccessful campaign into Gujarat in 1178.[29]
Multan was then annexed to the Ghurid Sultanate, and became an administrative
province of the Delhi's Mamluk Dynasty[19] the first dynasty of the Delhi
Sultanate. Multan's Ismaili community rose up in an unsuccessful rebellion against
the Ghurids later in 1175.[11] According to Shah Gardez, the second invasion of
Multan lead to the extinguishment of the remnants of Ismailism in the region.[11]

Turkic rule[edit]
Following the death of the Mumluk Sultan, Qutb al-Din Aibak in 1210, Multan came
under the rule of Nasiruddin Qabacha, who in 1222, successfully repulsed an
attempted invasion by Sultan Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu of the Khwarazmian Empire,[19]
whose origins were rooted in Konye-Urgench in modern-day Turkmenistan.[19] Qabacha
also repulsed a 40-day siege imposed on the city by Mongol forces who attempted to
conquer the city.[34] Following Qabacha's death that same year, the Turkic king
Iltutmish captured and then annexed Multan in an expedition.[29][19] The Punjabi
poet Baba Farid was born in the village of Khatwal near Multan in the 1200s.[32]

Mongols again attempted to invade Multan in 1241 after capturing Lahore, but were
repulsed.[29] Mongols again attempted another invasion in 1279, but were dealt a
decisive defeat.[32]

Tughluq era[edit]
In the 1320s Multan was conquered by Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, founder of the Turkic
Tughluq dynasty, the third dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. The countryside around
Multan was recorded to have been devastated by excessively high taxes imposed
during the reign of Ghiyath's son, Muhammad Tughluq.[22] In 1328, the Governor of
Multan, Kishlu Khan, rose in rebellion against Muhammad Tughluq, but was quickly
defeated.[35]

The renowned Arab explorer Ibn Battuta visited Multan in the 1300s during the reign
of Muhammad Tughluq, and noted that Multan was a trading centre for horses imported
from as far away as the Russian Steppe.[22] Multan had also been noted to be a
centre for slave-trade, though slavery was banned in the late 1300s by Muhammad
Tughluq's son, Firuz Shah Tughlaq.[22]

Timurid invasion[edit]
In 1398, Multan was captured by Tamerlane's grandson Pir Muhammad.[32] Also in
1398, the elder Tamerlane and Multan's Governor Khizr Khan together sacked Delhi.
[32] The sack of Delhi lead to major disruptions of the Sultanate's central
governing structure.[32] In 1414, Multan's Khizr Khan captured Delhi from Daulat
Khan Lodi, and established the short-lived Sayyid dynasty the fourth dynasty of
the Delhi Sultanate.[32]
Langah Sultanate[edit]
Multan then passed to the Langah, who established the Langah Sultanate in Multan
under the rule of Budhan Khan, who assumed the title Mahmud Shah.[19] The reign of
Shah Husayn, grandson of Mahmud Shah, who ruled from 1469-1498 is considered to
most illustrious of the Langah Sultans.[19] Multan experienced prosperity during
this time, and a large number of Baloch settlers arrived in the city at the
invitation of Shah Husayn.[19] The Sultanate's borders stretched encompassed the
neighbouring regions surrounding the cities of Chiniot and Shorkot.[19] Shah Husayn
successfully repulsed attempted invasion by the Delhi Sultans led by Tatar Khan and
Barbak Shah.[19]

Multan's Langah Sultanate came to an end in 1525 when the city was invaded by
rulers of the Arghun dynasty,[19] who were either ethnic Mongols,[36] or of Turkic
or Turco-Mongol extraction.[37]

Suri invasion[edit]
In 1541, the Pashtun king Sher Shah Suri captured Multan, and successfully defended
the city from the advances of the Mughal Emperor Humayun.[38] In 1543, Sher Shah
Suri expelled Baloch rebels, who under the command of Fath Khan Jat had overrun the
city.[38] Following its recapture, Sher Shah Suri ordered construction of a road
between Lahore and Multan in order to connect Multan to his massive Grand Trunk
Road project.[38] Multan then served as the starting point for trade caravans from
medieval India departing towards West Asia.[38]

Medieval trade[edit]

The 15th century Multani caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan, was built to house
visiting Multani merchants in the city.[39]
Multan served as medieval Islamic India's trans-regional mercantile centre for
trade with the Islamic world.[40] It rose as an important trading and mercantile
centre in the setting of political stability offered by the Delhi Sultanate, the
Lodis, and Mughals.[40] The renowned Arab explorer Ibn Battuta visited Multan in
the 1300s during the reign of Muhammad Tughluq, and noted that Multan was a trading
centre for horses imported from as far away as the Russian Steppe.[22] Multan had
also been noted to be a centre for slave-trade, though slavery was banned in the
late 1300s by Muhammad Tughluq's son, Firuz Shah Tughlaq.[22]

The extent of Multan's influence is also reflected in the construction of the


Multani caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan which was built in the 15th to house
Multani merchants visiting the city.[39] Legal records from the Uzbek city of
Bukhara note that Multani merchants settled and owned land in the city in the late
1550s.[40]

Multan would remain an important trading centre until the city was ravaged by
repeated invasions in the 18th and 19th centuries in the post-Mughal era.[40] Many
of Multan's merchants then migrated to Shikarpur in Sindh,[40] and were found
throughout Central Asia up until the 19th century.[40]

Mughal period[edit]

Multan's Shahi Eid Gah Mosque dates from 1735 and is decorated with elaborate and
intricate Mughal-era frescoes.
Following the conquest of Upper Sindh by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, Multan was
attacked and captured by Akbar's army under the command of Bairam Khan in 1557.[41]
In 1627, Multan was encircled by walls that were built on the order of Murad Baksh,
son of Shah Jahan.[8] Upon his return from an expedition to Balkh in 1648, the
future emperor Aurangzeb was appointed Governor of Multan and Sindh a post he
held until 1652.[32] In the second half of the 17th century, Multan's commercial
fortunes were adversely affected by silting and shifting of the nearby river, which
denied traders vital trade access to the Arabian Sea.[42] Multan witnessed
difficult times as the Mughal Empire waned in power following the death of Emperor
Aurangzeb in 1707.

Dar al-Aman era[edit]


Under Mughal rule, Multan enjoyed 200 years of peace in a time when the city became
known as Dar al-Aman ("Abode of Peace"). During the Mughal era, Multan was an
important centre of agricultural production and manufacturing of cotton textiles.
[42] Multan was a centre for currency minting during the Mughal era.[42] Multan was
also host to the offices of many commercial enterprises during the Mughal era,[42]
even in times when the Mughals were in control of the even more coveted city of
Kandahar, given the unstable political situation resulting from frequent
contestation of Kandadar with the Persian Safavid Empire.[42]

Post-Mughal[edit]
Nader Shah conquered the region as part of his invasion of the Mughal Empire in
1739. Despite invasion, Multan remained northwest India's premier commercial centre
throughout most of the 18th century.[42]

In 1752 Ahmad Shah Durrani captured Multan,[43] and the city's walls were rebuilt
in 1756 by Nawab Ali Mohammad Khan Khakwani,[8] who also built the Ali Muhammad
Khan Mosque in 1757. In 1758, the Marathas under Raghunathrao briefly seized
Multan,[44][45] though the city was recaptured by Durrani in 1760. After repeated
invasions following the collapse of the Mughal Empire, Multan was reduced from
being one of the world's most important early-modern commercial centres, to a
regional trading town.[42]

Sikh era[edit]

Multan's "Bloody Bastion" was the site of fierce fighting during the Siege of
Multan in 1848-49.
In 1772, Ahmed Shah Durrani's son Timur Shah lost Multan to Sikh forces.[32]
However, Multan's association with Sikhism predates this, as the founder of the
Sikh religion, Guru Nanak, is said to have visited the city during one of his
journeys.[46]

The city had reverted to Muslim rule under the suzerainty of Nawab Muzaffar Khan in
1778.[47] In 1817, Ranjit Singh sent a body of troops to Multan under the command
of Diwan Bhiwani Das to receive from Nawab Muzaffar Khan the tribute he owed to the
Sikh Darbar. In 1818, the armies of Kharak Singh and Misr Diwan Chand lay around
Multan without making much initial headway, until Ranjit Singh dispatched the
massive Zamzama cannon, which quickly led to disintegration of the Multan's
defences.[48] Misr Diwan Chand led Sikh armies to a decisive victory over Muzaffar
Khan. Muzzafar Khan and seven of his sons were killed before the Multan fort
finally fell on 2 March 1818 in the Battle of Multan.[49][50] Following the Sikh
conquest, Multan declined in importance as a trading post.[42]

1848 Multan Revolt[edit]


The 1848 Multan Revolt and subsequent Siege of Multan began on 19 April 1848 when
local Sikhs murdered two emissaries of the British Raj.[51] The two British
visitors were in Multan to attend a ceremony for Sardar Kahan Singh, who had been
selected by the British East India Company to replace the son of Diwan Mulraj
Chopra as ruler of Multan.[52] Rebellion engulfed the Multan region under the
leadership of Mulraj Chopra and Sher Singh Attariwalla.[51] The Multan Revolt
triggered the start of the Second Anglo-Sikh War,[52] which eventually resulted in
the fall of the Sikh Empire in 1849.[53]

British Raj[edit]
The Multan Garrison Club was built in a 19th-century British-colonial style.
By December 1848, the British had captured portions of Multan city's outskirts. In
January 1849, the British had amassed a force of 12,000 to conquer Multan.[51] On
22 January 1849, the British had breached the walls of the Multan Fort, leading to
the surrender of Mulraj and his forces to the British.[51] The British conquest of
the Sikh Empire was completed in February 1849, after the British victory at the
Battle of Gujrat.

Between the 1890s and 1920s, the British laid a vast network of canals in the
Multan region, and throughout much of central and southern Punjab province.[54]
Thousands of "Canal Towns" and villages were built according to standardized plans
throughout the newly irrigated swathes of land.[54]

Climate[edit]
Main article: Climate of Multan
Multan features an arid climate (Kppen climate classification BWh) with very hot
summers and mild winters. The average annual precipitations 186 millimetres (7.3
in).

Multan is known for having some of the hottest weather in the Pakistan. The highest
recorded temperature is approximately 52 C (126 F), and the lowest recorded
temperature is approximately -1 C (30 F).[55][56]

Climate data for Multan


Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high C (F) 28.3
(82.9) 32.0
(89.6) 39.0
(102.2) 45.0
(113) 48.9
(120) 52.0
(125.6) 52.2
(126) 45.0
(113) 42.5
(108.5) 40.6
(105.1) 36.0
(96.8) 29.0
(84.2) 52.2
(126)
Average high C (F) 21.0
(69.8) 23.2
(73.8) 28.5
(83.3) 35.5
(95.9) 40.4
(104.7) 42.3
(108.1) 39.2
(102.6) 38.0
(100.4) 37.2
(99) 34.6
(94.3) 28.5
(83.3) 22.7
(72.9) 32.59
(90.68)
Daily mean C (F) 12.7
(54.9) 15.4
(59.7) 21.0
(69.8) 27.5
(81.5) 32.4
(90.3) 35.5
(95.9) 33.9
(93) 33.0
(91.4) 31.0
(87.8) 26.4
(79.5) 19.7
(67.5) 14.1
(57.4) 25.22
(77.39)
Average low C (F) 4.5
(40.1) 7.6
(45.7) 13.5
(56.3) 19.5
(67.1) 24.4
(75.9) 28.6
(83.5) 28.7
(83.7) 28.0
(82.4) 24.9
(76.8) 18.2
(64.8) 10.9
(51.6) 5.5
(41.9) 17.86
(64.15)
Record low C (F) -3.9
(25) -2.0
(28.4) 3.3
(37.9) 9.4
(48.9) 13.5
(56.3) 20.0
(68) 21.1
(70) 21.1
(70) 16.7
(62.1) 8.9
(48) 0.6
(33.1) -1.1
(30) -3.9
(25)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.2
(0.283) 9.5
(0.374) 19.5
(0.768) 12.9
(0.508) 9.8
(0.386) 12.3
(0.484) 61.3
(2.413) 32.6
(1.283) 10.8
(0.425) 1.7
(0.067) 2.3
(0.091) 6.9
(0.272) 186.8
(7.354)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 222.3 211.6 250.8 273.3 293.5 266.8 265.0 277.6 277.6
274.9 255.0 229.2 3,097.6
Source: NOAA (19611990)[57]
Demographics[edit]

Multan's is home to a significant Christian minority.

Multan's Sufi shrines are often decorated during annual Urs festivals. Pictured is
the Wali Muhammad Shah shrine.
Multan city had a population of 1,197,384 in the 1998 census.[58]

Language[edit]
The linguistic breakdown of the Multan City Tehsil as per the 1998 Census is as
follows:

100 %

Rank Language 1998 census[59] Speakers


1 Saraiki
42.16% 632,602
2 Punjabi 32.34% 485,232
3 Urdu 23.5% 353,354
4 Others 2% 29,429
All Languages 100% 1,500,617
Civic Administration[edit]
Administrators who are government servants have the powers of Nazims (Mayor).
Multan district is spread over an area of 3,721 square kilometres, comprising four
tehsils: Multan City, Multan Saddar, Shujabad and Jalalpur Pirwala. In 2005 Multan
was reorganised as a City District composed of seven autonomous towns:

Bosan
Shah Rukan e Alam
Mumtazabad
Sher Shah
Shujabad
Jalalpur Pirwala
Multan Cantonment
Economy[edit]
Multan is a commercial and industrial centre, as it is connected with the rest of
the country through rail and air including the other industrial hubs such as
Lahore, Karachi, Gujranwala, Quetta and Faisalabad. Industries include fertilizer,
cosmetics, glass manufacturing, cotton production and processing, large textile
units, flour mills, sugar and oil mills and large-scale power generation projects.
It is famous for its handicrafts (carpets & ceramics) and cottage industries.
Roughly 1,900 acres (7.7 km) of the city is still forested in the district. Trees
grown in the area are Kikar, Shisham and Mulberry.

Large, irregular suburbs have grown outside the old walled town, and two satellite
towns have been set up. The mangoes of Multan district are well-known. Multani
khussa (traditional shoes), embroidery on dresses for women and men, furniture and
other wooden products, earthenware pottery, painted pottery, camel-skin ware,
surgical instruments and carpets are a few of the city's major exports, with a
great demand within the country as well.

Multan is an important agricultural, industrial and tourist centre. Wheat, cotton


and sugarcane are the main crops grown in the district. Moreover, rice, maize,
tobacco, bajra, moong (lentils), mash (lentils), masoor (lentils), oil seed such as
rape, mustard and sunflower are also grown in minor quantities in the district.
Mangoes, citrus, guavas and pomegranate are the main fruits grown in the Multan
district. Additionally, dates, jaman, pears, phalsa and bananas are grown in minor
quantities in the district.

The city is also rich in minerals. These include argillaceous clay, coal, dolomite,
fire clay, gypsum, limestone, silica and rock salt. Most of these are excavated for
commercial activities and transported to other cities within the country. Many
industrial factories are being inaugurated to handle the separation and quality
control of these minerals. The minerals in the city are used in dolomite
processing, fire bricks/refractories, hollow glassware, insulators/capacitors and
ceramics.

Since Multan is agriculture-based, there is also plenty of livestock still growing


at a positive rate, which has led to milk processing/dairy products units, ice
cream manufacturing, animal and poultry feed, dairy farms, cattle/sheep/goat
fattening plants, meat/poultry processing units, leather garments manufacturing,
leather footwear, cosmetics, tinned goods and pharmaceuticals

Transportation[edit]
Multan has connections with other cities by a variety of means of transportation.
The district has concrete road reaching up to 983.69 km. The district is linked
with Khanewal, Lodhran and Muzaffargarh districts through concrete roads. Buses to
Bahawalpur leave frequently, since it is located closely to the city. There are a
variety of buses travelling farther from the city. Many of them are now air-
conditioned with a fairly good safety record. The N-5 National Highway connects the
city to connect to all parts of Pakistan. The road otherwise, known as GT Road,
allows connections to Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Faisalabad, Karachi, Lahore as well as
Bahawalpur. Coach services such as Daewoo Express, Faisal Movers Express, Niazi
Express,Khan brothers transport, Nadir flying coach, Punjab Tourism Department,
Skyways and New Khan Bus Service are some of the most reliable coach companies
operating out of Multan.

Motorways[edit]
Multan is situated along the under-construction 6-lane KarachiLahore Motorway
connecting southern and northern Pakistan that is being built as part of the $54
billion China Pakistan Economic Corridor. The 6-lane, 392 kilometre long M-5
section of the motorway is being built between Sukkur and Multan at a cost $2.89
billion.[60] The M-5 has been under construction since May 2016.[61]

Multan will also be connected to the city of Faisalabad via the M-4 motorway,[62]
[63] which in turn will connect to the M-1 and M-2 motorways that will provide
access to Islamabad and Peshawar. Further links with the Karakoram Highway will
provide access to Xinjiang, China, and Central Asia.

Construction of the M3 motorway also under construction at a cost of approximately


$1.5 billion,[64] and was launched in November 2015[65] The motorway will branch
off of the M-4 motorway and will connect Lahore to the M-4 at Abdul Hakeem.

Rail[edit]
Multan is connected by rail with all parts of the country and lies on the main
track between Karachi, Peshawar, Lahore and Quetta. The Main Line-1 Railway that
links Karachi and Peshaway passes through Multan district is being overhauled as
part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor. As part of the part of the project,
railways will be upgraded to permit train travel at speeds of up to 160 kilometres
per hour, versus the average 60 to 105 km per hour speed currently possible on
existing track,[66] The project is divided into three phases, with the Peshawar to
Multan portion to be completed as part of the project's first phase by 2018,[67]
and the entire project is expected to be complete by 2021.[67]

From Multan, links to Khanewal, Lodhran and Muzafargarh are offered by rail.[68]
Multan Cantonment railway station is the main railway station of Multan.

Bus rapid transit[edit]


The Multan Metrobus is a bus rapid transit line which commenced service in January
2017,[69] at a cost of 28.8 billion rupees.[70] The BRT route serves 21 stations
over the course of 18.5 kilometres, of which 12.5 kilometres are elevated.[71] 14
stations are elevated, while the remainder are at street level. The BRT route
begins at Bahauddin Zakariya University in northern Multan, and heads southward to
pass by the eastern edge of Multan's old city at the Daulat Gate before turning
east to finally terminate at the Kumharanwala Chowk in eastern Multan.

With this project, Multan, a city of 5 million people, becomes third large city in
Pakistan to receive mass-transit BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) system after Lahore and
Rawalpindi-Islamabad. Another BRT is currently under construction in Karachi, as
well as the TransPeshawar BRT in Peshawar. A metrotrain is currently being built in
Lahore as well.

The route will initially serviced by 35 buses, serving up to 95,000 passengers per
day.[71] The Multan Metrobus is planned to ultimately have total of 4 BRT lines
covering 68.82 kilometres,[72] which will be complemented by feeder lines.[72]

Air[edit]

Multan International Airport offers flights throughout Pakistan, and direct flights
to Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
Multan International Airport is situated 4 km west of the city Multan in Punjab,
Pakistan.The airport is southern Punjab's largest and busiest airport. Multan
International Airport offers flights throughout Pakistan, as well as direct flights
to Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

As the demand for air travel began to surge, the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority
decided to upgrade the facilities for the airport in 2005. Initially the runway was
upgraded to handle Boeing 747 operations at a cost of Rs 720m and was completed
within the same year.The airport also reported an operating profit of Rs 1bn within
that year.

It was in December 2007, that Director General CAA, Farooq Rehmatullah held a press
conference that the terminal building would be expanded as well as airside
facilities at a cost of Rs4.5bn.It was in April 2009 that the work started with the
runway, taxi ways and apron so the airport could handle large aircraft.The ground
breaking ceremony was held by the then PM Syed Yusuf Raza Gilani. Pakistan-based
Engineering Consultants International Limited (ECIL) was awarded the contract to
extend the runway and terminal building.

In March 2015, a new terminal building was formally inaugurated by Pakistani Prime
Minister Nawaz Sharif.[73] Following the opening of the new terminal, passenger
traffic soared from 384,571 in 2014-2015, to 904,865 in 2015-2016.[74]

Education[edit]
Main article: List of educational institutions in Multan
The NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology, established as the training center
of the National Fertilizer Corporation (NFC) of Pakistan, is a degree awarding
engineering and technology institute in Multan, serving mainly the areas of
Southern Punjab province. [75]

Bahauddin Zakariya University (formerly known as Multan University) is the main


source of higher education for this region. The Swedish Institute of Technology in
Multan is a campus of the Swedish Group of Technical Institutes, the largest
private-sector organisation providing technical education and vocational training
in the Punjab.[76] Now more universities from federal are also opening campuses in
Multan, such as National University of Modern Languages (NUML).[77] Multan Medical
and Dental College (MMDC) is the only private medical institution in Southern
Punjab. The Government High School Rid, Moza Rid, Chk 2 Faiz Multan is affiliated
to BISE Multan and shows satisfactory results at secondary education level.
Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Agriculture, Jalalpur PirWala, Multan.

Heritage[edit]
The tomb of Khawaja Awais Kagha displays use of traditional Multan tile-work on
both its exterior and interior.
Prahladpuri Temple[edit]
Main article: Prahladpuri Temple, Multan
Prahladpuri Temple, Multan is located It is located on top of a raised platform
inside the Fort of Multan, adjacent to tomb of Hazrat Bahaul Haq Zakariya. The
Prahladapuri temple like the Sun Temple of Multan had been destroyed after Muslim
conquest of Multan, suffered several material losses and was reduced to a
nondescript shrine by the 19th century. A mosque has subsequently built adjacent to
temple.[78]

The original temple of Prahladpuri is said to have been built by Prahlad, son of
Hiranyakashipu, the king of Multan (Kashya-papura)[79] in honor of Narsing Avatar,
an incarnation of Hindu god Vishnu, who emerged from the pillar to save Prahlada.
[80][81][82][83]

Notable saints of Multan[edit]


See also: Mausoleums of Multan

The shrine of Pir Adil Shah.


Shah Yousaf Gardezi (d. 1136), tomb located inner Bohar Gate Multan
Mai Maharban (11/12th Century), tomb located near Chowk Fawara, children complex
Multan
Bahauddin Zikarya (11701267), tomb located in Multan Fort
Shah Rukne Alam (12511335), tomb located in Multan Fort
Khawaja Awais Kagha (d. 1300)3, tomb located in Dera Basti graveyard Multan
Syed Musa Pak (d. 1592)
Hafiz Muhammad Jamal Multani (17471811)
Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari (18921961), buried in Jalal Bakri
Syed Noor ul Hassan Bukhari (1902-1983), buried in Jalal Bakri
Ahmad Saeed Kazmi (1913-1986), buried in Eid Gah, Multan

Sports[edit]
The Multan Cricket Stadium hosted many international cricket matches. Ibn-e-Qasim
Bagh Stadium is the other stadium in Multan which is used for football. Multan is
home to Multan Tigers, the domestic cricket which represents the city in domestic
tournaments. Multan has produced many international cricketers like Inzamam-ul-Haq,
Sohaib Maqsood, Rahat Ali, and Sania Khan.

Multan is a multi-purpose stadium in Multan, Punjab, Pakistan. The stadium is


located off Vehari Road, in the suburbs of Multan. It is primarily used for cricket
matches. The stadium seats 35,000 and hosted its first test match in 2001, Pakistan
against Bangladesh for the Asian Test Championship. The stadium hosts both forms of
international cricket: Test cricket and One Day International.

The ground was inaugurated in 2001 as a replacement for the Ibn-e-Qasim Bagh
Stadium located in the heart of Multan. Floodlights were recently installed to make
day/night cricket matches possible. The first day/night game played at this ground
was between arch-rivals India and Pakistan. Professional Multan team

Club League Sport Venue Established


Multan Sultans Pakistan Super League Cricket Multan Cricket Stadium 2017
Notable people from Multan[edit]
Main article: List of people from Multan
Saima Noor Lollywood Queen
Shakir Shuja Abadi
Yousaf Raza Gillani
Shah Mehmood Qureshi
Javed Hashmi
Malik Muhammad Rafique Rajwana
Fariduddin Ganjshakar
Inzamam-ul-Haq
Brahmagupta
Sister cities[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this
article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be
challenged and removed. (October 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template
message)
Multan has a friendship agreement with five cities of the world as of 2011:

Italy Rome, Italy[84]


Turkey Konya, Turkey[85]
Iran Rasht, Iran[86]
See also[edit]
Climate of Multan
City Wall of Multan
History of Multan
List of places in Multan
Multan District
Multan Division
Multan Fort
Multan International Airport
Multan Museum
Siege of Multan
Battle of Multan
Mausoleums of Multan
Hindu temples in Multan
List of educational institutions in Multan
Mosques of Multan
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 132529642 GND: 4246341-5
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