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Feeedwater Valves

t is critical within power plant
operations in drum boilers (or flow 3500
in once-through boilers); the level of
feedwater is within required limits. Feedwater pump pressure
Considering drum type boilers, if the
High Cv
drum level is too high or too low, the required to
plant may be forced to trop. Drum or boiler 2500 minimize system
level control is crucial at plant start-up, resistance and
when the pressure differential between the

Pressure (psi)
2000 plant efficiency
boiler feed pump (BFP) and boiler is very Low Cv required to handle
large pressure difference !
high and control id difficult. Boiler feedwater
control valves much achieve a smooth start-
up and maintain required drum level for
safe, reliable and efficient plant operation. 1000

The high pressure differential at start-up/ Drum pressure

low-load and sensitive control requirement, 500

demands a high-performance severe
service control valve. 0
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Feedwater control valve Plant load
Figure 1: Typical start-up pressures
During start-up and low-load operation
Operate at high pressure differentials
Diagram 1. Typical start-up pressures
of up to 240 bar (3500 psid) (drum
boilers), without damaging the trim
components and maintaining good
control (Diagram 1).
Smooth and quick transition from
start-up to normal operation
Consistent and reliable operation
Tight shut-off to prevent leaks and
subsequent valve erosion

During normal operation

A valve with a high capacity is
required at normal operation to
minimize frictional losses in the
system to minimize boiler feed pump
power requirements (Figure 1).

During load change This VECTOR feedwater valve is one of 20 severe service control
(assuming fixed speed boiler feed pump) valves supplied to Maire Tecnimont S.p.A., based in Rome, Italy for
Load changes are often experienced the Colbun coal-fired power plant in Chile.
and this will result in a lower steam
pressure and drum pressure, but
feedwater pressure will remain similar,
resulting in a higher pressure differential.
Figure 2 shows that the P, and do Cv
requirements, at full load on a 2x2x1
combined cycle power plant (CCPP)
are significantly different depending on
whether one GT (gas turbine) or two
GTs are in operation and so the control
valve used must be able to meet a wide
range of Cv requirements to provide full
flexibility to the plant.
With once-through boilers there can be
similar issues, particularly at start-up
when boiler regulator valve is used before
the main variable speed pumps (usually
steam turbine driven) go into operation.

Warning signs of feedwater control valve Solution: This service requires:
problems Customized Cv versus stroke characterization that matches the flow
Cavitation/flashing: insufficient pressure reducing stages will characteristics of the feedwater valve as seen in Figure 1.
cause high velocity flows, leading to valve/trim damage Pneumatically stiff actuator for good resolution in positioning. A
conventional diaphragm is not adequate double-acting pneumatic
Down-time: poor control at low flows can lead to plant trips and/or piston actuator is required.
an extended start-up process
Long stroke is required for fine control of feedwater flow.
Increased maintenance: frequent replacement and repair of valve
Velocity control in the trim (less than 75 ft. per second at the trim
components exit) to ensure that the performance of the I/P, positioner etc. is not
Symptoms of feedwater control valve problems degraded by high vibration.
Erosion damage caused by: Conclusion:
Insufficient number of trim stages, creating excessive trim velocities
Fluid velocity control was vitally important to solving the problems
Poor seat design and insufficient seat force experienced by the existing valve.
Plug or stem breakage: typically caused by high trim velocities The solution proposed by Koso met all the solution requirements
that lead to trim vibration and fatigue failure identified above and will provide long-term reliable service at
Springerville Generating Station.
Vibration and noise: caused by cavitation and rampant internal velocities

VECTOR velocity control technology improves

performance and reduces cost
KOSO is able to offer a one valve solution with the 500DLC
VECTOR valve, which meets both the high and low Cv
requirements as an alternative to the two valve system (Diagram
2). This configuration is only possible due to VECTORs high
rangeability trim providing excellent controllability at all flows - from
start-up through normal operation. There are distinct benefits to the
combined solution.

VECTOR Case Study: Springerville Generating

Station, Feedwater valve replacement
Summary: The customer needed to solve problems with their low
Diagram 2. Behavior of low load feedwater regulator at Springerville
load feedwater control valve, which had a history of problematic
Generating Station.
performance. Historical data for the system was analyzed to gain
insights into the poor operation of the feedwater valve and to guide a
Reheater Reheater
custom engineered solution. spray control

1) Observation: During start-up the low load feedwater regulator

experienced a very high pressure-differential, in the range of 1200-
1400 psi-d (see figure 1). turbine turbine
Diagnosis: The existing valve did not provide the appropriate performance Superheater
spray control
Primary valve
for the service it was in, causing excessive vibrations due to high fluid superheater

velocities at the trim exit. High vibrations can cause the failure of control ~
accessories mounted on the valve as well as stem breakage. In this case Boiler feedpump
Economizer valve
the vibration was further aggravated by cavitation. area of boiler DA level
control valve
Boiler Deaerator
Solution: This service required VECTOR trim with a minimum of 12 valve
feedpump Condensate Hot well
stages of pressure reduction at low flow rates to eliminate high vibrations
and provide 75 ft. per second of feedwater velocity at the trim exit.
2 valve solution Combined
2) Observation: The control of feedwater flow by the low load solution

feedwater regulator was poor and was also causing transients that were
not good for the boiler feed-pump.
Combined feedwater
control valve

Diagnosis: Poor control by the low load feedwater regulator can be Start-up feedwater

traced primarily to poor characterization and insufficient actuator Diagram 3. Combined control valve

resolution. Also, the high vibration affected the control performance of feedwater control valve
Figure 2: Combined feedwater control valve
confiuration instead of two
the valve.

KOSO estimates for a feedwater control system on a 500MW
2x2x1 combined cycle power plant, the hardware savings
could amount to at least $20,000 per unit with two units per
plant. Heres what KOSO have identified savings sources; fill in
the table (Table 1) to see what yours would be.

Severe service applications for KOSO

The KOSO VECTOR 500DLC is not solely used for drum
level control of combined cycle power plants, but can be
equally applied to the following applications:

Drum level control of conventional fossil fired plants

(combined and start-up)

Start-up feedwater regulator valve on large sub-critical

and supercritical boilers

Boiler circulation valves, used on supercritical once-

through boilers to maintain minimum flow through the

Common severe service application problems

One of 12 four inch min-flow feedwater recirc valves supplied to CFE - Comision Federal de
Electricidad in Mexico.

VECTOR technology
provides superior fluid
velocity control
KOSO has designed VECTOR
to operate within the ISA Guide,
Control Valves, Practical Guides for
Measurements and Control, to provide
sufficient velocity control.

Table 1. Control Valves, Practical Guides for

Measurements and Control, ISA

Service condition Velocity (H20)

m/s ft/s
Continuous service single phase fluids 30 100
Diagram 4. Mulitple pressure reducing stages eliminates erosion. Cavitating & multi-phase fluid outlet 23 75

High trim exit velocities are commonly

responsible for erosion damage in control
valves (erosion increases to the power of
two to four with velocity increase).

Velocity Control VECTOR trim

eliminates problems with trim erosion
by limiting the trims fluid exit velocities
and corresponding kinetic energy.
Diagram 3 illustrates how multiple
pressure stages can control this kinetic
energy, eliminating erosion, vibration
and noise. With one pressure stage, the
water flows over the edge of the dam
with high energy, resulting in erosion.
With numerous steps to flow over in
the stepped dam, the water has much
less energy as it reaches the base,
Diagram 5. VECTOR multi-stage, multi-path trim designs are characterized to provide
eliminating erosion.
optimal valve performance at all flow conditions.
Table 7. Multiple pressure stages controls kinetic
energy, eliminating erosion, vibration & noise

velocity vs.
Recommended Recommended
P stages of
velocity stages
4 stages Multi-stage Stages
Bar psi m/s ft/s m/s ft/s
100 1450 48 157 30 98 10

By eliminating this destructive energy

source, positioners and other actuator
components are not as susceptible to
damage or calibration shift. Piping is
also no longer subject to fatigue failure
from valve-induced vibration.

Diagram 6. VECTOR multi-stage trim can be characterized to permit excellent low flow
control and high-flow capacity protection.

Staging stops erosion and cavitation

VECTOR solution
Kosos VECTOR trim forces the flow to travel through a tortuous
path of right angle turns (Figure 8). Each turn causes a pressure P1
loss to the fluid (Figure 9) so velocity is reduced gradually based Inlet
on the number of turns. The series of multiple pressure drops
allows the pressure to reduce without falling below the vapor
pressure (Figure 10) thus avoiding cavitation (Figure 11). Cavitation
can be a devastating destructive force to valve components and V1 V2 Velocity

trim. VECTORs multistage pressure drop provides superior Inlet

velocity Outlet
Pv P2 Pressure
cavitation damage protection ensuring reduced maintenance and
repair costs. Vapor pressure

Reliable performance and accurate control

VECTOR disk stacks can be customized to provide the required Diagram 6. Staging stops erosion and cavitation
Cv throughout the valve stroke. This is achieved by configuring
disks of varying numbers of turns within the stack (Figure 12). The
Insufficient stages can lead to cavitation
VECTOR disk stack features equal percentage characteristics to
provide very precise flow control. The disk stacks are designed so
disks with more pressure letdown stages are near the seat end of
the trim (up to 24 stages or more), and disks with fewer stages are Vvc
near the full-open end of the trim. This provides critical protection Inlet
P1 Vvc
of the seat ring and allows superior flow control throughout the Vvc
stroke of the valve. Independent and isolated flow paths are utilized
to eliminate mingling velocities between the flow paths. Inlet V1 V2 Outlet velocity
P2 Outlet pressure
Reliable long-term shutoff
VECTOR control valve design features a hard seat, which is Pv Vapor pressure
trash resistant as well as an extremely high seat loading which Cavitation bubbles form here

provides reliable, repeatable shutoff for high pressure differentials.

The actuator is sized to provide a minimum seat ring loading of
500 lbs. per circumferential inch (9 kg/mm) which is ISA guideline Diagram 7. Insufficient stages can lead to cavitation
compliant. Kosos VECTOR design protects the plug and seat
ring from damage due to erosion by controlling velocity and
providing a high seating force for shut-off.
% flow
Exceeding customer expectations by providing 90

custom solutions 80

As well as the standard 500DLC feedwater control valve, KOSO 60

50 Modified linear
also provides custom VECTOR valve solutions. Options like 40
flanged ends, expanded butt-weld ends, high temperatures seals, 30 Modified equal %
and cast bodies are available. KOSO can also provide a two-valve 10
solution (see Figure 3) if it is needed. Please contact your KOSO 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
% stroke
representative for further details on non-standard options.
Figure ##: Characterized equal percentage disk stack

Diagram 8. Characterized equal percentage disk stack

Actuator sized to
provide optimum
seat ring loading

Stem packing
disk stack Balance seal

Multi-stage VECTORTM
disk stack technology

Class V shut-off

Diagram 9. VECTOR feedwater features.

Valve performance characteristics (% Cv vs. % stroke)

100 100

90 90

80 80

70 70

60 60
% Cv

% Cv

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

% stroke % stroke

Equal percentage Modified equal percentage

Diagram 10. Valve performance characteristics (% Cv vs. % stroke).

Diagram 11. Specifications shown are for the standard
VECTOR feedwater product offering. Other custom
sizes are available.

1500 ANSI 2500 ANSI

Globe Angle Globe Angle
Height Weight Height Weight
Trim size Buttweld A B C Buttweld A B C

50.8 mm (2.0) Use 2500 ANSI Use 2500 ANSI 3300 mm (13.00) 1270 (50) 180 kg (400 lbs) 3, 4 578 mm (22.75) 300 mm (13.00) 2030 mm (50) 200 kg (450 lbs)

4, 6 546 mm (21.50) 4, 6 673 mm (26.50)

63.5 or 76.2 mm
330 mm (13.75) 1650 mm (65) 360 mm (800 lbs) 454 mm (1788) 1650 mm (65) 500 kg (1100 lbs)
(2.5 or 3.0)
8 648 mm (25.50) 8 743 mm (29.35)

6, 8 705 mm (22.75) 6, 8 914 mm (36)

101.6 mm (4.0) 413 mm (16.25) 1650 mm (65) 450 kg (1000 lbs) 208 mm (20.00) 1650 mm (65) 900 kg (2000 lbs)
10 838 mm (33) 10 978 mm (38.50)

127 mm (5.0) 8, 10 1980 mm (42.50) 1370 mm (54) 1150 (kg) 2500 lbs 8, 10 1080 mm (42.50) 1370 mm (54) 1150 kg (2500 lbs

152.4 mm (6.0) 10, 12, 14 1270 mm (50) 1880 mm (74) 2300 kg (5000 lbs) 10, 12, 14 1270 mm (50) 1880 mm (74) 2300 kg (5000 lbs)
Contact KOSO for Contact KOSO for
these options these options
177.8 mm (7.0) 10, 12, 14 1270 mm (50) 1880 mm (74) 2300 kg (5000 lbs) 10, 12, 14 1270 mm (50) 1880 mm (74) 2300 kg (5000 lbs)

228.6 mm (9.0) 12, 14, 16 1610 mm (63.40) 1920 mm (76) 3400 kg (7500 lbs) 12, 14, 16 1610 mm (63.40) 1920 mm (76) 3400 kg (7500 lbs)

Headquarters Worldwide locations

Nihon KOSO Co., LTD. China
1-16-7, Nihombashi, Chuo-Ku France
Tokyo, Japan, 103-0027 India
Tel: 81.3.5202.4100 Russia
Fax: 81.3.5202.1511 Singapore
www.koso.co.jp/en/ South Korea
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States of America

2008 Koso. 9/09. 500.