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PART II: Design codification oriented studies

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PART I: Theoretical background , numerical and experimental advanced studies
PART II: Design codification oriented studies

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29 просмотров228 страницPART I: Theoretical background , numerical and experimental advanced studies
PART II: Design codification oriented studies

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TECHNIQUES SRIE DE MCANIQUE APPLIQUE

OF STEEL STRUCTURES RESEARCH ADVANCES

H.H. SNIJDER (University of Eindhoven, The Netherlands )

L. Simes da SILVA (University of Coimbra, Portugal)

CONTENTS

DAN DUBINA, H.H. SNIJDER , L. SIMES DA SILVA, Editorial of the Special Issue on

Stability and Nonlinear Analysis of Steel Structures Research Advances .................. 3

studies

DAN DUBINA, VIOREL UNGUREANU, Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-

walled steel bar members: contribution of Timisoara School ..................................... 9

GIOVANNI GARCEA, ANTONIO BILOTTA, ANTONIO MADEO, GIUSEPPE ZAGARI,

RAFFAELE CASCIARO, A numerical asymptotic formulation for the post-buckling

analysis of structures in case of coupled instability......................................................... 38

RODRIGO GONALVES, DINAR CAMOTIM, Effect of distortion on the structural

behavior of thin-walled steel regular polygonal tubes ..................................................... 56

MARIA KOTEKO, ARTUR MODAWA, MARCIN JANKOWSKI, Axial impact of open-

section twcf columns experimental study ..................................................................... 72

JOO PEDRO MARTINS, L. SIMES DA SILVA, LILIANA MARQUES, MARTIN

PIRCHER, Eigenvalue analysis of curved sandwich panels loaded in uniaxial

compression..................................................................................................................... 87

MIHAI NEDELCU, An analysis of the effect of holes patterns on coupled instability of

perforated thin-walled members ...................................................................................... 105

FRANC SINUR, PRIMO MOE, KLEMEN REJEC, GAPER LUAR, DARKO BEG,

Imperfection sensitivity of thin plates loaded in shear..................................................... 121

Ro. J. Techn. Sci. Appl. Mechanics, Volume 59, Nos 12, P. 1228, Bucharest, 2014

PART II: Design codification oriented studies

LSZL DUNAI, BALZS KVESDI, DVID WISCHY, BARNABS BZA, Lateral

torsional buckling resistance of castellated beams...................................................................... 139

LEROY GARDNER, KWAN HO LAW, CRAIG BUCHANAN, Unified slenderness limits for

structural steel circular hollow sections ...................................................................................... 153

ULRIKE KUHLMANN, BENJAMIN BRAUN, Evolution of Eurocode 3 amendments to

EN 1993-1-5 for plate buckling....................................................................................... 164

H.H.SNIJDER, L.-G. CAJOT, N. POPA, R.C. SPOORENBERG, Buckling curves for heavy

wide flange steel columns ............................................................................................... 178

ANDREAS TARAS, Probabilistic assessment of the impact of straightness tolerances in en

1090-2 on the stability design of steel columns............................................................... 205

EDITORIAL OF THE SPECIAL ISSUE

ON STABILITY AND NONLINEAR ANALYSIS

OF STEEL STRUCTURES

mode. The formal meaning of the notion is found in engineering and sciences,

concerning stability of systems. Broadly speaking, structural stability can be

defined as capacity of a slender structure to recover equilibrium.

Stability is an essential requirement for all structures. Theoretically, for a

structural system, buckling is caused by a bifurcation in the solution to the

equations of static equilibrium. At a certain stage under an increasing load, further

load is able to be sustained in one of two states of equilibrium: an undeformed

state, or a laterally-deformed state. In practice, buckling is characterized by a

sudden failure of a structural member subjected to high compressive stress, where

the actual compressive stress at the point of failure is less than the ultimate

compressive stresses that the material is capable of withstanding. Failure occurs in

a distinct direction compared to the direction of the applied load.

To evaluate the behaviour of a slender structure which might lose its stability

according to the previous definition, three characteristic ranges of the load-

deformation behaviour should be considered:

the pre-critical range , i.e. P (0, Pcr] defining the domain of Structural

stability;

the critical point (bifurcation of equilibrium), P = Pcr;

the post-critical range, i.e. P > Pcr the Structural instability domain.

Since metal structures, steel in particular, are slender, they are most prone to

instability problems; hence the research on steel structures focussed on stability.

Although the stability of bars was first studied over 250 years ago (Euler's

paper was published in 1744), adequate solutions are still not available for many

problems in structural stability. So much has been and is being studied and written

in the field of structural stability, that one may well wonder why, after such

intellectual and financial efforts, there are no definite solutions to these problems.

Numerical facilities and advanced FE codes make it possibly today to calculate

and/or simulate accurately the behaviour of complex structures. However, for

slender structures highly sensitive to buckling, there are still difficulties for a

reliable evaluation of its stability.

Ro. J. Techn. Sci. Appl. Mechanics, Volume 59, Nos 12, P. 38, Bucharest, 2014

4 Dan Dubina, H.H. Snijder, L.S. da Silva 2

This is because determining the load under which a structure collapses due to

the loss of stability still remains one of the most sensitive problems of structural

design. This is due to the following factors (Gioncu, 2005):

a) The loss of stability depends on numerous factors, some of which are very

difficult to control. This is confirmed by a number of recent structure accidents.

Faulty design and execution, overstressing or the use of inadequate materials have

been shown to be mainly responsible for these accidents. It should be noted that

these accidents practically cover the entire range of structures. Today, only a

specialist can carry out stability checks in complete agreement with the actual

behaviour of the structure.

b) Instability occurs in a region with both strong geometrical and material

nonlinearities. For the pre-critical range an extensive literature provides effective

solutions. For the post-critical range, the theoretical background was significantly

developed within the second half of the last century, but only after remarkable

progress in the field of electronic computing equipment, and non-linear analysis

using the Finite Element Method, FEM (e.g. GMNIA- Geometrical and Material

Nonlinear Analysis including Imperfections) and after the development of some

special numerical techniques (e.g. the Arc-Length Method) in the neighbourhood

of the limit point. These developments made it possible to describe correctly the

behaviour of structure, shortly before its failure, and after. However, such analyses

are difficult and costly and they are not accessible for many designers.

due to the execution is as significant as in the field of instability. In strength

analysis the stress-strain state is determined by means of an idealized scheme of the

structure where neglecting the geometrical and mechanical imperfections leads to

3 Editorial 5

relatively small differences in failure load. In the case of instability on the other

hand, failure loads are influenced to a large extent by imperfections so that they

cannot be neglected.

d) Checking the buckling resistance of structures experimentally is very

difficult, because it is impossible to test the actual structure just until it collapse. In

strength analysis, reduced model tests are used for checking the validity of theoretical

values. In stability analysis, testing on reduced models is irrelevant in most cases,

because a correct modelling of the effect of imperfections is practically impossible.

e) There is a wealth of information available in numerous papers dealing with

the stability and instability of structures, but information available in design codes

and standards is limited, even in Eurocode 3. In this situation structural designers

may commit grave errors in the structural instability checking.

Structural stability has a long history. One says (Elishakoff, 2000), the first

description of an instability phenomenon goes to the Bible, where the Tower of

Babel lost its stability under its own weight (610 B.C.). According to Godoy (2000)

perhaps the first to investigate structural stability using theoretical tools were the

Greek masters between 400 B.C. and 200 B.C. Aristotle (384 B.C.322B.C.)

employed kinematics concepts to study changes in stationary systems; and

Archimedes (287 B.C.212 B.C.) used geometric methods to assess the stability of

floating bodies.

So, even it is unanimously recognised that mathematically the theory of

stability was initiated by the Swiss mathematician, Euler in 1744 formulated

structural stability in a mathematical way but technically speaking, stability as

structural phenomenon dates from long before Euler.

Heron of Alexandria (about 100 B.C.), in the course of a long dull work on

statics endeavoured to explain why the strength of a piece of wood reduces as its

length increases (Villagio). Leonardo da Vinci (14521519) provided two

empirical rules for the strength of columns in compression. The Jesuit Mersenne

(15881648), in his Reflexiones on the causes of resistance in solids, observed that

iron, copper and other metals, even single bodies, when subject to a force or

weight, curve and bend to the form of an arch before breaking (Benvenuto).

Mersennes conclusions were unexpectedly confirmed by the consistent

programme of experiments conducted by Van Musschenbroek (16921761), the

inventor of testing machines designed to allow systematic variation of experimental

parameters. Van Musschenbroek even proposed a quantitative law for the failure in

compression of a parallelepiped composed of wood. But the greatest achievement

in the period preceding Euler was made undoubtedly by Bernoulli (16541705).

Bernoulli, as distinct from Galileo and Mariotte, ignored the resistance of beams

and instead considered their deflection. He was able to construct the equation of a

6 Dan Dubina, H.H. Snijder, L.S. da Silva 4

flexible bar deformed in the plane considering finite deflection and a nonlinear

(parabolic) dependence between curvature and bending moment. This enabled

Euler to find the well-known todays formula of elastic critical load of a

compression bar. Lagrange (17361813) developed Eulers theory, generalizing it

to columns of variable cross-section, and used it for checking the most stable shape

of compressed columns. He introduced the notion of bifurcation that connects

linearized and fully nonlinear solutions.

Eulers theory found its applications only from the 19th century under the

pressure of practical problems raised by industrial and building development when

most problems of structural stability were basically linear elastic. The twentieth

century has witnessed a great expansion of the stability theory into nonlinear

behaviour, caused either by large defections or by nonlinearity of the constitutive

law of the material. In the second half of this century, dynamic stability, important

especially for non-conservative systems, became reasonably well understood.

A selective review of some milestones of these developments reads as follows:

Young treated the lateral buckling of a column with variable cross-section;

Navier derived the correct differential equation for a thin plate subject to uniform

compressive forces; Kirchhoff proposed an elegant theory for slender rods

experiencing large displacement and small strain; Eulers theory was applied to

thin shells; Fppl and von Krmn derived a system of two equations describing

the large deflection of a thin plate with stresses acting in the middle plane; Reissner

relaxed some of the simplifying assumptions of Fppl and von Karman theory.

At the end of the 19th century there was general agreement that a unified

theory of structural stability, to generalize and give a framework to all previous

results, has to consider instability as a dynamic problem. The development of this

idea really starts with the contributions of Poincar (18541912) who discovered a

general method for dynamic systems involving series proved convergent for all

values of time, and who achieved consistency with the studies by Lyapunov (1857

1912). In simple terms, if all solutions of the dynamical system that start out near

an equilibrium point xe stay near xe forever, then xe is Lyapunov stable. More

strongly, if xe is Lyapunov stable and all solutions that start out near xe converge to

xe, then xe is asymptotically stable. The notion of exponential stability guarantees a

minimal rate of decay, i.e., an estimate of how quickly the solutions converge. The

idea of Lyapunov stability can be extended to infinite-dimensional manifolds,

where it is known as structural stability, which concerns the behaviour of different

but nearby solutions to differential equations.

Based on Lyapunov stability theorems, in 1945 Koiter has published his

Ph.D. thesis describing a general theory for the stability of elastic systems subject

to conservative loadings. His work contained also a rigorous confirmation of the

effect of initial imperfections on the buckling load of axially compressed shells.

Koiters general theory of elastic stability has marked the beginning of the

5 Editorial 7

in continuum systems. In the new approach, the information given by critical loads

was seen as insufficient, and Koiter employed perturbation theory to develop an

asymptotic analysis that allowed him to follow the post-buckling path in its early

stages (Elishakoff, 2005). While Euler was the first to give a formula for the critical

load of an ideal structure, Koiter was the first to give one for an imperfect structure.

Today, the highly theoretical method of Koiter is numerically implemented

through the Finite Element Method enabling to model complex interactive stability

modes one of the papers in the present volume is dealing with that.

in the Structural Stability domain

Professor Beer from the Technical University of Graz had the idea to

organize in 1971 an International Colloquium in order to compare the ECCS

(European Convention of Constructional Steelwork) approach of buckling curves

of the slender bars in compression, just recently launched in EU countries, with

those applied in Eastern Europe, the United States of America and Japan. This

Colloquium was organized in Paris in 1972, followed in 1974, in London covering

the assembly of structural stability problems. There, Sfintesco as President of

ECCS and Beedle, as Chairman of SSRC (Structural Stability Research Council, USA)

have proposed to enlarge both the topic and geographical areas of this Colloquium

and transform it in a traveling event. A long series of colloquia under the

coordination of the SSRC has started, the last one, the 21st, being organized in Rio

de Janeiro; the next and 22nd one is planned to take place in Timisoara, Romania in

2016. At the 1997 edition, in Nagoya, the general framing topic Stability of Steel

Structures was enlarged and became Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures

SDSS. Previous editions of October 1982 and September 1999 have been

organized by the Politehnica University of Timisoara in cooperation of Romanian

Academy, the Timisoara Branch, through the Committee for Structural Stability.

In parallel with the SSRC series, in October 1992 in Timisoara, another series

of conferences started, dedicated to Coupled Instabilities in Metal Structures. This

CIMS series has a recurrence period of four years: the last and 6th one being

organized in Glasgow in December 2012 after the 5th in 2008 in Sydney, while the

next and 7th CIMS conference is expected to take place in Baltimore in the Autumn

of 2016.

In Europe, the organization offering an integrating framework for the

research activity related to steel structures is ECCS European Convention for

Constructional Steelwork, founded in 1955. Outstanding European scientists and

engineers, from academia, research centers and industry are taking part in the

Technical Committees (TC-s) of ECCS, which are playing an important role in

8 Dan Dubina, H.H. Snijder, L.S. da Silva 6

technical and scientific forums and working groups contributing to developing and

promoting advanced knowledge in the field of steel structures. Among other ECCS

TC-s, there is the TC 8 on Structural Stability. Along the years TC8 has contributed

to the elaboration of European Buckling Curves (1970), the ECCS Manual on

Stability of Structures (1976), Behavior and Design of Plated Structures (1986), the

5th editions starting in 1980 of the Recommendations for Stability of Steel Shells,

and in last two decades to the provisions for Structural Stability Design of

Eurocode 3- Design of Steel Structures (EN 1993-1-1, EN 1993-1-5, EN 1993-1-6).

This Special Issue is in good part the result of ECCS TC8 cooperation,

9 from the 12 papers being authored by the members of this Group.

Stability and nonlinear analysis of steel structures

The topics of the papers included in this volume are diverse enough, tackling

stability problems of steel structures with thin and tick walled bar members, open

and hollow sections, plated structures and curved sandwich panels. There are

theoretical, numerical and experimental approaches and combinations of them used

in solving stability problems. The 12 papers have been framed into two parts:

Part I: Theoretical background, numerical and experimental advanced

studies 7 papers;

Part II: Design codification oriented studies 5 papers.

36 authors from 11 European Countries have contributed with their research

works to this Special Issue of the Romanian Journal of Technical Sciences. We are

expressing our gratitude to all of them.

We are also grateful to the reviewers for the time and effort they spent

evaluating the papers.

Thanks are also due to Dr. Luigi VLADAREANU and Dr. Dan DUMITRU

of Institute of Solid Mechanics of the Romanian Academy, Bucharest, for the

editorial work.

The guest editors hope that this special issue gives an overview of current

research activities contributing to the stability and nonlinear analysis of steel structures.

Timioara, August 2014

Guest Editors:

Dan DUBINA

H.H. (Bert) Snijder, Luis Simes da SILVA

PART I: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND, NUMERICAL

AND EXPERIMENTAL ADVANCED STUDIES

THIN-WALLED STEEL BAR MEMBERS:

CONTRIBUTION OF TIMISOARA SCHOOL

Abstract. The paper presents a summary of the activity and research achievements of

the Romanian researchers of Timisoara School in the field of stability of cold-formed

steel members. Both, fundamental theory and applied instability contributions are

focussed. Post-critical theory of elastic structures, the analysis of stable and unstable

components of bifurcation load, coupling of bifurcations modes (e.g. mod interaction),

erosion of critical load are the topics in which the theoretical contributions of

Timisoara School are significant. Present paper focuses the mode interaction problems

of thin-walled steel bar members only, integrating some relevant results obtained by

the authors through a state-of-art review.

Key words: erosion, critical load, interactive buckling, ECBL approach, bar members.

1. INTRODUCTION

and corresponding load, Ncr, are obtained at the intersection of the pre-critical

(primary) force-displacement curve with the post-critical (secondary) curve. For a

real structure, affected by a generic imperfection the bifurcation point does not

appear anymore and, instead, the equilibrium limit point is the one characterizing

the ultimate capacity, Nu, of the structure. The difference between Ncr and Nu

represents the Erosion of the Critical Bifurcation Load (ECBL), due to the

imperfections. This model applies in the instability mode interaction. The meaning

of mode interaction inherently refers to the erosion of critical bifurcation load in

case of interaction of two (or more) buckling modes associated with the same, or

nearly the same, critical load. The theoretical and experimental studies and the

contributions of Timisoara School to this topic along more than 30 years are

relevant, being recognised by the scientific community in the field [10].

1

Politehnica University of Timisoara, Civil Engineering Faculty, Department of Steel

Structures and Structural Mechanics, Ioan Curea 1, 300224, Timisoara, Romania

2

The Romanian Academy, Timisoara Branch, Laboratory of Steel Structures, Mihai Viteazu 24,

300223, Timisoara, Romania

Ro. J. Techn. Sci. Appl. Mechanics, Volume 59, Nos 12, P. 9137, Bucharest, 2014

10 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 2

As a prove, in October 1982, the First Session of the Third SSRC International

Colloquium of Stability of Steel Structures was organised in Timisoara. Ten years

later, the First International Conferences on Coupled Instabilities in Metal

Structures CIM92, took place in Timisoara on October 10-12, 1992. A number

of 61 contributions prepared by 60 authors of 19 countries have been published in a

Special Issue of Thin-walled Structures journal, with J. Rondal, D. Dubina and

V. Gioncu as Guest Editors [1]. At the second conference, CIMS96, held in Liege,

on September 5-7, 1996, 166 authors from 23 countries presented 62 contributions

published in a volume of 596 pages, edited by the same team [2]; and the series

continues with the next CIMS,2000 in Lisbon, 2004 in Rome, 2008 in Sydney,

2012 in Glasgow, the being planned to be held in 2016 in Baltimore.

In 1997, the series of International Colloquia dedicated to Stability of Steel

Structures promoted by Structural Stability research Council of USA through

travelling Sessions ( e.g. as the one held in 1982 in Timisoara), extended the topic

area and became International Colloquium on Stability and Ductility of Steel

Structures (SDSS). First SDDS was organized in Nagoya, in august 1997; the next,

SDSS99, has been organised in 9-11 of September 1999 in Timisoara, by the

Politehnica University of Timisoara, Technical University of Budapest and Romanian

Academy Timisoara Branch in co-operation with Structural Stability Research

Council (USA) and European Convention for Constructional Steelwork [5] and. In

2016, Politehnica University of Timisoara will organise the next edition of SDSS

colloquium. In parallel with this events, the advanced courses focusing selected

structural stability topics, organized by International Centre of Mechanical Sciences-

CIMS, in Udine, Italy , with the contribution of outstanding teams of outstanding

international lectures , including t representatives of Timisoara School, must be

emphasized i.e.

Coupled Instabilities in Metal Structures. Theory and Practical Aspects [6]

in October 1996;

Light gauge metal structures. Recent advances [7] in June 2002;

Phenomenological and mathematical modelling of coupled instabilities [8]

in October 2003.

Continuing the line, in 2004 a Special Issue of Thin Walled Structures

journal entitled Cold Formed Structures: Recent Research Advances in Central

and Eastern Europe has been published, under the coordination of Professor

Dubina [9].

On the following, this review paper, focuses the mode interaction problems

of thin-walled steel bar members, presenting the theoretical background of ECBL

method Erosion of Critical Buckling Load , and selected results obtained with

this method. ECBL is a creation of Timisoara School of Stability of Steel Structures.

3 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 11

and corresponding load, Ncr, are observed at the intersection of the pre-critical

(primary) force-displacement curve with the post-critical (secondary) curve (see

Fig. 1). To evaluate the behaviour of a slender structure, which might loss its

stability, needs for the control by design the three characteristic ranges of load-

deformation:

Pre-critical range, i.e. N(0, Ncr], defining the domain of structural

stability;

Critical point (bifurcation of equilibrium);

Post-critical range, e.g. N > Ncr, the structural instability domain.

Force

bifurcation point (critical)

Ncr

erosion

Nu

post-critical

limit point

ideal

structure pre-critical

actual

structure

0

point does not appear anymore and, instead, the equilibrium limit point is the one

characterizing the ultimate capacity, Nu, of the structure. The difference between

Ncr and Nu represents the Erosion of the Critical Bifurcation Load (ECBL), due to

the imperfections. The model in Fig. 1 can also be applied in case of structures

which might be prone to subsequent buckling modes interacting in the bifurcation

point, i.e.: a primary mode which, if it does not cause the failure of the structure,

play the role in the pre-critical path (e.g. local buckling in case of slender

12 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 4

thin-walled members), and the secondary mode which, at the end, that is the one

causing the failure (this will be the post-critical mode). Roughly, this is the

description of instability mode interaction.

The meaning of the mode interaction refers to the erosion of critical

bifurcation load in case of interaction of two (or more) buckling modes associated

with the same, or nearly the same, critical load; it happens when the mode

simultaneity is due to the results of design and/or imperfections. A well-known

example of mode interaction is the coupling of local or distortional buckling with

the overall buckling in the case of thin-walled cold-formed steel members, or the

coupling between local buckling of class 4 web with the lateral-torsional buckling

of plated beam.

In almost all practical cases, the mode interaction, obtained by coupling of a

local instability with an overall one, is a result of design (e.g. calibration of

mechanical and geometrical properties of a member) and has a nonlinear nature:

Coupling by design occurs when the geometric dimensions of structure are

chosen such as two or more buckling modes are simultaneously possible.

For this case, the optimization based on the simultaneous mode design

principle plays a very important role and the attitude of the designer

towards this principle is decisive. This type of coupling is the most

interesting in practice because, even the erosion of critical buckling load is

maximum in the interactive range, the ultimate buckling strength still

remains maximum in this range;

Nonlinearity characterizes the post-buckling behaviour of coupling of

instability modes and is due to design and the presence of the geometrical

imperfections which is indispensable for coupling; this coupling doesnt

exist for ideal structure. For instance, this is the case of the interaction

between flexural buckling and flexural-torsional buckling of some mono-

symmetrical cross-section.

Figure 2 illustrates such a case for a mono-symmetrical T-section in

compression, studied in Timisoara [12], which is prone to the mode interaction

between flexural and flexural-torsional modes. Due to the imperfections the

erosion of critical bifurcation load occurs. The erosion is maximum in the coupling

point vicinity (Fig. 1). For bar members, an interactive slenderness range, in which

sensitivity to imperfections is increased, may be identified. Depending on imperfection

sensitivity, classes of interaction types, characterized by specific levels of erosion

intensity, may be defined.

5 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 13

u3

Ncr i3

u2

h

i2

flexural buckling b

coupled instability

i1

torsional - flexural buckling b

h u1

Ideal flexural-torsional

Ncr 2 Eth3 buckling

2

l

0.2

tl

=0.816

0.15

Ideal b2

flexural

buckling

b t

0.1

h t

0.05

tests

actual

h/b

1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

modes which might couple (Fig. 3), the perfect member fails under interactive

critical buckling load, Ncr, while the real capacity of the actual member will be the

ultimate load, Nu. The erosion, , can be expressed as follows:

= 1 N u / N cr , (1)

and

N u = (1 ) N cr . (2)

14 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 6

N

nd

2 mode 1st mode

Ncr

Nu

coupled mode

parameter

Theoretical critical load. Gioncu [13] has ranked in four classes the mode

interaction types in terms of erosion factor, as follows:

class I: weak interaction (WI), 0.1;

class II: moderate interaction (MI), 0.1 < 0.3;

class III: strong interaction (SI), 0.3 < 0.5;

class IV: very strong interaction (VI), > 0.5.

Obviously, an appropriate framing of each mode interaction into a relevant

class is very important because the methods of analysis used for design have to be

different from one class to another. Week or moderate interactions could be

controlled by code-based design procedures, the partial safety coefficients being

able to keep safe those structures; higher interaction classes, particularly SI and VI,

need for more refined examination, in principle using advance numerical methods

and taking into account for relevant imperfection scenarios.

Interaction classes can be associated with erosion levels (Fig. 4).

Nu

N cr ideal actual

weak erosion

1.00

very important

erosion

e

7 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 15

first one is due to multiple local modes, which leads to a so called localized mode,

and gives rise to an unstable post-critical behaviour. The second interaction,

between the localized buckling mode and the overall buckling one, yields to a very

unstable post-critical behaviour, with great erosion due to the imperfections. The

multiple local buckling modes interaction might generate a localized mode which

subsequently can interact with an overall mode, with very destabilizing effects

(Fig. 9, further on). Strong and very strong interactions are the result of this type of

coupled instability. In such a case, very special design methods must be developed.

Currently, such a phenomenon is characteristic for thin-walled columns in

compression. Table 1 qualitatively indicates the erosion levels for mode interaction

classes i.e.

Table 1

Coupled instabilities in bar members [14]

No. Bar member type Instability modes Class of interaction

WI to MI

1. Mono-symmetrical columns F + FT = FFT

0.3

MI

2. Built-up columns F + L = FL

0.1 < 0.3

F + L = FL SI to VI

FT + L = FTL

0.3

(F + FT + L = FFTL)

3. Thin-walled columns

F + D = FD MI to SI

FT + D = FTD

0.3 0.5

(F + FT + D = FFTD)

LT + L = LTL MI

4. Thin-walled beams

LT + D = LTD 0.3

Legend: F = flexural buckling ; FT = flexural-torsional buckling;

L = local buckling ; D = distortional buckling

WI = week interaction ; MI = moderate interaction ; SI = strong interaction;

VI = very strong interaction.

2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

multiple buckling modes associated with the same critical buckling load [15]. Such

problems are used to be known as instability mode interaction. The theoretical

approach of this phenomenon, also addressed as interactive or coupled buckling

involves the general asymptotic theory of instability. The background of structural

theory and post-buckling behaviour of structures is given in books and state-of-art

16 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 8

articles by: Hutchinson & Koiter [16], Thompson & Hunt [17, 18], Budiansky [19],

Koiter [20], and Flores & Godoy [21]. The books on bifurcation theory by Chow &

Hale [22], Golubitsky & Schaeffer [23] and Gioncu & Ivan [24] related to the

theory of critical and post-critical behaviour of elastic structures have to be

considered as basic lectures for the readers interested on this topic.

When speaking about the mode interaction, implicitly refers to the erosion of

theoretical critical bifurcation load in case of interaction of two (or more) buckling

modes associated with the same, or nearly the same, critical load; it happens when

the mode simultaneity is due to the results of design and/or imperfections [25]. A

well-known example of such a mode interaction is the one resulting from the

coupling of local or distortional buckling with overall buckling in case of a thin-

walled cold-formed members. In such cases, the critical values corresponding to

global buckling mode are significantly lower than local buckling modes, and their

interaction can be considered within the first non-linear approximation [26].

A comprehensive approach of the problem of elastic interaction between

local and global buckling modes is due to van der Neut [27], who provided the

evidence that the sensitivity to imperfections of thin-walled columns in compression is

maximum into the interactive buckling range, where critical buckling loads

corresponding to local and global modes are closed to each other.

Koiter & Kuiken [28], two years after van der Neut, developed the method

known as method of slowly varying local mode amplitude. In 1976 Koiter has

published his General Theory of Mode Interaction in Stiffened Plates and Shell

Structures [29], followed by the well-known book of Thompson & Hunt, A General

Theory of Elastic Stability [17], in which the theory of interaction between

coincident instability buckling modes is presented. On the same line, fundamental

contributions to the problem of local-overall mode interaction of thin-walled

sections are the studies of Thompson & Lewis [30]. Tvergaard [31,32] presented a

method enabling to evaluate the erosion of ultimate capacity of interaction of

overall mode, in post-buckling range, with plate local buckling mode, which is

stable in post-buckling range, as it was the case of van der Neut problem.

Based on van der Neut principle and applying the Ayrton-Perry equation

[33], Dubina [14] proposed the Erosion of Critical Bifurcation Load (ECBL)

approach, enabling to evaluate the theoretical erosion of critical load into the

interactive buckling range. Later, based on the real behaviour of thin-walled stub

columns and short beams, Ungureanu & Dubina [34,35] used in the interactive

local-overall buckling analysis the sectional plastic mechanism strength instead of

traditional effective section and, the ECBL approach, in order to express the plastic-

elastic interactive buckling of thin-walled cold-formed steel members.

In the last two decades intensive progress in studying the mode interaction

problems was achieved due to the development of specific numerical methods.

Since the late 1980s, the Generalized Beam Theory (GBT) [36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41]

9 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 17

has been developed extensively. Particularly connected to the present topic, Camotim &

Dinis [42] performed extended numerical studies, using FEM and GBT, to study

the elastic post-buckling behaviour of cold-formed steel columns affected by mode

interaction phenomena involving distortional buckling, namely local/distortional,

distortional/global (flexural-torsional), local/distortional/global mode interaction

and also sensitivity to imperfections of thin-walled cold-formed steel members.

Alternatively, another approach has been proposed based on conventional

FSM, i.e. CUFSM [43], freely available at the www.ce.jhu.edu/bschafer/cufsm.

The recently developed constrained Finite Strip Method (cFSM) provides a means

to simplify thin-walled member stability solutions through its ability to identify and

decompose mechanically meaningful stability behaviour, notably the formal

separation of local, distortional, and global deformation modes. In this version the

solution has been expanded to allow for general end boundary conditions [44].

Another design method, which can be framed in the class of semi-analytical

methods, is Direct Strength Method [45], which practically replaces the effective

width concept with the effective stress one. The method explicitly incorporates

local or distortional and Euler buckling and does not require calculations of the

effective properties. The procedure is an alternative to effective width method.

Direct Strength Method has been adopted in 2004 as design method in Appendix 1

to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural

Members [46].

In the last years, very interesting developments based on the fundamental

theoretical works of Koiter [25] have been developed by Garcea et al. [47, 48]. The

asymptotic approach, derived as a finite element implementation of Koiters

nonlinear theory of elastic stability, could be a convenient alternative by providing

an effective and reliable strategy for predicting the initial post-critical behaviour in

both cases of limit or bifurcation points. Its main advantage lies in the possibility of

performing an efficient and reliable imperfection sensitivity analysis, even in cases

of multiple, nearly coincident, buckling loads.

standing and practical characterisation of the local-global mode interaction

problem is the pioneering study conducted by van der Neut [27], which has clearly

demonstrated the erosion of theoretical critical coupling due to imperfections.

In this case, the interaction occurred between the local buckling of the flanges

and flexural buckling of a square box section column; only the flanges have been

considered to be active, while the web role was to connect them. Fig. 5a shows the

buckling curve of the van der Neut column without local or overall imperfections.

For lengths greater than L1 the column fails in overall Euler buckling, i.e.

18 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 10

NE = 2 EI / L2 . (3)

For shorter lengths, the local buckling load, i.e.

2

k 2 E t

Ncr , L = 2 (4)

12(1 2 ) d

is reached before Euler buckling takes place (t is the thickness and d is the width of

flanges, is the Poissons ratio and k = 4, the plate buckling coefficient). In the

locally buckled shape, a reduced bending stiffness of the column, given by EI, is

considered, where is the slope of the load-strain diagram of the flange plate in the

post-local buckling range. van der Neut has considered the results of work by

Hemp [49], who demonstrated that is fairly constant over an extended strain

range past the local buckling point and can be taken as = 0.4083 for plates of

which the longitudinal edges are free to pull in. As a result, the reduced overall

buckling load in the post-local buckling range is given by Nu = NE, with

N E = 2 EI / L2 . For column lengths between L1 and L2, the equilibrium at a load

NL is stable if:

2 2 EI

> NL . (5)

1 + L2

N

NL,cr

N NE

1.8

neutr

1.6

al

1.4 w0 / t

stable unsatable 1.2 0

NL 0.0125

2 NE 1.0 0.025

N

+1 E 0.05 erosion

0.8 0.1

0.2

n eu t 0.6 0.4

ra l

0.4

NE

0.2 NL,cr

L2 L0 L1 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5

1/ 2

L

2 1/ 2

L0= +1 L1 =0.761 L1 L2= L1 =0.639 L1

Fig. 5 a) The van der Neut curve [27]; b) effect of a local imperfection on the buckling load [27].

Eqn. (5) expresses that the column post-buckling capacity, given by

Engessers double modulus formula, has to be greater than the local buckling load

NL, and results in: L2 < L < L0, with L0 = 0.761L1. Columns with L0 < L < L1 are in a

state of unstable equilibrium once the local buckling load is reached and collapse

explosively (e.g. snap through effect).

In a second step, van der Neut considered a local imperfection affine with the

local buckling mode. In this case, was obtained from a Ritz-Galerkin approximate

solution of the von Karman equations. Fig. 5b displays the non-dimensional

11 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 19

buckling load N/NL,cr function of NE/NL,cr for different values of w0/t, where w0 is

the local imperfection amplitude and t, is the flange thickness. It is seen that the

local imperfection can cause a severe reduction in column capacity, and that the

effect is most pronounced in the vicinity of the point where NE = NL,cr. For instance,

a reduction (e.g. erosion) of 30% was calculated for w0/t = 0.2. It was also

demonstrated that, in the region where the perfect column displays unstable

collapse, the peak of the load-bar shortening curve gets smoothened out as a result

of the imperfection and the instability almost vanishes for w0/t = 0.2. Van der Neut

[50] also investigated the effect of overall imperfections on the idealised column.

The research concluded that the presence of an overall imperfection (e.g. bar

deflection) has a similar negative effect on the column strength.

At the end, the most important observation of this study is the reduction of N,

due to the initial imperfection of flanges which is most significant when NE = NL,cr.

The ECBL approach, proposed by Dubina [14], presented on the following is based

on that conclusion.

elastic buckling modes (bifurcation) characterizing the instability of a thin-walled

member in compression. The local mode could be local buckling (L) or distortional

buckling (D), the lower of NL,cr or ND,cr being considered. Similarly, the overall

mode might be either flexural (F) or flexural-torsional (FT). In Fig. 6, (L) and (F)

modes are assumed in order to identify and qualify the erosion of (L) (F)

interaction. These modes are interacting into the theoretical coupling point (Cth),

while the lowest value N = NL,cr with (F) into the practical coupling point (Cpr),

allowing the theoretical, th, and practical, pr, erosions to be evaluated. In case,

distinction can be made between local buckling strength NL,cr or ND,cr and ultimate

stub column strength, NL,u or ND,u, respectively. The NL,u and ND,u values are

obtained considering the relevant imperfections, while for NL,cr and ND,cr there are

no imperfections taken into account.

(F)

N (L)

Cth

Cpr th

NL,cr

NL,u

pr

N(L)

0

LL,cr Lint,th Lint,pr Length (L)

Fig. 6 Theoretical and practical interaction of two buckling modes: distortional (L) and flexural (F).

20 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 12

erosion of equation of European buckling curves, expressed in Ayrton-Perry format

has to be done. The Ayrton-Perry equation, for the case of a member in

compression, which is not prone to local buckling, but can undergoes buckling in

post-elastic range, can be written in the form:

2

(1 N )(1 N ) = N ( 0.2) , (6)

FT ). It is easy to show the relation between the imperfection factor, , and

erosion coefficient, [14]. In this case, the erosion of theoretical ultimate capacity

in compression is due to the effect of imperfections and plastic deformations. The

negative sign solution of Eqn. (6), in the point = 1 has to be taken equal with

(1 ) , because it corresponds to the maximum erosion of theoretical critical load

when no local buckling occurs, as shown by Eqn. (7), i.e.

1

N ( = 1, ) = 2 + 0.8 (2 + 0.8)2 4 = 1 , (7)

2

that gives

2

= (8)

0.8(1 )

or

= 0.4 ( 5 + 2 . ) (9)

between the rigid plastic mode (plastic strength) of stub column ( 0.2 ) and the

overall elastic buckling mode of the bar given by Euler formula, as shown in Fig. 7.

N = N / N pl

1

N AYRTON -PERRY

(1) 2

N EULER = 1 /

0.5

0

0 0.2 1 2

13 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 21

modes assumed to interact in a thin-walled compression member are: (1) the Euler

2

bar instability mode, N E = NE / N pl , N E = 1 / , and (2) the local instability mode,

N L = NL / N pl (Fig. 8).

N

1

Local instability mode

Maximum erosion

NL

C Emax = N L

2

N ( , N L , ) = (1 ) N L E N E =1/

Coupling point

C = 1 / N L N L N pl

N erod = N ( , N L , ) =

N cr

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2

In this case, the maximum erosion of critical load, due to both, imperfections

and coupling effect occurs in the coupling point, C ( C = 1 / N L ), where:

N = N / N pl , N pl = A f y , where A is the area of the member cross-section

and fy is the yielding strength;

N L = NL / N pl , where NL is either local buckling mode or distortional

buckling mode;

N E = NE / N pl , the Euler critical buckling load.

The interactive buckling load, N (, N L , ) , pass through this point where the

corresponding value of ultimate buckling load is N (C ) = (1 ) N L . It must be

underlined that N L does not rigorously represents the theoretical local buckling,

but it is assumed to be the lower bound of that, and can be used as reference for

strength of the cross-section corresponding to the local or distortional buckling

mode. It enables to estimate the strength of the stub column and to obtain the

coupling point C. On the other hand, the occurrence of local or distortional

buckling, the stiffness of the member decreases significantly, resulting in a jump of

equilibrium onto the overall buckling path. In this case, if compares Fig. 8 with

Fig. 7, the effect of mode interaction is added to those of plastic deformations and

imperfections, and the reference load for evaluation of erosion is not anymore

N = N / N pl = 1 , but NL / N pl < 1 .

22 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 14

When local buckling occurs prior to bar buckling (as it was in the case of van

der Neut problem), then the corresponding solution of Eqn. (10), i.e.:

2

( N L N )(1 N ) = ( 0.2) N (10)

in the coupling point C of Fig. 8 is:

2 2

1 + ( 0.2) + N L 1 1 + ( 0.2) + N 2 4 N 2 =

N= L L

2 2 (11)

2 2

= (1 ) N L

which leads to

2 NL

= . (12)

1 1 0.2 N L

introduced in European buckling curves in order to adapt these curves to local

overall buckling. Of course, following this approach, the definition of stub column

(i.e. the lower value in the buckling curve) has to be adapted correspondingly.

When speaking about the erosion of theoretical buckling curve in the

coupling point, distinction should be made between the erosion, , which refers to

the effect of both imperfections and coupling, and the reduced ultimate strength of

member, characterized by the normalized local buckling strength, N L . This

approach applies similarly for both local (L) and distortional (D) buckling modes,

providing they are not interacting each other; the basic Ayrton-Perry formula,

presented by Eqn. (6) does not change.

In case of a thin-walled steel member prone to local buckling, N L = N L,cr

can be approximated by Q = Aeff /A, where A is the area of gross cross-section,

while Aeff is the effective area calculated using effective width method. In case of

distortional buckling, N L = N D,cr = ND,cr / Af y , where ND,cr is the critical value of

distortional buckling.

In order to evaluate the erosion factor, two different methods are possible

to this purpose i.e.: experimental and numerical method, respectively [14].

a) Experimental method. The experimental calibration method requires a

relevant set of experimental values located in a close neighbourhood of the

coupling point, called coupling range. Most often available experimental results

scatter, as a result of unavoidable mechanical and geometrical imperfections.

Consequently, the concerned specimens do not meet the main requirement of

ECBL approach to have reduced member slenderness identical to the one locating

15 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 23

the coupling point ( C = 1 / N L , see Fig. 8). Even in case of own dimensioned

specimens, sized to be theoretically located in the coupling point, the imperfections

produce an unavoidable scatter of the experimental results and require the work

with a coupling range as well.

The selection of the relevant set of specimens should be performed by

choosing among existing results experimental samples reasonably close to the

instabilities coupling point (in terms of reduced slenderness). This is leading to the

idea of using a coupling range, defined in terms of reduced slenderness as a

vicinity of the coupling point, instead of working strictly in this point. A correct

definition of coupling range limits is therefore of paramount importance for the

selection of a relevant set of specimens. Extensive parametric studies [51] have

indicated as acceptable an unsymmetrical coupling range defined around c with

left limit 1 = 0.85 c and the right limit 2 = 1.075 c . All specimens with a

reduced slenderness comprised between these two limits should be considered as

reasonably close to the coupling point and selected as relevant experimental set.

b) Numerical method. Based on an advanced nonlinear inelastic FEM

analysis and taking into account for the imperfections and cold-forming effect, the

numerical models have to simulate relevant experimental values into the coupling

range. However, the numerical method requires also some experimental results in

order to calibrate the FEM model.

The previous approach can be very easily extended to the case of interactive

local/lateral-torsional buckling of thin-walled beams [52]. Following the same

procedure, the LT imperfection factor can be determined, i.e.:

2LT QLT

LT = . (13)

1 LT 1 0.4 QLT

walled beams is similar to that of EN 1993-1-1, but instead of LT given in EN

1993-1.1 the following value should be used:

2

LT = 0.5[1 + LT (LT 0.4) + LT ] , (14)

with LT calculated from Eqn. (13) in terms of the erosion factor LT.

Finally, it appears easier to evaluate experimentally and/or numerically the

erosion coefficients, , for specific types of cold-formed steel sections and, on this

basis, to calibrate relevant imperfection factors, in order to be implemented in the

EN 1993-1-1. Examples of calibration of imperfection factors are presented in

[14, 34, 35, 5257].

24 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 16

VIA ECBL APPROACH [34,35]

capacity, and consequently non-ductile, mainly due to wall slenderness involving

local instability phenomena. However, even they do not have sufficient plastic

rotation capacity to form plastic hinges, they can form local plastic mechanisms.

In case of a thin-walled member multiple local buckling modes may occur

simultaneously under the same critical load. For a long member, multiple local

buckling modes, e.g. m-1, m, m+1, characterized by Lm-1, Lm and Lm+1 half wave-

lengths, respectively may interact each other and give rise to an unstable post-critical

behaviour called localization of the buckling pattern (Fig. 9).

Pcr,m-1 Pcr,m Pcr,m+1 Pcr,l

um-1 um um+1 ul

L + =

P=P/A fy P=P/A fy

Pcr Pcr

periodical mode periodical mode

erosion erosion

Pu Pu

actual behavior

u/L u/L

Fig. 9 Periodical local modes and localization of buckling patterns in case of flanges

of a plain channel section in compression.

The localized buckling mode is in fact an interactive or coupled mode. This is

a first interaction, which may occur prior the overall buckling mode of the member.

The second interaction, between the localized buckling mode and the overall one is

really dangerous because it is accompanied by a very strong erosion of critical

17 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 25

bifurcation load. When localization of buckling patterns occurs, the member post-

buckling behaviour is characterized by large local displacements, in the inelastic

range, which produce the plastic folding of walls, and the member, falls into a

plastic mechanism [58].

Starting from this real behaviour of thin-walled stub columns and short

beams, Ungureanu & Dubina [34, 35] used the ECBL approach in order to express

the plastic-elastic interactive buckling of thin-walled members. The main problem

of this approach is to evaluate properly the plastic strength of thin-walled members,

via the local plastic mechanism theory and after, the erosion of critical load into the

plastic-elastic coupling range.

0.7 N EUROCODE3-1.3

U62x62x2.05 ECBL elastic-elastic

0.6 ECBL plastic-elastic

ANSYS 5.4 elasto-plastic

0.5 AISI-1996

Tests

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8

(a)

0.7 EUROCODE3-1.3

N C156x54x30x1.49

ECBL elastic-elastic

0.6 ECBL plastic-elastic

ANSYS 5.4 elasto-plastic

0.5 AISI-1996

Tests

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6

(b)

Fig. 10 Numerical/Experimental comparison for compression members [34].

Following exactly the same way as for the elastic local-overall interactive

buckling, it results the imperfection factor for the plastic-elastic interactive buckling:

26 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 18

2 Qpl

= , (15)

1 1 0.2 Qpl

where

N pl ,m

Qpl = N pl , L = (16)

A fy

and Npl,m is the local plastic mechanism strength.

In case of members in compression, Fig. 10 presents the ECBLpl-el results,

compared with those from FEM elastic-plastic analysis, the ECBL elastic-elastic,

ECBLel-el, and experimental tests [34]. It is easy to observe the quality of ECBLpl-el

results are excellent, particularly in the interactive zone, e.g. 0.4< <1.6.

In case of slender beams, experimental data were used to compare the

ECBLpl-el and ECBLel-el results with those of EN1993-1-3 and AISI-1996 results.

Figure 11 shows again that ECBLpl-el model confirm its accuracy [35].

1.20 M (kNm) LOVELL-SERIA A

ECBL elastic-elastic

U90x36x1.15

ECBL plastic-elastic

1.00

AISI-1996

EUROCODE3-1.3

0.80

Tests

0.60

0.40

0.20

L (mm)

0.00

1.6 M (kNm)

LOVELL - SERIA C

C122x25x15x1.15

1.4

ECBL elastic-elastic

1.2 ECBL plastic-elastic

EUROCODE3-1.3

1.0

AISI-1996

0.8 Tests

0.6

0.4

0.2

L (mm)

0.0

0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600

(b)

Fig. 11 Numerical/Experimental comparison for bending members [35].

19 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 27

short members. This model is consistent with the real phenomenon of stub columns

and short beams failure and is confirmed by test results and advanced elastic-

plastic FEM analysis. The plastic-elastic interactive model naturally describes the

phenomenon of the interactive buckling of thin-walled members. The ECBL

plastic-elastic interactive approach, based on the erosion theory of coupled

bifurcation, is much more rigorous and understandable than the semi-empirical

methods used for the buckling curves in existing design codes.

OF THE SHAPE OF SECTIONAL GEOMETRICAL IMPERFECTIONS [53]

Based on numerical simulations and applying the ECBL approach, Dubina &

Ungureanu [53] have systematically studied the influence of size and shape of

sectional geometrical imperfections on the ultimate buckling strength of plain and

lipped channel sections, both in compression and bending, in order to evaluate the

erosion of theoretical strength when sectional and overall buckling modes interact.

Fig. 12 explains the erosion phenomenon applied to this problem [14].

The following notations were used:

N = N Npl , where N is the ultimate strength of the member; Npl is

corresponding full plastic strength;

N L,th = NL,th N pl , with NL,th the ultimate theoretical stub column strength;

N L = NL N pl , NL being the ultimate strength of imperfect stub column;

= NL / Ncr , the reduced slenderness of the member.

N 2

(Euler)

coupling effect only;

L = actual erosion due to local

1 imperfections only;

c = actual erosion due to coupling

M effect and global imperfection;

N L,th = actual total erosion due to both

c,th L coupling and imperfections.

NL

N (c,th, )

c

N (, )

1 1 1

N L,th NL

Fig. 12 The interactive buckling model based on the ECBL theory [53].

28 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 20

in regard with the theoretical interaction point, M (int = 1 / N L,th ) , and is:

= N L,th - N ( = 1 / N L ) . (16)

The total erosion can be associated with the (LT) imperfection factor used

in European buckling curves for members in compression (bending), by means of

ECBL formula:

Compression Bending

2 NL 2LT ML (17)

= LT = .

1 1 0.2 N L 1 LT 1 0.4 M L

The N and M values can be computed for perfect and imperfect shapes of

both, cross-section and member. Therefore, the erosion can be evaluated for

different imperfection cases. If no imperfections, the evidence of interactive

buckling effect only will be observed. Further, the values of (LT) imperfection

sensitivity factor used in European buckling curves have been evaluated for all

these imperfection shapes. Tables 2 and 3 show the main results of this study [53].

Table 2

imperfection sensitivity factor for members in compression [53]

Buck- Buck-

Shape of Imperfection Shape of Imperfection

ling ling

imperf. mode imperf. mode

curve curve

- local buckling - local buckling

PL1 (symmetric 0.450 0.322 b LL1 (symmetric 0.286 0.109 ao

sine shape) sine shape)

- local buckling - local buckling

PL2 LL2

0.442 0.304 b 0.283 0.105 ao

(asymmetric (asymmetric

sine shape) sine shape)

- distortional - distortional

buckling PD3 buckling LD3

0.466 0.354 c 0.492 0.461 c

(symmetric sine (symmetric sine

shape) shape)

- distortional - distortional

buckling PD4 buckling LD4

0.471 0.365 c 0.404 0.265 b

(asymmetric (asymmetric

sine shape) sine shape)

21 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 29

Table 3

LT imperfection sensitivity factor for members in bending [53]

Plain channel 96361.5 Lipped channel 9636121.5

Shape Buck- Buck-

Imperfection Shape of Imperfection

of LT LT ling LT LT ling

mode imperf. mode

imperf. curve curve

- distortional - distortional

buckling PD2 buckling LD1

(the imperf. is 0.311 0.140 a (the imperf. is 0.355 0.292 b

constant over constant over the

the length) length)

- distortional - distortional

buckling PD7 buckling LD4

0.312 0.142 a 0.411 0.422 c

(asymmetric (asymmetric sine

sine shape) shape)

associated to the relevant instability mode is crucial for ultimate strength analysis.

In a two-mode interacting buckling (e.g. local-overall interaction) different shapes

of local-sectional imperfections have different effects on the ultimate strength of

the member. The values of imperfection factor prove the higher sensitivity of

distortional-overall interactive buckling to sectional imperfections. This fact can be

explained by the lower post-critical strength reserve of distortional mode if coupled

with local one.

PALLET RACK UPRIGHTS. IMPERFECTION SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

The sections currently used in pallet rack uprights are particularly prone to

distortional-overall interaction. An extensive experimental study on pallet rack

uprights in compression has been carried out at the Politehnica University of

Timisoara on the aim to observe the erosion of theoretical buckling load due to

both coupling effect and imperfections for this type of interaction. The experimental

program was extensively presented in [54].

Two cross-sections of the same typology but different sizes, RS1253.2 and

RS952.6, have been considered, of perforated-to-brut cross-section ratios (AN/AB)

of 0.806 and 0.760, respectively. Their brut and perforated (i.e. net) sections are

shown in Fig. 13 together with the perforations details. The pitch is 50mm for both

studied sections.

Both perforated and unperforated section specimens have been tested, of

calibrated lengths for: stub columns (s); upright member specimens for distortional

buckling (u); specimens of lengths equal with the half-wave length for distortional

buckling (d); specimens of lengths corresponding to interactive buckling range (c).

30 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 22

Table 4 presents the failure modes for each type of the tested specimen/

section. The following notations have been used: S Squash, DS symmetrical

distortional buckling, FT flexural-torsional buckling, F flexural buckling

Additional experimental tests have been done in order to determine the mechanical

properties of the material. A set of samples were tested from the base material.

Additional series of tests on coupons cut over the cross-section of specimens

without perforations was done for both types of sections to determine the increase

of yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and residual stresses. In what concerns

the geometric imperfections, all tested specimens were measured. Two types of

imperfections were recorded, i.e. (a) sectional and (b) global.

Table 4

Failure modes for tested sections

Section RS952.6 RS952.6 RS1253.2 RS1253.2

Test type brut perforated brut perforated

Stub (s) S S/DS DS DS

Distortional (d) DS DS DS DS

Upright (u) F or FT F or FT DS DS

DS+F or DS+F or DS+F or DS+F or

Interactive buckling (c)

DS+FT DS+FT DS+FT DS+FT

Advanced numerical models (i.e. GMNIA) have been applied to simulate the

behaviour of studied sections, using the commercial FE program ABAQUS/CAE.

The numerical models were calibrated to replicate the physical experimental tests.

It must be underlined that for all considered numerical models, the failure modes

were in accordance with the failure modes observed in experimental tests (see Fig. 14).

The calibrated numerical models were validated against experimental tests for all

tested sets of profiles. Table 5 presents the values of ultimate load from numerical

simulations and the experimental ones for all types of members ((s), (u), (d), (c)),

for both RS1253.2 and RS952.6 cross-sections, with and without perforations.

For details see [55, 56].

23 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 31

imperfections of pallet rack sections in compression, having the member length

equal to the interactive buckling length, using ECBL approach are summarized [57,

59]. On this purpose, FE analyses were performed to simulate the influence of

different types of imperfections in the coupling point. Because the interest is to

observe the erosion of critical bifurcation load, this time, the ECBL approach is

applied considering the distortional critical load, obtained for the relevant section

by an eigen buckling analysis, in interaction with Euler buckling of the cor-

responding bar member

RSNd RSNu

RSBc952.6

RSBs 1253.2 1253.2 952.6

Fig. 14 Failure modes: Experimental vs. FE models [55, 56].

Table 5

Ultimate load [kN]: experimental vs. FEM [55, 56]

RSBs1253.2 RSNs1253.2 RSBs952.6 RSNs952.6

EXP FEM EXP FEM EXP FEM EXP FEM

487.05 486.13 411.02 422.98 338.88 335.15 274.33 272.01

RSBd1253.2 RSNd1253.2 RSBd952.6 RSNd952.6

EXP FEM EXP FEM EXP FEM EXP FEM

440.79 440.78 394.62 397.04 325.10 331.05 262.67 255.47

RSBu1253.2 RSNu1253.2 RSBu952.6 RSNu952.6

EXP FEM EXP FEM EXP FEM EXP FEM

386.72 384.40 347.26 344.00 279.65 285.96 223.33 231.89

RSBc1253.2 RSBc1253.2 RSBc952.6 RSBc952.6

EXP FEM EXP FEM EXP FEM EXP FEM

317.89 316.67 293.62 292.9 220.29 220.26 168.88 177.11

(s) Stub columns; (d) Specimens of lengths equal with the half-wave length of distortional buckling;

(u) Upright member specimens; (c) Specimens of lengths corresponding to interactive buckling

range. N/B perforated/brut

32 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 24

Table 6 shows the reference values for critical and ultimate sectional loads

obtained numerically and experimentally for the studied sections. Table 7 presents

the lengths corresponding to the theoretical interactive buckling loads determined

via the ECBL approach, in the interactive buckling point for each section [57, 59].

Table 6

Sectional capacity and distortional buckling load [57]

Section RSN1253.2 RSN952.6

Length [mm] 600 500

Distortional buckling load*

370.48 340.78

(Ncr,D) [kN]

Distortional ultimate load**

388.35 ---

(ND,u) [kN]

Stub ultimate load***

407.79 279.27

(NS,u) [kN]

Squash load****

480.94 286.72

(Npl) [kN]

* distortional buckling load determined using LBA; ** experimental failure load corresponding to

distortional specimens mean values; *** experimental failure load corresponding cu stub

column specimens mean values; **** Npl=A.fy

Table 7

Lengths corresponding to the theoretical interactive buckling [57]

RSN125 370.48 480.94 0.770 2559

RSN95 340.78 286.72 1.000 1667

corresponding to distortional buckling is greater than the cross-section squash load.

In this case the N D value has to be limited to 1.00. Based on this limitation for

RS95 section, with and without perforation, there is no classical interactive buckling,

but we could speak about a local plastic elastic global buckling interaction.

On the following, an imperfection sensitivity study was conducted in order to

identify the most critical imperfection or combination of imperfections.

Fig. 15 shows the geometrical imperfections, considered in the analysis,

i.e. distortional (d ), flexural about the minor axis (f ), and coupling of these two

(f d ). Also, load eccentricities, located on the axis of symmetry, were taken into

consideration.

CG CG y CG y

f+ y

CG z

z z Load Ecc. z

d+ Ecc. y

25 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 33

twisting imperfection (ft) were considered together, according to Australian

Standard AS4100 [60]. Due to the fact that the global flexural buckling mode about

the minor axis has the minimum value for the studied sections the global

imperfection considered for coupling was considered a global bow imperfection.

The imperfections used for this study were: distortional symmetric imper-

fection (ds), distortional asymmetric imperfection (da) (only for RSN1253.2 section),

flexural bow imperfection about the minor inertia axis (f), loading eccentricities on

both axes (independent and coupled EY, EZ, EY-EZ) and flexural-torsional

imperfection (FT). The distortional imperfection, symmetric and asymmetric, was

scaled to 0.5t, 1.0t and 1.5t, the flexural bow imperfection was scaled to L/750,

L/1000 and L/1500, while the flexural-torsional imperfection was considered in

accordance with the provisions of Australian design code [3.60]. The loading

eccentricities were varied on both sectional axes, with 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm,

independently (e.g. EZ-4 means 4 mm eccentricity about z-axis) and together, as

an oblique eccentricity (e.g. EY-EZ4 means + 4 mm eccentricity about y-axis and

+4 mm about z-axis).

Table 8 presents the considered simple imperfections, sectional, global and

loading eccentricities for RSN1253.2 section together with erosion coefficient

and imperfection factors for simple imperfections.

In Table 8 can be easily observed that, for simple imperfections, symmetric

distortion imperfection and major axis eccentricities give higher values for erosion

coefficient than those corresponding to flexural and flexural-torsional imperfections.

Table 9 presents the coupled imperfections considered for the RSN1253.2

section, i.e. f L/750, ds 0.5t; f L/750, ds 1.5t; f L/1500, ds 0.5t and f

L/1500, ds 1.5t, combinations coupled with various types of eccentricities. It is

easy to observe that the combination (f L/750, ds 1.5t) of imperfections is the

most critical one. However, statistically is not recommended to combine all

imperfections to cumulate their negative effects, because their random compensation.

Table 8

erosion coefficients and imperfection factors for simple imperfections

RSN1253.2 RSN1253.2

Imperfection Imperfection

ds 0.5 t 0.236 0.078 EZ -6 0.313 0.152

ds 1.0 t 0.339 0.185 EZ -4 0.272 0.108

ds 1.5 t 0.398 0.280 EZ -2 0.210 0.059

da 0.5 t 0.152 0.029 EZ +2 0.216 0.063

da 1.0 t 0.245 0.085 EZ +4 0.255 0.093

da 1.5 t 0.321 0.162 EZ +6 0.285 0.121

f L/750 0.240 0.081 EY-EZ 0 0.157 0.031

f L/1000 0.216 0.063 EY-EZ +6 0.321 0.162

f L/1500 0.181 0.043 EY-EZ +4 0.276 0.112

ft 0.240 0.081 EY-EZ +2 0.215 0.063

EY +2 0.169 0.037 EY-EZ -2 0.223 0.068

EY +4 0.196 0.051 EY-EZ -4 0.270 0.106

EY +6 0.224 0.069 EY-EZ -6 0.307 0.145

34 Dan Dubina, Viorel Ungureanu 26

Table 9

erosion coefficients and imperfection factors for coupled imperfections

Imperfection

f L/750, ds 0.5t f L/750, ds 1.5t f L/1500, ds 0.5t f L/1500, ds 1.5t

EY 2 0.339 0.185 0.440 0.368 0.302 0.139 0.422 0.328

EY 4 0.342 0.189 0.442 0.373 0.305 0.142 0.423 0.330

EY 6 0.346 0.195 0.443 0.375 0.310 0.148 0.425 0.334

EZ 6 0.425 0.334 0.493 0.510 0.411 0.305 0.483 0.480

EZ 4 0.404 0.292 0.479 0.469 0.384 0.255 0.467 0.436

EZ 2 0.376 0.241 0.461 0.420 0.350 0.201 0.447 0.385

EZ -2 0.279 0.115 0.413 0.309 0.174 0.039 0.387 0.260

EZ -4 0.194 0.050 0.374 0.238 0.228 0.072 0.326 0.168

EZ -6 0.240 0.081 0.276 0.112 0.264 0.101 0.261 0.098

EY-EZ 0 0.240 0.081 0.440 0.368 0.301 0.138 0.421 0.326

EY-EZ 6 0.430 0.345 0.495 0.517 0.414 0.311 0.485 0.486

EY-EZ 4 0.406 0.295 0.480 0.472 0.386 0.258 0.467 0.436

EY-EZ 2 0.377 0.243 0.462 0.422 0.351 0.202 0.447 0.385

EY-EZ -2 0.280 0.116 0.413 0.309 0.182 0.043 0.387 0.260

EY-EZ -4 0.218 0.065 0.376 0.241 0.247 0.086 0.330 0.173

EY-EZ -6 0.271 0.107 0.298 0.135 0.289 0.125 0.285 0.121

choose a suitable design strategy. For weak and moderate interaction class, simple

design methods based on safety coefficients can be used. In case of strong and very

strong interaction, special design methods must be developed [14].

It can be observed that for the case of RSN1253.2 pallet rack section, the

computed erosion can classify the section into medium up to very strong

interaction, depending on the considered imperfection.

4. CONCLUDING REMARKS

The main aim of this chapter was to provide evidences that the activity in the

field of structural stability, particularly focussing the mode interaction problems,

developed by the Timisoara researchers can be characterised as an activity of a

school. Among the different subjects which have been subjects of theoretical,

experimental and numerical investigation of the school in connection with that

topic, those referring to coupled bifurcations, erosion of critical bifurcation load

and ultimate post-critical strength are, in our opinion the most significant, leading

to the so called ECBL approach, actually known as an available procedure

enabling to calibrate buckling curves for mode interaction problems.

27 Erosion of interactive buckling load of thin-walled steel bar members 35

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A NUMERICAL ASYMPTOTIC FORMULATION

FOR THE POST-BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES

IN CASE OF COUPLED INSTABILITY

GIUSEPPE ZAGARI, RAFFAELE CASCIARO*

postbuckling phenomena and by a strong imperfection sensitivity, is heavily penalized

by the lack of adequate computational tools. Standard incremental iterative approaches are

computationally expensive and unaffordable, while FEM implementation of the

Koiter method is a convenient alternative. The analysis is very fast, its computational

burden is of the same order as a linearized buckling load evaluation and the

simulation of different imperfections costs only a fraction of that needed to

characterize the perfect structure. The main objective of the present work is to show

that finite element implementations of the Koiter method can be both accurate and

reliable and to highlight the aspects that require further investigation.

1. INTRODUCTION

structures should consider all possible loadings, including the deviations due to

load imperfections and geometrical defects. Standard path-following approaches,

aimed at recovering the equilibrium path for a single loading case and assigned

imperfections, are not suitable for this purpose. In fact in order to perform a

reliable structural safety assessment the nonlinear analysis should be performed

with respect to all possible imperfection shapes. The consequent computational

burden can be very high particularly if no reliable information about the worst

imperfection shapes is available.

The asymptotic approach, derived as a finite element implementation [13, 5,

10, 14, 23, 24, 3239] of the Koiter nonlinear theory of elastic stability [28], can be

a convenient alternative as it provides an effective and reliable strategy for

predicting the initial post-critical behavior in both cases of limit or bifurcation

points [31, 30, 6]. The implementation of the asymptotic approach as a computational

tool is quite easy and its total computational burden remains of the order as that

*

University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende, CS, Italy

2 A numerical asymptotic formulation for post-buckling analysis in case of coupled instability 39

buckling behavior of the structure, including modal interactions and jumping-after-

bifurcation phenomena. Moreover, once the analysis has been performed, the

presence of small loading imperfections or geometrical defects can be taken into

account in a post-processing phase with a negligible computational extra-cost, so

allowing an inexpensive imperfection sensitivity analysis [30, 7]. It is also possible

to extract information about the worst imperfection shapes [34, 8], and it can be

used to improve the imperfection sensitivity analysis or for driving more detailed

investigations through specialized path following analyses (see [6, 8] and references

therein). From this point of view the method could be an effective tool for the

evaluation of the buckling curves used in European codes [11, 13, 12]. The

asymptotic analysis can provide a very accurate recovery of the equilibrium path,

as it is confirmed by numerical testing and theoretical investigations [4] but requires

great care in both the mechanical modeling [17, 18] and its finite element

implementation. As it will be shown in the paper accuracy cannot be obtained by

an inappropriate finite element interpolation due to the occurrence of interpolation

locking phenomena in the evaluation of the energy variation terms used to

reconstruct the post-critical behavior [31, 6]; by an inappropriate format used in the

control variables that can produce extrapolation locking phenomena [20, 15]) or by

the use of non-objective structural models [17, 18].

The paper is organized as follows: section 2 presents the asymptotic method,

section 3 discusses all the aspects regarding the FEM implementation and the

accuracy, section 4 gives some numerical results showing the potentialities of the

method and finally section 5 summarizes the discussion and suggests possible

extensions.

also not coincident, bifurcations and of considering the effects of a nonlinear pre-

critical behavior is presented. Further details can be found in [3138].

approach is presented here, for the convenience of the reader and to summarize the

main notation and equations involved. Further details can be found in [1831].

We consider a slender hyperelastic structure subjected to conservative loads

increasing with an amplifier factor. The equilibrium is expressed by the virtual

work equation:

40 G. Garcea, A. Bilotta, A. Madeo, G. Zagari, R. Casciaro 3

'[u ] u p u = 0, u J , (1)

is the tangent space of U at u and a prime is used for expressing the Frchet

derivative with respect to u. We assume that U will be a linear manifold so that its

tangent space will be independent from u. Eq. (1) defines a curve in the (u, )

space, the equilibrium path of the structure, that can be composed of several

branches. We are usually interested in the branch starting from an initial known

equilibrium point u0, 0 and without any loss of generality we can assume u0 = 0,

0 = 0. It is worth mentioning that a mixed format is generally convenient to avoid

the so called nonlinear locking phenomena [20, 15, 22], so configuration u usually

collects both displacement and stress fields.

The asymptotic method is based on an expansion of the potential energy, in

terms of load factor and buckling mode amplitudes i , which is characterized by

fourth-order accuracy. It provides an approximation of the equilibrium path by

performing the following steps:

1. The fundamental path is obtained as a linear extrapolation, from a known

equilibrium configuration:

u f [ ] = u, (2)

where u is the tangent {0; 0}, obtained as a solution of the linear equation

0u u = p u , u J (3)

and an index denotes the point along u f for which the quantities are evaluated, that

is 0 u f [ 0 ] .

2. A cluster of buckling loads {0m} and associated buckling modes

( ... m ) are defined along u f [ ] by the critical condition

u f [ i ]i u = 0, u J , (4)

the following linearization

value). Normalizing, we obtain bui j = ij , where ij is Kronekers symbol.

4 A numerical asymptotic formulation for post-buckling analysis in case of coupled instability 41

orthogonal W {w : b u iw = 0} subspaces so that J = V W . Making and 0 =

and 0 = u, the asymptotic approximation for the required path is defined by the

expansion

m m

(6)

i + w

1

u [ , k ] i j ij ,

i =0 2 i =0

where w ij are quadratic corrections introduced to satisfy the projection of eq. (1)

onto W and obtained by the linear orthogonal equations

(7)

bw ij w = b i j w , w ij w W ,

4. The following energy terms are computed for i, j, k = 1m:

1 1

k [ ] = 2b u 2 k + 2 ( 3b )b u 3 k

2 6

Aijk = b i j k

Bijhk = b i j h k b (w ij w hk + w ihw jk + w ik w jh ) (8 )

B00 jk = b u 2 i k b w 00w ik

B0ijk = b u i j k

Cik = b w 00w ik ,

where the implicit imperfection factors are defined by the 4th order expansion of

the unbalanced work on the fundamental (i.e. k [ ] = ( p [ u ]) k ).

5. The equilibrium path is obtained by satisfying the projection of the

equilibrium equation (1) onto V. According to eqs. (7) and (8), we have

b m

1 m

( k ) k b

2 i Cik +

2 i , j =1

i j Aijk +

i =1

m m

1 1

( b ) B

( b ) i j B0ijk +

2

+ i 00 ik + (9)

2 i =1 2 i , j =1

1 m

+

6 i , j , k =1

i j h Bijhk + k [ ] = 0, k = 1m.

42 G. Garcea, A. Bilotta, A. Madeo, G. Zagari, R. Casciaro 5

i and can be solved using a standard path-following strategy. It provides the

initial post-buckling behavior of the structure, including modal interactions and

jumping-after-bifurcation phenomena.

loads exactly, for the presence of a random distribution of small external

imperfections. This circumstance, also if the general behavior of the structure is

preserved, changes some aspects of its response and often causes a reduction in the

carrying capacity.

In the proposed asymptotic algorithm the presence of small additional imper-

fections expressed by a load q q [ ] and/or an initial displacement q u affect Eq. (9)

only with the imperfection term k [ ] that becomes [31, 30, 6]

1 1

k = 2c u 2 k + 2 ( 3c )c u 3 k + k1 [ ] + kg [ ] , (10)

2 6

with

k1 [ ] = q [ ] k , kg [ ] = c uu

k . (11)

geometrical and load imperfections to the reduction in the limit load. For structures

presenting coupled buckling even a small imperfection in loading or geometry can

mean a marked reduction in collapse load with respect to the bifurcation load [11,

13, 12]. So an effective safety analysis should include an investigation of all

possible imperfection shapes and sizes to recover, albeit in a statistical sense, the

worst case.

The asymptotic approach provides a powerful tool for performing this

extensive investigation. In fact, the analysis for a different imperfection only needs

to update the imperfection factors kg [ ] and kl [ ] through Eq. (11) and to solve

once more the nonlinear system (9). Even if this system, collecting all the nonlinear

parts of the original problem, proves to be highly nonlinear and some care has to be

taken in treating the occurrence of multiple singularities, its solution through a

path-following process is relatively simple because of the small number of

unknowns involved.

However, exhaustive results can only be obtained in a statistical context

linking the distribution probability of the imperfection to that of the load. An

effective imperfection sensitivity analysis can be performed by a Monte-Carlo

6 A numerical asymptotic formulation for post-buckling analysis in case of coupled instability 43

statistical technique, where both the magnitude and the form of the imperfections

are treated as random variables. The analysis is then performed by taking the

additional imperfection factors in the form

(

kl [ ] + kg [ ] = q [ ] c uu )

k = k , (12)

modeling possible small deviations in the loads and in the geometry of the

structure, and repeating a path-following solution of (9) for each of these. By a

statistical treatment of the obtained results we obtain the probability distribution

function for the limit load multiplier and all the other useful statistical information.

This solution process, can be considered as a standard approach for imperfection

sensitivity analysis [8]. The number of repetitions needed to obtain statistically

reliable results increases (quite) exponentially with the number of the buckling

modes and for large m can become very expensive. The imperfection sensitivity

analysis can however be performed in a simple and efficient way when a criterion

for defining the (few) significant imperfection forms is available [34].

considered to obtain statistically significant results, so, while the analysis for a

single imperfection can be considered an easy task, the entire solution process

performed proves to be computationally expensive, especially when a large number

of coupled buckling modes have to be considered. We can, however, noticeably

reduce the computational effort by exploiting information given by the knowledge

of the complete set of attractive radial paths

i = ti* , i = 1... m, t \ (13)

which are local minimizers for the cubic form

1 m m

b =

2 i , j , h =1

Aijhi*i* h* = min

N, * *

i i =1 (14)

(k* ) i =1

1 m m

b =

3 i , j =1

Bijhk i*i* h* k* = min

N,

k*

i =1

* *

i i =1 (15)

Attractive paths theory [8, 25, 26, 29, 34] can actually provide a helpful tool

for driving the analysis and reducing its total cost. In fact, it suggests that each

imperfect path obtained from the solution of (9) will be attracted by one of the

44 G. Garcea, A. Bilotta, A. Madeo, G. Zagari, R. Casciaro 7

minimizing radial directions * (see Fig. 7 in the numerical results section). Then,

an evaluation for the limit load associated to the single imperfection vector can

be obtained by performing a series of different monomodal analyses, one for each

minimum radial path (13), and then taking the smallest value obtained for the limit

load within all directions. The single monomodal analysis is quite quick, so a large

number of different imperfections can be investigated rapidly with results, in terms

of limit load distribution, equivalent to that provided by a full analysis [8].

Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that, once the worst imperfection shapes

have already been obtained from an imperfection sensitivity analysis, a detailed

investigation can be performed through a specialized path-following analysis,

taking into account these imperfections [27, 22].

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS

for implementation using finite elements and discuss some aspects that are crucial

to achieve accuracy and efficiency.

u the vector collecting the discrete displacement and stress parameters, the

asymptotic analysis requires the following steps:

i. The fundamental path is obtained introducing the linear extrapolation

u f [ ] = u0 + u , (15)

where u is the initial path tangent, solution of the linear vectorial equation

K 0 u = p , (17)

K0 being the stiffness matrix evaluated for u = u0 and p the unitary load vector,

defined by the energy equivalencies

uT K [u ] u = [u ] u u , uT p = p u.

The solution of linear system (17) requires a standard factorization of K0.

ii. A cluster of buckling loads i , i = 1...m, and associated buckling modes

i are obtained along u f [ ] exploiting the critical condition

K [ i ]i = 0, K [ ] = K [ u0 + u ]. (18)

8 A numerical asymptotic formulation for post-buckling analysis in case of coupled instability 45

and solved using standard algorithms and exploiting matrix K 01 , already available

from the previous step, to perform the iterations [7].

iii. Letting c be an appropriate reference value for the cluster, e.g. the

smallest of i or their mean value, the asymptotic approximation for the required

path is defined by the expansion

1

u [ , k ] = ub +

m m

+

i =0 i i

i jw ij , (19)

2 i , j =0

equations

w T ( K c wij + pij ) = 0, w W (20)

obtained by an element-by-element assembling process using the energy equivalence

w T pi, j = c wi j . (21)

in [7, 6], through a Modified Newton-like iteration scheme exploiting K 01 as

iteration matrix.

iv. The energy terms in (9) being scalar quantities are evaluated as a sum, at

the element level, of the integrals of known functions.

v. The equilibrium path is obtained by solving the algebraic nonlinear system

of m equations in the m + 1 variables 0 , 1 ... m defined in Eq. (9) using a path-

following algorithm. Because of the small dimensions of the system, this can be

obtained very quickly using standard or even specialized variants of the arc-length

scheme.

The actual implementation of the asymptotic approach as a computational

tool is therefore quite easy in practice and its total computational burden, which is

mainly involved in the factorization of matrix K0, remains of the order of that required

by a standard linearized stability analysis. It provides the initial post-buckling

behavior of the structure, including modal interactions and jumping-after-bifurcation

phenomena. Moreover, once the preprocessing phase of the analysis has been

performed (steps i to iv), the presence of small loading imperfections or geometrical

defects can be taken into account in the postprocessing phase (step v), by adding

some, easily computed, additional imperfection terms in the expression of k[],

with a negligible computational extra-cost, so allowing an inexpensive imperfection

sensitivity analysis [30, 15].

Imperfection sensitivity analysis can be simplified by evaluating all the

minimum directions of the cubic (14) and quartic forms (14) to obtain the worst

46 G. Garcea, A. Bilotta, A. Madeo, G. Zagari, R. Casciaro 9

completely solved problem and it can also be expensive. Nevertheless, relative

minimum solutions can be (quite easily) obtained by using the iterative scheme

suggested in [34]. Furthermore for the case of symmetric buckling, problem (15)

can be transformed into a non-convex Quadratic Problem subject to linear

constraints and solved using the strategy presented in [8].

capable of furnishing accurate results if a series of modelling and implementation

aspects are carefully tuned. In the following we quickly present some of the

sources of inaccuracy referring readers to the references for a deeper discussion.

In the asymptotic algorithm a locking phenomenon related to the dis-

cretization process can arise from the evaluation of the fourth-order terms

that define the initial curvature of the post-buckling path. The coefficients Bijhk are

obtained as the difference between two quantities derived from the fourth and

second variations. In compatible formulations the single term of this difference is,

usually, very large while the difference is small. The discretization error on the

single term could in this case be greater than the small results in their difference.

Obviously, the numerical response given by the asymptotic algorithm in this case is

completely unreliable.

The size of the error produced by this locking pathology depends on the finite

element interpolation functions and decreases for an appropriate balancing of the

polynomial functions used to describe each displacement component. The phenomenon

is particular evident for beam and plate structures where the buckling modes i usually

contain only flexural displacement components while wij only in plane or axial ones.

The locking is sanitized when a mixed finite element is used [31, 6].

Figure 1, which refers to a planar Euler rod case reports numerical results for

the post-buckling factor b = B1111 obtained for different values of the ratio EAL2/EJ

between the axial and the flexural stiffness, by using an element called HC [31]

that uses the same quadratic spline functions for both the transversal and the axial

components and standard beam elements (linear and cubic interpolation for the

axial and transversal displacements, respectively).

10 A numerical asymptotic formulation for post-buckling analysis in case of coupled instability 47

Note that, for EAL2/EJ = 1.2105, 20 HC elements are sufficient to contain the

error in b at under 1% while standard discretizations do not yield reliable results

even using a large number of elements. A mixed finite element completely sanitizes

this pathological phenomenon.

Mixed or compatible formats, while completely equivalent in principle,

behave very differently when implemented in asymptotic but also in path-following

solution strategies. This is an important, even if frequently misunderstood, point in

practical computations which has been widely discussed in [21, 20, 15, 16, 6]. By

referring readers to these papers for more details, we only recall here that both

numerical strategies need function and its Hessian K [ u] to be appropriately

smooth in its controlling variables. In path-following analysis, this ensures a fast

convergence of the Newton iterative process; in asymptotic analysis, it implies that

the higher-order energy term neglected in the Taylor expansion be really irrelevant,

allowing an accurate recovery of the equilibrium path. We know that the

smoothness of a nonlinear function strictly depends on the choice of the set of its

control variables, that is on the format of its description, and can change noticeably

when referring to another, even corresponding, set. As a consequence, the mixed

and compatible format, even if referring to the same problem, can be characterized

by a different smoothness and so they behave differently in practice, when used

within a numerical solution process. Actually, the compatible format is particularly

sensitive to what we call extrapolation locking in [20, 15] which can produce a loss

in convergence when used in path-following analyses, or unacceptable errors in the

path recovery in the asymptotic case. These inconveniences are easily avoided by

changing to a mixed format.

2 3 2 5

HC (EAl /EJ = 1.2x10 ) HC (EAl /EJ = 1.2x10 )

standard standard

2

1000 8

6

4

100 8

6

4

10 8

6

4

18

6

4

2

exact value = 0.25

0.1

0 10 20 30

number of elements

48 G. Garcea, A. Bilotta, A. Madeo, G. Zagari, R. Casciaro 11

fourth-order expansion of the strain energy and then requires a fourth-order

accuracy be guaranteed in the structural modeling. Small inaccuracies, deriving

from geometrical incoherencies in the higher-order terms of the expansion of the

kinematical laws or in its finite element representation, significantly affect the

accuracy of the solution and can make it unreliable. Structural models not affected

by rigid body motions or by changes in observer are then required. This aspect is

more important with respect to the path-following case where only the first

variation needs to be correctly evaluated. With this aim the Implicit Corotational

Method (ICM) [17, 18] has been proposed as a tool to obtain geometrically exact

nonlinear models for structural elements, such as beams or shells, undergoing finite

rotations and small strains starting from the solutions for the 3D Cauchy continuum

used in the corresponding linear modeling. The main idea is to associate a

corotational frame to each point of the 3D continuum so allowing the motion in the

neighbor of the point to be split in a pure stretch followed by a pure rotation,

according to the decomposition theorem. It is possible to show how, using the

small strain hypothesis and rotation algebra, the linear stress and linear strain fields,

when viewed in this corotational frame, can provide accurate approximations for the

Biot nonlinear stress and strain fields. Once the corotational rotation is appropriately

defined, the local statics and kinematics of the model are recovered from the linear

solution as a function of the stress/displacement resultants. Stress and strain fields

are then introduced within a mixed variational principle in order to obtain the

constitutive laws directly in terms of stress/strain resultants. This completes the

ICM definition of the nonlinear model.

The nonlinear model so obtained retains all the details of the 3D linear

solution, including torsion/shear warping, while its objectivity is ensured implicitly.

Furthermore, the use of the mixed formulation and the greater accuracy with which

the ICM recovers the stress field, allows an accurate description of the constitutive

laws in terms of resultants. ICM does not require any ad-hoc assumption about the

structural model at hand, nor depends on any particular parametrization of the

rotation tensor, but actually behaves as a black-box tool able to translate known

linear models into the corresponding nonlinear ones. Moreover, the direct use of a

mixed (stress/strain) description provides an automatic and implicitly coherent

methodology for generating models free of the nonlinear locking effects previously

discussed, in a format directly suitable for use in FEM implementations. The

method was applied in [17] to derive 3D beam and plate nonlinear models starting

from the Saint Vennt rod and Kirchhoff and Mindlin-Reissner plate linear theories,

respectively.

12 A numerical asymptotic formulation for post-buckling analysis in case of coupled instability 49

4. NUMERICAL RESULTS

Some results regarding the analysis of both 3D beams and plates are reported

and compared with particular reference to accuracy as previously discussed. In the

monomodal buckling tests, to compare the accuracy with known solutions, the

following quantities, defining the postcritical tangent and curvature to the bifurcated

path, have been introduced

1 A111 B1111 + 3b2 B0111 + 3b2 B0011

b = , b = .

2 A011 3 A011

The results are compared with known analytical solutions (see [6]) and with

the ones obtained using the LC (Complete Lagrangian) and LS (Simplified

Lagrangian) technical plate models (see [15, 22] for a discussion on these models)

already implemented in the code named KASP. An independent analysis has also

been made using the commercial code ABAQUS.

The test refers to the Euler beam shown in Fig. 2. The beam is analyzed

forcing the buckling to have in-plane or out-of-plane components only. Despite its

simplicity, when analyzed with an asymptotic approach, the problem is taxing with

regard to the accuracy of the structural model and its FEM discretization [18]. In

Fig. 2 the values of the buckling loads and post-critical curvatures are compared

with the values obtained by using the Antman beam model and exact interpolation

functions [6]. The ICM model recovers the analytical solution for sufficiently fine

grids exactly. The LC and LS models provide a correct answer for the buckling

load, but have a different post-buckling behavior in the in-plane or out-of-plane

analysis: LC agrees perfectly with the exact solution in the in-plane case, whereas

LS provides the wrong result / B = 2, which is eight times greater; conversely,

LS behaves better in the out-of-plane case, by providing the approximation / B = 0,

while LC gives a completely erroneous unstable postbuckling curvature / B = 0.75.

The resulting paths in Fig. 3 show a good agreement with those computed by path-

following analyses.

Table 1

Out plane In plane

N. elm. LC LS ICM LC LS ICM 2D Beam(*)

16 9.901 9.901 9.901 9.918 9.918 9.918

b 32 9.877 9.877 9.877 9.870 9.870 9.870 9.870

64 9.872 9.872 9.871 9.867 9.870 9.870

16 -0.354 0.020 0.145 0.166 1.03 1.03

b 32 -0.375 0.000 0.125 0.126 1.00 1.00 9.870

2b 64 -0.375 0.000 0.125 0.125 1.00 1.00

50 G. Garcea, A. Bilotta, A. Madeo, G. Zagari, R. Casciaro 13

and post-buckling parameters [31].

pre-critical behavior. The first two buckling loads are equal to 1 = 4.52 and

2 = 7.11, while the limit load is almost an half of the minimum buckling value and

is evaluated exactly as can be observed by the comparison with the asymptotic and

path-following (ABAQUS) curve denoted respectively CR4 and SR8. It is worth of

noting that only the implicit imperfection acts on the structure.

14 A numerical asymptotic formulation for post-buckling analysis in case of coupled instability 51

2.4

1.8

1.2

0.6

S8R t=12.70

CR4 t=12.70

0

-0.075 -0.05 -0.025 0

va / L

The first test is the thin-walled beam in Fig. 5 modeled as a plate assemblage.

Fig. 5 T beam: problem description, buckling modes and equilibrium paths [31, 6].

The model is that proposed in [17, 18] on the basis of the ICM and is denoted

as MP in the results. The results are compared with those of an ABAQUS analysis

using a path-following approach and of the technical plate models [15]. The greater

accuracy of the objective structural model is evident in Fig. 5 where the equilibrium

paths are depicted.

52 G. Garcea, A. Bilotta, A. Madeo, G. Zagari, R. Casciaro 15

16 A numerical asymptotic formulation for post-buckling analysis in case of coupled instability 53

force at the free end reported in Fig. 6. In this case the strong modal interaction

between non near buckling loads also produce a highly unstable behaviour as

shown by the equilibrium path.

Finally the last test regards the Geodetic Dome modeled through a 3D truss

as proposed in [8]. In this case many locally coincident buckling modes interact

and the structure exhibits a very marked unstable behavior. In Fig. 7, in the modal

space k different equilibrium paths, clearly converging along only one of the

minimum directions, are reported. The test shows how it is possible to perform the

sensitivity analysis in a simplified way along the predetermined quartic form

minimum directions.

5. CONCLUSION

approach to evaluate the buckling and postbuckling behaviour of geometrically

nonlinear structures in the case of multiple coincident buckling loads and random

external imperfections. Standard techniques, based on repeated path-following

analyses, are useful for a thorough investigation of the structural behaviour with a

single imperfection shape, but cannot be considered effective tools to predict the

safety factor for geometrically nonlinear problems. The asymptotic method, instead,

appears to be an attractive alternative as it allows a reliable analysis with computational

costs similar to those required by a standard load buckling prediction, while

subsequent analyses for different imperfections are inexpensive.

The method furnishes accurate results and also information about the worst

imperfection shape if a series of modeling and implementation aspects are carefully

tuned. In particular it was shown how the effects of the use of geometrically exact

structural models and their coherent finite element implementation are very

relevant, while a mixed formulation eliminates both interpolation and extrapolation

locking phenomena.

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EFFECT OF DISTORTION ON THE STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR

OF THIN-WALLED STEEL REGULAR POLYGONAL TUBES

Abstract. This paper addresses the effect of cross-section distortion on the structural

behaviour of thin-walled tubes with single-cell regular convex polygonal cross-

sections (RCPS) and provides an in-depth view on the underlying mechanical aspects.

In particular, the first-order, buckling (bifurcation) under uniform compression and

undamped free vibration behaviours are characterised using the modal decomposition

features and computational efficiency of a GBT (Generalised Beam Theory) specialization

for RCPS recently developed by the authors [1]. Several analytical and illustrative

numerical results are presented and discussed within the paper.

distortion, Generalised Beam Theory (GBT), buckling behaviour, vibration behaviour.

1. INTRODUCTION

plane and out-of-plane (warping) displacements, can influence significantly the

structural behaviour of open section thin-walled members. This phenomenon has

been investigated rather intensively in the recent past and it may be argued that it is

currently quite well understood, particularly for cold-formed steel lipped channel,

zed, hat or rack section members. Much less known are the effects of distortion

in thin-walled tubes with single-cell regular (equiangular and equilateral) convex

polygonal cross-sections (RCPS), which are widely employed in slender structures

such as lighting posts and telecommunication towers. The first papers on this

subject were published only in the last year [13], where it was shown that, besides

the well-known global and local (plate-type) deformation modes, the distortional

modes also play a key role in the structural response of RCPS tubes, even in the

case of geometrically linear problems.

This paper addresses specifically the influence of cross-section distortion on

the structural behaviour of RCPS tubes and aims at providing a general and broad

1

UNIC, Faculdade de Cincias e Tecnologia, Department of Civil Engineering, NOVA

University Lisbon, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal

2

ICIST, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and

Georesources, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal

2 Effect of distortion on the structural behaviour of thinwalled steel regular polygonal tubes 57

perspective on the subject. The fundamental findings of the previous work are

summarised and new results are reported, which further help characterising the

distortional modes and also their relevance for the adequate assessment of the

RCPS tube first-order, buckling and vibration behaviours. The Generalised Beam

Theory (GBT) specialisation for RCPS proposed in [1] is employed, leading to the

identification of a well-defined set of fully uncoupled cross-section distortional

deformation modes. This approach also makes it possible to derive analytical or

semi-analytical formulae that provide in-depth information concerning the structural

behaviour of RCPS tubes.

The outline of the paper is as follows. Section 2 presents a brief overview of

the GBT specialisation for RCPS and explores the features of the resulting orthogonal

distortional deformation modes. Each of the subsequent sections focuses on a

specific type of analysis, namely first-order (Section 3), linearised buckling under

uniform compression (Section 4) and undamped free vibration (Section 5).

Although GBT-based finite elements may be always employed to obtain numerical

results, namely for arbitrary loading and/or boundary conditions, attention is

devoted to analytical or semi-analytical solutions, which generally enable a better

grasp of the underlying mechanical aspects. The paper closes in Section 6, with

some concluding remarks.

The cross-section geometric parameters employed in this paper are indicated

in Fig. 1(a), together with the non-dimensional parameters and relations

L r b

1 = , 2 = , = 22 sin , (1)

r t t n

where L is the tube length. The material parameters are E (Youngs modulus),

G (shear modulus), (Poissons ratio) and (volumetric mass density).

b) wall mid-surface local coordinate systems.

58 Rodrigo Gonalves, Dinar Camotim 3

Following the notation of [4] and using the wall mid-surface local coordinate

systems shown in Fig. 1(b), the GBT displacement field for each wall is given by

D

u ( x, y ) = u k ( y ) k , x ( x),

U x u ( x, y ) zw, x ( x, y ) k =1

U = v( x, y ) zw ( x, y ) ,

D

y ,y v( x, y ) = vk ( y ) k ( x), (2)

k =1

U z w( x, y ) D

w( x, y ) = wk ( y ) k ( x),

k =1

where: (i) the comma indicates a partial differentiation, (ii) u, v, w are the mid-

surface displacement components along x, y, z, respectively, (iii) the bars identify

the associated deformation mode components, (iv) D is the number of deformation

modes and (v) k are their amplitude functions along the length of the beam (the

problem unknowns).

The cross-section deformation modes (i.e., functions u k , vk , wk ) are obtained

from the GBT cross-section analysis, which consists essentially of defining an

initial set of modes and, then, sequentially solving a set of eigenvalue problems

that partially uncouple the differential equilibrium equation system. A hierarchic

set of deformation modes is then retrieved, which includes the classic prismatic

beam theory modes (axial extension, bending about principal axes and torsion

about the shear centre) and also the so-called local, distortional, shear and

transverse extension deformation modes. This work focuses on the natural

Vlasov warping modes, obtained under the assumption of null membrane (i) shear

strains (Vlasovs hypothesis) and (ii) transverse extensions (i.e., the walls are

deemed inextensible in the cross-section plane). Then, in each wall, the vk functions

are constant and the u k (warping) functions are linear. An initial base for these

modes is obtained by (i) imposing unit warping displacements at each wall junction

(cross-section natural node), (ii) calculating the vk functions that ensure null

membrane shear strains and, finally, (iii) obtaining the wk functions by analysing

the cross-section as a plane frame subjected to imposed vk displacements.

RCPS constitute a rather distinctive special case amongst cross-section

geometries. Indeed, these cross-sections exhibit rotational symmetry of order equal

to the number of walls and nodes (n), a feature that is at the root of some

remarkable peculiar features. In particular, the deformation mode configurations

4 Effect of distortion on the structural behaviour of thinwalled steel regular polygonal tubes 59

of each other. This implies that the resulting GBT modal matrices, given in Annex B,

are symmetric and circulant and, therefore, may be diagonalised by means of

QtAQ, where A is a GBT modal matrix and Q is a matrix whose columns are given

by vectors a(l) and b(l), whose components read [1]

2jl n

a (jl ) = cos , l = 0,..., ,

n 2 (3)

2jl n 1

b (j l ) = sin , l = 1,..., ,

n 2

where [k] designates the largest integer not exceeding k. Each vector corresponds to a

specific orthogonal warping function, where component j contains the warping at node j.

In particular:

(i) For l = 0, one has a (j0 ) = 1 , which corresponds to constant warping at the

cross-section, i.e., to the classic axial extension mode.

(ii) For each l = 1,, (n1)/2, two deformation modes are obtained, associated

with warping functions having l full cycles around the cross-section.

Bending about orthogonal axes corresponds to l =1, i.e., warping functions

with one full cycle and neutral axes rotated by /2. The subsequent defor-

mation mode pairs are termed distortional, since cross-section in-plane

displacements of the natural nodes are involved (besides warping). As

discussed in [1], the two diagonal components of QtAQ corresponding to

each l are identical. Furthermore, it can be shown that a combination of

the mode pair of the form

a (jl ) cos + b (j l ) sin , (4)

where is the rotation angle in the two-dimensional mode space, does not

change the matrix diagonal component. The fact that the stiffness properties

of the deformation mode pairs (the GBT matrix components) are invariant

with respect to constitutes an important generalisation of the bending

behaviour of RCPS tubes, where all central axes are principal bending

axes bending may now be viewed as just the particular case of l = 1.

Finally note that, in order to obtain bending deformation modes associated

with unit curvatures, the corresponding warping functions must be

multiplied by r (this was not done in the present paper).

(iii) For l = n/2, which only applies to cross-sections with even n, a single

distortional mode is obtained, which exhibits alternating positive and

negative warping displacements at consecutive nodes.

60 Rodrigo Gonalves, Dinar Camotim 5

Since the orthogonal RCPS warping functions are already known, it is a quite

straightforward task to calculate the complete deformation mode shapes and the

corresponding GBT matrix diagonal components Annex A provides a set of

expressions that can be employed for this purpose. In [1], some analytical formulae

are given and all matrix components are shown in a graphical format, normalised

with respect to the values for circular tubes.

For illustrative purposes, Table 1 provides the distortional mode matrix

diagonal components, in a non-dimensional form, for n = 4-8, 2=100 and = 0.3

(the parameters and appearing in the table are discussed in the next section).

Furthermore, Fig. 2 shows the shapes of the natural Vlasov warping modes and the

associated warping functions, as well as their sinusoidal counterparts, for n = 6.

The analytical expressions providing the GBT matrix components are also shown

in the figure they were calculated using the expressions given in Annex B. As

previously explained, this cross-section has 6 warping modes: axial extension (l = 0),

the bending mode pair (l = 1), one distortional mode pair (l = 2) and a single

distortional mode (l = 3).

Fig. 3(a) makes it possible to visualise the shapes of the distortional

deformation modes for cross-sections with n = 48. Note that, as already

mentioned, the distortional modes appear in pairs, with the exception of the l = n/2

mode for even n. Finally, Fig. 3b shows the effect of the rotation on the

deformation mode shape, for the particular case of the l = 3 distortional pair of a

cross-section with n = 20. The deformation modes obtained by means of Eqs. (3)

correspond to = 0 and = 90.

Table 1

Distortional mode matrix diagonal components

and exponential solution parameters

4 2 18.86 12.43 4.97 113.6 113.0

5 2 11.67 18.59 7.57 141.8 140.7

2 15.00 26.37 12.09 145.5 144.1

6

3 20.00 316.48 63.30 252.4 249.2

2 18.00 30.78 15.02 144.5 143.1

7

3 11.13 390.85 72.40 308.7 303.4

2 20.41 33.47 16.90 143.0 141.6

8 3 13.20 603.60 118.95 330.4 323.5

4 20.42 3121.6 365.71 447.2 437.0

6 Effect of distortion on the structural behaviour of thinwalled steel regular polygonal tubes 61

Fig. 2 Hexagonal cross-section: shapes of the natural Vlasov warping modes and associated matrix

components (the mode shapes are depicted assuming a linear amplitude function k(x) = x).

configurations for n = 20 and l = 3, as a function of the rotation .

62 Rodrigo Gonalves, Dinar Camotim 7

3. FIRST-ORDER BEHAVIOUR

This section addresses the influence of the distortional modes on the first-

order (linear) behaviour of RCPS tubes. First, consider the homogeneous form of

the GBT equilibrium differential equation system for RCPS, which is uncoupled

and reads, for mode k,

Ckk k , xxxx Dkk k , xx + Bkk k = 0, (5)

where Dkk and Bkk are null for the axial extension and bending deformation modes.

In long tubes, the general solution for the distortional modes is given by [5]

k = e x ( A1 sin x + A2 cos x ),

Bkk D Bkk D (6)

= + kk , = kk ,

4Ckk 4Ckk 4Ckk 4C kk

where is the exponential decay and (herein assumed to be real) is the frequency

of the sinusoid. The factors / and / provide a measure of the influence length

of the deformation mode note that, at x = /, the exponential term is 4.32% and

/ corresponds to the half-wavelength. For the cross-sections indicated in Table 1,

the influence length varies between about 30r and 7r, decreasing as l increases i.e.,

the higher order deformation modes have a smaller influence length.

If at x = 0 (i) a diaphragm, restraining only the displacements along z, is

introduced and (ii) a distortional-like stress distribution is applied, i.e.,

D

xx ( y ) = k uk ( y ) , (7)

k =4

where k is the stress amplitude of mode k (with k 4, i.e., l 2), one obtains, for

each deformation mode, the constants A1 = k/2E and A2= 0. For illustrative

purposes, Fig. 4(a) plots the function e x sin x for the distortional modes listed in

Table 1, with respect to the normalised coordinate x/r it is clearly shown that the

influence length decreases with l (as already concluded) and also with n.

Consider now simply supported beams of length L and acted by sinusoidal

lateral loads. In this case, the analytical solution is given by [1]

x qk

k = k sin , k = 4 , qk = q y vk + qz wk , (8)

L 2

C kk + Dkk + Bkk

L4 L2

where q y , q z are the components of the distributed load along the local axes and

vk , wk are the modal displacement components at the cross-section point of load

application.

8 Effect of distortion on the structural behaviour of thinwalled steel regular polygonal tubes 63

indicated in Table 1 (2 = 100, = 0.3).

This solution shows that, as L increases, the amplitude k increases and tends

asymptotically to qk / Bkk . For the bending modes, one has Bkk= 0 and, therefore,

the amplitude grows unboundedly with L.

The amplitude k may be written in a non-dimensional format, using the

solution corresponding to an infinite beam span, which leads to

k 1

= 4 . (9)

k Ckk 2

+ D + 1

14 Bkk r 4 12 Bkk r 2

kk

Figure 4(b) plots the results obtained with the above expression, for the values

shown in Table 1. Note that the solution for L = is approached more rapidly as

n and l increase.

It is worth mentioning that a set of numerical examples involving distortional,

torsional, bending and local deformation modes has been presented and discussed

in [1]. In all of those examples, the GBT-based solutions were compared with the

results provided by shell finite element models and an excellent agreement was

invariably found.

64 Rodrigo Gonalves, Dinar Camotim 9

4. BUCKLING BEHAVIOUR

(bifurcation) behaviour of RCPS tubes subjected to uniform compression. A more

general discussion of the buckling behaviour of RCPS, including multi-mode

interactions and the effects of bending or torsion, can be found in [2, 3].

For the classic benchmark problem of simply supported members under uniform

compression, sinusoidal amplitude functions correspond to the exact solution and,

therefore, one has, for each individual deformation mode k, (negative means

compression)

1 a 2 2 C kk 12 2

( b ) k = 2 + Dkk + r Bkk ,

1 r a 2 2

2

X kk

(10)

Dkk + 2 C kk Bkk 1 4C

( cr ) k = , = 4 4 kk ,

X kk a cr r Bkk

where: (i) b is the bifurcation stress, (ii) cr is the critical stress (the lowest b),

(iii) a is the buckling mode longitudinal half-wave number, (iv) (1/a)cr is the

buckling mode normalised half-wavelength corresponding to cr and (v) Xkk are the

components of the GBT geometric modal matrix for uniform compression (see

Annex B).

It can be shown that the minimum distortional critical buckling stress always

corresponds to l = 2, i.e., to the first distortional deformation mode pair (or to the

single distortional mode if n = 4). Moreover, the critical stresses associated with

each l decrease as n increases and approach asymptotically the values cor-

responding to circular tubes for instance, for l = 2 and 2 = 75, the difference

between the critical buckling stresses concerning columns exhibiting RCPS and

circular hollow sections is below 4% for n 9.

For the cross-sections listed in Table 1 (2 = 100, = 0.3), the (1/a)cr values

vary between 19.6 (n = 4 and l = 2) and 5 (n = 8 and l = 4) and, essentially,

decrease when l and n increase. Note that these half wave-lengths are significantly

higher than those associated with local buckling, which are of the order of the wall

width b, i.e., (1/a)cr equal to (i) 1.4 for n = 4, (ii) 1.0 for n = 6 and (iii) 0.62 for n = 8.

The graph in Fig. 5(a) shows the parameter range values for which the critical

buckling stress is either distortional or local [2]. These values were determined for

= 0.3 and assuming that no mode interaction occurs. It is concluded that

distortional buckling is critical for the lower 2 values but, as n increases, the

critical buckling mode transition occurs for increasingly higher 2 values.

As show in [2], the true distortional critical modes involve participations of

local and shear deformation modes. The graph in Fig. 5(b) shows the variation of the

distortional critical buckling stresses with n, determined by means of GBT analyses

that include the following deformation mode sets: (i) Vlasov (distortional), (ii) Vlasov +

shear and (iii) local + Vlasov + shear. It is observed that the shear modes play a

10 Effect of distortion on the structural behaviour of thinwalled steel regular polygonal tubes 65

significant role, particularly for low 2 values. The local modes are also relevant,

but only for low n.

Finally, Fig. 5(c) presents an illustrative numerical example: it plots the variation

of the buckling stresses with 1/a, for the particular case defined by n = 10,

r = 100 mm, t = 4 mm (2 = 25) and =0.3, which corresponds to almost coincident

local and distortional

Fig. 5 Buckling of simply supported RCPS tubes under uniform compression ( = 0.3):

a) parameter ranges corresponding to critical local and distortional buckling;

b) influence of the local and shear modes on distortional buckling; c) illustrative example.

66 Rodrigo Gonalves, Dinar Camotim 11

critical buckling stresses. This figure includes single mode curves and also

curves obtained from analyses with various deformation mode sets, making it

possible to conclude that the buckling mode nature changes with 1/a in the

following manner:

(i) For 1/a < 1.6, local buckling governs (curve L in Fig. 5(c)). However,

the distortional and shear deformation modes participate in the ascending

branch of the curve, near the buckling mode transition zone.

(ii) For 1.6 < 1/a < 4.0, the second distortional mode pair (l = 3 curve D2)

is critical, with significant participations from both the shear and local

deformation modes.

(iii) For 4.0 < 1/a < 13, the first distortional mode pair (l = 2 curve D1)

governs and, as already concluded from Fig. 5(b), the shear modes have a

significant influence, particularly in the descending branch.

(iv) For 1/a > 13, the buckling mode involves global bending (curve B)

and the shear modes have a small participation up to 1/a = 20.

5. VIBRATION BEHAVIOUR

also been developed to analyse the vibration behaviour of thin-walled members

(see, e.g., [68]). In this section, GBT analyses are used to investigate the

undamped free vibration behaviour of RCPS tubes. As in the previous section, only

simply supported members are dealt with, which means that sinusoidal amplitude

functions constitute exact solutions and, therefore, the single mode solution is

given by

a 2 2 C kk 2

+ Dkk + 2 1 2 r 2 Bkk

r2 2

a

2k = 1 ,

1 2

2

(11)

Qkk + 2 2 r Rkk

a

(k ) min = Bkk / Rkk ,

where (i) is the natural angular frequency, (ii) a is the vibration mode

longitudinal half-wave number and (iii) the expressions for the mass matrices Q

and R are given in Annex B. These formulae show that, since Bkk and Dkk are non-

null for each distortional mode, the corresponding frequency always decreases with

1/a and the minimum is attained at 1/a = . Moreover, as in the case of buckling

under uniform compression, it can be shown that the minimum distortional frequency

always corresponds to l = 2 and, as n increases, it approaches the solution for

circular tubes.

12 Effect of distortion on the structural behaviour of thinwalled steel regular polygonal tubes 67

Figure 6 shows the variation of the fundamental frequency with 1/a, for the

particular cases of n = 6, 2 = 25, 100 and = 0.3. The frequencies are normalised

with respect to the fundamental frequency of a simply supported rectangular plate

of infinite length, width b and thickness t, which is given by

Df

f0 = , (12)

2b 2 t

where Df = Et3/12(12) is the plate bending stiffness and is the volumetric mass

density. The plots show single mode solutions and results obtained by means of

analyses including all the deformation modes, namely the shear and local modes.

The observation of these results prompts the following remarks:

(i) The fundamental vibration mode nature changes with 1/a as follows:

(i1) local for low 1/a (curves L), (i2) first distortional mode pair (l = 2

curves D1) for intermediate 1/a and (i3) global bending for high 1/a

(curves B).

(ii) With the exception of the transition zone between the local and distortional

vibration modes, the individual mode solutions provide accurate solutions.

(iii) Although this is not shown in Fig. 6, in the local-distortional transition

zone the vibration mode is affected by local-distortional interaction and

also by the shear modes. The maximum influence of the shear modes is

about 7% and occurs for 2 = 25 and 1/a = 4, which corresponds to the

initial stage of the transition zone. For 2 = 100, the influence of the shear

modes drops to a maximum of only 1.7%.

(n = 6, 2 = 25, 100, = 0.3)

68 Rodrigo Gonalves, Dinar Camotim 13

6. CONCLUDING REMARKS

This paper addressed the effect of cross-section distortion on the: (i) first-

order, (ii) buckling (bifurcation) under uniform compression and (iii) undamped

free vibration behaviour of thin-walled RCPS tubes. In particular, attention is

called to the following findings of the work carried out:

(i) Duplicate solutions are obtained for cross-sections with more than four

walls, due to the cross-section rotational symmetry. This implies that the

stiffness properties associated with the duplicate deformation modes are

invariant upon a rotation in the two-dimensional mode space.

(ii) The GBT specialisation for RCPS makes it possible to identify a set of

uncoupled and hierarchic distortional deformation modes. The exponential

solutions show that the higher-order distortional modes decay more rapidly

and, therefore, have a smaller influence length.

(iii) The distortional deformation modes play a significant role in the

buckling and vibration behaviour of RCPS tubes. It was shown that, for

some parameter ranges, the distortional modes correspond to the critical

modes/fundamental frequencies.

(iv) It was also shown that local/distortional/shear interaction is relevant,

particularly in mode transition zones.

row vector, with an offset equal to the row index. The generating row vector is

herein defined as the first row of the matrix. For instance, for a given 44 matrix

A, one has

A = ( A11 , A12 , A13 , A14 ) (A.1)

and, if the matrix is symmetric, one has A12 = A14. Due to the rotational symmetry

of RCPS, the GBT cross-section analysis involves several circulant matrices, which

lead to rather simple expressions.

Fig. A1 shows, for the particular case of n = 5, (a) the node/wall numbering

and local axes, and (b) the statically determinate system adopted to perform the

usual GBT cross-section analysis and the convention for positive nodal moments.

Let (Ux)ij, Vij, ij, Mij be nn matrices, whose components contain, respectively,

(i) the u nodal displacements, (ii) the wall v displacements, (iii) the converging

wall relative rotations and (iv) the nodal moments. In these matrices, j identifies the

14 Effect of distortion on the structural behaviour of thinwalled steel regular polygonal tubes 69

the orthogonal warping deformation modes are already given by Ux = Q and, from

the null membrane shear strain assumption, the v displacements are obtained as

1~ ~

V = VQ, V = (1, 1, 0, ..., 0), (A.2)

b

~

where the auxiliary matrix V is circulant. The complete cross-section in-plane

configuration is determined by imposing v displacements in the static system,

using the flexibility/force method, which is convenient in this case (the degree of

static indeterminacy is lower than the degree of kinematic indeterminacy). Simple

geometric considerations make it possible to conclude that the imposed relative

rotations in the pin-jointed frame are given by

1 ~ ~

= V , = ( 2 cos 1, 1, 0, ..., 0, 1, 2 cos + 1), (A.3)

b sin

where = 2/n is the angle between two adjacent walls.

Fig. A1 GBT cross-section analysis for n = 5: a) node/wall numbering and local axes; b) statically

determinate pin-jointed frame and convention for positive nodal moments

b ~

FM = , (A.4)

6D f

~

where the normalised flexibility matrix F is symmetric and circulant, with

~

F = (4, 1, 0, ..., 0, 1). (A.5)

In order to solve the system (A.4), one may diagonalize the symmetric circulant matrix

through QtFQ=diag( Fi ), where Fi is the ith diagonal component (instead of directly

~

inverting F ). This leads to

6D f 1 t ~~

M= Q diag Q VQ.

(A.6)

b sin

3

Fi

70 Rodrigo Gonalves, Dinar Camotim 15

from the integration of the nodal moments of the corresponding column of M.

In [1], analytical formulae for matrix CM are provided and all matrix

components are shown in a graphical format. Using the former expressions, it is

now possible to obtain the (diagonal) components of matrix B from the rather

simple formula

b n

BiiB = 2

ji (A.7)

3D f j =1

where j + 1=1 if j = n.

extensions, the classic GBT modal stiffness matrices read

Bij = BijB = D f wi , yy w j , yy dy,

S

C ij = C M

ij + C ijB = (Et u i u j + D f wi w j ) dy,

S

D = D1 D 2 D , t

2 (B.1)

3

(D1 )ij = (D1 )ijB = Gt wi , y w j , y dy,

3 S

S

where: (i) M and B designate membrane and bending terms, (ii) i, j = 1, ..., D, (iii) S

is the cross-section mid-line, (iv) t is the wall thickness, (v) E and G are Young's

and shear moduli and (vi) is Poissons ratio. For buckling analyses of uniformly

compressed members, the geometric matrix reads

X ij = t (vi v j + wi w j ) dy. (B.2)

S

Finally, for vibration analyses, the mass matrices Q and R, which involve

translational and rotational terms, are given by

t3

Qij = t u i u j + wi w j dy,

S 12

(B.3)

Rij = t (vi v j + wi w j ) + wi , y w j , y dy ,

t3

S 3

where is the volumetric mass density.

16 Effect of distortion on the structural behaviour of thinwalled steel regular polygonal tubes 71

REFERENCES

1. GONALVES, R., CAMOTIM, D., On the behaviour of thin-walled steel regular polygonal tubular

members, Thin-Walled Structures, 62, pp. 191205, 2013.

2. GONALVES, R., CAMOTIM, D., Elastic buckling of uniformly compressed thin-walled regular

polygonal tubes, Thin-Walled Structures, 71, pp. 3545, 2013.

3. GONALVES, R., CAMOTIM, D., Buckling behaviour of thin-walled regular polygonal tubes

subjected to bending or torsion, Thin-Walled Structures, 73, pp. 18597, 2013.

4. GONALVES, R., RITTO-CORRA, M., CAMOTIM, D., A new approach to the calculation of

cross-section deformation modes in the framework of Generalized Beam Theory, Computational

Mechanics, 46, 5, pp. 75981, 2010.

5. SCHARDT, R., Verallgemeinerte Technische Biegetheorie, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989.

6. SCHARDT, R., HEINZ, D., Vibrations of thin-walled prismatic structures under simultaneous

static load using Generalized Beam Theory, in: Structural Dynamics, eds. W. Kratzig et al.,

Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991, pp. 921927.

7. SILVESTRE, N., CAMOTIM, D., GBT-based local and global vibration analysis of loaded

composite open-section thin-walled members, International Journal of Structural Stability and

Dynamics, 6, 1, pp. 129, 2006.

8. BEBIANO, R., SILVESTRE, N., CAMOTIM, D., Local and global vibration of thin-walled

members subjected to compression and non-uniform bending, Journal of Sound and

Vibration, 315, 3, pp. 509535, 2008.

AXIAL IMPACT OF OPEN-SECTION TWCF COLUMNS

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

Abstract. The paper is devoted to the results of experimental study into the crushing

behaviour of TWCF open section columns subjected to axial impact. Steel channel

and top-hat section was under investigation. The paper contains a results summary of

quasi-dynamic and dynamic impact tests performed on about 100 of those sections of

different dimensions subjected to axial load of different velocities. Experimental

quasi-dynamic tests were conducted on the testing machine with different loading

velocities up to 600 mm/min. The impact tests were performed on the drop hammer

rig with the impact energy up to 5 kJ and impact velocity up to 10 m/s. An influence

of the column initial length and impact velocity on the crushing behaviour (failure

mode) was investigated. Particularly, the critical length of the transition from

progressive buckling to global bending failure mode and its dependence on section

dimensions and the impact velocity was under investigation. Experimental results

were compared with the results of the analytical calculations of critical (transition)

buckling length based on the simplified analytical theoretical models. The results are

presented in load-time and load-shortening diagrams and failure patterns. Some

conclusions concerning the determination of critical buckling length, applicability of

the theoretical models applied and an influence of the impact velocity upon the critical

buckling length and final mode of failure related to the energy absorption capability of

columns are derived.

Key words: thin-walled columns, open sections, impact, experiment

1. INTRODUCTION

dynamic loading is an important problem in two areas of engineering applications:

first energy absorption of members acting as energy absorbers during accidental

collision of automotive or rail vehicles, secondly load-carrying capacity of

structural members subjected to seismic loads. The term dynamic crushing is

used in the present paper in the sense of progressive crushing of a structure

subjected to the impulse of an applied load.

An effective design of energy absorbing TWCF structural member demands

to determine a load-deformation relation of the member under impact load. In the

1

Ld University of Technology, Department of Strength of Materials, 90-924 d,

Stefanowskiego 1/15, Poland

2

Design & Research Center OKB, 95-006 Brjce, Bukowiec, Rokiciska 108/110, Poland

2 Axial impact of open-section TWCF columns 73

a design, which promotes a progressive buckling mechanism [1]. However,

relatively long thin-walled columns (particularly of open sections) can exhibit

additional buckling modes, similar to the Euler buckling, leading to poor energy

absorption. Thus, a threshold conditions between progressive buckling and global

bending are of crucial importance.

Dynamic buckling response of thin-walled structural members subjected to

impact, axial compressive load has been investigated extensively by many

researchers. Particularly, closed-section members (tubes) have been investigated

since early 60ties of XXth Century. One should mention here Alexander solution for

a circular tube and Wierzbicki and Abramowicz works, concerning tubes of

prismatic cross-section, quoted by Jones [1]. Those solutions were based on the

rigid-perfectly plastic material model and used plastic mechanism approach. They

took into account an influence of the strain rate upon the initial material yield

stress, but neglected inertia effects. In the contrary to closed-section members, few

works have been devoted to the same problem concerning open-section columns.

Among them, Koteko et al. [2, 3] published the solution for top-hat section

column based on the yield line approach [4], taking into account the strain rate

effect. The solution was validated by quasi-dynamic tests, which will be discussed

in the next paragraph. Results of experimental investigation of top hat section

columns, as well closed section tubes subjected to axial impact were published by

Langseth et al. [5, 6] and Hsu& Jones [7]. Langseth [6] investigated inertia effect

and an influence of impact velocity upon the crushing behaviour of aluminium

tubular members.

In recent years some research have been carried out into the transition from

progressive local buckling to global bending failure mode in thin-walled columns

(bars) under axial impact. Such a transition is observed in the stage of collapse of

relatively long bars and at impact velocities higher than a certain critical one.

Results, concerning impact behaviour of long, circular and prismatic steel

tubes, subjected to dynamic, axial compressive load were bublished by Alves and

Karagiosova [8]. They investigated an influence of impact velocity on the crushing

behaviour of tubes. The problem of transition from progressive buckling to global

bending of circular tubes subjected to axial impact compressive load was also

investigated by Alves and Karagiosova [9, 10], as well as Jensen et al. [11]. Alves

and Karagiosova [10] proposed an analytical model, taking into account inertia

effects, which will be discussed in details in 3 paragraph.

Teramoto and Alves [12] conducted research into the same problem for open,

channel-section columns subjected to axial impact compressive force. They published

results of both experimental tests and FE numerical simulations. They did not find

clear condition of the transition from progressive local buckling to global bending.

Determination of limit or critical values of bars length and impact

velocity is still an open question. Since a transition from local progressive buckling

74 Maria Koteko, Artur Modawa, Marcin Jankowski 3

the determination of a threshold criterion between those two failure modes is of

crucial importance.

Preliminary static and quasi-dynamic tests have been carried out on relatively

short top-hat section and plain channel section columns subject to uniform

compression. These tests were conducted in order to plan a program for impact

tests and to identify crushing behaviour of open-section columns at relatively low

impact velocities. Results of those research was reported by Koteo&Mania [3].

Specimens were made of steel sheets and folded in special folding machine.

Dimensions of specimens and material parameters are shown in Table 1. The

experiment was conducted on the testing machine Instron of loading range 20 kN.

Both compressive force and column deformation (displacement of the upper

crosshead beam of the testing machine) was recorded using the integrated,

computer aided measurement system of the testing machine.

Table 1

Section Material parameters Dimensions

Top hat Y = 165 MPa

a = 30 mm

ult = 280 MPa

b = 30 mm

E = 192000 MPa

b w = 8 mm

t Et = 2000 MPa

wall thickness t = 0.6 mm

q=5

w a column length l = 150 mm

D = 40.4 [1/s]

Plain channel Y= 286 MPa

a = 75 mm

ult = 315 MPa

b = 37.5 mm

b E = 194000 MPa

t wall thickness t = 1 mm

Et = 3000 MPa

column length l = 375 mm

a q, D as above

Notation:

E Young modulus

Et tangent modulus

0 Yield stress

A area of the cross-section

I second moment of area of the cross-section

density of the rod material

m mass per unit length

L rod length

G impactor weight

4 Axial impact of open-section TWCF columns 75

Figure 1 shows failure modes observed in static and quasi-dynamic tests. Failure

modes of top hat sections are significantly different under static and quasi-

dynamic load, while failure modes of channel sections did not differ.

a) b)

c) d)

b) top hat v0 = 600 mm/min; c) plain channel v0 = 300 mm/min; d) plain channel v0 = 600 mm/min.

18

vo=

16

5 mm/min

14 300 mm/min

compression force [kN]

400 mm/min

12 600 mm/min

10

8

6

4

2

0

0 2 4 6 8

shortening [mm]

Fig. 2 Experimental load-shortening diagrams of plain channel sections (quasi-dynamic test).

76 Maria Koteko, Artur Modawa, Marcin Jankowski 5

to the increase of loading velocity. Also the failure curves are not significantly

influenced by the latter, as shown in Fig. 2 (load-shortening diagrams). That indicates a

necessity of actual dynamic crushing tests at much higher impact velocities.

3. ANALYTICAL MODELS

Karagiosova [9] and channel section columns by Teramoto [12] show, that the

critical buckling length depends on initial impact velocity and material parameters.

Research into analytical solutions of the problem was carried out by Alves and

Karagiosova [10], who proposed three theoretical models of dynamic buckling of

circular tubes subjected to axial compressive force. There are three different

theoretical rod models proposed, namely; the Euler buckling model (Fig. 3a), the

three-link model (Fig. 3b) and the two phase deformation model taking into

account inertia effects and allowing one to analyze an influence of initial velocity

on the critical buckling length (Fig. 3c). Generally, it is a model of incompressible

rod with uniformly distributed mass m = M/L, subjected to the constant axial fully

plastic force P = A0. Since numerous experimental results show, that plastic

deformation occurs first near the column ends, in the rod models these deformations

are taken into account as elasto-plastic bending moments. The models have been

derived for the circular tube. Two first models were adopted by Koteko and

Mania [13] for the case of an arbitrary open section column, who presented results

of preliminary impact tests of open section members. The last model is also

adopted in this work by the authors for an arbitrary case.

a) b) c)

P

c1

l/2

B

l/2

c1 C

b) three-link buckling mode; c) two phase deformation model.

6 Axial impact of open-section TWCF columns 77

In the first case (Fig. 1a) of Euler buckling mode, the equation of motion of

each part of the rod (AB and BC), for an arbitrary cross-section, takes the

following form:

12 6E I

r2 . = 0,

2 0

(1)

l Al

4 E Et

where: E r = reduced modulus for bi-linear material [14].

( E + Et ) 2

The critical buckling length LcrE (Table 2) is an eigenvalue of the equation (1).

Table 2

No Critical buckling length

Euler dynamic buckling mode:

1 6 Er I

LcrE =

A 0

Three-link first dynamic buckling mode:

2 Er I

L1 cr = 3

A 0

Three-link dynamic second buckling mode:

3 15 E r I

L2 cr =

A 0

In the second case (Fig. 1b) one can derive four equations of motion (two for

each buckling mode) with unknowns 1 and 2 . If the solution of this simultaneous

equation is predicted in the following way

1 = D1 sin 2 t + ( ) (

2 = D2 sin 2 t + ) (2)

54 5.54

12 = 3

( 6c PL ) ; 22 = (10c PL ) , (3)

15mL 15mL3

6 Er I

where c = ; = r / E . The roots of (3) determine two critical

(1 + )

buckling lengths for dynamic buckling L1cr and L2cr, corresponding to the modes

shown in Fig. 1b, given in Table 2.

78 Maria Koteko, Artur Modawa, Marcin Jankowski 7

The third model takes into account inertia effects. The flexure equation of

motion takes form:

54 w

=

w

mL 2

(L A 0 10c ) L

(4)

54 ( LA 0 10c )

2 = , (4a)

mL 3

being an eigenvalue of eq. (4).

The equation of linear motion of the upper end of the rod takes the form:

+ .

u = 2 L (5)

L

Assuming a relation w = , we can derive the velocity of the upper end of

3

the rod u as follows:

9w 02

v1 = sinh ( t ) . (6)

On the other hand, the equation of the motion of the impactor is as follows:

Gv = A 0 (7)

and, subsequently the velocity of the impactor amounts:

A

v = v0 0t . (8)

G

Comparing the velocity of the impactor (8) with the velocity of the impacted

end of the rod (9), we obtain a transcendent equation:

A 9 w 02

v0 0 t = sinh ( t ) , (9)

G L

8 Axial impact of open-section TWCF columns 79

with the root (tcr), a critical instant, at which a transition from progressive local

buckling to global bending takes place (Fig. 4). A corresponding critical velocity is

as follows:

A

v cr = v 0 0 t cr . (10)

G

The values of tcr and vcr , corresponding to relations (9) and (10) are given in

Table 5.

The testing program for impact tests was planned in the way, which allowed

one to observe the transition from local progressive buckling to global bending

failure mode at certain critical lengths and velocities. Thus, dimensions of

specimens to be tested were determined in order to assure local buckling under

static load. Omn the other extreme, lengths of specimens were taken to be slightly

less and slightly greater than critical values, calculated on the basis of theoretical

models discussed in paragraph 3.

The dimensions of specimens (columns), which have been tested are shown

in Table 3. Two series of columns have been tested: series 1 plain channel and

series 2 top hat section. Impact tests were carried out on steel specimens of

different a/b ratio and different length from 250 to 500 [mm]. Wall thickness of all

columns was t = 1 mm.

The specimens were made of steel sheets. Standard tensile tests were

performed on coupons cut from the sheet (row material). Material properties

determined were as follows:

Yield stress 0 = 201.5 MPa

Young modulus E = 1.75105 MPa

tangent modulus Et = 2000 MPa.

Similarly to the specimens made for quasi-dynamic tests, steel sheets were

folded in folding machine. All rolling radii were of the same magnitude r = 2.5 mm.

All specimens were clamped in two parallel plates (situated in grooves made

by milling machine) and spot welded , as shown in Fig. 7.

Table 4 shows main parameters and critical lengths of specimens, calculated

according to two first theoretical models (pos. 13 Table 2) for sections under

investigation.

Alltogether about 90 impact tests were carried out at different impact

velocities from 4 to 10 [m/s] and impact energy up to 4.5 kJ.

80 Maria Koteko, Artur Modawa, Marcin Jankowski 9

1 2

Table 3

Symbol a b w Length L

[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

A1 60 60 - 250

A1 60 60 - 300

A1 60 60 - 400

A1 60 60 - 500

B1 90 45 - 200

B1 90 45 - 300

B1 45 90 - 350/400

D1 60 45 - 250

D1 60 45 - 300

D1 60 45 - 400

D1 60 45 - 500

D2 60 45 15 250

D2 60 45 15 300

D2 60 45 15 400

D2 60 45 15 500

Table 4

a b w A A0

Symbol LcrE Lcr1 Lcr2

mm mm mm mm2 N

A1 60 60 - 187.8 37841.7 291 356 460

B1 90 45 - 187.8 37841.7 215 263 339

D1 60 45 - 157.8 31796.7 220 269 348

D2 60 45 15 195.6 39413.4 278 341 440

Experiments were carried out on the drop hammer rig (Fig. 6), which

consists of the impactor of changeable mass (2) , hoisting mechanism and release

mechanism of the hammer (4,5) as well as additional springs (3), which allow one

to increase the energy of impact. The springs are driven by the separate driving

system. All mechanisms are controlled by a special computer program. The

measuring system consists of piezoelectric force transducer, situated at the bottom

of the specimen (1), displacement transducer and accelerometer.

10 Axial impact of open-section TWCF columns 81

5 4

3

under different impact velocities from 4.5 to 10 [m/s]. Results of tests carried out

on the specimens of the same dimensions and under the same testing conditions

were repeatable.

The summary of the results of tests is given in Table 5. Theoretical values of

critical instant and corresponding critical velocity calculated according to the

model III par. 3, relations (9, 10) are shown in last two columns.

The results of the tests were partially in agreement with analytical models I and II.

For 14 of the examined cross-sections the observed failure mode was in good

82 Maria Koteko, Artur Modawa, Marcin Jankowski 11

transition from local progressive dynamic buckling (PDB) to global bending failure

mode (GB) was observed for columns of lengths, which corresponded to intervals

of critical lengths coming from analytical models I and II. It concerned plain

channel sections.

In the case of top hat sections only the progressive buckling failure mode was

observed, additionally, in some cases, an interaction of progressive buckling and

flexural-torsional buckling was recorded.

In the case of IIIrd analytical model, the calculated critical time intervals were

larger than the actual total time of impact (Fig. 9).

Table 6 shows failure patterns of all examined columns, corresponding to

Table 5. In Figs. 8 and 9 exemplary failure modes are presented in details. Fig. 8

shows a difference in failure patterns of three columns of the same dimensions of

the cross-section and length, subjected to different impact velocities. As one can

notice, the difference is significant. In Fig. 9 the transition from progressive

dynamic local buckling to global bending failure mode is presented for tewo

columns of the same cros-section dimensions and different length: L < LcrE (Fig. 9a)

and Lcr1 < L< Lcr2 (Fig. 9b). Failure mode in Fig. 9b corresponds to II. theoretical

model, namely three-link model.

Table 5

Failure

Dimensions Energy/velocity Notes tcr* Vcr*

Sp. No Symbol mode

a / b /w / L [mm] [kJ] / [m/s] - - [s] [m/s]

1 A1 60/60/-/250 2/8.94 PDB(*) L<LcrE

2 A1 60/60/-/250 1/6.32 PDB L<LcrE

3 A1 60/60/-/250 0.5/4.47 PDB L<LcrE

4 A1 60/60/-/300 1/6.32 PDB LcrE<L<Lcr1 0.20 6.16

5 A1 60/60/-/300 0.5/4.47 PDB LcrE<L<Lcr1 0.19 4.32

6 A1 60/60/-/400 1/6.32 PDB LcrE<L<Lcr2 0.19 6.18

7 A1 60/60/-/400 0.5/4.47 GB(**) LcrE<L<Lcr2 0.18 4.33

8 A1 60/60/-/500 1/6.32 PDB L>Lcr2 0.21 6.16

9 B1 90/45/-/200 1.5/7.75 PDB L<LcrE

10 B1 90/45/-/300 1.5/7.75 GB Lcr1<L<Lcr2 0.13 7.65

11 B1 90/45/-/400 1.5/7.75 GB L>Lcr2 0.16 7.63

12 D1 60/45/15 -/250 1.5/7.75 GB LcrE<L<Lcr1 0.13 7.65

14 D1 60/45/-/250 1.5/7.75 PDB L<LcrE

15 D1 60/45/-/250 1.5/7.75 GB LcrE<L<Lcr1 0.13 7.66

16 D1 60/45/-/300 1.5/7.75 GB Lcr1<L<Lcr2 0.14 7.66

17 D1 60/45/-/300 1/6.32 GB Lcr1<L<Lcr2 0.13 6.24

19 D1 60/45/-/400 1.5/7.75 GB L>Lcr2 0.16 7.65

20 D1 60/45/-/400 1/6.32 PDB L>Lcr2 0.16 6.22

21 D1 60/45/-/500 1/6.32 GB L>Lcr2 0.2 6.119

22 D2 60/45/15/250 1/6.32 PDB L<Lcr

23 D2 60/45/15/300 1/6.32 PDB LcrE<L<Lcr1 0.18 6.18

24 D2 60/45/15/400 1/6.32 PDB Lcr1<L<Lcr2 0.18 6.18

25 D2 60/45/15/500 1/6.32 PDB L>Lcr2 0.21 6.16

13 D2 60/45/-/250 1.5/7.75 PDB L<LcrE 0.38 7.44

18 D2 60/45/15/400 2.2/9.38 PDB Lcr1<L<Lcr2 0.18 9.24

(*)

progressive dynamic local buckling, (**) global bending

12 Axial impact of open-section TWCF columns 83

Table 6

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

11 12 14 15 16

17 19 20 21 22

23 24 25 13 18

a) b) c)

Fig. 8 Column A1, L= 250 mm: a) v0 = 4.47 m/s; b) v0 = 6.32 m/s; c) v0 = 8.94 m/s.

84 Maria Koteko, Artur Modawa, Marcin Jankowski 13

a) b)

Fig. 9 Column B1, v0 = 7.75 m/s: a) L = 200 mm (No 9); b) L = 300 mm (No 10).

a) b)

F[N]

u[m]

Fig. 10 Load-shortening diagrams: column B1, v0 = 7.75 m/s: a) L = 200 mm (No 9);

b) L = 300 mm (No 10).

0.015 s

tcr = 0.48 s

14 Axial impact of open-section TWCF columns 85

in are presented in Figs. 10a and 10b, respectively. The diagrams indicate, that a

global bending failure mode of the column of length L > Lcr leads to a poorer

energy absorption capacity. An exemplary load-time for top-hat section column is

shown in Fig. 11a, while Fig. 11b presents the typical failure mode for the longest

top-hat section column, for which local dynamic buckling was observed.

5. CONCLUSIONS

not entirely adequate for open section members. However, the critical buckling

length for dynamic buckling, calculated on the basis of the I. and II. model, was in

relatively good agreement with the results of experiments in several cases of plain

channels. Thus, those simple analytical models may be useful in prediction of

crushing behaviour of channel section columns, particularly at the preliminary

stage of design process.

In nearly all examined cases, critical time intervals, calculated according to

IIIrd two-phase theoretical model , taking into account inertia effects, for which a

transition should take place, were larger than the total actual time of impact.

In the case of top hat sections only the progressive buckling failure mode was

observed. It is probably induced by the edge stiffeners, which stabilize the column

during impact.

More clear indications of the threshold criterion (or criteria) of the transition

between progressive buckling and global bending can be obtained from further

research which would take into account larger diversity of impact velocities and

dimensions. Also impact tests at different impact mass have to be performed in

order to investigate inertia effects.

Simultaneously with experiments reported in this paper, numerical FE

simulations were carried out and are in progress. Results of those numerical experiments,

which will be presented in a separate publication will deliver a more clear

understanding into the phenomenon of transition between progressive buckling and

global bending of open section members subjected to axial, impact compressive force.

Received on: July 16, 2014

REFERENCES

2. KOTEKO,M, MANIA, R., KOAKOWSKI, Z., Dynamic crushing of thin-walled profiles, Proc.

of ICTWS Conference Thin-walled Structures-Recent Innovations and Developments, ed.

by M. Mahendran, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, June 2008, pp. 687693.

86 Maria Koteko, Artur Modawa, Marcin Jankowski 15

3 KOTEKO M., MANIA R.J.: Quasi-static and dynamic axial crushing of TWCF open-section

members, Int. Journal of Thin-Walled Strc., 61, pp. 115120, 2012.

4. KOTEKO M. et al., Plastic mechanisms database for thin-walled cold-formed steel members in

compression and bending, Thin-Walled Structures, 48, pp. 818826, 2010.

5. LANGSETH M. et al., Crash behaviour of thin-walled aluminium members, Thin -Walled Struct., 32,

pp. 127150, 1998.

6. LANGSETH M. et al., Crashworthiness of aluminium extrusions. Validattion of numerical

simulation. Effect of mass ratio and impact velocity, Int. J. Impact Eng., 22, pp. 829854, 1999.

7. HSU S.S., JONES N., Dynamic axial crushing of circular and square stainless steel tubes.

Structures under shock and impact, VII, pod red. Jonesa i in. WIT Press, 2001, pp. 169178.

8. ALVES M. KARAGIOSOVA D., Influence of the Arial impast velocity on the buckling behaviour

of circular cylindrical shells, Proc. of 9th National Congress on Theoretical and Applied

Mechanics, Demetra Ltd., Bulgaria, 2001, pp. 388393.

9. ALVES M. KARAGIOSOVA D., Transition from progressive buckling to global bending of

circular shells under axial impact Part I: Experimental and numerical observations, Int.

J. of Solids and Struct., 41, pp. 15651580, 2004.

10. ALVES M. KARAGIOSOVA D., Transition from progressive buckling to global bending of

circular shells under axial impact Part II: Mathematical model, Int. J. of Solids and Struct.,

41, 2004, pp. 15811604.

11. JENSEN O. et al., Transition between progressive and global buckling of aluminium Extrusions,

in: Structures under shock and impact, VII, Ed. by N. Jones, WIT Press, Southhampton,

Boston, 2002, pp. 269277.

12. TERAMOTO S.S., ALVES M., Buckling transition of axially impacted open shells, Int. J. of Impact

Eng., 30, 2004, pp. 124126.

13. KOTEKO M., MANIA R.J., Investigation into different collapse modes of twcf open section

members under axial impact, Proc. of ICTWS2012, Glasgow , pp.391399, 2012.

14. WIERZBICKI T., SINMAO N.W., A simplified model of Brazier effect in plastik bending of

tubes, Int. Journal of Pressure Vessels, 71, 1, pp. 1928, 1997.

EIGENVALUE ANALYSIS OF CURVED SANDWICH PANELS

LOADED IN UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION

LILIANA MARQUES, MARTIN PIRCHER*

panel loaded in compression is introduced and the corresponding potential energy

function is evaluated. The mechanical model of a cylindrically curved sandwich panel

comprises three interacting buckling modes, corresponding to nine degrees of freedom

comprising qs, qx and qy components of local snake (m, n) and overall (k, l) modes, the

related local hourglass (m, n) mode, Finally, closed-form solutions are presented for

the global and local buckling modes.

Key words: curved panels, sandwich panels, composite structures.

1. INTRODUCTION

due to coupling of stable buckling modes [1]. Hunt et al. [2] have shown that

realistic combinations of face materials with significantly less stiff core materials

lead to unstable post-buckling response in the case of sandwich struts. This effect is

even more pronounced in the case of core materials with orthotropic properties,

such as honeycomb cores [3].

The characterization of the post-buckling behaviour of sandwich panels

requires the identification of the relevant buckling modes and the corresponding

elastic critical loads.

Sandwich panels can be nowadays produced with arbitrary shapes. The

construction sector increasingly uses curved panels in structural applications,

clearly extending the classical range of application of cylindrical sandwich panels

as shells of revolution in the aeronautical industry.

This paper presents an energy formulation based on the Rayleigh-Ritz

method for the calculation of the elastic critical loads of cylindrically curved

sandwich panels. Closed-form solutions are obtained for the global and local

buckling modes.

2. MODAL DESCRIPTION

compression with simply-supported edges. Figure 1b depicts the particular case of a

*

University of Coimbra, Department of Civil Engineering, ISISE, Portugal

88 Joo Pedro Martins , L. Simes da Silva , Liliana Marques , Martin Pircher 2

compression exhibits two distinct sets of buckling modes: snake and hourglass

modes, assumed to vary sinusoidally along the length of the panel [4], typically

illustrated in Fig. 2.

(i) Snake mode. The snake mode is defined as the combination of three

independent degrees of freedom, [4], allowing complete flexibility of mode form

between that of pure shear to those of pure bending in each direction with no shear,

as represented in expressions (1) to (3).

z (w) a

z (w) a

y (v)

y (v)

Flanges x (u) R

Flanges x (u)

Core

t

c Core t

t c

t

b b

a) b)

P

c

a

c)

Fig. 1 Simply supported sandwich panel: flat (R = ) and curved panel.

Snake mode

Hourglass mode

a ix jy

w = qs sin sin (1)

i a b

3 Eigenvalue analysis of curved sandwich panels 89

ix jy

u = zq x cos sin (2)

a b

a j ix j y

v = zq y sin cos . (3)

b i a b

qs represents the amplitude of the pure shear component of the snake mode. There

is bending in each flange over its thickness but no bending action in the section as a

whole. The other two displacement fields are introduced to allow for bending

strains to develop, consisting of an axial variation in the angle of tilt of each plane

section in the x- (qx) and y-direction (qy) [1]. Depending on the number of half-

waves, the snake mode may appear as a local (large numbers of half wavelength m, n)

or as a global mode. In the latter case it is denoted overall mode (small numbers of

half wavelength k, l).

(ii) Hourglass mode. The symmetrical nature of the hourglass mode requires

that there must be zero transverse displacements at the middle plane of the sandwich

panel, as well as no longitudinal displacements. Thus, the shear strain must be zero

at the centre line and maximum at the interface between the core and the flanges. If

a linear variation in shear angle is assumed, such that it matches the angle of

inclination of the flange at each interface, the hourglass mode is described by [1]:

2 z a ix jy

w = qh sin sin . (4)

c i a b

The model includes three interacting buckling modes, corresponding to nine

degrees of freedom comprising qs, qx and qy components of local snake (m, n) and

overall (k, l) modes, the related local hourglass (m, n) mode, and constant and

variable end shortening. Furthermore, the longitudinal wave number m is assumed

to be even [1]. Specifically the degrees of freedom are as follows:

a1 shear component of snake mode (i, j) = (m, n)

a2 corresponding hourglass mode (i, j) = (m, n)

a3 shear component of overall mode (i, j) = (k, l)

A4 constant end-shortening

a5 tilt component of snake mode in x-direction (i, j) = (m, n)

a6 tilt component of overall mode in x-direction (i, j) = (k, l)

a7 tilt component of snake mode in y-direction (i, j) = (m, n)

a8 tilt component of overall mode in y-direction (i, j) = (k, l)

A9 variable end-shortening.

3. STRAIN-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS

separately the stress states in both faces and core. Because of the assumption that

90 Joo Pedro Martins , L. Simes da Silva , Liliana Marques , Martin Pircher 4

the faces behave as thin plates or shells, the direct stress and shear strains related to

z-direction are taken as zero (5) and only the strains in the xy-plane are relevant

((6) to (8), where z* denotes a local coordinate system with its origin at the centre

line of each flange). The strain displacement relations for the core correspond to a

three dimensional stress state ((9) to (14))

z = xz = yz = 0. (5)

It is further assumed that the panels are in the range of shallow shells and

DMV (Donnell-Mushtari-Vlasov) nonlinear shell theory is applicable. This theory

assumes that the shell shows infinitesimal deformations and moderate rotations.

Also the intrinsic geometry of a shallow shell is identical to the geometry of a

plane of its projection. This actually represents the first basic assumption of the

theory of shallow shells [5]. The second assumption of shallow shells theory is that

the effect of transverse shear forces on the in plane equilibrium equations is

negligible and the influence of the deflections, w, predominates over the influence

of the in plane displacements u and v in the bending response of the shell.

Furthermore, in order to simplify the strain displacements relations a mean

radius of curvature is considered (instead of considering one for the core and two

other for the flanges) which can lead to errors when computing critical stresses.

Nevertheless, this simplification is in line with the geometrical definition of

shallow shells.

The next set of equations reflects these assumptions for a sandwich panel.

(i) Flanges

2

u 1 a 1 w 2 w

x =

x a

0

2 x

dx z *

x 2

, (6)

v w * 2 w

y = + z , (7)

y R y 2

u v 2 w

xy = + 2 z* . (8)

y x xy

(ii) Core

2

u 1 a 1 w

x =

x a 0

dx,

2 x

(9)

v w

y = + , (10)

y R

5 Eigenvalue analysis of curved sandwich panels 91

w

z = , (11)

z

u v

xy = + , (12)

y x

u w

xz = + , (13)

z x

v w

yz = + . (14)

z y

1

U=

2 V

( x x + y y + z z + x x + y y + z z ) dV . (15)

For the faces, introducing Hookes law in expression (15) leads to, after some

reworking,

Ef

( )

a b t/2

Vf = 2

x + 2y + 2 x y dxdydz * +

2 0 0 t / 2

(16)

Gf a b t/2

+

2

0 0 t / 2

2xy dxdydz *

where

Ef

Ef = . (17)

1 2f

The strain energy of the faces may be split into two contributions: pure

bending in the faces (Vfb) and membrane action in the faces (Vfm).

Similarly, for the core the strain energy is given by:

Ec a b c/2

c(1) ( 2x + 2y + 2z ) + c(2) ( x y + x z + y z )

Vc =

2

0 0 c / 2

(18)

G

( )

a b c/2

dxdydz + c 2

xy + 2

xz + 2

yz dxdydz ,

2 0 0 c / 2

92 Joo Pedro Martins , L. Simes da Silva , Liliana Marques , Martin Pircher 6

Ec

Ec = , (19)

1 c2

(1)

=

(1 c )

2

, (20)

c

1 2 c

1 c

c( 2 ) = c . (21)

1 2 c

The total potential function (22) is obtained by adding to the two components

of the strain energy (U), the strain energy due to the end-beam of stiffness Kb/a

(23) and the work done by the load P (24)

V = V f + Vc + Vb WDL, (22)

K b. b y 3

Vb =

a 0

A 9 a sin 2 dy = K b A 92 ab,

b 16

(23)

b 1

WDL = P u x = a dx = P A 4 + A 9 ab. (24)

0

2

Introducing the last term of the strain displacement relations ((6) to (8)) into

(16) gives, after summing the contributions from both flanges, the strain energy of

flange bending of the panel:

t 3 4 E f 2 k 2 l 4 a 2 l2

Vbf , panel = Vbf , plate = a + + 2 +

12 4 a 2 b 4 k 2 b 2

3 f

(25)

n 2 G f 2 2

(a12 + a12 ) m2 n4a2

+

a2 b4m2 + 2 f

+

2

b b 2

( (

) )

a 3 l + a12 + a 22 n 2 ab .

Similarly, introducing the first terms of the strain displacement relations ((6)

to (8)) into (16) yields the flange membrane energy of the panel

7 Eigenvalue analysis of curved sandwich panels 93

1 a2 1 1

Vmf , panel = Vmf , plate + E f t 2 2 ( a12 + a22 ) + 2 a32 +

2 2R m k

+v f

1 c2

R 2

a

k l

(

a2 a5 2 1 ( 1) 1 ( 1)

k

)(

l

) (26)

4 + 2 ( 1)l 2n 2 4a3 ( 2 A9 A4 ( l 2 4 ) )

a33 2 ( a 2

+ a 2

) a +

2 ( l 2 4 )

1 2 3

3 l 4n 2

ab

where

1 3 1

V mf , plate =E f t 2 A 42 + 2 A 4 A 9 + A 92 2 A 4 ( a 12 + a 22 + a 32 )

2 4 2

4 4 + K nl

a 1 + a 2 + a 3 + 6a 1 a 2 +

4 4 2 2

3

A 9 ( ( a 12 + a 22 ) K n + a 32 K l ) + 4 3

64

(a1 a 3 + a 2 a 3 )

2 2 2 2

(27)

2 2 c

n2

4n l 2

2 (

1 ( 1)

k

) (1 ( 1) )l 1 a l

a l a 1a 2 a 6 + f b 2 k 2 a 1a 2 a 8 +

2

c 2 b 2 a2 n4 2 l4 2

+ 2 (m a 5 + k a 6 ) + 2 2 a 7 + 2 a 8 + ( n 2 a 5 a 7 + l 2 a 6 a 8 )

2 2 2 2

f

2b 2a 2b m k

a 2

1 2 c

(l ) ab.

2

(a 6 + a 8 ) + n 2 (a 5 + a 7 )

2 2

ab + G f t 2 A 92 + 2

2 3b 2b

to a flat panel. The strain energy of the core results from (18), introducing the

strain displacement relations (9) to (14)

a2 1 2 1 2 1 2

V c , panel = V c, plate + E c c v c(1) a1 + a 2 + 2 a 3 +

8R 2 m 2 3 k

1 a c a

( )( )

2 2

a 2 a 5 2 1 ( 1) 1 ( 1)

k l

+v c(2) a 1a 2 +

R 2m c 2

24 k l (28)

2 + ( 1) a 3 ( 2 A 9 A 4 ( l 2 4) )

l

n2

a 33 ( 3a 2

+ a 2

) a + .

6 ( l 2 4n 2 ) 2 ( l 2 4)

1 2 3

6

ab

where

94 Joo Pedro Martins , L. Simes da Silva , Liliana Marques , Martin Pircher 8

1 3 a2a2 1 1

Vc , plate = E c c v c(1) A42 + A4 A9 + A92 + 2 22 2 A4 a12 + a 22 + a 32

2 8 c m 4 3

4 1 4 4 2 2

1 2 1 2 3 a1 + 5 a 2 + a 3 + 2 a1 a 2 +

A9 a1 + a 2 K n + a 32 K l + 4

2 3 128 + 4 + K nl a 2 a 2 + 1 a 2 a 2

1 3 2 3

3 3

(1) 1

vc a1a 2 a 6 +

( )( )

2

1 n a l

2 c 2 2 1 ( 1) 1 ( 1)

k l

+

3 4n l (2) a l

+ vc aa a

2 2 1 2 8

b k

2

c 2 b2 a2 n4 2 l4 2

+

4 3b (

2 2 2 2

)

2 m a5 + k a 6 + 2 2 a 7 + 2 a8 + (29)

a b m k

2

c 2

+ vc(2)

4 6 b (n a a

2

5 7 + l 2 a 6 a8 )

ab +

a2 2

1 c 2

+ 2 G c c 2 A92 +

2 6b 4 3b

2

(

l ( a 6 + a8 ) + n ( a5 + a 7 ) +

2 2

)

n2 1 2

2 ( a1 a 7 ) + a 2 +

2

2

1 1 2 a m 3

( a1 a5 ) + a 2 + ( a 3 a 6 ) + 2

2 2

+ ab,

4 3 b l2

+ ( a 3 a8 ) 2

k2

3 / 8 if n = 1 3 / 8 if l = 1 2 if n = l

Kn = , Kl = and K nl =

/ 4 if n > 1 / 4 if l > 1 0 if n l (30)

n l.

The degrees of freedom associated with the total end shortening can be

eliminated from further consideration by using the corresponding equilibrium

equations and solving them simultaneously with respect to A4 and A9.

A4 =

2E f t +

P

E c cvc(1)

+

8

( )

3 ( 4 K n ) plate a12 +

9 Eigenvalue analysis of curved sandwich panels 95

2

(

+ 3 ( 4Kn ) plate

2

3

) 2

(

1 plate a2 + 3 ( 4Kl ) plate a3

)

(31)

a

(

2 1 ( 1)

R

k

)(l panel

)

1 ( 1) 2 + 3 panel a3 ,

k l

2 2

( 4 K n ) a1 + ( 4 K n )

2

3 1 3 plate a2 +

A9 = plate +

4

+ ( 4 K l ) a32 (32)

6a

R

(

+ 2 1 ( 1)

k

)(

1 ( 1)

l

) panel a3 ,

where

8 E f tv f + E c cv c( 2 )

panel = , (33)

2 E f t + E c cv c(1)

panel =

( ( )

b 2 8 E f tv f l 2 3 + E c cv c( 2 ) l 2 )

( )

( 3

) ( , (34)

k 2 l l 2 4 2a 2 2 2G f t + Gc c + b 2 3K b + 2 E f t + E c cvc(1)

2

)

E c cv c(1)

plate = , (35)

2 E f t + E c cv c(1)

plate =

(

b 2 2 E f t + E c cv c(1)

.

) (36)

2 2 3 2

2

(

2a (2G f t + Gc c ) + b 3K b + 2 E f t + E c cv c

(1)

)

Introducing equations (31) and (32) into (22) (the latter divided by a.b) gives

the reduced form of the total potential energy function of the panel in seven

degrees of freedom expanded about a point on the fundamental path, denoted by F,

written in general form.

The coefficients VijF are given in Annex B.

1 1 F 2 1 F 2 1 F 2 1 F 2 1 F 2

V panel = V11F a12 + V22 a2 + V33 a3 + V55 a5 + V66 a6 + V77 a7 +

2 2 2 2 2 2

1

+ V88F a82 + V12F a1a2 + V15F a1a5 + V17F a1a7 + V25

F

a2 a5 + V57F a5a7 + V36F a3a6 +

2

96 Joo Pedro Martins , L. Simes da Silva , Liliana Marques , Martin Pircher 10

F 3 F

a3 + V126 F

a1a2 a6 + V128 F 2

a1a2 a8 + V113 a1 a3 +

F 2 1 F 4 1 F 4 1 F 4 1 F 2 2 (37)

+V223 a2 a3 + V1111a1 + V2222 a2 + V3333a3 + V1122 a1 a2 +

24 24 24 4

1 F 2 2 1 F 2 2 1

4 4 2

(

+ V1133a1 a3 + V2233a2 a3 + P P F V11' F a12 + V22 )(

'F 2 'F 2

a2 + V33 a2 . )

The equilibrium equations are obtained by stetting to zero first-order

derivatives of the total potential function [7]:

V

= 0. (38)

ai

It can be seen that the fundamental path (pre-buckling solution) is non trivial

with respect to the chosen degrees of freedom, yielding out of plane deformations

along the fundamental path. However, for a flat panel (R tends to infinity) this

behavioural feature disappears and the fundamental path becomes trivial (ai = 0).

6. CRITICAL LOADS

The critical loads are obtained by setting to zero the determinant of the

second derivatives with respect to each of the degrees of freedom ai in turn,

evaluated along the fundamental path,

V12F V22F 0 V25F 0 0 0

0 0 V33F 0 V36F 0 V38F

VsF,ij = V15F V25F 0 V55F 0 V57F 0 = 0. (39)

0 0 V36F 0 V66F 0 V68F

V17F 0 0 V57F 0 VsF,77 0

0 0 V38F 0 V68F 0 V88F

Solving equation (39) yields the three critical loads corresponding to the three

buckling modes: snake, hourglass and overall

1 2 m2 a 2n 4 n2 2 a2

P sC, panel = E ft3 + + + E t +

2b 4 m 2 b 2 2 R 2

f

3 2a

2

m2

(40)

a 2n 2 4

+G c c 1 + 2 2 2 V s ,

b m

11 Eigenvalue analysis of curved sandwich panels 97

1 m2 a 2n 4 n2 2 a2

P hC, panel = 2 E f t 3 + + +

2R 2 E f t +

3 2a 2b 4 m 2 b 2 m2

2

(41)

1

1 a 2n 2 4 a 2 (1) 4 2

+ G c c 1 + 2 2 +

2 E c v c + 2 V h 1 plate ,

3 b m cm 2

3

1 k2 a 2l 4 l 2 a 2l 2

PoC, panel = 2 E f t 3 2 + 4 2 + 2 + G cc 1 + 2 2 +

3 2a 2b k b b k

1

( (1) a

) 4a 2

( ) (1 ( 1) )

2 2 2

1 ( 1)

k l

+ 2E f t + E c cv c (42)

R

2 2

k 2

R

6 2

panel + 3 + 2 V o ,

l ( l 2 4)

panel

2

k 4l 2

where

1

Vs = [V172V55 2V15V17V57 + V152V77 + V252V77 +

2 ( V + V55V77 )

2

(

57

2

(43)

(V172V252 2V12V17V25V57 + V122V572 2V12V15V25V77 V122V55V77 ) ) ,

1/ 2

1

Vh = [V172V55 2V15V17V57 + V152V77 + V252V77

2 ( V + V55V77 )

2

(

57

2

(44)

(V172V252 2V12V17V25V57 + V122V572 2V12V15V25V77 V122V55V77 ) ) ,

1/ 2

2 2

V38F V66F 2V36F V38F V68F + V36F V88F

Vo = 2

. (45)

V68F V66F V88F

Although the expressions for the buckling loads of a sandwich panel were

obtained analytically with closed form solution, they are complex, making it

difficult to establish how these critical loads vary with the different parameters.

98 Joo Pedro Martins , L. Simes da Silva , Liliana Marques , Martin Pircher 12

numerator, the sandwich panel will yield minima for certain values of m and k. If

only the first terms of the expressions are considered it can be seen that the

transverse wavenumbers n and l always figure in the numerator only, suggesting

that the minimum value is obtained for n and l = 1, as can be easily checked

numerically (Fig. 3b) for example).

To exemplify the formulation developed in this study and to illustrate the

behaviour of curved sandwich panels loaded in compression some typical examples

were selected from the literature ([1] and [5]). This component is longitudinally

compressed, simply supported plate with aspect ratio 2, with length a = 508 mm,

width b = 254 mm, flange thickness t = 0.508 mm, core thickness c = 5.08 mm,

flange Youngs modulus Ef = 68 947.57 N/mm2, flange Poissons ratio vf = 0.3,

core Youngs modulus Ec = 198.57 N/mm2, core shear modulus Gc = 82.74 N/mm2

and core Poissons ratio vc = 0.2. Here, to enhance the interactive effect, by

bringing closer together the critical loads for the overall and hourglass modes, it is

considered a core thickness of c = 15.24 mm [1]. In this example a similar panel is

calculated having a radius of curvature equal to R = 1000 mm.

The variation of the critical loads are shown plotted against longitudinal (m)

and transverse (n) wavenumbers in Fig. 3, where Ps denotes the critical load for the

snake mode and Ph denotes the critical load for the hourglass mode. As discussed

before, both modes exhibit a monotonically increasing variation with the transverse

wavenumber n.

Longitudinally, and assuming that n and l are equal to 1, the software

Mathematica [8] was used to compute the minimum critical loads (Fig. 3a) and the

corresponding wavenumbers (Table 1).

It is important to highlight that in contrast to what happens to the sandwich

plate, the minimum values of the critical loads depend on the radius of curvature. It

is possible to prove that whenever R tends to infinite, m tends to 4.

The variation of the critical loads with width b, plotted in Fig. 4a, b at constant

values of m, n and R, which correspond to the minimum critical load for the snake

mode (m = 4, n = 1 and R = infinite; m = 70, n = 1 and R = 1000) and for the

hourglass mode (m = 6, n = 1 and R = infinite; m = 70, n = 1 and R = 1000). It

noticeable that while the variation of snake mode is quite abrupt for low values of b,

the hourglass mode is hardly sensitive to variations of width, reflecting the local

nature of its corresponding wavelength, already small compared to the length of the

panel [1].

Table 1

Minimum values of critical loads (Ps and Ph)

Snake mode Hourglass mode

Radius of

Longitudinal Longitudinal

curvature Critical Load Critical Load

wavenumber, m wavenumber, m

infinite 1157.53 N 4 1070.26 N 70

1000 1244.26 N 6 1070.77 N 70

13 Eigenvalue analysis of curved sandwich panels 99

6000

5000

Ps n1

Ph n1

600000

500000

4000 400000

CriticalLoad

CriticalLoad

3000 300000

2000 200000

Ps m4

1000 100000

Ph m4

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 10 20 30 40 50

Wavenumber , m Wavenumber , n

a) b)

Fig. 3 Critical load variations with longitudinal

and transverse wavenumbers (R = 1000 mm).

2500

Ps m4;n1

Ph m70;n1

2500 Ps m6;n1

Ph m70;n1

2000 2000

CriticalLoad

CriticalLoad

1500 1500

1000 1000

500

100 150 200 300 500 700 1000 1500

Width , b Rinfinite

a)

500

100 150 200 300 500 700 1000 1500

Width , b R1000 mm

b)

Fig. 4 Critical load variations with width, b.

sandwich panel is immediately drawn from Fig. 5: the bigger the curvatures (low

values of R) the higher the critical loads are.

2500

Ps m4;n1

Ph m70;n1

2500

Ps m6;n1

Ph m70;n1

2000 2000

CriticalLoad

CriticalLoad

1500 1500

1000 1000

500

100 200 500 1000 2000 50001 104

Radius of curvature , R b254mm

a)

500

100 200 500 1000 2000 50001 104

b)

Radius of curvature , R b254mm

100 Joo Pedro Martins , L. Simes da Silva , Liliana Marques , Martin Pircher 14

8. CONCLUSIONS

solutions for the critical loads of curved sandwich panels. Despite the complexity

of the obtained expressions, they are easily programmed in a spreadsheet. Furthermore,

the formulation already includes the nonlinear terms required for a post-buckling

evaluation, an issue that is currently actively being pursued by the authors.

Acknowledgements. Financial support from the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Higher

Education (Ministrio da Cincia e Ensino Superior) under contract grant SFRH / BD / 70424 / 2010

is gratefully acknowledged.

ANNEX A

In the membrane strain energy of the flanges, Kn, Kl and Knl (30) correspond

to simplifications of the following general expressions

2n ( 1 + n 2 ) + sin ( 2n ) 2l ( 1 + l 2 ) + sin ( 2l )

Kn = ; Kl = (46)

8n ( 1 + n 2 ) 8l ( 1 + l 2 )

K nl =

(

sin 2 (l n )

.

) (47)

(l n )

It is noted that equation (42) represents an indeterminate expression for n or l =1

that is solved using a limit approximation (48). In all other possible cases (l >1) the

value of Kl and Kn is easily computed and is equal to 1/4.

2l ( 1 + l 2 ) + sin ( 2l ) 3 (48)

lim =

l 1 8l ( 1 + l )2

8

2l ( 1 + l 2 ) + sin ( 2l )

lim = .

l Int [ >1] 8l ( 1 + l 2 ) 4

a limit approximation, and in all cases it should be noted that n is always greater

than l. It is concluded (from (49)) that whenever n = l Knl is equal to 2; whenever

n > l Knl is equal to 0

15 Eigenvalue analysis of curved sandwich panels 101

sin (2 (l n ))

lim =2

l n (l n )

. (49)

sin (2 (l n ))

n > 1 : lim =0

l 1 (l n )

ANNEX B

1 2 a 2n2 1 4 n2

V pF,11 = Gc c1 + 2 2 + Gf t3 2

6

4 b m b

(50)

1 m2 a2n4 n2 1

4 E f t 3 2 + 4 2 + 2 v f 2 P F ,

12 2a 2b m b 4

1 2 a 2n2 1 n2

V pF, 22 = Gc c1 + 2 2 + 4 G f t 3 2

12 b m 6 b

(51)

3 m n2

2

1 4 a2n4 a 2 (1)

E f t 2 + 4 2 + 2 v f + E c vc

12 2a 2b m b c m2

1 2

2 P F 1 plate

4 3 ,

1 2 a 2l 2 1 4 l2

V pF,33 = Gc c1 + 2 2 + Gf t3 2

6

4 b k b

(52)

1 4 k2 a 2l 4 l2 1

E f t 3 2 + 4 2 + 2 v f 2 P F ,

12 2a 2b k b 4

m2 1 (1)

2 a 2 E f t + 6 E c cvc +

1 c 2

V pF,55 = 2Gc c + , (53)

4 2 2 n 2

1

+ 2 G f t + Gc c

b 6

102 Joo Pedro Martins , L. Simes da Silva , Liliana Marques , Martin Pircher 16

k2 1 (1)

2 2 2

E f t + E c cvc +

1 c a 6

V pF, 66 = 2Gc c + , (54)

4 2 2 + l G t + 1 G c

2

2 f c

b 6

2

1 2 a 2 n 2 c 2 a 2 n 2 1

V F

= Gc c 2 2 + n 2 2 E f t + E c cvc(1) +

p , 77

4 6

b m 2 2 b b m

(55)

1

+ G f t + Gc c ,

6

2

1 2 a 2 l 2 c 2 a 2 l 2 1

V F

= Gc c 2 2 + l 2 2 E f t + E c cvc(1) +

p ,88

4 6

b k 2 2 b b k

(56)

1

+ G f t + Gc c ,

6

1

V pF,15 = V pF,36 = 2 Gc c , (57)

4

1 2 a2n2

V pF,17 = Gc c 2 2 , (58)

4 b m

1 a 2l 2

V pF,38 = 2 Gc c 2 2 , (59)

4 b k

2

c 2 1 1

F

= n E tv + E cv ( 2) + G f t + Gc c ,

2 2 b f f 6 c c

V p , 57 (60)

6

2

c 2 1 1

F

= l E tv + E cv ( 2) + G f t + Gc c .

2 2 b f f 6 c c

V p , 68 (61)

6

(ii) Sandwich panel VijF terms

1 a2

. V11F = V pF,11 + E ft , (62)

2R 2 m2

17 Eigenvalue analysis of curved sandwich panels 103

1 a2

V12F = E c v c( 2 ) 2 , (63)

2R m

1 a2

V 22F = V pF, 22 + E ft , (64)

2R 2 m2

( ) ( ) (1 ( 1) )

2

1 (1) a a2

1 ( 1)

k 2 l 2

V33F = V pF,33 + 2 E f t + E c cv c

4R 2

k 2

R

4 2

panel

(

E c cv c( 2 ) + 4 E f t v f 2)+ 3

(

E c cv c( 2 ) l 2 4 E f tv f l 2 6 ) , (65)

k 4l 2

panel

(

l l2 4 )

2

V25F =

1

24 R

(

c 2 6 E f tv f + E c cvc( 2) , ) (72)

REFERENCES

1. SIMOES DA SILVA, L., Interactive Bending and Buckling in Sandwich Structures, PhD Thesis,

Imperial College, 1989.

2. HUNT, G.W., SIMOES DA SILVA, L. and MANZOCCHI, G.M.E., Interactive Buckling in

Sandwich Structures, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A 417, pp. 155177, 1988.

104 Joo Pedro Martins , L. Simes da Silva , Liliana Marques , Martin Pircher 18

3. SIMOES DA SILVA, L. and HUNT, G.W., Interactive Buckling in Sandwich Structures with Core

Orthotropy, Mechanics of Structures and Machines, 18, 3, pp. 6180, 1990.

4. ALLEN, H. G., Analysis and Design of Structural Sandwich Panels, Pergammon Press, 109, 6,

14601471, 1969.

5. BRUSH, D. O. and ALMROTH, B. O., Buckling of Bars, Plates and Shells, McGraw Hill, New

York, 1975.

6. REDDY, J. N., Mechanics of Laminated composite plates and shells Theory and analysis, CRC

Press, Florida, 2004.

7. THOMPSON, J. M. T. and HUNT, G. W., A general theory of elastic stability, Wiley, 1973,

London.

8. *** WOLFRAM MATHEMATICA 8 (version 8.0.0).

AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF HOLES PATTERNS

ON COUPLED INSTABILITY

OF PERFORATED THIN-WALLED MEMBERS

MIHAI NEDELCU*1

Abstract. The buckling behaviour of vertical steel pallet rack columns is greatly

influenced by the distribution of perforations punched continuously along their length.

To study the influence of the holes patterns on the elastic coupled instabilities of thin-

walled members, this paper uses an original modal identification method (based on

the Generalised Beam Theory) which is able to provide the pure buckling modes

participation (of global, distortional, local nature) in a general eigenvalue buckling

mode given by the shell Finite Element Analysis.

Key words: rack columns, perforated thin-walled member, interactive buckling, mode

decomposition, shell finite element analysis, generalised beam theory.

1. INTRODUCTION

The perforated thin-walled members are often used in civil and mechanical

engineering as highly efficient load bearing components. A special case is

represented by the cold-formed steel pallet rack columns, and the assessment of

their resistance capacity is a particularly difficult problem in structural engineering.

The perforations are punched continuously along their length to enable horizontal

storage rack shelving to be clipped into position at arbitrary levels (Fig. 1) and

these perforations decrease the rack columns axial capacity. Also, their typical

slenderness leads to a failure mechanism usually governed by coupled instabilities

(or interactive buckling). To study these complex phenomena one usually starts

with the fundamental (pure) buckling types, widely accepted as: Global (rigid-body

behaviour of the cross-section in its plane, yielding to exural or flexuraltorsional

buckling), Distortional (relative transversal displacements between the cross-

sectional corners) and Local (only local plate deformations) buckling (GDL). Each

buckling type has its characteristic post-buckling behaviour and strength reserve;

consequently, the derivation of the pure modes participation to a general buckling

mode is a crucial step in assessing the real design resistance of the member.

Nowadays there are a number of specialized methods capable to provide the

modal identification and participation, the most famous being the Generalised

*

Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Romania1

106 Mihai Nedelcu 2

Beam Theory (GBT) [1, 2] and the Constrained Finite Strip Method (cFSM) [3].

The only problem is that they present limitations when dealing with arbitrary cross-

sections and boundary/loading conditions. Even if recently, solutions were developed

for many cases of loading and boundary conditions (e.g. [4, 5]), publicly available

codes are not yet released (the available codes as GBTUL [6] and CUFSM [7] can

handle nowadays only bar classical loading and boundary conditions).

As for perforated members, the specialised methods usually take into account

the effect of the holes by introducing the concept of reduced thickness of the

perforated strip ([8, 9]). Even if satisfactory results have been reported, this

procedure could be criticized for using an unperforated model, disregarding the

stress concentrations around the holes. It would be also impossible to apply this

procedure for the case of uneven distribution or size of the holes.

On the other hand, the general solution methods, like Finite Element Method

cannot explicitly provide the contribution of the pure deformation modes in a

general buckling mode. The shell Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is the most

commonly used instrument to study the behaviour of thin-walled members.

Recently, an original method based on Generalised Beam Theory (GBT) was

developed by the author [10] in order to decompose the elastic buckling modes

provided by the shell FEA into pure buckling modes of Global, Distortional and

Local nature. The main feature of this method lies in using only the GBT cross-

sectional deformation modes instead of member mode shapes.

3 Analysis of the effect of holes patterns on coupled instability 107

One goal of this paper is to present the latest developments which enable the

modal identification method to analyse isotropic thin-walled members with

arbitrary holes in terms of shape (rectangular and circular). The second goal is to

study the effect of holes on the critical elastic resistance of perforated thin-walled

members, which could lead in the near future to an optimisation procedure with

respect the perforations distribution and shape for a given member.

Figure 2 presents the terminology of the local coordinate system and the

corresponding displacement field used for the study of thin-walled members with

arbitrary cross-section.

( zz = xz = yz = 0 ) and also Vlasovs simplifying hypotheses (null membrane

transverse extensions ssM , L = v = 0 and membrane shear strains xs

M ,L

= u + v = 0 ,

i

where ( ) = ( ) x , ( ) = ( ) s . According to GBT, any displacement is

considered as a linear combination of n orthogonal pure deformation modes, each

one expressed as a product of two functions

n

u( s, x ) = uk ( s )k ( x ),

k =1

n

(1)

v( s, x ) = vk ( s )k ( x ),

k =1

n

w( s, x ) = wk ( s )k ( x ),

k =1

modes and k ( x ) are the amplitude functions describing their longitudinal

108 Mihai Nedelcu 4

type (unbranched, branched, open, closed, etc.), the number of fold-lines and

intermediate nodes. The warping displacements u(s) are considered to have linear

variation along the entire cross-section, a consequence of the Vlasovs simplifying

assumptions.

The 1st GBT step (the cross-sectional analysis) provides the cross-sectional

deformation modes. Figure 3 presents the in-plane deformations of the first 22 pure

deformation modes for a typical rack section. Notice that there are 4 Global

deformation modes (axial, bending and torsion deformations), 6 Distortional

deformation modes and the rest are all Local deformation modes.

Next, the member equilibrium equations are written based on the principle of

virtual work applied in its variational form. The GBT system of differential

equations in modal formulation has the expression [11]:

( )

Cikk IV Dikk + Bikk = X jik W j0k (2)

where C, D, B and X are the cross-section linear and geometrical stiffness matrices.

The vector W 0 (having 4 components) contains the resultants of the applied pre-

buckling stresses, namely (i) axial force ( W10 = N ), (ii) bending moments

( W20 = M y , W30 = M z ), and (iii) bimoment ( W40 = B ).

The GBT 2nd step (the member stability analysis) consists in solving the

above differential equations system, yielding the critical load factors ( ) and the

corresponding modal amplitude functions ( k ( x ) ). This step is not used by the

method described in this paper.

5 Analysis of the effect of holes patterns on coupled instability 109

The described method extracts from a buckling shell FEA the amplitude

functions k ( x ) of the pure deformation modes. It is based on the special orthogo-

nality properties of the cross-section deformation modes uk ( s ), vk ( s), wk ( s ) and

their derivatives. A special case of clear orthogonality can be seen if one analyses

the transverse bending stiffness matrix B (a diagonal matrix):

1

Bkk = Kwk wk ds = mk mk ds (3)

s s K

where mk ( s ) = Kwk ( s ) are the cross-sectional transverse bending moments,

K = Et 3 (12(1 2 )) is the plate bending stiffness. The diagonal shape of matrix B

proves the orthogonality properties of the 2nd derivatives of the cross-section

displacements wk ( s ) or of the moments mk ( s ) . In [10] the diagonal matrix B is

used to extract from shell FEA the amplitude functions k ( x) of the Local and

Distortional deformation modes. The procedure is now briefly presented for one

simple example using a C-section member.

The modal identification method starts with a buckling shell FEA of a thin-

walled member. Next, the cross-sectional displacement field is extracted on a mesh

of points along the members axis (0 xP L, with L being the bars length).

Suppose that the general buckling FE deformation in one point P along the

longitudinal axis of the member is given as a combination of three pure modes

(3 Global, 5 and 6 - Distortional) as presented in Fig. 4.

From Eq. (1) the transversal displacements given by the shell FEA have the

expression:

wFE ( s, x P ) = w3 ( s )3 ( x P ) + w5 ( s )5 ( x P ) + w6 ( s )6 ( x P ) (4)

and the transversal curvatures can be easily calculated

wFE ( s, x P ) = w3 ( s )3 ( x P ) + w5 ( s )5 ( x P ) + w6 ( s )6 ( x P ) (5)

110 Mihai Nedelcu 6

deformation modes from the GBT 1st step and we can also extract the same

functions from the shell FEA ( wFE ( s, x P ) ). In order to find the value of the

amplitude function 6 ( xP ) , we simply make the following integration

+ Kw6 ( s ) w5 ( s )tds 5 ( xP ) + Kw6 ( s ) w6 ( s )tds 6 ( x P )

s s

so, the first two terms of Eq. (6) will be eliminated, thus giving

Kw w

s

6 FE ds = Kw6 ( s ) w6 ( s )tds 6 ( xP ) = B666 ( x P )

s (8)

Finally, the value of the amplitude function in point P is found

6 ( xP ) =

s Kw6wFE ds (9)

B66

In [10] the computation of the integral from the above equation is explained

in detail. The above described procedure can be used to identify all the pure

buckling modes which involve cross-sectional distortions (D and L modes), using

the general formula

i ( xP ) =

s Kwi wFE ds for i 5 (10)

Bii

This is not the case of the Global deformation modes (i = 14) involving

axial extension, major/minor axis bending and torsion. For this reason, two

different stiffness matrices introduced by Eq. (2) are currently used, the warping

stiffness matrix C (a diagonal matrix) and the geometrical stiffness matrix X1 (not

diagonal) standing for the stiffness degradation due to pre-buckling axial com-

pression. Their expressions are given below (for matrix C we have Membrane and

Bending components):

s

Cik = CikM + CikB = E tui uk ds + s Kwi wk ds

(11)

1

X 1ik =

A s ( vi vk + wi wk )tds

7 Analysis of the effect of holes patterns on coupled instability 111

where A is the cross-sectional area. Similarly with the procedure described above,

matrix X1 is used for the extraction of the amplitude functions k ( x) for all pure

deformation modes, and matrix C is used for the derivatives of the amplitude

functions k ( x ) which are needed for the description of the warping displacements

(see Eq. (1a)). This process was recently described in detail in [12].

Having the amplitude functions and their derivatives, the entire displacement

field (dGBT) is recreated and compared with the initial one (dFE), extracted from

shell FEA. An error vector is constructed derr = dFE dGBT and the approximation

error of the proposed method is measured as the norm of the error vector relative to

the norm of the FE displacement vector (an estimation criterion also used by

Adany et al. [13]):

d errT d err

error = (12)

d FE T d FE

Finally, the method provides the modal identification and participation, the

goal of the entire procedure, using the same formula proposed by Silvestre et al.

[14], an easy and intuitive expression based only on the amplitude functions. The

modal participation factor (Pi) is introduced as follows:

Pi =

L i ( x) dx (13)

k =1 L k ( x) d x

n

One goal of this paper is to present the extension of the modal identification

method for the special case of perforated thin-walled members with arbitrary holes.

First, the member is divided in distinct regions along its length as shown in Fig. 5:

continuous regions given by the intervals d, and regions with holes given by the

intervals dh.

These intervals dont have to be equal, there are no theoretical limitations

concerning the shape, size and distribution of the holes. The buckling shell FEA is

performed and the displacement field is extracted for each buckling mode

112 Mihai Nedelcu 8

continuous regions, the method described in the previous section can be directly

applied. For the perforated regions, the method can be applied if a minor

modification is performed, taking into account the missing segments along the

cross-section. The cross-sectional deformation modes remain the same, so the GBT

1st step is still applied for the continuous cross-section. The modification is

introduced with respect the stiffness matrices. Basically, the components of these

matrices are given by the virtual work produced by unit values of the amplitude

functions, or their derivatives. So, for each missing segment, the virtual work is

eliminated, meaning the integrals of Eq. (11) are calculated only on the real

cross-sections of the perforated regions.

Concerning the shape and pattern of holes, the simplest case to apply the

modal identification method described in this paper, is for members with

rectangular holes regularly distributed along the members length as presented in

Fig. 6 (left side).

In this case there are only two cross-sections that need to be analysed, one for

the continuous (S0) and one for the perforated regions (S1), yielding two sets of

stiffness matrices. However, the method has no theoretical limitations for non-

regular patters and arbitrary shapes of holes. The complications are just of

technical order, a circular hole will force the analysis of more than one cross-

section along the perforation (Sc1..5). This technical detail is currently solved as it

can be see in the illustrative example.

This is not the only technical complication; the circular holes (or rectangular

holes with round corners) will produce an irregular FE mesh. The shell FEA

displacement field is extracted in the FE nodes and in order to apply the mode

decomposition method, the cross-sectional discretisations in shell FEA and GBT 1st

step, have to be identical (an easy task for a regular FE mesh). For an irregular FE

discretisation (Fig. 7), the GBT and FEA discretisations are different and the shell

FEA displacement field has to be adapted by interpolation on the GBT mesh of

points, keeping the approximation errors to a minimum, a task that is currently

under work.

9 Analysis of the effect of holes patterns on coupled instability 113

4. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE

rack steel upright with and without holes. Assuming that this lipped channel is a

cold-formed member, the thickness t = 2 mm is constant for all walls. The bars

length is L = 1500 mm, the material properties are: Youngs modulus E = 210GPa

and Poisson's ratio = 0.3 and cross-sectional dimensions are given in Fig. 8. The

member is locally pinned at one end and simple-supported (meaning pinned locally

and globally) and free to warp at the other end. The simple-supported end is axially

compressed by an edge uniform load which gives a resultant force of 1kN. Seven

perforation patterns were analysed as presented in Fig. 8. The first one (R0h) is

without holes, the next 5 display different configurations of rectangular holes, and

the last one displays circular holes. The name of the perforated members with

rectangular holes is constructed as follows: R(from rack) + number of holes

along the cross-section + rh (from rectangular hole) + hole transversal

dimension. The 5th configuration presents 3 rectangular holes, 1 on web, 2 on

flanges, and the 6th configuration presents 5 rectangular holes, 1 on web, 4 on

flanges. All the rectangular holes have the longitudinal dimension of 50mm and the

longitudinal center-to-center hole spacing of D = 90 mm. For circular holes, the

radius is R = 30 mm and the longitudinal center-to-center hole spacing is the same

D = 90 mm. The holes position and dimensions are chosen in such a way that the

same material quantity is removed for each configuration. In this way, the

influence of perforation pattern can be analysed from the point of view of critical

load and also of the pure modes participation provided by the modal identification

method presented in this paper. Local buckling is always preferable knowing that it

has the best post-buckling strength reserve. From this point of view the Global

buckling is the most unfavourable case, and the Distortional buckling is the

intermediate case.

114 Mihai Nedelcu 10

ABAQUS [15] for the first 50 eigenvalues. Rectangular S4 shell finite elements

were considered in a highly regular mesh, size LFE = 10 mm in longitudinal

direction, with the exception of the member with circular holes. For the last one, a

special application was developed in MATLAB [16] which creates the Abaqus

input file (inp extension) and in which the FE discretisation is introduced as regular

as possible (see the last buckling shape of Fig. 13) otherwise it is quite difficult not

to obtain complicated FE meshes as given in Fig. 7. For the continuous regions the

cross-sectional discretisation is constant along the member length and identical

with the one used by the GBT cross-sectional analysis (Fig. 8): 2, 5-2-5 and 11

intermediate nodes between the corners, respectively in the flange lips, flanges and

web. For perforated regions, the rectangular holes require the analysis of an extra

cross-section the stiffness matrices are modified as explained in the previous

section. The circular holes of radius R = 30 mm, required the analysis of R/ LFE = 3

extra cross-sections (due to symmetry with respect the holes centre).

The GBT cross-sectional analysis performed on the continuous cross-section

provides a number of n = 51 pure deformation modes: 4 Global, 6 Distortional and

41 Local (the first 22 modes were presented in Fig. 3). In order to implement the

11 Analysis of the effect of holes patterns on coupled instability 115

another MATLAB application was written. It uses the FE displacement field of 151

cross-sections given by the shell FE sides normal to the member longitudinal axis.

Method validation. The analysis provides the pure modes participation based

on Eq. (13) for the first 50 general buckling modes provided by shell FEA and also

the approximation error based on Eq. (12). Fig. 911 present these results for

member configurations R0h (max. error = 1.32%), R1rh60 (max. error = 2.54%)

and R1ch30 (max. error = 5.93%).

For all seven configurations, the maximum approximation error was the last

one (5.93% for circular holes), buckling mode no. 38 caused by the local buckling

of a very small region of the member. The higher value of the approximation error

is due mainly to the simplifying assumptions introduced by the conventional GBT,

especially the Vlasovs hypotheses and the linear variation of the warping

displacements u(x,s) according the s axis. Refining the longitudinal mesh and the

GBT cross-sectional discretisation improves the accuracy of the presented method

but not to drastic values (detailed explanations of this phenomenon are given in

[17]). Nowadays GBT was extended in order to handle non-linear variation of the

warping displacements along the cross-section wall midline, and also can take into

account the cross-section deformations due to the wall transverse extensions. New

pure modes are introduced, namely shear modes and transverse extension modes.

The implementation of these two features will further improve the precision of the

presented method, and is currently under work.

116 Mihai Nedelcu 12

13 Analysis of the effect of holes patterns on coupled instability 117

The effect of the perforation pattern. For all seven configurations, the 1st

general buckling mode is analysed. Figure 12 presents the effect of the perforation

pattern based on two factors: the pure modes participation and the critical load.

and approximation errors.

Figure 13 presents the deformed shape of the 1st shell FEA buckling mode for

all seven configurations, together with the corresponding normalised amplitude

functions ( x ) of the first most significant pure modes based on their participation

provided by the presented method. The loaded and simply-supported end is at the

left side.

It can be concluded from the numerical and visual results given in the last

5 figures that for this member, by placing only one large hole in the middle of the

cross-section will highly favour the Distortional buckling and the critical load will

actually increase in comparison with the unperforated member, a phenomenon

already reported in literature (e.g. [18]). The Local deformations decrease, because

the longitudinal normal stresses are directed through the top and bottom regions of

the web, which are much stiffer due to their interaction with the flanges. In the

same time the Distortional buckling decreases the post-buckling strength reserve.

By placing 2 or 3 holes on the web will produce almost only Local buckling of the

members, due to the unstiffened web regions between the holes, but the critical

load is drastically decreasing. Placing a small-medium hole in the web leads to a

Local-Distortional coupled instability.

118 Mihai Nedelcu 14

of the most relevant pure deformation modes.

having the coupling quantified, the user can try other perforation patterns to find

the optimal configuration which will provide the greatest participation of the Local

buckling for an acceptable value of the critical load. Of course this procedure must

be validated by geometric and material nonlinear collapse analyses (capable to

provide the real response and the post-buckling behaviour of the member) also

using the modal identification method described in this paper, a study that is

currently under work.

15 Analysis of the effect of holes patterns on coupled instability 119

4. CONCLUSIONS

(originally developed in [10]) capable of identifying in a general buckling mode

provided by shell FEA, the modal participation of the pure deformation modes of

Global, Distortional and Local type. This modal identification is a valuable

quantitative tool for assessing coupled instabilities and the effect of perforation

patterns. Its high speed must also be mentioned, and depends almost entirely of the

time required by the shell FEA. For all these reasons, the proposed method is

elegant, extremely fast and a promising candidate to be combined with a general

purpose finite element code, providing in this way the buckling mode identification

for arbitrary thin-walled members with and without holes.

REFERENCES

1989.

2. SCHARDT, R., Generalized beam theory an adequate method for coupled stability problems,

Journal of Thin-Walled Structures, 19, pp. 161-180, 1994.

3. DNY, S., SCHAFER, W. B., A full modal decomposition of thin-walled, single branched open

cross-section members via the constrained finite strip method, Journal of Constructional Steel

Research, 64, pp. 1229, 2008.

4. BASAGLIA, C., CAMOTIM, D., SILVESTRE, N., Non-linear GBT formulation for open-section

thin-walled members with arbitrary support conditions. Journal of Computers and Structures,

89, 2122, pp. 19061919, 2011.

5. LI, Z., SCHAFER, B.W., Buckling analysis of cold-formed steel members with general boundary

conditions using CUFSM: Conventional and constrained finite strip methods, 20th International

Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures Recent Research and Developments

in Cold-Formed Steel Design and Construction, 2010.

6. BEBIANO, R., PINA, P., SILVESTRE N. and CAMOTIM, D. , GBTUL Buckling and Vibration

Analysis of Thin-Walled Members, DECivil/IST, Technical University of Lisbon (http://www.

civil.ist.utl.pt/gbt), 2008.

7. *** Elastic Buckling Analysis of Thin-Walled Members by Finite Strip Analysis, CUFSM

(http://www.ce.jhu.edu/bschafer/cufsm/).

8. DAVIES, J. M., LEACH, P., TAYLOR, A., The design of perforated cold-formed steel sections

subject to axial load and bending, Journal of Thin-Walled Structures, 29, pp. 141157, 1997.

9. MOEN, C., SCHAFER, W. B., Direct strength method for design of cold-formed steel columns

with holes, Journal of Structural Engineering, 137, 5, pp. 559570, 2011.

10. NEDELCU, M., GBT-based buckling mode decomposition from finite element analysis of thin-

walled members, Journal of Thin-Walled Structures, 54, pp. 156163, 2012.

11. BEBIANO, R., SILVESTRE, N., CAMOTIM, D., GBT formulation to analyze the buckling

behaviour of thin-walled members subjected to non-uniform bending, Journal of Structural

Stability and Dynamics, 7, 1, pp. 2354, 2007.

120 Mihai Nedelcu 16

12. NEDELCU, M., CHIRA N., CUCU, H.L., POPA A.G., Buckling mode decomposition of thin-

walled members with holes, 5th International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and

Computation, Cape Town, South Africa, 2-4 September 2013.

13. DNY, S., JO, A., SCHAFER, W. B., Buckling modes identification of thin-walled members

using cFSM base functions, Journal of Thin-Walled Structures, 48, pp. 806817, 2010.

14. SILVESTRE, N., CAMOTIM, D., Second-order generalised beam theory for arbitrary

orthotropic materials, Journal of Thin-Walled Structures, 40, pp. 791820, 2002.

15. *** HIBBIT, KARLSSON & SORENSEN INC. ABAQUS Standard (Version 6.3), 2002.

16. *** MATLAB Version 7.1.0246 Documentation, The Mathwork Inc., 2005.

17. NEDELCU, M., CUCU H. L., Buckling modes identification from fea of thin-walled members

using only GBT cross-sectional deformation modes, Journal of Thin-Walled Structures,

Article in Press, 2013.

18. MOEN C., SCHAFER, W. B., Elastic buckling of cold-formed steel columns and beams with

holes, Journal of Engineering Structures, 31, 12, pp. 28122824, 2009.

IMPERFECTION SENSITIVITY

OF THIN PLATES LOADED IN SHEAR

GAPER LUAR3, DARKO BEG1

stiffened thin plates loaded in shear. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of

optimization method for direct determination of the worst imperfection shape. New

linear constraints are considered in optimization method in order to find not only the

worst but also realistic imperfection shape. Further on, different solutions of arbitrary

shapes that are used to estimate the worst imperfection are introduced and compared.

Finally, a parametric analysis seeking the worst imperfection shape is performed and

discussed.

Key words: plate buckling, worst initial imperfections, longitudinal stiffeners, sensitivity

analysis, GMNIA.

1. INTRODUCTION

available today facilitate the use of advanced calculation models in everyday

design practice. Thus, in design of structures the use of material and geometrical

nonlinear analysis considering imperfections to design structures is growing. Such

analysis allows a detailed insight in the behaviour of structures or structural

elements. The design approach, however, requires a lot of experience in order to

build a convenient and proper numerical model and to interpret the results

correctly. The initial boundary conditions, constitutive material laws and initial

imperfections have an important influence on the behaviour and resistance of the

structure or structural element under consideration. At the University of Ljubljana,

Chair for Metal Structures, an advanced optimization method for direct determination

of the most unfavourable imperfection of the structural element was developed [1, 2].

This optimization method, based on direct and sensitivity analysis and optimization

algorithms, was implemented on thin plates subjected to shear stresses. The

1

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Slovenia

2

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Slovenia

3

Brogemeinschaft Kuhlmann Gerold Gnther Eisele, Germany

122 Franc Sinur, Primo Moe, Klemen Rejec, Gaper Luar, Darko Beg 2

factor (LPF), which is a function of the imperfection shapes (buckling modes,

Fourier terms, etc.), and it presents the worst imperfection shape for the structure.

The paper presents an extended study, which deals with the search for the

most unfavourable imperfection shape for representative slender plates (stiffened

plates) subjected to pure shear. The constraints of the optimization process were

determined by the maximum allowable imperfection amplitude obtained from the

production tolerances and design rules for plated structural elements [35] and by

the maximum curvature of the imperfect geometry. Special attention was devoted

to the constraint of the maximum curvature.

OF THE MOST UNFAVOURABLE IMPERFECTION

cannot be avoided. When dealing with slender elements, i.e. thin plates subjected to

compressive stresses, the results of geometrical material nonlinear analysis considering

imperfections strongly depend on the imperfection shape and its amplitude. Thus, it

is important to consider the most unfavourable actually possible imperfection

shape, which will lead to safe and reliable assessment of the resistance of the

analysed structural element.

A computationally less expensive optimization method that retains the

generality of the optimization based definitely worst imperfection approach was

developed by Kristani and Korelc [1, 2, 6]. The basic idea of the approach is to

replace the nonlinear optimization problem with an iterative procedure that involves

only linear optimization problems. Within the iteration the objective function for

the minimum ultimate load is constructed by means of a fully nonlinear direct and

first order sensitivity analysis. Constraints on the shape and the amplitude of the

imperfections are taken into account. When carefully constructed, they remain

linear, therefore enabling the use of efficient and readily available linear program-

ming algorithms for obtaining the solution of the corresponding optimization

problem.

represent a change in the geometry of a structure in the most unfavourable way so

that the ultimate load of the imperfect structure is as small as possible. The

imperfections are represented as a linear combination of the chosen basic shapes

within maximum out-of-plane amplitude e0 prescribed by the principle of equivalent

geometrical imperfections. Equivalent geometrical imperfections include geometrical

3 Imperfection sensitivity of thin plates loaded in shear 123

structural imperfections that are not included directly into the finite element model.

Structural imperfections arise from the manufacturing method; e.g. residual stresses

produced by welding. The geometry of an imperfect structure X is defined by:

j=1 j j ,

N

X= Xp + (1)

where X p is the initial perfect geometry, j are the unknown shape parameters

and j are the base shapes. The unknown shape parameters j are obtained as the

solution of the optimization problem. The base shapes can be chosen arbitrarily,

but they have to be linearly independent in order to have a well-defined minimum

of the corresponding optimization problem. The overall numerical efficiency of the

procedure strongly depends on the number of the base shapes (N).

analysis is used. When dealing with thin-walled structures with moderate thickness,

it is necessary to take into account geometrical and material nonlinearity. Since the

algorithm starts from the beginning with imperfect structure, bifurcation points

usually do not occur prior reaching the limit point in the load-deformation curve.

Within this method the most unfavourable initial imperfection shape is

sought, defined by shape base and shape parameters at which the ultimate load

will be the lowest [1]. Unknown shape parameters are evaluated iteratively by an

optimization process. The iterative procedure for the kth step can be written as:

X k = X k 1 + X k

i =1 ik i ,

N

X k =

(2)

ik = ik 1 + ik

i =1 ik i

N

Xk =

parameters, Xk the increment of the imperfection and Xk the total imperfection.

The increment of the imperfection parameters in the kth iteration ik is obtained as

a solution of the corresponding optimization problem [1, 2]. The flowchart of the

method is illustrated in Fig. 1. The algorithm starts with the first base shape 1,

normalized by amplitude e0, as the initial guess X0 for the geometry of the

imperfect structure:

124 Franc Sinur, Primo Moe, Klemen Rejec, Gaper Luar, Darko Beg 4

e0

i =1

i0 = 0; i0 = max i

0 (3)

i 1

X 0 = X p + 10 1

until the convergence condition ik < tolerance is reached. Within each step of

the iterative procedure a fully nonlinear direct and sensitivity analysis of the

structure with imperfect geometry Xk is performed, followed by the formulation

and solution of the optimization problem.

of the most unfavourable imperfection [1].

5 Imperfection sensitivity of thin plates loaded in shear 125

The shape base is used to find the most unfavourable initial imperfection.

The obvious choice are the buckling modes of the structure obtained by the initial

buckling analysis. Alternative and cheaper to evaluate are the eigenvectors of

initial elastic tangent matrix. Other possible shapes are deformation shapes of the

structure in elastic and plastic range and arbitrarily defined shapes. In this work

only the arbitrarily defined shapes were used.

The base shapes were defined as two-dimensional sine functions in order to

keep all edges straight, without any imperfection. The only parameter that defines

the considered shapes is the number of terms of Fourier series that was considered.

The shapes were defined as:

S1 S 2 = {s1 s 2 ; s1 S1 , s 2 S 2 } , (4)

ix

S1 = sin ; i = 1, 2, ... n , (5)

A

iy

S 2 = sin ; i = 1, 2, ... m , (6)

B

where A and B represent the length and the width of the analysed plate, n defines

the number of half sine waves in x and m in y direction, respectively. The number

of shape base is equal to product nm. The base shapes defined according to

expression (4) for n = m = 3 are illustrated in Fig. 2.

Another type of base shapes called specially defined shapes were considered

in the analysis. The shapes were defined with sine function, where one half wave is

assumed in transverse direction and n waves in longitudinal direction. The number

of shapes in transverse direction depends on the number of longitudinal stiffeners,

e.g. for two longitudinal stiffeners the possible number of shapes is 6 n, where

6 corresponds to 6 possible shapes in transverse direction, as presented in Fig. 3.

For shape no. 1 the length of the half sine wave is equal to the width of plate B.

Shapes no. 2 and 3 correspond to wave length 2B/3 (as the stiffeners are equally

spaced); it means that the wave is stretched over two subpanels with the maximum

amplitude located at the position of the longitudinal stiffener. For the last 3 shapes,

shapes no. 4, 5 and 6, the shape is defined with wave length B/3 and is positioned

over one subpanel, while the other subpanels remain straight.

126 Franc Sinur, Primo Moe, Klemen Rejec, Gaper Luar, Darko Beg 6

7 Imperfection sensitivity of thin plates loaded in shear 127

stiffeners and three stiff bands (Fig. 4). The boundary conditions were as follows:

all four edges were simply supported; the left edge was restrained also in the

longitudinal direction. The vertical supports in the other three edges were defined

in nodes between base plate and stiff band. Additional stiff band was modeled in

edges in order to simulate the same conditions as in the left edge, to keep the edge

undeformed in its longitudinal direction. The load was applied as shear line load

along edges, as presented in Fig. 4. The amplitude of the load was set to plastic

shear resistance of the plate.

3. LINEAR CONSTRAINTS

shape, the linear constraints in terms of maximum imperfection amplitude have to

be defined. Another parameter which significantly influences the solution for the

most unfavourable imperfection is, as already mentioned, the maximum curvature.

These two parameters were the key terms that influenced the solution for the most

unfavourable imperfection shape defined by using optimization approach.

When numerical tools are used to design a structure, in most cases equivalent

geometric imperfections are used. They take into account both geometric as well as

structural imperfection (residual stresses) by increased amplitude of geometric

imperfection. Annex C of EN 1993-1-5 provides recommendations on possible

types of initial imperfection shapes and amplitudes that should be accounted for in

FEM design of thin plated structural elements.

The amplitudes of the imperfections were limited according to the EN 1993-1-5

specifications, while the influence of the curvature limit was studied within the

study presented in this paper, and based on it the maximum allowed curvature was

defined.

It has already been demonstrated [1, 7] that out-of-plane displacement constraint

only might lead to initial imperfections that are unrealistic and consequently very

128 Franc Sinur, Primo Moe, Klemen Rejec, Gaper Luar, Darko Beg 8

constraint, such as maximum curvature, should be considered in the optimization

process. Sensitivity analysis was performed in order to establish the influence of

the curvature amplitude on the behaviour and the resistance of the plate subjected

to in-plane stresses and to define the constraints for parametric study.

In Table 1 the maximum amplitudes for global and local imperfections taken

from EN 1993-1-5 (Annex C) are given, where nst corresponds to the number of

longitudinal stiffeners. The maximum amplitude of the imperfection is defined as:

e0 = eG + 0.7e L , (7)

with global imperfection eG as the leading and local eL as the accompanying

imperfection. The simplest function which was used to generate initial imperfection

was sine function with the maximum out-of-plane amplitude and consequently also

the maximum curvature at the mid span. For this imperfection shape the curvature

is very small and could be too strict for real cases. A series of extra functions was

defined; they are similar to sine function with maximum amplitude shifted to xmax =

2/5A, 1/3A and 1/4A, where A is the panel length. These functions were defined to

get different values of the curvature, while the maximum out-of-plane amplitude

remained the same. The functions were defined as a 4th order polynomial:

f ( x) = ax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 + dx + e . (8)

Table 1

Maximum imperfection amplitudes defined in EN 1993-1-5

A B

Global imperfection amplitude eG min ,

400 400

A B

Local imperfection amplitude eL min ,

200 ( nst + 1) 200

f(0) = 0, f(x = a) = 0, f(x = xmax) = emax, f(x = xmax) = 0 and f(x = a)= /a. The

last condition arises from the first derivation if sine function is evaluated at x = A.

5

th

Fig. 5 4 order polynomials with maximum at 1/4, 1/3, 2/5 and 1/2 of the span.

9 Imperfection sensitivity of thin plates loaded in shear 129

It is obvious that the maximum curvature will be obtained for the curve with

the largest shift of the maximum amplitude position, i.e. at x = A/4 (Fig. 5). The

upper bound for the maximum curvature is defined with the curvature obtained for

elastic bending moment, when the first fibre starts to yield. This value is constant

for all lengths of the plate and depends solely on the plate thickness t:

2 y

yield = . (9)

t

In Fig. 6 the maximum curvature for the selected 4th order functions and the

upper bound curvature for three different plate thicknesses are plotted (t = 10 mm,

20 mm and 30 mm). The maximum curvature among the given functions is found

for the one with maximum amplitude at x = A/4, which is also evident from Fig. 5.

The upper bound yield depends only on the plates thickness; therefore, the

curvature does not change due to the change of the panel size. For a plate with

thickness t = 20 mm, yield is smaller than the curvature obtained with function with

maximum at x = A/4, when panel length is less than A = 600 mm. Therefore, up to

this point the maximum curvature is limited with the upper bound limit yield and

from this point forward the limit is defined from maximum curvature that is

defined with function with maximum at x = a/4.

imperfection shape solution and consequently on LPF for longitudinally stiffened

plate (two cases: one and two longitudinal stiffeners) subjected to pure shear is

gathered in Table 2. By increasing the maximum allowed curvature the resistance

of the plate drops, especially when the maximum curvature is increased from the

130 Franc Sinur, Primo Moe, Klemen Rejec, Gaper Luar, Darko Beg 10

curvature of the function with maximum at x = A/4 to yield and 2yield. Further on,

the imperfection shape is very smooth for stricter curvature limit and vice versa,

the imperfection shape becomes very rough when the curvature limit is set higher.

This is a good reason why the maximum curvature should also be applied; it

influences the imperfection shape in a way for it to become more realistic. For the

studied cases a curvature limit defined with a function with maximum at x = A/4 is

found to be a reasonable limit for the constraint because:

The obtained imperfection shape is smooth.

The resistance drop induced by higher curvature limits is too large and

results in excessively conservative values of LPF.

The most unfavourable imperfection shape given in Table 2 proves that free

edges of the numerical model are not straight. This is due to the fact, that the last

line of the elements represents stiff band. The plate is straight where the stiff band

is connected to the base plate which can also be identified from the figures bellow.

Table 2

Comparison of the most unfavourable imperfection shapes for different curvature constraints

f(x=a/4)=emax 1Yield 2Yield

max. curvature

0.000155 0.000338 0.000676

[1/mm]

LPF 0.844 0.790 0.766

1 stiffener

Most unfavourable

imperfection

max. curvature

0.000161 0.000338 0.000676

[1/mm]

LPF 0.877 0.837 0.828

2 stiffeners

Most unfavourable

imperfection

The most unfavourable imperfection was sought for plates stiffened with one,

two and four longitudinal stiffeners (Fig. 7). The material was modelled as bilinear

without any strain hardening. The yield strength was set to fy = 355 MPa, elastic

modulus to E = 210 000 MPa and Poisons ratio to = 0.3.

11 Imperfection sensitivity of thin plates loaded in shear 131

First, the sensitivity analysis to determine the required number of base shapes

and to define the mesh density was performed. This analysis was done for all three

configurations of the plate (1, 2 and 4 stiffeners) with panel aspect ratio =1, global

panel slenderness B/t = 200 and normalized flexural stiffness of stiffener = Isl / Ip = 16.4,

where Isl is the flexural stiffness of the stiffener taking into account the effective

width of the plate and Ip is the flexural stiffness of the plate itself.

Sensitivity analysis was performed for four different mesh densities: M10,

M20, M40 and M80. The number corresponds to the number of elements used

along the plates length A. In Fig. 8 the influence of mesh density on the LPF factor

is shown. Each curve corresponds to one of the plates configurations. On y-axis

the LPF factor obtained is normalized to the LPF factor obtained for mesh density

M10, while on x-axis the mesh density is plotted. The mesh density M40 was found

to be appropriate for further parametric study as no significant drop of LPF was

obtained with a more dense mesh.

1.00

0.95

LPFMx / LPFM10

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

one stiffener

0.70

two stiffeners

0.65 four stiffeners

0.60

0 20 40 60 80

Mesh density

of base shapes, the minimum number of base shapes that gives a sufficiently

132 Franc Sinur, Primo Moe, Klemen Rejec, Gaper Luar, Darko Beg 12

reliable and accurate solution needs to be defined. The analysis was performed for

base shapes defined in terms of Fourier series and for specially defined base shapes

presented in Chapter 2.

The influence of the number of base shapes considered in the analysis is for

plate with one and four longitudinal stiffeners shown in Fig. 9. The minimum

required number of base shapes depends on the number of longitudinal stiffeners.

Fewer shapes are needed for a plate with one stiffener than for a plate with four

stiffeners. The results are presented for both forms of initial shapes; defined as

Fourier terms and specially defined shapes. In Fig. 9 the legend notations NFouRed = x

describe how many terms of Fourier series are considered. For instance, NFouRed = 4

means that the first 4 terms of Fourier series are used to define base shapes as

described in Chapter 2. This results in 42 = 16 shapes. Similarly, label NGlobObl = x

provides information on the number of specially defined shapes in the longitudinal

direction. The shapes in transverse direction are defined in Chapter 2 and depend

on the number of longitudinal stiffeners (3 for one stiffener, 6 for two stiffeners

and 15 for four stiffeners). NGlobObl = 4 means that in longitudinal direction

functions with 1, 2, 3 and 4 half waves were considered and therefore for a plate

with four longitudinal stiffeners 415 = 60 base shapes are obtained.

For a plate stiffened with one longitudinal stiffener at least 16 base shapes

(NFouRed = 4) are required to get a reliable and accurate solution, which does not

change significantly if higher terms of Fourier series are used. For specially

defined shapes the minimum required number of base shapes is 9 (NGlobObl = 3).

As already mentioned, a higher number of base shapes is required for plates with

larger number of longitudinal stiffeners. This is especially evident when special

types of base shapes are used. For 4 stiffeners the minimum number of shapes that

has to be considered is 45 (NGlobObl = 3), whereas only 16 (NFouRed = 4) shapes

are needed if the shapes are defined by using combinations of Fourier terms. If,

however, more than 50 base shapes were considered, problems with convergence

occurred in the analysis.

Based on the presented sensitivity analysis, the minimum number of base

shapes was defined for the following parametric study. The most unfavourable

imperfection shape was sought by using base shapes defined as Fourier terms (16

shapes considered, NFouRed = 4), and specially defined shapes ( 3 i =1 i considered

n _ st

The most unfavourable imperfection shape for plate with 4 longitudinal

stiffeners is shown in Fig. 10. Increased number of shapes considered (NFouRed = 8

and NGlobObl = 4) does not produce any different imperfection shape than that

obtained with NFouRed = 4 and NGlobObl = 3.

13 Imperfection sensitivity of thin plates loaded in shear 133

1 stiffener 1 stiffener

4 stiffeners 4 stiffeners

Fig. 9 LPF factor obtained with different number of base shapes included in analysis.

obtained with different numbers of base shapes considered.

134 Franc Sinur, Primo Moe, Klemen Rejec, Gaper Luar, Darko Beg 14

A parametric study was performed to determine the influence of the plates

slenderness and the stiffness of longitudinal stiffeners on the most unfavourable

imperfection shape. The varied parameters within were:

Number of longitudinal stiffeners n = 1, 2, 4.

Slenderness of subpanel b/t = 35, 50, 75, 100.

Stiffness of longitudinal stiffeners = 18, 35, 110.

Three different stiffnesses of longitudinal stiffener were studied. The stiffener

with stiffness = 35 ensures that elastic global buckling of the subpanel is equal to

elastic global buckling of the entire stiffened panel. In all cases the initial

imperfection shape 1 was defined as a combination of global G and local L

imperfection shape as recommended in EN 1993-1-5.

In Fig. 11 the results obtained for plate stiffened with one stiffener and

subpanel slenderness b/t = 75 are presented. The main results that were obtained

and will be discussed are the initial imperfection and the final deformation shape as

well as the LPF. The initial imperfections are compared to the deformed shape

obtained at maximum LPF.

For all defined most unfavourable imperfection shapes that were calculated

using shapes based on Fourier terms and also on specially defined shapes the LPF

was always smaller compared to the LPF calculated with imperfections determined

according to the EN 1993-1-5 recommendations (combination of global and local

imperfections G + 0.7 L). Smaller LPF was found for imperfection shapes

defined with Fourier terms. The imperfection shape defined with Fourier terms is

smoother and very similar to the final deformation shape. Three buckling waves

with orientation in the direction of tension field formation characterize the worst

imperfection shape found with base shapes based on Fourier terms.

The difference of this LPF compared to the LPF obtained with the EN 1993-1-5

imperfection shape is much smaller if the worst imperfection shape is calculated

with specially defined shapes. The imperfection shapes obtained are much more

diverse with several waves. Tendency to global deformation shape was observed

meaning that the imperfection shape approaches to the deformation shape if pool of

specially defined shapes is increased. However, the number of the base shapes

considered in this case was not high enough to get similar worst imperfection shape

as with Fourier terms.

The results for plate stiffened with two longitudinal stiffeners and subpanel

slenderness b/t = 50 are shown in Fig. 12. Also in this case the worst imperfection

shape found is similar to the deformation shape. In contrast with the previous case,

the similarity between the imperfection shape and the deformation shape is found

also for the solution based on specially defined shapes. The LPF factor is, in

comparison to the LPF obtained with the EN 1993-1-5 imperfections (values in

brackets) in all cases smaller, where the difference varies from 3.6% to 6.9%. The

results again prove that the worst imperfection shape is similar to the deformation

shape. Similar conclusions were observed also for other parameters that were

analysed within the parametric study.

15 Imperfection sensitivity of thin plates loaded in shear 135

Imperfection shape Deformation shape Imperfection shape Deformation shape

18

35

110

Fig. 11 Comparison of the most unfavourable imperfection and deformed shape

for plate stiffened with one stiffener, b/t = 75.

Shapes based on Fourier terms Specially defined shapes

Imperfection shape Deformation shape Imperfection shape Deformation shape

28

55

165

Fig. 12 Comparison of the most unfavourable imperfection

and deformed shape for plate stiffened with two stiffeners, b/t = 50.

136 Franc Sinur, Primo Moe, Klemen Rejec, Gaper Luar, Darko Beg 16

5. CONCLUDING REMARKS

superposition of different shapes. With the performed study we tried to answer the

following questions:

how the arbitrary shapes should be defined in order to get consistent and

reliable results,

how to find, next to maximum out-of-plane displacement, an additional

linear constraint that will provide more realistic imperfection shapes and

is there a simple way to define the worst imperfection shape?

It has been shown that the imperfection shape defined as a superposition of

Fourier terms results in imperfection shapes with the lowest LPF and that the worst

imperfection shape is smooth and similar to the deformed shape. The imperfection

shape estimated with specially defined shapes gives a higher value of LPF and the

corresponding shape is not as smooth as the one gained with terms of Fourier

series. Therefore, the shapes defined with Fourier series are found to be more

appropriate in the process of seeking the worst imperfection shape.

In the presented work an additional parameter, i.e. the maximum curvature of

the plate, was introduced and analysed in order to influence the solution of the

optimization method when seeking the worst imperfection shape. The main

objective of the maximum curvature constraint is to influence the imperfection

shape in a way that the final result is a realistic imperfection shape. In this step of

the analysis engineering judgment is required to assess whether the imperfection

shape is realistic or not. The maximum curvature limit was defined with a shift of

the maximum amplitude from the mid span of the plate to of the plate span with

maximum out-of-plane amplitude defined according to EN 1993-1-5. For very

short plates the maximum curvature was limited to yield.

One of the main observations, which should be further verified, is that the

worst imperfection shape could be defined as deformed shape evaluated at the

maximum LPF. Of course, this deformed shape should fulfil the following limits:

out-of-plane imperfection amplitude and maximum curvature amplitude, otherwise

the imperfection shape will significantly reduce the resistance of the element.

In many cases the 1st buckling mode is found as the worst imperfection, but

this is not always the case. When searching for ultimate resistance of the structure

it is a good practice to perform initial imperfection analysis with several buckling

modes. But this might be time consuming; therefore, it would be enough to

estimate the resistance with the 1st buckling mode and with deformation shape as it

was found to be the worst initial imperfection.

17 Imperfection sensitivity of thin plates loaded in shear 137

REFERENCES

1. KRISTANI, N., Limit State Design Using Exact Sensitivity Analysis and Shape Optimization,

PhD Thesis, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of civil and geodetic engineering, Ljubljana, 2008.

2. KRISTANI, Niko, KORELC, Joe, Optimization method for the determination of the most

unfavorable imperfection of structures, Comput. Mech., 42, 6, pp. 859872, 2008.

3. *** CEN, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 15: Plated structural elements (EN 1993-1-5),

European Committee for Standardisation, Brussels, 2006.

4. BEG, D., KUHLMANN, U., DAVAINE, L., BRAUN, B., Design of Plated Structures. Eurocode

3: Design of Steel Structures. Part 15: Design of Plated Structures, 1st edition, European

Convention for Constructional Steelwork, Berlin, Ernst & Sohn, Brussels, 2010.

5. JOHANSSON, B., MAQUOI, R., SEDLACEK, G., MLLER, C., BEG, D., Commentary and

worked examples to EN 1993-1-5 Plated structural elements, 1st edition, Office for Official

Publications of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre European Commission,

Luxembourg, 2007.

6. KORELC, J. AceFEM, Mathematica finite element environment, University of Ljubljana, Faculty

of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Ljubljana, 2010.

7. KUHLMANN, U., BEG, D., ZIZZA, A., SINUR, F., REJEC, K., Tragverhalten von Blechen mit

Lngssteifen unter Interaktion von Biegemoment und Querkraft (in German), Research Report,

Universitt, Institut fr Konstruktion und Entwurf, Stuttgart, 2012.

PART II: DESIGN CODIFICATION ORIENTED STUDIES

CASTELLATED BEAMS

Abstract. Castellated beams are likely used structural elements in building structures

especially in deck systems and in steel frames. The castellated beams are usually

produced by cutting a traditional I-girder and welded by creating large openings in the

web. The web openings can reach 7080% of the whole web depth, therefore the

effect of the holes on the structural behavior and in the design of castellated beams is

not negligible. The openings have influence on the shear and on the lateral torsional

buckling resistances. Most of the previous investigations in this topic were focusing

on the shear buckling resistance determination and there is only a few which dealing

with the lateral torsional buckling resistance. Due to the reduced out-of-plane stiffness

of the web, however, different failure modes can be relevant for castellated beams

comparing to traditional I-girders. In the paper the lateral torsional buckling resistance

of castellated beams is studied by advanced numerical model and analysis. The lateral

torsional buckling resistances are determined for different specimen geometries

covering a wide parameter range. Based on the numerical investigations enhanced

design methods are proposed to determine the lateral torsional buckling resistances.

Key words: castellated beam, lateral torsional buckling resistance, web distortion.

1. INTRODUCTION

Castellated beams are likely used in floor and roof systems of building

structures and as main girders of steel frames, as illustrated by the examples of Fig. 1.

The holes in the web are usually produced by cutting of a hot-rolled I-girder and

welded again by increasing the web depth of the original girder. The bending

stiffness can be significantly increased by this manufacturing process without any

increase in the self-weight of the girder. This fact makes the application of

castellated beams an efficient and economical solution compared to traditional

welded or hot-rolled I-girders. The commonly used web openings in the practice

can reach 7080% of the whole web depth, what should be considered in the

design. It is known, that the lateral stiffness of the web is smaller for the castellated

beams than for traditional I-girders due to the web openings, therefore the

importance of the distortion in the structural behavior has a larger importance,

which can results in decrease in the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) resistance.

*

BME, Megyetem rkp. 3, Department of Structural Engineering, 1111 Budapest, Hungary

Ro. J. Techn. Sci. Appl. Mechanics, Volume 59, N 12, P. 139227, Bucharest, 2014

140 Lszl Dunai, Balzs Kvesdi, Dvid Wischy, Barnabs Bza 2

There are numerous previous investigations dealing with the shear buckling and

bending resistance determination of the castellated beams, but there are only a

smaller number of previous investigations available in the international literature

dealing with the LTB resistance. The majority of the previous investigations in this

topic are focusing on the critical bending moment for castellated beams and the

LTB ultimate behavior is rarely studied in details. The current study has the aim to

analyze the complex nonlinear phenomena and to work out proposal for the lateral

torsional buckling resistance of castellated beams.

bending and to study the effect of the web distortion on the LTB resistance a

numerical research program is executed. The numerical model is developed and

verified based on the results of previous investigations and it is used to determine

the critical bending moment and the ultimate resistance for various girder

geometries with different openings. The applicability of the general LTB design

method of the EN1993-1-1 [3] is studied in details. The previously developed

design equations for the determination of the critical bending moment are

evaluated and modifications are proposed. The cross-section modulus and the

relevant buckling curves to be applied are also determined to ensure safe and

economic design. The applicability of the simplified LTB design method of the

EN1993-1-1 [3] is also studied and modification factors are developed to consider

the special structural behavior.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

research field by different researchers in the last decades. In the first generation of

the castellated beams the openings were mainly polygonal, and nowadays most of

the openings are circular. Therefore the main part of the current investigations are

focusing on castellated beams with circular openings and smaller number of studies

3 Lateral torsional buckling resistance of castellated beams 141

are focusing on girders with polygonal openings. The previous research investigations

can be separated on three different topics: (i) shear and bending cross-sectional

resistance, (ii) shear buckling and (iii) lateral torsional buckling resistance. Large

research program was executed on the shear and bending resistance by Chung et al.

[4] in 2000 and by Liu et al. [5] in 2003. Based on their investigations design

models were developed for the determination of the bending and shear resistance of

the castellated beams, which were based on a Vierendeel mechanism between the

openings. Hagen et al. [6], [7] investigated the bending and shear capacity in 2009

and design methods were proposed to determine the bending and shear resistances

and for the M+V interaction.

Shear buckling behavior was investigated by Shanmugan et al. [8] in 2002

and by Soltani et al. [9] in 2012. Numerical research program was performed to

investigate the shear buckling resistance by various opening geometries and sizes.

Tsavdaridis [10] highlighted the importance of the opening geometry on the shear

buckling behavior in 2012 and demonstrated different Vierendeel mechanisms

using various opening geometries.

Investigations dealing with the LTB behavior of castellated beams was started

by Nethercot and Kerdal [11] in 1982. The structural behavior of the castellated beams

were compared to the conventional I-girders and it was concluded, that the LTB

behavior of the castellated beams are similar to the conventional I-girders. If the

cross-section properties are calculated based on the smallest net section geometry,

the application of the standard design methods leads to safe design. Mohebkhan in

2004 [12] made numerical investigations dealing with the effect of the bending

moment diagram on the critical bending moment. The conclusion was that the

modification factor due to the bending moment diagram is not constant, it depends

on the slenderness of the analyzed beam. Zhirakian et al. [1315] made extensive

research on this research field between 2006 and 2012. The structural behavior of

the castellated beams was studied and the effect of web distortion on the load

carrying capacity was described. The lateral displacements and the deformed shape

of the web was studied and characterized based on the web distortion. The

conclusion was that the distortion of the web has influence on the LTB failure

mode of the castellated beams, but the resistance can be approximated by the

design method used for conventional I-girders by several modifications. Sweeden

[16] executed a large numerical research program in 2010 to determine the critical

bending moment for castellated beams under different loading conditions and

girder geometries. Based on the study a modification factor (LB) is proposed to

consider the effect of the loading condition, the bending moment diagram, the

opening sizes and the distance between the openings. Ellobody [17] performed a

numerical investigation in 2011 and determined the LTB resistance for more than

one hundred castellated beams with different geometries and opening sizes. Ellobody

also studied the application possibilities of high strength steel for castellated

beams, and he found that it is an efficient solution. Furthermore the calculated LTB

resistance was also compared to standard design models and it was found that if the

142 Lszl Dunai, Balzs Kvesdi, Dvid Wischy, Barnabs Bza 4

observed failure mode is the combination of LTB and web distortion the standard

design method developed for conventional I-girders may lead to unsafe design. If

the web distortion has negligible effect on the failure mode, the LTB resistance can

be determined on the same way as for conventional I-girders. Lakui et al. [18]

executed an experimental research program on 5 test specimens in 2008 and the

test results were extended by numerical simulations. Based on these studies it was

concluded that the buckling curves according to the EN1993-1-1 [3] can be applied

also for castellated beams with minor changes. Since the castellated beams are

produced mainly form hot-rolled sections by cutting and welding, the buckling

behavior can be classified in between the traditional welded and hot-rolled girders.

Based on the literature review two major conclusions can be drawn, as

follows. Most of the previous investigations were executed in the last 10 years,

what shows the actuality of the problem. The majority of the previous studies

describe the special structural behavior of the castellated beams, classify the

observed failure modes. But there are only a limited number of previous studies

dealing with design method development. Beside that all the previous studies

dealing with the design of castellated beams are focusing on the determination of

the critical bending moment and on the applicability of the general LTB design

method of the EN1993-1-1 [3]. No investigations are found by the authors dealing

with the simplified LTB method for the application of castellated beams.

The aims of the current investigations are (i) to study the applicability of the

available research results in a larger parameter range, (ii) to improve the previously

developed general LTB resistance models for castellated beams and (iii) to study

the applicability of the simplified LTB design method of the EN1993-1-1 [3] for

castellated beams.

3. NUMERICAL MODELING

In the first phase of the research a numerical model is developed and verified

on the basis of previous results. Using the models the critical bending moment is

determined by bifurcation analysis (GNB) and the LTB resistance is calculated by

nonlinear FE simulation (GMNI). The numerical model is developed in Ansys [19]

environment by 4-node-thin shell elements. Linear elastic material model is used in

the GNB and linear elastic-hardening plastic material model using isotropic

hardening rule with von-Mises yield criterion is applied in the GMNI analysis with

the characteristics as follows: Youngs modulus 210000 MPa; the yield plateau is

modeled to 1% strains and from the yield stress it follows linear hardening with a

reduced modulus until reaching the ultimate stress by 15% strain level. At the ends

of the analyzed girders simply supported conditions are used, allowing warping and

rotation at both ends; no internal lateral supports are applied.

5 Lateral torsional buckling resistance of castellated beams 143

In the study three loading conditions are analyzed: (i) uniformly distributed

load along the whole length, (ii) concentrated force at the mid-span, and (iii)

concentrated bending moments in the ends. Three load positions within the cross-

section are investigated, namely the load is placed in the (i) upper flange, (ii) center

of gravity and (iii) lower flange. The numerical model is verified based on the

investigations of Sweeden [16] by the comparison of the calculated critical bending

moments. The results of the numerical simulations are also compared to the test

results of Showkati et al. [15]. Both comparisons showed good agreement with the

published results. The typical failure mode of the analyzed girders can be seen in

Fig. 2. It can be observed that the deflected shape of the cross-section shows

significant distortion of the web, what should be considered in the LTB resistance

calculation.

The numerical research program is completed with two aims. The first one is

to determine the critical bending moment of the analyzed girders and the second

one is to determine the LTB resistance of the castellated beams with different geometries.

The analyzed parameters are the followings: (i) diameter of the holes (d), (ii)

distance between the openings (s), (iii) flange width and thickness (bf; tf); web

depth and thickness (hw; tw), (iv) span of the girder (L), (v) shape of the holes

(diagonal or polygonal), (vi) load type (uniformly distributed, concentrated, end-

moment), (vii) load position (upper flange, center of gravity, lower flange). The

notations are shown in Fig. 3 and the investigated parameter range can be seen in Table 1.

Fig. 3 Notations.

144 Lszl Dunai, Balzs Kvesdi, Dvid Wischy, Barnabs Bza 6

The parameters are determined on the bases of typical girder geometries used

in the practice and by the product description of manufacturers producing

castellated beams. In the cases of the diameter of the holes (d) and the distance

between the openings (s) the parameter range is extended in order to analyze the

distortional phenomenon in details. The total number of studied girder geometries

is 240. For each girders the critical bending moments and the LTB resistances are

determined with and without openings, in order to investigate the reduction due to

the openings.

Table 1

Parameter range

parameter investigated parameter range

d / hw 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8

s / hw 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,5 3,0 4,0

bf / tf 10 12 14 16 20 30

hw / tw 40 50 60 70 80 90

L / hw 7,5 10 12,5 15 20 25

opening shape circular, polygonal

load position upper flange, center of gravity, lower flange

load type uniformly distributed, concentrated, end-moment

In the study three typical failure modes are observed, as shown in Fig. 4. In

the absence of holes the failure mode is LTB with quasi-straight deflected webs

(Fig. 4a). By increasing the diameter of the openings the web distortion becomes

more critical and it results in decrease in the LTB resistance, as shown in Fig. 4b, c.

Fig. 4 Typical failure modes.

1. The opening size has significant influence on the failure mode of the

castellated beams since the web distortion becomes more critical by increasing the

opening size. Figure 5 shows the relationship between the opening size and the

resistance reduction factor (factor 1,0 refers to the girder without openings). It is

7 Lateral torsional buckling resistance of castellated beams 145

concluded that the critical bending moment and the LTB resistance decreases

quasi-linearly by increasing the opening size. The resistance decrease for girders

with larger web depth is larger, as shown in Fig. 5, what can be explained by the

effect of web distortion. Webs can give more efficient lateral support in the case of

girders with relatively smaller web depth.

2. It is observed that the distance between the holes has also a quasi-linear

effect on the critical bending moment and on the LTB resistance, as shown in Fig.

6. The resistance reduction for three girders with two opening sizes are presented in

Fig. 6. The dashed lines show the resistance decreases of the girders with smaller

openings and the continuous lines represent the results of larger openings. The

resistance reduction tendencies are the same, the values depend on the d/hw; hw/tw;

bf/tf ratios.

146 Lszl Dunai, Balzs Kvesdi, Dvid Wischy, Barnabs Bza 8

3. The analysis of the cross-section geometry (bf/tf; hw/tw) showed that the

tendencies are the same as for the conventional I-girders without web openings but

on a smaller resistance level. This observation proves that the general design

method of the Eurocode standard can be applied also for castellated beams with

changes taken the effect of the holes into account.

In the LTB design method of the castellated beams the calculation of the

cross-section resistance and the critical bending moment have the main interest.

The basic principle of the slenderness calculation suggest to use the cross-section

modulus which results in the largest normal stress in the flanges. If the holes are

equally spaced along the girder length and the slope of the bending moment

diagram between the holes is not significant, it can be assumed, that the maximum

stress can be approximated by using the net section properties, as proposed by

Sweeden [16]. In this proposal the modification factors taking the effect of the

holes in the critical bending moment into account. The results of the Sweedens

design method are compared to the current numerical results. It is observed, that

the proposed modification factors give good approximation in a specific parameter

range. But the calculated critical bending moments according to Sweedens [16]

design method does not follow all the tendencies observed in the numerical

calculations (e.g. for the d/hw ratio). Therefore the calculation method of the critical

bending moment (Mcr) is investigated in details and refined according to the current

results. The basis of the method is the equation of the Mcr developed by Sweeden

and the proposed enhanced design method is the following: the LTB design

resistance of the castellated beam can be determined by Eq. (1).

Wy f y , (1)

M b , Rd = LT

M1

classification made on the original cross-section without openings, and LT is the

reduction factor using the buckling curve c according to EN1993-1-1 [3].

The slenderness of the castellated beam can be calculated by Eqs. (2)(9).

Wy f y , (2)

LT =

M cr

M cr = CB , p CB , CB , L LB M 0,cr , (3)

where: KCB,p depends on the load position: upper flange: 0,7; center of gravity:

1,00; lower flange: 1,4;

9 Lateral torsional buckling resistance of castellated beams 147

KCB,p depends on the load type: uniformly distributed load: 1,0; concentrated

force: 1,21; end-moments: 0,95.

0.25

L , (4)

CB , L =

15 h w

0,03 hw bf (5)

LB = + 1,21 0,002 10

b t t

f w f

tf

s s

1, 5

= CB , Hb + 0,25 0,07 CB , wD , (6)

hw hw

hw

CB , Hb = 0,172 + 0,248 , (7)

bf

d

0 , 08 0 , 24

h hw

CB , wD = 3 w , (8)

tw

2 E Iz I w L2 G I t

. (9)

M 0,cr = +

L2 Iz 2 E Iz

The notations in Eqs. (48) are shown in Fig. 3; the notations used in Eq. (9)

are the same as given in the EN1993-1-1 [3] with the only difference, that the value

of It and Iz should be calculated based on the net cross-section geometry. Using the

results of Eq. (3) and the numerical simulations the reduction factors for the

analyzed girders are presented in Fig. 7.

148 Lszl Dunai, Balzs Kvesdi, Dvid Wischy, Barnabs Bza 10

The results show that the buckling curve c of the EN1993-1-1 [3] gives a

good approximation of the numerical results for castellated beams in the analyzed

parameter range. These results prove the conclusions of Lakui et al. [18], that for

castellated beams with h/bf > 2 the buckling curve c and with h/bf < 2 the

buckling curve b could be used. Note that in the case of the current investigations

the h/bf ratio is larger than 2 for all the analyzed specimens. Accordingly they

belongs to the buckling curve c as proposed by Lakui et al. [18]. It can be

concluded that the current numerical study proves the applicability of this proposal.

Figure 8 shows the comparison of the critical bending moment and the LTB

resistance between the enhanced design method and the numerical results. It can be

seen on the diagrams, that the calculated values with the proposed enhanced design

method gives a good approximation to the numerical results. The average ratio

between the results of the developed design method and the numerical calculations

is 0,927 for the critical bending moment and 0,909 for the lateral torsional buckling

resistance.

a b

Fig. 8 Comparison of the developed design method and numerical results: a) critical bending

moment; b) LTB resistance.

created from the whole flange and from a certain part of the compressed web. The

simplified LTB design method is an efficient and accurate tool in the case of lateral

distortional buckling failure modes, too, and therefore the applicability for

castellated beams is studied. The holes slightly reduce the area of the equivalent

compression flange, therefore the consideration of the holes is implemented in the

cross-section modulus. For this purpose an equivalent cross-section is introduced

having the same web depth as the original castellated beam with an average hole

size calculated by Eq. (10).

11 Lateral torsional buckling resistance of castellated beams 149

d 2

n

4 hw (10)

heq = 1

L hw 2

where: n total number of the holes along the girder length (L); d hole diameter.

The geometrical presentation of the equivalent girder geometry is shown in

Fig. 9.

determined and the LTB resistance can be calculated using this value in Eq. (11).

On the basis of the numerical results the LTB resistance of the castellated beams

can be determined by the same way as for the conventional I-girders with the

modifications described in the Eqs. (11) (14).

fy

M b. Rd = CB , p Weq . (11)

M1

The original LTB calculation method is extended by the factor CB,p,

considering the effect of the load position, determined by:

0,8 if the upper flange,

1,1 if the center of gravity and

1,4 if the lower flange is loaded.

The slenderness of the equivalent compressed T-bar can be calculated by

Eqs. (1214). The modification factors of CB,L and CB,w takes the effect of the

span and the cross-section geometries into account. The value of kc can be

determined according to the EN1993-1-1 [3].

k c Lc

f = CB , w CB , L , (12)

i fz 1

0 , 5 0,1

L h

CB , L = CB, w = w . (1314)

15 hw 60 t w

150 Lszl Dunai, Balzs Kvesdi, Dvid Wischy, Barnabs Bza 12

method and the numerical simulations are compared and good agreement is

presented in Fig. 10. The average ratio between the lateral torsional buckling

resistances determined by the developed design method and the numerical analyses

is 0,902. Note that the differences are slightly larger than for the general LTB

design method, but it is considered acceptable from the practically required

accuracy point of view.

and the numerical results.

The lateral torsional buckling behavior of the castellated beams are investigated

in the current paper. More than 240 girder geometries are studied: girders with and

without openings, geometrical and loading conditions are investigated to determine

the effect on the LTB resistance. For each analyzed girders the critical bending

moment and the LTB resistance are determined. The calculated critical bending

moments are compared to the design method of Sweeden [16] and a refinement is

proposed to predict Mcr. On this basis the applicability of the LTB design method

of the EN1993-1-1 [3] for castellated beams is investigated. The investigations

proved the applicability of the proposal of Lakui et al. [18] regarding to the

applicable buckling curves. The numerical results proved the applicability of the

LTB resistance model by the following minor changes for castellated beams.

1. The cross-section properties of the net section should be used in the cross-

section modulus determination.

2. The critical bending moment should be calculated according to Eqs. (2)(9).

3. The buckling curve c according to the EN1993-1-1 [3] can be applied in

the analyzed parameter range (h/bf > 2).

13 Lateral torsional buckling resistance of castellated beams 151

The applicability of the simplified LTB design method for castellated beams

is also studied. The results of the numerical simulations proved its applicability by

the following changes:

1. The cross-section properties (Weq) of the proposed equivalent section

should be used in the LTB resistance calculation.

2. The slenderness of the equivalent compression flange should be determined

according to Eqs. (1214) with minor changes of the slenderness calculation

method developed for traditional I-girders.

3. An additional modification factor (CB,p) considering the load position is

proposed for castellated beams.

REFERENCES

1. http://www.bouwenmetstaal.nl

2. http://www.newsteelconstruction.com

3. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings, EN

1993-1-1, 2005.

4. CHUNG, K.F., LIU, T.C.H., KO, A.C.H., Investigation of Vierendeel mechanism in steel beams

with circular web openings, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 57, pp. 467490, 2001.

5. LIU, T.C.H., CHUNG, K.F., Steel beams with large web openings of various shapes and sizes:

finite element investigation, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 59, pp. 11591176,

2003.

6. HAGEN, N.C., LARSEN, P.K., AALBERG, A., Shear capacity of steel plate girders with large

web openings, Part I: Modeling and simulations, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65,

pp. 142150, 2009.

7. HAGEN, N.C., LARSEN, P.K., Shear capacity of steel plate girders with large web openings, Part

I: Design guidelines, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65, pp. 151158, 2009.

8. SHANMUGAM, N.E., LIAN, V.T., THEVENDRAN, V., Finite element modelling of plate girders

with web openings, Thin-Walled Structures, 40, pp. 443464, 2002.

9. SOLTANI, M.R., BOUCHAIR, A., MIMOUNE, M., Nonlinear FE analysis of the ultimate

behavior of steel castellated beams, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 70, pp. 101

114, 2012.

10. TSAVDARIDIS, K.D., DMELLO, C., Optimization of novel elliptically-based web opening

shapes of perforated steel beams, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 76, pp. 3953,

2012.

11. NETHERCOT, D.A., KERDAL, D., Lateral-torsional buckling of castellated beams, The Structural

Engineer, 60, 1982.

12. MOHEBKHAH, A., The moment-gradient factor in lateral-torsional buckling on inelastic

castellated beams, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 60, pp. 14811494, 2004.

13. ZIRAKIAN, T., SHOWKATI, H., Distortional buckling of castellated beams, Journal of

Constructional Steel Research, 62, pp. 863871, 2006.

14. ZIRAKIAN, T., Lateral-distortional buckling of I-beams and the extrapolation techniques,

Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 64, pp. 111, 2008.

152 Lszl Dunai, Balzs Kvesdi, Dvid Wischy, Barnabs Bza 14

15. SHOWKATI, H., GHAZIJAHANI, T.G., NOORI, A., ZIRAKIAN, T., Experiments of elastically

braced castellated beams, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 77, pp. 136172, 2012.

16. SWEEDEN, A., Elastic lateral stability of I-shapes cellular steel beams, Journal of Constructional

Steel Research, 67, pp. 151163, 2011.

17. ELLOBODY, E., Nonlinear analysis of cellular steel beams under combined buckling modes,

Thin-Walled Structures, 52, pp. 6679, 2012.

18. LAKUI, V.T., DZEBA, I., ANDROIC, B., The buckling curve for lateral torsional buckling

resistance of castellated beams, 5th European Conference on Steel Structures (Eurosteel 2008),

Graz, Austria, September 3-5, 2008.

19. ANSYS v14.5, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, USA.

UNIFIED SLENDERNESS LIMITS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL

CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS

Abstract. Circular hollow sections (CHS) are widely used in a range of structural

engineering applications. The sections may be hot-finished or cold-formed from a

variety of metallic materials with a range of yield strengths. The design of these

sections is covered by all major design codes, yet there are significant differences in

the treatment of local buckling, as considered through cross-section classification.

Cross-section classification criteria relate to rotation capacity and strength requirements

(attainment of the plastic or elastic moment in bending and the yield load in

compression), while the relative performance of structural CHS is governed by

susceptibility to local buckling and is influenced by cross-section slenderness,

material stiffness and yield strength, forming process (affecting geometry, material

homogeneity and residual stresses), material strain hardening characteristics and

ovalization. Furthermore, the classification criteria and reliability requirements vary

among the different structural design codes. This paper presents a review of 153 test

results on CHS in bending, covering structural steel, aluminium, stainless steel and

very high strength steel. Based on the available test data, current codified provisions

in the European, North American and Australian Standards are reassessed, and

following reliability analyses new unified slenderness limits are proposed for

structural steel CHS.

Key words: circular hollow sections, reliability analysis, section classification, slenderness

limits, tubular construction.

1. INTRODUCTION

Circular hollow sections (CHS) have been manufactured and used since the

early 1800s for structural members such as columns, beams, tension members and

trusses [1]. They are thin-walled structural elements, and therefore a primary

consideration in their design is local buckling. Current design codes adopt the

concept of cross-section classification for the treatment of local buckling in thin-walled

tubular members, but there is significant variability between the slenderness limits

employed to separate the individual classes.

1

Imperial College London, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Kensington

Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, UK

2

The University of Hong Kong, Department of Civil Engineering, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong

3

Imperial College London, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Kensington

Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, UK

154 Leroy Gardner, Kwan Ho Law, Craig Buchanan 2

EN 1993-1-1 (2005) [2] and BS 5950 (2000) [3] for structural steelwork,

together with EN 1993-1-4 (2006) [4] for stainless steel and EN 1999-1-1 (2007)

[5] for aluminium, define four behavioural classes of cross-section, based upon

their susceptibility to local buckling. Class 1 cross-sections, called plastic sections

in BS 5950, are capable of reaching and maintaining their full plastic moment Mpl

in bending by forming plastic hinges with sufficient rotation capacity for plastic

design. Class 2 cross-sections, referred to as compact sections in BS 5950, are also

capable of reaching their full plastic moment in bending but have a lower deformation

capacity. In Class 3 cross-sections, called semi-compact sections in BS 5950, local

buckling prevents attainment of the full plastic moment and the bending moment

resistance is limited to the yield moment Mel. Class 4 cross-sections, commonly

referred to as slender sections, exhibit local buckling before the yield stress is

reached. The moment-rotation characteristics of the four behavioural classes are

illustrated in Fig. 1. AISC 360 (2005) [6] and AS 4100 (1998) [7] effectively

define three classes of cross-section: Class 1 cross-sections are referred to as

compact, there is no equivalent to Class 2 sections, Class 3 sections are termed

non-compact, while Class 4 cross-sections are referred to as slender sections. The

Class 3 limit also separates cross-sections that are fully effective in compression,

where the section capacity is taken as the yield load, from those that fail by local

buckling prior to the attainment of the yield load. For both compression and

bending the cross-section level resistance is determined based on an effective

cross-section defined by the CHS diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratio.

Applied moment M

Mpl

Class 2

Mel Class 1

Class 3

Class 4

Rotation

In this paper, the factors influencing local buckling and the structural

response of circular hollow sections are discussed; test data on structural steel,

stainless steel and aluminium tubes are collated and analysed; and slenderness

limits prescribed in a series of international design standards, which exhibit

3 Unified slenderness limits for structural steel circular hollow sections 155

sections rather than cylindrical shells with very high diameter-to-thickness ratios.

Finally unified slenderness limits for structural steel CHS are proposed following

reliability analyses.

AND STRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF CHS

stress exceeds a critical value, and is characterised by local ripples in the cross-

section wall. Local buckling and the structural response of CHS are influenced by a

number of factors, which are discussed in this section.

The elastic buckling stress of a cylindrical shell in the axis-symmetric mode

(cr) is given by Eq. 1:

2E t

cr = , (1)

3(1 2 ) D

where E is the Youngs modulus, is Poissons ratio and D/t is the diameter-to-

thickness ratio of the section and the geometric parameter that controls local

buckling. The susceptibility to elastic buckling in preference to yielding depends

on the yield strength of the material fy, and this therefore also appears in

slenderness parameters, such as those adopted in design codes. With higher yield

strengths, the slenderness of the section effectively increases; i.e. the section is

more susceptible to local buckling prior to yielding. Previous studies have however

shown that the slenderness limits derived for normal strength steel tubes become

conservative when applied to very high strength steel [8]. This is linked to the

presence and influence of initial geometric imperfections and residual stresses.

Residual stresses are typically induced in structural components through plastic

deformation and differential cooling during manufacture. Their influence on

structural members is to cause premature yielding and loss of stiffness, often

leading to a reduction in load carrying capacity. In high strength steel sections,

residual stresses are a smaller fraction of the yield strength and therefore their

detrimental effect is reduced compared with normal strength steel [9].

Initial geometric imperfections can also have a significant influence on the

strength of thin-walled sections [10] by amplifying buckling deformations and

hence expediting the initiation of yield. The effect of imperfections is less

detrimental to the response of high strength structural components. A modified

imperfection factor for columns which reduces with increased yield strength has

been proposed to reflect this behaviour [9]; this issue has also been highlighted in

the context of local buckling [11].

156 Leroy Gardner, Kwan Ho Law, Craig Buchanan 4

Local buckling and the structural response of CHS are also influenced by the

stress-strain behaviour of the constituent material, which is largely controlled by its

chemical composition and physical properties, but is also affected by the section

forming process. Generally, there are two different types of stress-strain curves

yield point and round house. Hot-finished sections typically have a yield point

stress-strain curve, where stress is linearly proportional to strain up to the yield

point, after which a yield plateau and strain hardening may be observed. A round

house stress-strain curve deviates from linearity at low stresses and displays a

gradually yielding behaviour and no sharply defined yield point. Stainless steel and

aluminium exhibit this type of behaviour as the basic material response; cold-

formed steel sections also display a rounded stress-strain curve. This is due to the

Bauschinger effect, whereby residual stresses resulting from plastic deformations

induced during production cause deviation of the stress-strain response from

linearity upon load reversal. Resistance to local buckling depends on the stiffness

of the material, and hence local buckling is promoted by any loss of stiffness due to

yielding or nonlinearity. Gradual loss of stiffness as opposed to a sharp yield point

is usually regarded as being beneficial in terms of structural performance [12, 13],

with a greater degree of strain hardening enabling higher compressive and moment

capacities in stocky sections of low D/t ratios. Research is currently being

undertaken to utilise strain hardening for enhanced section capacity in low D/t ratio

circular hollow sections.

A further factor to be considered in the response of CHS in bending is

ovalization. This refers to the gradual flattening of a tube under bending resulting

from the inclined nature of the forces in the tube wall that arise in the deformed

configuration [14, 15]. The material and geometric properties of structural metallic

tubes preclude failure by ovalization wholly in the elastic range, with yielding or

local buckling being the key factors limiting structural resistance. However,

ovalization may contribute to failure since hoop stresses are induced in the wall of

the tube that will influence the onset of plasticity, and there is a reduction in local

curvature of the most heavily compressed region of the tube, which facilitates the

onset of local buckling.

Slenderness parameters for CHS in all structural design codes include the

geometric diameter-to-thickness ratio D/t and the material yield strength fy.

However there is a range of slenderness values, due to the yield strength being

normalized by different values in the codes, which are summarized in Table 1

along with the treatment of Class 4 (slender) sections.

5 Unified slenderness limits for structural steel circular hollow sections 157

Table 1

CHS slenderness parameters adopted in different structural design codes

Cross-section

Design code (slender) cross-sections

slenderness parameter

Compression Bending

EN 1993-1-1 (2005) D fy

1 1

Structural steel t 235

BS 5950 (2000) D fy

Clause 3.6.6 Clause 3.5.6.4

Structural steel t 275

AISC 360 (2005) D fy

Section E7 Section F8

Structural steel t E

AS 4100 (1998) D fy

Section 6.2 Section 5.2

Structural steel t 250

EN 1993-1-4 (2006) D f y 210 000

1 1

Stainless steel t 235 E

EN 1999-1-1 (2007) D y f

Clause 6.1.5 Clause 6.1.5

Aluminium t 250

1

Note: No effective section properties are provided but designer is directed to EN 1993-1-6 (2007)

[16] for shells.

In order to make a direct comparison between the various design codes, the

slenderness limits have been converted to a common basis, using the slenderness

parameter adopted for stainless steel in EN 1993-1-4. This is appropriate since the

EN 1993-1-4 slenderness parameter includes the Youngs modulus E and the

material yield strength, which can therefore reflect the different material behaviours.

Aluminium in particular has a significantly lower Youngs modulus than both structural

steel and stainless steel. The values adopted for the material Youngs modulus are:

210 000 N/mm2 for structural steel, 200 000 N/mm2 for stainless steel and 70 000

N/mm2 for aluminium. The modified slenderness limits are presented in Table 2.

From Table 2, it can be observed that the Class 3 slenderness limits in

compression are fairly consistent between the structural steel and stainless steel

design codes, but a more relaxed limit is applied to aluminium. The Class 1 and 2

slenderness limits in bending are also fairly consistent across the range of design

codes and materials. However, the Class 3 slenderness limits in bending show

significant variation. It should be noted that EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1999-1-1 adopt

the same Class 3 slenderness limit for both compression and bending, 90.0 and

171.6 respectively.

158 Leroy Gardner, Kwan Ho Law, Craig Buchanan 6

Table 2

Summary of CHS slenderness limits in different structural design codes

Material Structural steel Stainless steel Aluminium

EN AISC EN EN

Design code BS 5950 AS 4100

1993-1-1 360 1993-1-4 1999-1-1

Class 1 limit in

50.0 46.8 62.6 53.2 50.0 42.9

bending

Class 2 limit in

70.0 58.5 - - 70.0 90.8

bending

Class 3 limit in

90.0 163.8 277.0 127.7 280.0 171.6

bending

Class 3 limit in

90.0 93.6 98.3 87.2 90.0 171.6

compression

the borderline between fully effective and slender sections, with the latter requiring

additional calculation effort for designers. There are two principal reasons for the

variation in this slenderness limit between the different design codes. The first

relates to the pool of available structural performance data, noting that

classification limits are often sensitive to the slenderness range of test data upon

which they are based [17]. The Class 3 limit for CHS in bending in EN 1993-1-1

was derived on the basis of tests on stocky sections [18]; whereas the same limit in

AISC 360, which is significantly more relaxed, was based on a far wider range of

slenderness values [1922]. The second reason relates to the different regional

practices in terms of structural reliability. The partial safety factors adopted in the

different design codes are summarised in Table 3.

Table 3

Partial safety factors for cross-section resistance adopted in different design codes

Material Structural steel Stainless steel Aluminium

EN BS AISC AS EN EN

Code

1993-1-1 5950 360 4100 1993-1-4 1999-1-1

Partial safety

1.00 1.00 0.901 0.901 1.10 1.10

factor

Note: 1 Partial factor appears in the numerator, while others appear in the denominator; 1/0.9=1.11.

both the adopted slenderness limit and the partial safety factor. The target reliability

index and material over-strength are also influential, as are any possible regional

differences in manufacturing standards and tolerances. EN 1993-1-1 employs a

partial safety factor of unity, while AISC 360 and AS 4100 adopt a value of 1.11

7 Unified slenderness limits for structural steel circular hollow sections 159

stricter, since the limit itself has to effectively compensate for the disparity in

safety factors. Reliability analyses have been performed and unified slenderness

limits are proposed for structural steel CHS in the following section.

AND PROPOSED SLENDERNESS LIMITS

A total of 153 test results on circular hollow section beams of different materials

and configurations under bending have been collated in this study. The following

tests were undertaken: 52 tests on hot-finished structural steel sections [15, 18, 20, 21],

33 tests on cold-formed structural steel sections [21, 2325], 21 tests on fabricated

structural steel sections [19, 22, 26], 12 tests on very high strength structural steel

sections [27], 20 tests on stainless steel sections [28, 29] and 15 tests on aluminium

sections [30]. The tests were conducted in three different configurations: 25 in pure

bending, 119 in four-point bending and 9 in three-point bending. The cross-section

slenderness of the beams varied from 20.4 to 294.5 (using the EN 1993-1-4 measure

of slenderness from Table 1). A graph of the ultimate test moment normalised by the

elastic moment capacity plotted against the cross-section slenderness is shown in

Fig. 2. The Class 3 slenderness limits in bending from the design codes are also

shown. The collated test results display the anticipated trend of decreasing normalised

moment capacity with increasing slenderness, though there is significant scatter in

the data, which is believed to relate to the factors discussed previously. The superior

performance of the very high strength structural steel sections is particularly evident.

In order to obtain a unified slenderness limit achieving a consistent level of

safety and incorporating the uncertainty in the test results and the variability of the

basic variables (material and geometric properties) in the design expression, a

reliability analysis in accordance with EN 1990 (2002) [31] was performed, as

outlined in [32]. The analysis was performed on the 106 tests on hot-finished, cold-

formed and fabricated structural steel sections. Since no formula for deriving

effective section properties for Class 4 CHS is provided in EN 1993-1-1, a

modified expression based on the BS 5950 provisions was adopted in calculating

the design moment capacity for these sections, as given by Eq. 2:

90 235

Weff = Wel , (2)

D /t fy

where Weff and Wel are the effective and elastic section moduli, respectively.

160 Leroy Gardner, Kwan Ho Law, Craig Buchanan 8

with Class 3 slenderness limits from codes.

findings on the mechanical properties of structural steel: the ratio of mean to nominal

yield strengths (i.e. the material over-strength) was taken as 1.16 and the

coefficients of variation of yield strength and geometric properties were taken as

0.05 and 0.02 respectively [33, 34]. These values originate from industrial data

obtained from European steel producers. The results of the analysis and a summary

of the key statistical parameters are presented in Table 4. The following symbols

are used: kd,n = design (ultimate limit states) fractile factor for n tests, where n is the

population of test data under consideration; b = average ratio of experimental to

model resistance based on a least squares fit to the test data; V = coefficient of

variation of the tests relative to the resistance model; Vr = combined coefficient of

variation incorporating both model and basic variable uncertainties; and M0 = factor

by which the mean curve should be reduced to provide a reliable design curve.

Table 4

Summary of statistical analysis parameters for EN 1990

n kd,n b V Vr M0

106 3.18 1.10 0.131 0.142 1.24

A least squares regression fit to the test data set is plotted in Fig. 3, which is

then scaled down by the required safety factor of 1.24 obtained from the reliability

analysis to produce the design curve. The unified Class 3 slenderness limit (where

the design curve passes through Mu/Mel = 1.0) for steel sections was found to be

9 Unified slenderness limits for structural steel circular hollow sections 161

100 with partial factor of 1.00 adopted in EN 1993-1-1 and 135 for the AISC 360

and AS 4100 partial factor of 0.9 (in the numerator), with the latter design curve

being scaled down by a factor of 1.12 (=1.240.9) from the mean.

Fig. 3 Normalised test moment capacity versus cross-section slenderness, with statistical analysis.

5. CONCLUSIONS

The factors affecting local buckling in CHS and the treatment of this

instability in various structural design codes have been discussed. A large disparity

in the Class 3 slenderness limits in bending was observed between the different

design codes. Towards the establishment of unified slenderness limits, the results

of 153 bending tests on CHS were examined, and reliability analyses were

performed in accordance with EN 1990. Revised structural steel Class 3

slenderness limits of 100 for EN 1993-1-1 and 135 for AISC 360 and AS 4100

were proposed. These slenderness limits provide a unified treatment across the

design codes since the more relaxed slenderness limit proposed for AISC 360 and

AS 4100 is offset by the inclusion of the partial safety factor of 1.11 (0.9 in the

numerator) adopted in these codes. Further investigation is underway in this area,

and into utilising strain hardening for enhanced section capacity in low D/t ratio

circular hollow sections.

162 Leroy Gardner, Kwan Ho Law, Craig Buchanan 10

REFERENCES

1. DUTTA, D., Structures with Hollow Sections, Wiley VCH, Weinheim, 2002.

2. EN 1993-1-1 (2005) Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 11: General rules and rules for

buildings, CEN, 2005.

3. BS 5950-1 (2000) Structural use of steelwork in building Part 1: Code of practice for design

rolled and welded sections, BSI, 2000.

4. EN 1993-1-4 (2006) Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 14: General rules

supplementary rules for stainless steels, CEN, 2006.

5. EN 1999-1-1 (2007) Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures Part 11: General structural

rules, CEN, 2007.

6. AISC 360 (2005) Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,

American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, 2005.

7. AS 4100 (1998) Steel Structures, Standards Australia, Homebush, New South Wales, Australia,

1998.

8. ZHAO, X. L., Section capacity of very high strength (VHS) circular tubes under compression,

Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Australia, 2000.

9. IABSE, Use and application of high-performance steels for steel structures, Structural Engineering

Documents, 2005.

10. ZHAO, X. L. and JIAO, H., Imperfection, residual stress and yield slenderness limit of very high

strength (VHS) circular steel tubes, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 59, 2,

pp. 233249, 2003.

11. ZHAO, X. L. and JASPART, J. P., Width-to-thickness ratios for classification of tubular sections,

Eurosteel 2005, June 8-10, 2005, pp.1.4183190, 2005.

12. SCHILLING, C. G., Buckling strength of circular tubes, Journal of the Structural Division,

ASCE, 91, 5, 1965.

13. KATO, B., Local buckling of steel circular tubes in plastic range, Stability of Structures under

Static and Dynamic Loads, ASCE, pp.375391, 1977.

14. BRAZIER, L. G., On the Flexure of Thin Cylindrical Shells and other Thin Sections,

Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 116, 773, pp.104114, 1927.

15. ELCHALAKANI, M., ZHAO, X. L. and GRZEBIETA, R. H., Plastic mechanism analysis of

circular tubes under pure bending tests to determine slenderness limits for cold-formed

circular hollow sections, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 44, 6, pp.11171143,

2002.

16. EN 1993-1-6 (2007) Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1-6: Strength and Stability of

Shell Structures, CEN, 2007.

17. GARDNER, L. and CHAN, T. M., Cross-section classification of elliptical hollow sections, Steel

and Composite Structures, 7, 3, pp.185200, 2007.

18. SEDLACEK, G., STRANHNER, N., LANGENBERG, P., RONDAL, J. and BOREAEVE, P.,

Rotation Capacity of Hollow Beam Sections, Final Report-CIDECT Research Project, No 2P,

RWTH, Aachen, 1995.

19. SHERMAN, D. R., Supplemental tests for bending capacity of fabricated pipes, Department of

Civil Engineering, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1984.

20. JIRSA, J. O., FOOK-HOY, L., WILHOIT, J. C. and MERWIN, J. E., Ovaling of pipelines under

pure bending, Paper OTC 1569, 4th Annual Offshore Technology Conf., Houston, Texas, 1972.

21. SHERMAN, D. R., Tests of circular steel tubes in bending, Journal of the Structural Division,

ASCE, 102, 11, 1976.

22. SHERMAN, D. R., Bending Capacity of Fabricated Tubes, Department of Civil Engineering.

University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1983.

23. KOROL, R. M., Critical buckling strains of round tubes in flexure, Department of Civil

Engineering, Mc Master University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8, 1978.

11 Unified slenderness limits for structural steel circular hollow sections 163

24. ELCHALAKANI, M., ZHAO, X. L. and GRZEBIETA, R. H., Plastic slenderness limits for cold-

formed circular hollow sections, Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, Institutions of

Engineers, 3, 3, pp.116, 2001.

25. ELCHALAKANI, M., ZHAO, X. L. and GRZEBIETA, R. H., Bending tests to determine

slenderness limits for cold-formed circular hollow sections, Journal of Constructional Steel

Research, 58, 11, pp.14071430, 2002.

26. STEPHENS, M. J., KULAK, G. L. and MONTGOMERY, C. J., Local buckling of thin walled

tubular steel members, Structural Engineering Report No. 103, University of Alberta, Canada,

1982.

27. ZHAO, X. L. and JIAO, H., Section slenderness limits of very high strength circular steel tubes in

bending, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Australia, 2004.

28. RASMUSSEN, K. J. R. and HANCOCK, G. J., Design of cold-formed stainless steel tubular

members II: Beams, Journal of Structural Engineering, 119, 8, pp.23672386, 1993.

29. STEEL CONSTRUCTION INSTITUTE, Development of the use of stainless steel in

construction, Final Report to European Coal and Steel Community-WP3 (Contract 7210-

SA/842), Steel Construction Institute, 2000.

30. MOORE, R. L. and MARSHALL, H., Beam and torsion tests of aluminium-alloy 61S-T tubing,

Technical notes No. 867, National advisory committee for aeronautics, Washington, 1942.

31. EN 1990 (2002) Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design, CEN, 2002.

32. LAW, K. H., Instabilities in Structural Steel Elliptical Hollow Section Members, Department of

Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, 2010.

33. BYFIELD, M. P. and NETHERCOT, D. A., Material and geometric properties of structural steel

for use in design, The Structural Engineer, 75, 21, pp.363367, 1997.

34. BYFIELD, M. P. and NETHERCOT, D. A., Correspondence on material and geometric properties of

structural steel for use in design, The Structural Engineer, 76, 20, pp.402, 1998.

In memoriam of Darko Beg, Ph.D., Professor of Steel

Structures, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, one of

the most active members of ECCS/TWG8.3, passed

away on 11th February 2014.

TO EN 1993-1-5 FOR PLATE BUCKLING

Abstract. Starting in 2010 the European Commission initiated the process of evolution

of the first generation of Eurocodes. Based on Mandates M/466 EN and M/515 EN,

CEN/TC250 created several expert groups which deal with this evolution work. This

paper reports about the common ongoing work of Working Group TC250/SC3/EN

1993-1-5 and ECCS Technical Working Group 8.3 (Plate Buckling). Amendments

which have been already prepared in order to improve the ease-of-use and to cover

technical development are presented. An outlook which tasks are to be addressed in

further work is given.

1. INTRODUCTION

outcome of more than 30 years of collaborative work which started in 1975 with

the objective to create common European standards for the design of building and

civil engineering structures. Today 10 Structural Eurocodes provide rules for basis

of design, actions on structures and structural design rules for the use of all major

construction materials such as concrete, steel, timber, masonry and aluminum. By

December 2010 national standards which were in conflict with any of the 58

Eurocode parts had to be withdrawn.

Starting in March 2010 the European Commission sent Mandate M/466 EN

Programming Mandate addressed to CEN in the field of structural Eurocodes to

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) in order to initiate the process

of evolution of the first generation of Eurocodes. Such an evolution has been

considered necessary to sustain the users confidence in the standards and to take

market developments, innovation and research into consideration both through the

revision of existing standards and the development of new standards.

1

University of Stuttgart, Institute of Structural Design, Pfaffenwaldring 7, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany

2

Space Structures GmbH, Fanny-Zobel-Strasse 9, 12435 Berlin, Germany

2 Evolution of Eurocode 3 165

standardisation work programme (consisting of several project proposals) to the

European Commission. In December 2012 the European Commission forwarded

the follow-up Mandate M/515 EN Mandate for amending existing Eurocodes and

extending the scope of structural Eurocodes to CEN. In general, the mandate

foresees that an additional Eurocode on structural glass and substantial additions to

the existing standards are developed.

prepared the above mentioned standardisation work programme and has now the

mandate to prepare the second generation of Eurocodes. For existing Eurocodes

several subcommittees (SC) already exist within CEN/TC250 and it is SC3 which

deals with Eurocode 3 on Structural Steel. Following Mandate M/515 EN,

CEN/TC250/SC3 created several Working Groups (formerly called Evolution

Groups) for the evolution of the different parts of Eurocode 3. This paper reports

about the work of Working Group EN 1993-1-5 which deals with the design of

plated structural elements (plate buckling).

Today, aside of other tasks, the technical development of rules for plate

buckling is mainly driven forward by the European Convention for Constructional

Steelwork (ECCS) and its Technical Working Group 8.3 (ECCS/TWG83). Therefore it

became obvious that both groups are brought closely together in order to minimize

work and time effort. For that reason Working Group EN 1993-1-5 and the

ECCS/TWG83 group have common meetings and work jointly together on the

further development of EN 1993-1-5. Within the task SC3.T4 of the Mandate

M/515 EN the following sub-tasks have been formulated:

reduction in number of Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs),

enhanced ease of use,

imperfections for flat plate elements,

improved interaction rules for plates,

improved patch loading rules for plates,

stiffener design,

harmonization of design rules for stiffened plated elements,

guidance for use of FEM in design,

development of advanced design rules for extended girder applications such

as corrugated webs.

The mandate will have four overlapping phases with EN 1993-1-5 being in

the second phase which is planned starting in 2015. Since there will be a large

number of amendments dealing with all Eurocode 3 parts which are presented to

CEN/TC250/SC3 in the end, it has been decided within ECCS/TWG83 group and

166 Ulrike Kuhlmann, Benjamin Braun 3

as early as possible. This paper summarizes the amendments which have been

presented to CEN/TC250/SC3 for decision. Symbols and abbreviations are given at

the end of this paper. Nevertheless, it is recommended to the reader to have the

standard EN 1993-1-5 at hand for the following sections.

In the end, an outlook is given on the proposals which are currently under

preparation. Besides that, discussions are ongoing in order to harmonize EN 1993-

1-5 with other Eurocode parts such as EN 1993-1-1 e.g. on Class-4 cross-sections

and EN 1993-1-3, e.g. on Annex D dealing with the use of the effective thickness

method.

SUBJECTED TO DIRECT STRESSES; INTERACTION

BETWEEN PLATE AND COLUMN BUCKLING

The determination of the interpolation coefficient in Clause 4.5.4(1) which

identifies whether the plate tends to plate buckling or column-like buckling is an

extensive calculation procedure as it requires the use of several different sections of

EN 1993-1-5 i.e. Section 4.5.3, Annex A.1, Annex A.2.1 and Annex 2.2.

A simplification of this procedure has been already discussed in the COMBRI

project [1] but was elaborated in detail by Darko Beg [24]. The amendment aims

to simplify the existing design rules by giving a direct calculation method for the

interpolation coefficient , which will thus lead to a strong consolidation of the whole

calculation procedure of Clause 4.5.4(1). For longitudinally stiffened plates the

interpolation coefficient may be obtained directly from one of the following equations.

For orthotropic plates with at least three stiffeners the interpolation

coefficient may be obtained from:

bsl ,1 1 +

= k , p 2 1 for 1 ; (1)

bc

(1 + )

2

2

1

= for = 1, 0,5, 0,5 < 4 , (2)

but 0 1 .

Parameters k,p, , bsl,1, bc, , and are specified according to Annex A.1

and Figure A.1, EN 1993-1-5.

For orthotropic plates with one or two stiffeners the interpolation coefficient

may be obtained from:

4 Evolution of Eurocode 3 167

= k , p 2

1, (3)

bc I sl ,112(1 2 )

where k,p is known from relevant computer simulations, or according to Annex

A.2, EN 1993-1-5.

For the most common case a ac and by using 4.5.3(3), EN 19931-5, for cr,c

the interpolation coefficient can be expressed as:

a 4bt 3

= 4 for a ac . (4)

4 (1 2 )b12b22 I sl ,1

Parameters k,p, , a, ac, b, b1, b2, t, , Asl,1 and Isl,1, are specified according to

Annex A.2, EN 19931-5. The geometrical values bsl,1 and bc are specified in Figure

A.1, EN 1993-1-5.

For the case with two stiffeners in the compression zone should be

calculated for the three cases given in Annex A.2.1(7), EN 1993-1-5, and the

lowest value is taken as relevant.

SUBJECTED TO DIRECT STRESSES; EFFECTIVE AREA

Numerical studies in [1] have shown that Equation (4.5) in Clause 4.5.1(4)

and the resulting effectivep areas due to plate buckling may lead to unsafe results

for plates with weak stiffeners.

As a result stiffened plates having weak longitudinal stiffeners should be

considered as unstiffened plates regarding their resistance to direct stresses and

their effectivep area should be calculated as unstiffened plates according to Section

4.4, EN 1993-1-5. Longitudinal stiffeners should be considered as weak stiffeners

if their relative bending stiffness is less than 25, where is defined by:

E Is E t3

= , with D =

bD 12 1 2

.

( ) (5)

Studies in [1, 5] have shown that for unstiffened web panels or panels stiffened

by open cross-section stiffeners the assumption of hinged boundary conditions is a

requirement for the use of the shear buckling curves in Clause 5.3(1). Thus the

factor w according to Table 5.1, EN 1993-1-5, is only valid for slendernesses w

which are determined for plates with hinged boundary conditions. However, it can

be shown that closed-section longitudinal stiffeners have a beneficial effect on the

168 Ulrike Kuhlmann, Benjamin Braun 5

particularly the case for closed-section longitudinal stiffeners connected to the end-

posts. In such a situation, additional rigidity is provided to the end-posts by the

longitudinal stiffener. In Clause 5.3(2) and Clause 5.3(4) this effect is not

considered so far.

Thus in Clause 5.3(2) it should be added that for webs stiffened by closed-

section longitudinal stiffeners connected to the end posts and vertical stiffeners, the

end posts may always be considered as rigid. Even in the worst situation of a small

closed-section longitudinal stiffener connected to a large transverse stiffener, the

torsional restraint remains significant (even higher than in the case of very large

open stiffeners connected to small transverse stiffeners) and that the average

stiffness ratio in the case of closed sections is of an order of magnitude 100 times

higher than for open sections.

Thus Clause 5.3(4) should be modified such that the second moment of area

of an open-section longitudinal stiffener should only be reduced to 1/3 of its actual

value when calculating the shear buckling coefficient k.

SUBJECTED TO PATCH LOADING

The contributions of several recent doctoral studies [610] underline the need

of a further modification of the plastic resistance Fy against patch loading which

appears in the current version of EN 1993-1-5. According to these studies, the

current definition of the plastic resistance overestimates patch loading capacity in

certain cases (hybrid girders) whereas this capacity is slightly underestimated for

others (very slender girders).

Thus Chapter 6 should be modified as follows. In Section 6.4 the reduction

factor F for effective length for resistance should be obtained from:

1 .0

F = 1.0 , (6)

F + F2 F

where

F =

1

2

( (

1 + F 0 F F 0 + F , ) ) (7)

l y t w f yw

F =

Fcr (8)

6 Evolution of Eurocode 3 169

It should be noted that the values according to Equation (9) are based on a

value of M1 = 1.1.

In Section 6.5 the effective loaded length ly should be calculated as follows:

bf

m1 = , (10)

tw

2

h

m2 = 0.02 w if F > 0.5 (11)

t

f

m2 = 0 if F 0.5 ,

For box girders, bf in Equation (10) should be limited to 15tf on each side

of the web.

For types a) and b) in Fig. 6.1, EN 1993-1-5, ly should be obtained using:

(

l y = s s + 2 t f 1 + m1 . ) (12)

BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE

patch loading, the interacting stability behaviour should be taken into consideration

in design. The combined loading situation can often occur in case of bridge girders

during launching. Therefore the determination of the load carrying capacity under

the combined loading situation is an important aspect of the bridge design. In the

current version of the EN 1993-1-5 there is no standard design method to take the

interaction of these three effects into account and there has been a very small

number of previous investigations in the literature about this topic. Consequently,

no formulation for the interaction between transverse force, bending moment and

shear force is given in Chapter 7. Based on a number of recent studies [1113],

Section 7.2 should be replaced such that if the girder is subjected to a concentrated

transverse force acting on the compression flange in conjunction with bending

moment and shear force, the resistance should be verified using Sections 4.6, 5.5,

6.6, EN 1993-1-5, and the following interaction expression:

1.6

3.6 F

1 + 3 1 Ed +2 1.0 , (13)

2 VEd

170 Ulrike Kuhlmann, Benjamin Braun 7

where

M Ed

1 = , (14)

M pl , Rd

VEd

3 = . (15)

Vbw, Rd

WITH CORRUGATED WEBS SUBJECTED TO PATCH LOADING

resistance against transverse force in case of girders with trapezoidally corrugated

webs. It should be noted that Annex D, EN 1993-1-5, is the only part of Eurocode

3 which deals with girders with corrugated webs. The objective of this amendment

is to improve the standard with a design method to determine the patch loading

resistance of girders with trapezoidally corrugated webs based on [1418].

The design resistance of trapezoidally corrugated webs can be determined

according to Equation (16) provided that the compression flange is adequately

restrained in lateral direction.

The design method can be used if the load is applied through the flange and

restrained by shear forces in the web (Fig. 1).

FS

ss

SS

hw

V1,S

V2,S

In case of girders with inclined webs, the internal forces to be taken into

account are the components of the external load in the plane of the web.

The design resistance of the trapezoidally corrugated web to local buckling

under transverse force should be taken as:

FRd = t w f yw s s k . (16)

8 Evolution of Eurocode 3 171

from, Fig. 2.

a1 + a2

k = . (17)

a1 + a4

is the reduction factor due to local buckling which should be calculated from:

1.9 0.798

= 1.00 , (18)

p p

2

where

f yw

p = (19)

cr

2

k 2 t

cr = E w (20)

12 (1 )

2

ai

k = 1.11 , ai = max(a1;a2), (21)

i.e. the maximum fold length to which the load is applied (Fig. 2).

The design method is applicable for girders with a fold length larger than

h t

ai w + 260 w . (22)

tw 11.5

5. OUTLOOK

STIFFENED PLATE GIRDERS

the plastic interaction to slender cross-sections. It covers the load bearing

behaviour general but has only been checked for longitudinally unstiffened panels

172 Ulrike Kuhlmann, Benjamin Braun 9

[19]. The current M-V interaction formula is based on an empirical model which

was developed on the basis of only few experimental results and that assigns a pure

shear loading to the web-core of a symmetric cross-section. Recent experimental

work regarding the interaction of bending moment and shear force for longitude-

nally stiffened girders was conducted in [20] opening some additional questions

concerning M-V interaction for stiffened girders.

In the frame of [21] six full scale girders were tested and served as a database

for subsequent numerical analyses. It was shown that the gross cross-section check

at the edge of the panel can cover also the stability resistance of the panel subjected

to M-V interaction in the case of symmetric cross-sections. For unsymmetric cross-

sections a new proposal has been derived which, in combination with the gross

cross-section check, gives very reliable results. However, the partial safety factor

determination is a crucial part in this work. Thus, the amendment will cover not only

M-V interaction but also basic issues with respect to partial safety factor determination.

are designed as strong double-sided stiffeners. In contrast to this, intermediate

transverse stiffeners are designed as single-sided open-section stiffeners which are

intended to increase the strength and the stiffness of the web. The latter kind of

intermediate stiffener is usually not subjected to external loads. Instead effects

from tension field action and deviation forces from longitudinal stresses dominate.

If such a design is based on EN 1993-1-5, the sizing leads to significantly larger

cross-sections in comparison to what is necessary according to numerical analysis.

This can be mainly attributed to the overestimation of the axial force in the

stiffener due to tension field action [22, 23].

Further research has been carried out [24] whether a stiffness-only approach

is justifiable in contrast to a combined approach which checks stiffness and force.

It can be shown that the design requirements of a rigid intermediate transverse

stiffener may be obtained by fulfilling simple stiffness criteria which simplifies the

design procedure while considering all relevant effects. The amendment will define

a minimum required second moment of area for rigid transverse stiffeners which

covers the design requirements imposed by the different loadings.

IN CORRUGATED WEB GIRDERS

and bending moment, transversal bending moments Mz occur. Current research

studies the effect of transverse bending moments in both bridge and building

structures. In particular the influence of support conditions and of Mz on the

10 Evolution of Eurocode 3 173

bending resistance is investigated [25]. Only few reports have dealt with the effect

of Mz on the bending resistance so far [26].

Therefore, a large number of different girder geometries with trapezoidal and

sinusoidal web shape have been analysed numerically. The results show that the

influence of Mz is more dominant for bridges than for building structures. In

general, support conditions play an important role. In comparison, Eurocode rules

give a reduction in bending resistance that is up to seven times higher than the

maximum reduction identified in the numerical analyses. It can be concluded that

the reduction factor for bending resistance is negligible with respect to ultimate

behavior. However, when first yielding is considered as the limit, the reduction can

be significant. Thus, a formula which determines the additional stresses in an

elastic analysis is under preparation. The amendment will be fully addressed in EN

1993-1-5 since it is the only part in Eurocode 3 where corrugated web girders are

dealt with.

effective width method and reduced stress method. The reduced stress method has

been introduced at a very late stage of the development of current EN 1993-1-5 as

an alternative verification method to the effective width method. In [27] the

background to this method has been outlined and shortcomings with respect to the

biaxial compression state have been discussed. It is shown that the reduced stress

method offers advantages over todays numerical procedures which allow the

elastic critical load factor of the full stress field to be determined in a single step,

thus taking interaction into account in a very efficient way. However, a

modification has been proposed for biaxially compressed plates in [11] since the

interaction verification in its pure format based on the Von Mises yield criterion is

not able to represent the actual mechanical behaviour. The proposal leads to appropriate

and plausible results without over-complicating the interaction equation.

In general, the reduced stress method offers the possibility to consider the

effect of tensile stresses in plates with multiaxial stress state. However, tensile stresses

have not only a stabilizing effect on buckling, but also a plastic destabilizing

influence. In [28] first results how tensile stresses influence the buckling behavior

are presented. This work will be further developed and combined with the research

on biaxially compressed plates into the common amendment which will improve

the reduced stress method in its actual format.

6. CONCLUSIONS

to prepare as many amendments as early as possible has already generated an

174 Ulrike Kuhlmann, Benjamin Braun 11

These amendments have been presented in this paper in a similar way as presented

to CEN/TC250/SC3 for decision and gained the preliminary acceptance. Thus they

can be easily implemented in the future code when it will be developed in the

frame of CEN/TC250 Mandate M/515 EN. A large number of proposals is still to

come including the topics summarized in the outlook and the tasks formulated in

Mandate M/515 EN.

amendments authors and the collaboration among the members of Working Group TC250/SC3/EN

1993-1-5 and ECCS Technical Working Group 8.3.

a

= ; aspect ratio of length a and width b

b

F0 reduction curve parameter

=

A sl

; ratio of gross area sum of longitudinal stiffeners Asl

bt

and plate gross area

235

=

f y N/mm 2

E Is

= ; relative bending stiffness of a stiffener

bD

M1 partial safety factor

F ; p ; p slenderness parameters

Poissons coefficient

cr elastic critical buckling stress

=

1

12 Evolution of Eurocode 3 175

; F; w reduction factors

a plate length

I sl ,1 b12 b22

ac = 4.33 4 ; plate parameter

t3 b

Asl,1 gross area of a longitudinal stiffener

b plate width

b 1; b 2 subpanel widths

bc plate width under compression

bf flange width

bsl,1 distance between stress neutral axis and longitudinal stiffener

=

(

12 1 2)

E Youngs modulus

fyw web yield strength

hw web height

Isl,1 second moment of area of a longitudinal stiffener

Is second moment of area of longitudinal stiffener for out-of-plane

bending, its cross-section including a participating width of web

of 10t each side of each stiffener-to-web junction

ly effective patch loaded length

k; k,p; k buckling coefficients

m1; m2 patch loading parameters

MEd design bending moment

Mpl,Rd design plastic moment resistance

(irrespective of cross-section class)

ss patch loading length

t plate thickness

tf flange thickness

176 Ulrike Kuhlmann, Benjamin Braun 13

tw web thickness

VEd design shear force

Vbw,Rd design shear resistance of the web contribution

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IABSE Young Engineers Colloquium 2014, Dresden, Germany, March 10, 2014, pp. 1011.

BUCKLING CURVES

FOR HEAVY WIDE FLANGE STEEL COLUMNS

Abstract. This paper proposes existing European buckling curves to be used for

checking the resistance of heavy wide flange columns made from mild and high-

strength steel, failing by flexural buckling. Buckling curves are not available in the

current Eurocode3 EN 1993-1-1, for height-to-width ratios h/b > 1.2 and flange

thicknesses tf > 100 mm. The buckling curves are evaluated according to the statistical

procedure given in Annex D of EN 1990 using finite element analyses. Residual stress

models as described in literature were used to define the initial stress state of the

column in the finite element model. A large database was created containing the ratio

between the elastic-plastic buckling resistance obtained from finite element analysis

and the buckling resistance obtained from the proposed buckling curve for a wide set

of column configurations from which a partial factor Rd was deduced. Different

section types with flange thicknesses tf >100 mm were investigated: the stocky HD

and more slender HL type, featuring h/b = 1.23 and h/b = 2.35 respectively. The

materials investigated were:

Quenched and Self-Tempered (QST) steel available under the proprietary name

HISTAR 460 (High Strength ArcelorMittal) with a yield stress of 460 N/mm2;

steel grade S460;

steel grade S355;

steel grade S235.

For as far as available, statistical information on these materials was used to estimate

the partial factor for material properties m. Then the partial (safety) factor M1 can be

calculated as M1 = Rd m. Based on the criterion that M1 should not exceed 1.05,

buckling curves are suggested which can be used together with M1 = 1.0. Buckling

curves to be included in Eurocode3 EN 1993-1-1 are finally proposed for heavy wide

flange columns in S235 to S500, with cross-sections with height-to-width ratios

h/b>1.2 and flange thicknesses tf > 100 mm.

This paper is an extended and more complete version of an earlier paper [1].

Key words: buckling curves, finite element analyses, heavy wide flange sections, high-

strength steel, mild steel, partial factor, statistical evaluation.

1. INTRODUCTION

combine high strength (i.e. nominal yield stress greater than 430 N/mm2) with good

ductility and weldability has led to a broadening of the possibilities in steel

1

Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of the Built Environment, P.O. Box 513,

5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands

2

ArcelorMittal, Long Products, 66, rue de Luxembourg, L-4009 Esch/Alzette, Luxembourg

3

Iv-Consult b.v., P.O. Box 1155, 3350 CD Papendrecht, The Netherlands

2 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 179

wide flange sections, i.e. wide flange sections with flanges thicker than 40 mm. At

the moment, heavy wide flange QST sections are manufactured by ArcelorMittal

under the proprietary name of HISTAR (HIgh-STrength ARcelorMittal). Two

grades are currently produced: HISTAR 355 and (high-strength) HISTAR 460,

which possess a yield stress of 355 N/mm2 and 460 N/mm2 respectively, not

considering reduction of yield stress with increasing material thickness. Heavy

wide flange HISTAR 460 sections have already been applied worldwide, with the

majority in the United States where the US equivalent of HISTAR 460, Grade 65,

is covered by ASTM A913 [2, 3].

Besides the high yield stress, HISTAR 460 sections have improved material

properties for wide flange sections possessing thick flanges. For HISTAR 460 a

smaller reduction in yield stress needs to be incorporated for greater material

thicknesses according to ETA-10/0156 [4] when compared to other grades (e.g.

S460M and S500M according to EN 10025-4 [5]) as illustrated in Fig. 1. For

HISTAR 460 and S460 sections with flange thicknesses exceeding 100 mm, the

yield stress is 450 and 385 N/mm2 respectively.

minimum yield

stress [N/mm2]

with increasing material thickness.

For S355 and S235, depending on whether the material is classified as a non-

alloy structural steel, normalized fine grain structural steel or thermomechanical

fine grain steel according to EN 10025-2 [6], EN 10025-3 [7] and EN 10025-4 [5],

respectively, a substantially reduced yield stress must be used to account for a

reduction in material properties for thick plated parts. For the present study with

sections possessing flange thicknesses between 100 and 150 mm, the yield stress

for S235 steel is 195 N/mm2. For S355 the lowest yield stress value according to

the three different standards is selected: 295 N/mm2.

180 H. H. Snijder, L.-G. Cajot, N. Popa, R. C. Spoorenberg 3

As such, heavy wide flange HISTAR 460 sections are used to their best

advantage when the ultimate limit state is the governing design criterion. This is

the case when applied as gravity columns in multi-story buildings, beams in short-

or medium-span bridges or chord- and brace members as part of truss-like

structures. In these situations the design is most often controlled by the flexural

buckling resistance of the member for which due allowance has to be made

according to the relevant design codes.

Table 1

Buckling curve selection table according to Eurocode3, EN 1993-1-1

Buckling curve

S 235 S460

Buckling

Cross-section Limits S 275

about axis

S 355

S 420

Rolled I-sections y-y a a0

tf 40 mm

z-z b a0

h/b > 1.2

y-y b a

40 < tf 100 mm

z-z c a

y-y b a

tf 100 mm

h/b 1.2 z-z c a

y-y d c

tf > 100 mm

z-z d c

HISTAR 460 falls in the category S460 in Table 1. Small and medium-sized

HISTAR 460 sections with flange thickness tf smaller than or equal to 40 mm are

assigned to buckling curve a or a0 depending on the value of the height-to-width

ratio h/b. Heavy HISTAR 460 sections which have a flange thickness smaller than

or equal to 100 mm can be designed according to buckling curve a. Heavy sections

possessing a flange thickness in excess of 100 mm and an h/b-ratio smaller than 1.2

are assigned to buckling curve c. For heavy HISTAR 460 sections having h/b-

ratios greater than 1.2 and flanges thicker than 100 mm no buckling curves are

available. The same is true for heavy sections in S460, S355 and S235 for h/b > 1.2

and tf > 100 mm.

In order to arrive at buckling curves reflecting the buckling response for

heavy sections in HISTAR 460, S460 , S355 and S235 with flange thickness larger

than 100 mm and h/b-ratios greater than 1.2, a combined experimental and

numerical study was initiated by ArcelorMittal in Luxemburg and set up and

executed by Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The experiments

consisted of residual stress measurements performed on two different heavy wide

flange section types made in steel grade HISTAR 460. A residual stress model was

4 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 181

proposed which can be used for heavy wide flange QST sections. The testing

procedure and the derivation of this so called QST residual stress model are

detailed in [9]. Since the manufacturing process of heavy S460 sections is identical

to that of HISTAR 460 sections, the residual stress model of the latter was applied

to the S460 analyses. As no experimental data is available to model the residual

stresses state for heavy HL sections made from S235 or S355 an assumption was

made on their distribution. For the S235 members the so called ECCS residual

stress model [10] featuring a bilinear stress pattern over the web height and flange

width was used to define the initial stress state. For the sections made from S355

steel the QST residual stress model was adopted in addition to the ECCS residual

stress model.

In the present paper, existing ECCS buckling curves are proposed to check

the flexural buckling resistance of heavy HISTAR 460 sections. The reliability of

the suggested buckling curves is evaluated according to annex D of EN 1990 [11].

The buckling resistance for a wide set of columns in HISTAR 460, S460, S355 and

S235 is evaluated with the finite element method using the residual stress models

mentioned to define the initial stress state of the column and with widely accepted

geometric imperfections.

buckling it was observed that the slenderness (ratio between length and radius of

gyration) of the member has profound influence on the buckling response. This led

to the development of the buckling curve concept, relating the load a column can

withstand before instability occurs to its non-dimensional or relative slenderness

(slenderness normalized against the steel properties). Important references include

[12, 13]. The studies underlying the buckling curve concept were often based on a

two-fold approach: to obtain the elastic-plastic buckling resistance through full-

scale column testing and to conduct theoretical (and later numerical) analyses to

replicate and supplement the experimental results. The theoretical analyses were

expanded to include a wide set of columns not part of the experimental plan from

which design rules (buckling curves) were proposed. The accuracy of the buckling

curve was often evaluated through comparison with characteristic values from full-

scale tests performed, where good agreement between the buckling curve and test

justified the selected buckling curve.

obsolete as with the appearance of EN 1990 Annex D [11] Design assisted by

testing it is now possible to make a statistical evaluation for new design rules and

182 H. H. Snijder, L.-G. Cajot, N. Popa, R. C. Spoorenberg 5

existing ones and to quantify the variability of salient parameters. In brief, the EN

1990 states that the design resistance (Rd) may be obtained directly from the

quotient of the characteristic (Rk) strength and the partial factor M:

Rk

Rd = , (1)

M

where M can be subdivided as follows:

M = Rd m , (2)

where: M is the partial factor for a material property, also accounting for model

uncertainties and dimensional variations according to EN 1990 [11] or general

partial factor according to EN 1993-1-1 [8]; Rd is the partial factor associated with the

uncertainty of the resistance model; m is the partial factor for a material property.

A distinction for the general partial factor M is made depending on the failure

mode of the member under investigation. In the present study, columns are investigated

for which loss of stability is the governing failure mode. Therefore the general

partial factor is in line with EN 1993-1-1 denoted 1 throughout this paper.

The general partial factor serves as a reduction for the capacity: high

M1-values impose a larger reduction on the buckling capacity compared to lower

M1-values.

One of the earliest studies concerning the statistical evaluation of resistance

models was carried out by Sedlacek et al. [14] at RWTH Aachen, Germany.

Although the investigation was performed prior to the final appearance of EN

1990, it adopted the same methodology. The study was aimed at finding new

imperfection factors for the resistance model of Eurocode3 (EN 1993-1-1) to check

the lateral-torsional buckling resistance of rolled and welded beams. The reliability

of the old resistance model, originally from the DIN, in addition to the new

resistance model was re-evaluated. The statistical evaluation was based on 144

lateral-torsional buckling tests.

A probabilistic assessment of the existing design rules to check the lateral

torsional buckling resistance of beams was performed by the University of Coimbra,

Portugal for wide flange beams. The partial factor associated with the uncertainty

of the resistance model Rd was computed for different load cases and section types

using the three different design models for lateral torsional buckling available in

EN 1993-1-1, Rebelo et al. [15]. The evaluation of the partial factors was based on

the solution results from finite element analyses conducted on a wide set of beam

configurations.

In the accompanying paper by Simoes da Silva et al. [16], the partial factor

for the material properties m was determined based on tensile tests conducted on

sections made from different steel grades. Using equation (2), the factors from [15, 16]

were used to arrive at M1-values for different load cases and steel grades.

6 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 183

In the present study the methodology adopted by Rebelo et al. [15] and in

line with Annex D of EN 1990 will be used to check the reliability of proposed

buckling curves for heavy wide flange sections.

A large database is created containing the ratio between the elastic-plastic

buckling resistance obtained from non-linear finite element analyses and buckling

resistances obtained from the suggested buckling curve for a wide set of column

configurations. It is mentioned that the numerically obtained elastic-plastic buckling

resistance serves as a replacement of the ultimate resistance found in a column

buckling test. The ratio between both buckling resistances for a specific set of

columns is used to compute the partial factor Rd associated with the uncertainty of

the resistance model.

For S460, statistical literature information concerning the relevant material

property, being the yield stress fy, is used to estimate m < 1.0. Then the general

partial factor M1 is computed according to equation (2). Since for HISTAR 460

such information is not yet available m = 1.0 can be conservatively used to

compute the general partial factor M1 according to equation (2). This general

partial factor can have a lower value in the nearby future pending the availability of

a lower m-value representing the variability in mechanical properties of HISTAR

460 steels. For S355 and S235 m = 1.0 was also conservatively adopted to compute

the general partial factor M1 according to equation (2).

The study is limited to heavy wide flange sections which possess a flange

thickness (tf) greater than 100 mm and for which the height-to-width ratio (h/b) is

greater than 1.2. The selected sections for the present study are listed in Table 2. In

the present study a distinction is made between HD en HL sections, having an

h/b-value of approximately 1.23 and 2.35, respectively.

Table 2

Heavy wide flange sections offered by ArcelorMittal with h/b > 1.2 and tf > 100 mm

Section name: Weight

h b tw tf h/b

European per m

[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] []

American Imperial [kg]

HD 400 900

900 531 442 65.9 106 1.20

W1416605

HD 400 990

990 550 448 71.9 115 1.23

W1416665

HD 400 1086

1086 569 454 78 125 1.25

W1416730

HD 400 1202

1202 580 471 95 130 1.23

W1416808

HD 400 1299

1299 600 476 100 140 1.26

W1416873

HL 920 1194

1194 1081 457 60.5 109 2.37

W3616.5802

HL 920 1269

1269 1093 461 64 115.1 2.37

W3616.5853

HL 920 1377

1377 1093 473 76.7 115.1 2.31

W3616.5925

184 H. H. Snijder, L.-G. Cajot, N. Popa, R. C. Spoorenberg 7

can withstand before failing in a flexural buckling mode is determined using EN

1993-1-1 [8]. The buckling resistance for a column can be verified as follows:

N Ed

1.0 , (3)

N b,Rd

where: NE,d is the design value of the compression force; Nb,Rd is the design

buckling resistance.

The design buckling resistance is given by:

Af f

N b,Rd = , (4)

M1

where A is the cross-sectional area, fy is the yield stress, M1 is the general partial

factor for instability and is the buckling reduction factor. This check is only valid

for sections belonging to cross-sectional class 1, 2 or 3. The product of the cross-

sectional area and the yield stress is known as the squash load of the cross-section

or Npl. Using equations (3, 4), the verification of the buckling resistance can be

rewritten as follows:

N Ed

1.0 . (5)

N pl /M1

The buckling reduction factor can be computed according to:

1

= but 1.0 , (6)

+ 2 2

where

(

= 0.5 1 + ( 0.2 ) + 2 . ) (7)

= N pl N cr , (8)

where Ncr is the elastic critical force of the column. The imperfection factor

attains one of the values as listed in Table 3, depending on the cross-section, steel

grade and buckling case (weak-axis or strong-axis buckling) under consideration.

8 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 185

Table 3

Imperfection factor for buckling curves

Buckling curve a0 a b c d

Imperfection factor 0.13 0.21 0.34 0.49 0.76

on the selected buckling curve and corresponding imperfection factor a theoretical

resistance can be computed for a heavy section if the relative slenderness is

known. This value will be compared to the elastic-plastic buckling resistance

obtained from non-linear finite element analysis (Section 3).

1

a0

0.8 a

b

Relative resistance [-]

c

0.6 d

0.4

0.2

0

0 1 2 3

Relative slenderness [-]

3.1. ELEMENTS

imperfections (GMNIA) were performed in the ANSYS v.11.0 implicit

environment. The columns were modelled with beam elements. The 3D three node

finite strain element (BEAM189) was selected for the analyses as it can describe

plasticity, large deformations and large strains. A user-defined cross-section was

modelled based on nominal dimensions (Table 2). The cross-section is subdivided

into different cells to capture growth of plastic zones across the cross-section. Each

186 H. H. Snijder, L.-G. Cajot, N. Popa, R. C. Spoorenberg 9

cell contains four integration points where the stresses are evaluated (Fig. 4a). Two

integration point locations in longitudinal direction of each element describe

progressive yielding along the length of the column. A total of 20 elements along

the length of the member were considered sufficient. Earlier research studies on

column buckling have shown that this element type is able to replicate

experimental elastic-plastic buckling tests with good accuracy thereby taking into

account the effects of residual stresses [17, 18].

All selected column configurations for the present investigations were simply

supported. The column was pin-supported and torsionally restrained at the bottom.

The same boundary condition was applied at the top with the exception that

vertical translation was permitted. For the evaluation of strong-axis buckling, the

column was restrained against weak-axis deflections by translational supports

along the length (Fig. 3).

uy=uz=x=0 F uy=uz=x=0 F

uy=0

L

x y

z z

y y

ux=uy=uz=x=0 ux=uy=uz=x=0

An individual residual stress value was set for each integration point in the

cross-section. The stress value specified for each integration point is assigned to

the tributary area belonging to that integration point, rendering a step-wise initial

stress pattern over the cross-section (Fig. 4b). Here the pattern for the residual

stress model of [9] for HISTAR 460 is shown. The residual stresses are constant

across the flange thickness and web thickness. After inserting the residual stresses

into the element, a first solution step was issued to verify internal equilibrium of

the residual stress model. Insignificant differences were observed between the residual

10 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 187

stress model and the stresses after solving, indicating correct implementation of the

residual stress model (Fig. 4c).

Fig. 4 Finite element discretization of cross-section and implemented residual stresses (for HD 4001202).

For HISTAR 460 and for S460, the QST residual stress model of [9] was

adopted as depicted in (Fig. 5a). This model has a parabolic shape along the web

height and flange width. The magnitude of the residual stresses in the web is

related to the section dimensions.

Fig. 5 Residual stress models.

HL and HD sections is known to the authors. In order to include the effect of

residual stress on the resistance of these sections when failing by strong- and weak-

axis buckling an assumption is made about their distribution. Two different

residual models are selected to make an educated guess concerning the residual

stresses: the ECCS residual stress model [10] commonly used for wide flange hot-

rolled sections (Fig. 5b) and the earlier derived QST residual stress model (Fig. 5a).

188 H. H. Snijder, L.-G. Cajot, N. Popa, R. C. Spoorenberg 11

As the latter model has residual stress values exceeding the (reduced) yield stress

of S235 steels, which is physically not possible, the QST residual stress model is

not used for the S235 columns. The ECCS residual stress model is featured by a bi-

linear stress distribution along the web height and flange widths. The extreme

values are at the flange tips and web center (compression) and web-to-flange

junction (tension) and set at 30 % of the (unreduced) yield stress. The unreduced

yield stresses, fy = 235 N/mm2 and fy = 355 N/mm2 for S235 and S355 respectively,

were used which is conservative in view of defining the residual stress values.

Using fy = 355 N/mm2 may be very conservative since normally fy = 235 N/mm2 is

used with the ECCS residual stress model regardless the steel grade.

The residual stress values at the most critical locations for the QST and

ECCS residual stress models are listed in Table 4 and Table 5, respectively.

Table 4

Residual stress values for QST residual stress model [9] [N/mm2]

frt frc wrt wrc

Steel grade Section

(tension) (compression) (tension) (compression)

HD 400 900 81 135 81 101

HISTAR460 HD 400 990 81 135 81 101

HD 400 1086 81 135 81 102

S460 HD 400 1202 81 135 81 95

HD 400 1299 81 135 81 97

S355 HL 920 1194 180 225 180 219

HL 920 1269 180 225 180 220

HL 920 1377 180 225 180 201

Table 5

Residual stress values for ECCS residual stress model [10] [N/mm2]

Flange tip/web center Web-to-flange junction

Steel grade Section

(compression) (tension)

S235 all 0.3 235 = 71 0.3 235 = 71

S355 all 0.3 355 = 107 0.3 355 = 107

loading (Fig. 6). A fixed yield stress value fy was used to define the onset of

yielding. This value is based on the steel properties, thereby taking into account a

reduction in yield stress due to the thickness of the flanges. A more generally

accepted value for the Youngs modulus of 200 000 N/mm2 was adopted to define

the elastic stage of the material. Strain hardening increases the ultimate load of

stocky columns but hardly affects columns in the intermediate and high slenderness

ranges. Neglecting strain hardening is a conservative approach and is in line with

what has previously been done by other researchers, e.g. [15, 16]. Therefore, no

strain hardening effects were included.

12 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 189

fy

[N/mm2]

HISTAR 450

460

S460 385

S355 295

S235 195

E = 200 000 N/mm2

The shape of the geometric imperfection was based on the buckling mode

belonging to the lowest eigenvalue from a linear buckling analysis. This resulted in

a sinusoidal bow imperfection. The amplitude defining the maximum deviation

from the ideal geometry was L/1000, where L is the height of the column. This

approach is generally accepted for the determination of buckling curves. A similar

approach, but then for lateral torsional buckling of beams, was used in [15]. The

value L/1000 for the imperfection amplitude is recommended in [10]. This value is

expected to be conservative since it is very likely that the real imperfections of the

heavy sections considered here are smaller than L/1000. The value L/1000 is a

design imperfection amplitude for use in numerical analyses.

3.6. SOLUTION

specified magnitude was applied at the top of the column. The Arc-Length method

was selected to solve the non-linear equilibrium iterations. The Arc-Length method

was selected in preference to the conventional Newton-Raphson method as the

former is able to describe the decreasing load-deflection curve beyond the maximum

load whereas the latter will abort the solution when the maximum resistance has

been reached. The load was divided into four load steps which in turn were further

divided into substeps or load increments. For each load-increment a number of

equilibrium iterations were performed to arrive at a converged solution. The

solution was considered solved when the out-of-balance load vector is smaller than

0.05 % of the load increment. The ultimate strength or flexural buckling resistance

of the column (Nult;FEM) was identified as the maximum load on the load-deflection

curve. The elastic buckling load (Ncr;FEM) is obtained from a linear buckling

analysis (LBA) using the Block-Lanczos extraction method of eigenvalues.

190 H. H. Snijder, L.-G. Cajot, N. Popa, R. C. Spoorenberg 13

For each column configuration for which the ultimate resistance is evaluated

through non-linear finite element analyses, the reduction factor is obtained by

normalizing the ultimate load against the squash load of the cross-section (Npl;FEM).

N ult;FEM

FEM = , (9)

N pl;FEM

where the squash load of the cross-section is computed according to:

N pl;FEM = Af y , (10)

where A is the cross-sectional area of the element and fy is the yield stress.

The factor FEM is labeled as the experimental resistance for comparison

with the theoretical resistance . The relative slenderness of the column can be

computed by taking the square root of the ratio between the squash load of the cross-

section and the elastic buckling load evaluated from a linear buckling analysis:

FEM = N pl;FEM N cr;FEM . (11)

Note that equation (11) is similar to equation (8) but the squash load is now based

on that of the FEM model and the elastic buckling load is calculated with a LBA.

3.8.1. Steel HISTAR 460

Typical load-deflection curves as obtained from the finite element analyses

are shown in Fig. 7a.

1 1.2

a b HD 920x1377

L=14400 mm strong-axis

1

0.8

HD 400x1202

L=8000 mm weak-axis HD 400x1202

0.8

Reduction factor [-]

L=8000 mm weak-axis

N ult;FEM/Ncr;FEM [-]

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

HD 920x1377

0.2 L=14400 mm strong-axis

0.2

Column curve a

0 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 1 2 3

Lateral displacement [mm] Relative slenderness [-]

Fig. 7 Finite element output: load-deflection curves for HISTAR 460 (a)

and corresponding data in buckling curve diagram (b).

14 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 191

In Fig. 7b the ultimate loads from Fig. 7a are plotted in the buckling curve

diagram using the equations (911) in addition to buckling curve a. Plotting the

ultimate load for a specific group of columns in the buckling curve diagram in

addition to a buckling curve allows a first estimate to be made as to whether that

specific buckling curve is on the conservative or unconservative side.

Typical load-deflection curves as obtained from finite element analyses are

shown in Fig. 8 for four HD 400x1299 columns in S460 failing by weak-axis buckling.

In Fig. 9 the ultimate loads from Fig. 8 are plotted in the buckling curve

diagram using the equations (911) in addition to buckling curve b to show that

there is a reasonable fit with buckling curve b slightly on the conservative side.

160000 40000

elastic buckling

elastic buckling

120000 30000

Load [kN]

Load [kN]

elastic-plastic buckling

40000 10000

HD 400x1299 HD 400x1299

S460 S460

L=6 m L=12.4 m

0 0

0 40 80 120 160 0 50 100 150 200

Lateral displacement [mm] Lateral displacement [mm]

16000 8000

elastic-plastic buckling

Load [kN]

Load [kN]

8000 4000

4000 2000

HD 400x1299 HD 400x1299

S460 S460

L=18.8 m L=25.2 m

0 0

0 100 200 300 400 0 250 500 750 1000

Lateral displacement [mm] Lateral displacement [mm]

Fig. 8 Finite element output: load-deflection curves for elastic and elastic-plastic

buckling analyses of HD 4001299 columns in S460.

192 H. H. Snijder, L.-G. Cajot, N. Popa, R. C. Spoorenberg 15

1

HD 400x1299

S460

weak-axis

0.8

0.6

0.4

FEM

0

0 1 2 3

Relative slenderness [-]

for buckling of HD 4001299 columns in S460.

Typical load-deflection curves for strong axis buckling as obtained from

finite element analyses are shown in Fig. 10 for columns with different lengths

with cross-section HL 9201377 in S355 and S235 using the QST and ECCS

residual stress models.

50000 50000

S355

40000 QST model 40000

30000 30000

Load [kN]

Load [kN]

S235 S355

ECCS model QST model

20000 20000

S235

ECCS model

10000 10000

HL 920 x 1377 HL 920 x 1377

L = 30 m L = 50 m

0 0

0 50 100 150 200 0 250 500 750 1000

Lateral displacement [mm] Lateral displacement [mm]

for buckling analyses of HL 9201377 columns.

16 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 193

In Fig. 11 the ultimate loads from Fig. 10 are plotted in the buckling curve

diagram using the equations (911) in addition to buckling curve a to show that

there is a reasonable fit.

1

S235 ECCS

0.8 Model

L=30 m

Reduction factor [-]

Model

L=50 m

0.4

buckling curve a

0.2

0

0 1 2 3

Relative slenderness [-]

for buckling of HL 9201377 columns.

4. STATISTICAL EVALUATION

AND SUGGESTED BUCKLING CURVES

applied here in a similar way as in [15]. For any heavy QST column i a comparison

can be made between its experimental resistance (re,i) and its theoretical resistance (rt,i):

re,i

Ri = . (12)

rt,i

In the present study the experimental resistance refers to FEM from equation

(9) for a column i failing by flexural buckling as obtained from non-linear finite

element analysis, so re,i = FEM. The theoretical resistance of column i refers to the

buckling reduction factor according to the buckling curve formulation from EN

1993-1-1 (equation (6)), so rt,i = . It is noted that in order to arrive at a theoretical

resistance a selection for a buckling curve (imperfection factor from Table 3) must

already be made. A value of Ri smaller than 1.0 or larger than 1.0 reflects an

unconservative or a conservative theoretical resistance model, respectively. For any

194 H. H. Snijder, L.-G. Cajot, N. Popa, R. C. Spoorenberg 17

group of column configurations belonging to a set with sample size n, the mean

value correction factor Rm and corresponding variance can be determined:

n

1 1 n

Rm =

n

Ri , R2 =

n 1 i =1

( Ri Rm )2 . (13)

i =1

theoretical resistance on the x-axis for all column configurations belonging to

subset n, the points will be distributed around the so-called estimator line:

re = Rmrt.

For each column configuration belonging to subset n an error term i is

introduced:

re, i

i = . (14)

rt , i RM

i = 1n ( i ) . (15)

For the logarithmic error terms belonging to sample size n, the mean value

and corresponding variance are determined as follows:

2

1 n 1 n

=

n i =1

i, 2 =

n 1 i =1

(

i ) . (16)

V = exp 2 1 .( ) (17)

When using a subset with a sample size n > 100 the partial factor associated

with the uncertainty of the resistance model can be determined as follows:

1

Rd = 1.0 ,

Rm exp ( kd,n Q 0.5Q 2 ) (18)

for which:

(

Q = 1n V2 + 1 ) (19)

and where kd,n is the characteristic fractile factor: 0.8 3.8 = 3.04.

18 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 195

So, finally equation (18) gives the partial factor Rd belonging to a suggested

buckling curve based on a set of column configurations.

Non-linear finite element analyses were carried out for the heavy wide flange

cross-sections of Table 2. Per steel grade, cross-section, buckling axis and where

appropriate residual stress model, at least 100 analyses were performed indicated

by the sample size n.

For HISTAR 460 all eight cross-sections were considered, (Table 2). For

each cross-section the weak-axis and strong-axis buckling response was evaluated.

The relative slenderness of the investigated columns was in the range between 0.31

and 3.3.

Plotting the finite element results in a buckling curve diagram permits a first

judgment on the suitability of the buckling curve to represent the column strength

for heavy HISTAR 460 sections. In case the chosen buckling curve is positioned

below the finite element results, it will provide conservative column strength

values. The buckling curve can be regarded as unconservative when the finite

element data is below the buckling curve. Figure 12 (left) shows the finite elements

results for a HL 4001202 section in HISTAR 460 buckling about its weak axis in

a buckling curve diagram in addition to buckling curve b.

Similar trends are found when plotting the theoretical column strength rt,i =

against its numerical counterpart re,i = FEM such as shown in Fig. 12 (right). In

case the buckling curve produces column strengths similar to the finite element

results, the data is positioned on the line re = rt. Data distributed above the line re =

rt indicates that the buckling curve provides conservative values for the column

strength. Unconservative columns strengths are found when the data points are

below re = rt. When the buckling curve formulation represents column strengths

different from those obtained with finite element analyses, the data points will be

distributed around the line re = Rmrt, where Rm is mean value correction factor

according to equation (13), [11, 19]. This line will give a better description of the

correlation between the theoretical and numerical values in comparison to re = rt.

The partial factor associated with the uncertainty of the resistance model is

evaluated for each buckling curve. The corresponding Rd-values for each section

type and buckling axis are presented in Table 6. For unfavorable buckling curves

the Rd-value is lower in comparison to more favorable buckling curves for a

majority of the investigated cases. Hence, relating the elastic-plastic buckling

response of a heavy HISTAR 460 section to a more favorable buckling curve is at

196 H. H. Snijder, L.-G. Cajot, N. Popa, R. C. Spoorenberg 19

the expense of a higher partial factor Rd. The most favorable buckling curve

selected for heavy HISTAR 460 sections failing by flexural buckling is based on

the criterion Rd < 1.05, as denoted in bold in Table 6. This is associated with a

target value Rd = 1.0 so that values greater than 1.05 cannot be accepted. The 1.05

boundary is arbitrary but it is believed to be reasonable.

1 1

HD 400x1202 HD 400x1202

HISTAR 460 HISTAR 460

0.8 weak-axis 0.8 weak-axis

Reduction factor [-]

0.6 0.6

FEM

0.2 Buckling curve b 0.2 re=Rmxrt

FEM re=rt

0 0

0 1 2 3 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Relative slenderness [-] rt,i [-]

Fig. 12 Finite element data in buckling curve (left) and compared against theoretical solutions for

buckling curve b (right) weak-axis buckling of HD 400x1202 in HISTAR 460.

Table 6

Partial factors Rd per buckling curve for HISTAR 460

Buckling curve

Buckling Sample

Heavy section a0 a b c d

axis size n

Weak 104 1.161 1.054 0.994 0.978 0.947

HD 400900

Strong 119 1.015 1.000 0.998 0.984 0.950

Weak 104 1.160 1.054 1.003 0.991 0.968

HD 400990

Strong 111 1.016 1.010 1.017 1.015 0.995

Weak 109 1.159 1.053 1.000 0.989 0.964

HD 4001086

Strong 109 1.015 1.012 1.022 1.021 1.004

Weak 110 1.160 1.053 0.997 0.983 0.955

HD 4001202

Strong 134 1.016 1.009 1.017 1.013 0.992

Weak 110 1.160 1.053 0.999 0.985 0.957

HD 4001299

Strong 137 1.017 1.009 1.011 1.003 0.978

Weak 100 1.275 1.146 1.017 0.982 0.953

HL 9201377

Strong 166 1.053 0.992 0.983 0.964 0.922

Weak 101 1.298 1.167 1.031 0.974 0.933

HL 9201194

Strong 106 1.073 0.991 0.967 0.940 0.887

Weak 103 1.287 1.158 1.030 0.985 0.953

HL 9201269

Strong 101 1.056 0.993 0.985 0.969 0.931

20 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 197

The differences between sections belonging to the same type (HD or HL) and

buckling around the same axis (weak or strong) are relatively small, indicating that

section geometry for the same section type has little influence on the partial factor.

In general the partial factors for an identical buckling curve are greater for the

weak-axis buckling case than those for the strong-axis buckling case. This reflects

the more detrimental influence of residual stresses for columns failing by weak-

axis buckling. Assuming that a Rd -value smaller than 1.05 allows Rd = 1.0 to be

used, HD and HL sections failing by weak-axis buckling should be assigned to

buckling curve b. Buckling curve a0 is assigned to HD sections failing by strong

axis buckling. HL sections buckling about the strong axis should be checked by

buckling curve a. These results are summarized in Table 7.

Table 7

Proposed buckling curves for HISTAR 460 sections based on Rd

Rolled I-sections

HD section: y-y a0

h/b 1.23 z-z b

HL section: y-y a

h/b 2.35 z-z b

HD 4001299, HL 9201194 and HL 9201377 (Table 2). For each cross-section

the weak-axis and strong-axis buckling response was evaluated. The relative

slenderness of the investigated columns was in the range between 0.23 and 3.33.

Figure 13 (left) shows the finite elements results for a HL 9201377 section

in S460 buckling about its strong axis in a buckling curve diagram in addition to

buckling curve a. In Fig. 13 (right) the same results are plotted with the theoretical

column strength rt,i = on the horizontal axis against its numerical counterpart

re,i = FEM on the vertical axis.

198 H. H. Snijder, L.-G. Cajot, N. Popa, R. C. Spoorenberg 21

1 1

HL 920x1377 HL 920x1377

S460 S460

strong-axis strong-axis

0.8 0.8

Reduction factor [-]

0.6 0.6

re,i [-]

0.4 0.4

FEM

0.2 Buckling curve a 0.2 re=Rmxrt

FEM re=rt

0 0

0 1 2 3 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Relative slenderness [-] rt,i [-]

Fig. 13 Finite element data in buckling curve (left) and compared against theoretical solutions

for buckling curve b (right) strong-axis buckling of HL 9201377 in S460.

The partial factor associated with the uncertainty of the resistance model is

evaluated for each buckling curve. The corresponding Rd-values for each section

type and buckling axis are presented in Table 8. Again the partial factor should be

smaller than 1.05 to allow Rd = 1.0 to be used. The associated values are denoted in

bold in Table 8.

Again the differences between sections belonging to the same type (HD or

HL) and buckling around the same axis (weak or strong) are relatively small and

the partial factors for an identical buckling curve are greater for the weak-axis

buckling case than those for the strong-axis buckling case.

The proposed buckling curves for S460 sections are the same as for HISTAR

460 (Table 7) except for HL sections buckling around the weak axis where

buckling curve c seems to be more appropriate. However, it should be noted that

for that case the partial factors belonging to buckling curve b (Rd = 1.066 and Rd =

1.058 for the sections HL 9201194 and HL 9201377, respectively) just slightly

exceed Rd = 1.05.

Table 8

Partial factors Rd per buckling curve for S460

Buckling curve

Heavy section Buckling axis Sample a a b c d

size n 0

Strong 106 1.033 1.002 1.009 1.005 0.983

HD 4001299 Weak 131 1.208 1.091 1.005 0.980 0.945

Strong 105 1.035 1.003 1.008 1.002 0.978

HL 9201194 Weak 100 1.356 1.218 1.066 0.978 0.935

Strong 115 1.101 0.999 0.963 0.934 0.880

HL 9201377 Weak 108 1.355 1.214 1.058 0.990 0.972

Strong 102 1.084 0.995 0.988 0.975 0.939

22 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 199

Since HL cross-sections apparently result in less favorable buckling curves

than HD cross-sections, only HL cross-sections were considered for 355 and S235.

For two cross-sections in S355 and S235 strong-axis buckling was considered: HL

9201377 and HL 9201194 (Table 2). For cross-section HL 9201377 made from

steel grade S355 buckling about the weak-axis was considered. The relative

slenderness of the investigated columns was in the range between 0.21 and 3.58.

1 1

HL 920x1377 HL 920x1377

S355 ECCS S355 ECCS

strong-axis strong-axis

0.8 0.8

Reduction factor [-]

0.6 0.6

re,i [-]

0.4 0.4

FEM

FEM re=rt

0 0

0 1 2 3 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Relative slenderness [-] rt,i [-]

Fig. 14 Finite element data in buckling curve (left) and compared against theoretical solutions for

buckling curve b (right) strong-axis buckling of HL 9201377 in S355 with ECCS residual stress model.

Figure 14 (left) shows the finite elements results for a HL 9201377 section

in S355 with ECCS residual stress model, buckling about its strong axis in a

buckling curve diagram in addition to buckling curve a. In Fig. 14 (right) the same

results are plotted with the theoretical column strength rt,i = on the horizontal axis

against its numerical counterpart re,i = FEM on the vertical axis.

The partial factors associated with the uncertainty of the resistance model are

evaluated for each buckling curve and shown in Table 9. Also the residual stress

model used is indicated. Again the partial factor should be smaller than 1.05 to

allow Rd = 1.0 to be used. The associated values are denoted in bold in Table 9.

For S355 and S235 Table 9 suggests buckling curve a for strong-axis

buckling and buckling curve c for weak-axis buckling. It should be noted that the

strong-axis partial factors associated with buckling curve a obtained with residual

stress model QST are quite close to the 1.05 boundary value. It should also be

noted that no knowledge is available with respect to the real residual stress models

and levels for these heavy sections in S355 and S235.

200 H. H. Snijder, L.-G. Cajot, N. Popa, R. C. Spoorenberg 23

Table 9

Partial factors Rd per buckling curve for S355 and S235

Buckling curve

Heavy Steel Res. str. Buckl. Sample

a0 a b c d

section gr. mod. axis size n

S235 ECCS Strong 115 1.122 1.026 1.016 1.018 1.008

HL ECCS Strong 120 1.093 1.002 0.985 0.972 0.937

9201377 S355 Strong 115 1.151 1.037 0.995 0.983 0.949

QST

Weak 120 1.502 1.347 1.170 1.029 0.964

S235 ECCS Strong 142 1.129 1.029 1.021 1.008 0.990

HL

ECCS Strong 123 1.095 1.014 1.005 1.001 0.983

9201194 S355

QST Strong 122 1.160 1.044 0.994 0.986 0.958

Using available statistical information on the partial factor for the material m and

using equation (2) may produce lower M1-values than the Rd-values, since

m-values are generally smaller than 1.0. The relevant material property is the yield

stress. So, if statistical information on the yield stress is available such that a

m-value can be evaluated, then the general partial factor M1 can be calculated with

equation (2). As the yield stress of a single coupon can never be lower than the

nominal yield stress, as this would lead to the member being rejected, it can be

reasonably assumed that a m-value of 1.0 is a conservative value to account for the

variability of the material properties. So, if statistical information on the yield

stress is not available, the partial factor for the material m can be safely set equal to

m = 1.0 and the general partial factor based on equation (2) is equal to M1 = Rd.

Since for HISTAR 460 published statistical information on the yield stress is

not yet available m = 1.0 is used to compute the general partial factor M1

according to equation (2): i.e. M1 = Rd. Assuming that M1 = 1.0 is the target value

for the general partial factor, then the (arbitrary but reasonable) criterion for

choosing a buckling curve is that M1 < 1.05. So, in fact for HISTAR 460 with M1 = Rd,

also the partial factor should fulfil the requirement Rd < 1.05. This means that for

HISTAR 460 the buckling curves of Table 7 can be used with M1 = 1.0. As soon as

a database becomes available containing the yield stress from a wide set of coupon

tests on HISTAR 460 sections, a value of m lower than 1.0 can be obtained

resulting in either a lower general partial factor or a more favorable buckling curve.

For S460, statistical literature information concerning the yield stress fy is

used to estimate m < 1.0. Two RFCS (Research Fund for Coal and Steel) projects

provide statistical data: OPUS [20] and PROQUA [21].

24 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 201

OPUS [20] provides statistical data for the yield stress of S460M in the

flange thickness range of 16 < tf < 40mm: the mean value is fy,m = 521.1 N/mm2,

the standard deviation is fy, = 26.75 N/mm2 and the coefficient of variation then is

Vfy = fy,m/ fy, = 0.051. The ratio between mean and nominal yield stress can be

calculated as R = fy,m/ fy,nom = 521.1/460 = 1.13. If it is assumed that this ratio also

applies to S460 cross-sections with flange thicknesses tf > 100mm, then with a

reduced nominal yield stress for thickness fy,nom = 385 N/mm2, the mean value

becomes: fy,m = fy,nom R = 385 1.13 = 435 N/mm2. Keeping the coefficient of

variation the same, the material partial factor can be calculated using:

f y,nom

m =

(

f y,m 1 1.64V fy ). (20)

factor is used with the partial factors Rd of Table 8 in equation (2), more favorable

general partial factors M1 are obtained. This does not affect the buckling curves for

HD sections nor does it affect the buckling curve for strong-axis buckling of HL

columns but it does affect the buckling curve for weak-axis buckling of HL

columns. For HL columns in weak-axis buckling and for buckling curve b the Rd-

values are 1.066 and 1.058 for HL 9201194 and HL 9201377 respectively.

Multiplied (equation (2)) by m = 0.966 the M1-values become 1.030 and 1.022

respectively. So M1 < 1.05 meaning that M1 = 1.0 may be used in this case together

with buckling curve b. This means that also for S460 the buckling curves of Table

7 can be used with M1 = 1.0.

Statistical data given in PROQUA [21] together with plant measurements

support the value m = 0.966 used.

Though statistical information on the yield stress of S355 and S235 is readily

available, there are other reasons (to be mentioned hereafter) not to use this

information.

Though for HISTAR 460 and S460 the buckling curves of Table 7 may be

used for heavy sections with h/b > 1.2 and tf > 100 mm in combination with the

general partial factor M1 = 1.0, these buckling curves cannot be incorporated in

Eurocode3 EN 1993-1-1 [8] if the format of the buckling curve selection table

(Table 1) is to be kept, since no distinction is made between HD and HL cross-

sections. For that reason, the most unfavorable buckling curves for HD and HL

202 H. H. Snijder, L.-G. Cajot, N. Popa, R. C. Spoorenberg 25

cross-sections of Table 7 are used in the proposed new Eurocode3 buckling curve

selection table (Table 10). Also the proprietary name HISTAR can obviously not

be mentioned in the proposed Eurocode3 buckling curve selection table.

For S355 and S235 it was shown in section 4.2.3 that for heavy sections with

h/b > 1.2 and tf > 100 mm the buckling curves a and c may be used for strong and

weak-axis buckling respectively, together with Rd = 1.0. This result may even be

improved using statistical data on the yield stress resulting in m < 1.0 and thus in

either a lower value of the general partial factor M1 or in more favorable buckling

curves than mentioned. However, this does not make sense as long as no further

and better information is available on residual stress distributions in heavy sections

with h/b > 1.2 and tf > 100 mm in S355 and S235. In fact, information on residual

stresses is not available at this moment at all. For that reason it is proposed to

conservatively use the buckling curves b and c, which fit nicely in the table when

comparing with buckling curves for other cases. Often, moving from S460 to lower

steel grades means a shift of one buckling curve and the current proposal is in line

with that.

The QST residual stress model [9] as used in the present analyses is

representative for any heavy wide flange section having similar cross-sectional

dimensions and made with the Quenched and Self-Tempered process. As such, the

residual stress model can be used to define the initial stress state in heavy sections

made from grade S460 but also from S500 as these grades are manufactured with

identical methods by ArcelorMittal as HISTAR 460 steel. Grade S500 also has the

same nominal yield stress after reduction to account for material thickness effects

(i.e. 450 N/mm2, see Fig. 1). For these reasons S500 can be added in the last

column of Table 10.

Table 10

Proposed buckling curve selection table for Eurocode3, EN 1993-1-1

Buckling Buckling curve

about S235 S460

Cross-section Limits axis S275 S500

S355

S420

Rolled I-sections y-y a a0

tf 40 mm

z-z b a0

y-y b a

h/b > 1.2 40 < tf 100 mm

z-z c a

y-y b a

tf > 100 mm

z-z c b

y-y b a

tf 100 mm

z-z c a

h/b 1.2

y-y d c

tf > 100 mm

z-z d c

26 Buckling curves for heavy wide flange steel columns 203

6. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper buckling curves are proposed to check the flexural buckling

resistance of heavy wide flange columns, which have a flange thickness tf >100

mm and a height-to-width ratio h/b > 1.2. These sections are currently not covered

by Eurocode3 (EN 1993-1-1).

A database was created containing the elastic-plastic buckling resistance for a

wide set of heavy HISTAR 460, S460, S355 and S235 columns (both the stocky

HD-type and slender HL-type) failing by weak-axis and strong-axis buckling. The

buckling resistance was evaluated using non-linear finite element analyses using an

earlier proposed residual stress model [9] and the ECCS residual stress model [10]

to define the initial stress state.

The numerical buckling loads were compared against theoretical values,

where the latter correspond to the buckling resistances for a selected buckling

curve according to EN 1993-1-1. Based on the ratio between both values, a partial

factor Rd associated with the uncertainty of the resistance model was evaluated

according to Annex D of EN 1990 for each of the five buckling curves.

Aiming at a target value for the general partial factor of M1 = 1.0, meaning

that the resulting M1-values should not exceed 1.05, buckling curves are proposed.

For cross-sections with h/b > 1.2 and tf > 100 mm in steel grades S460 and S500

the buckling curves a and b are proposed for strong and weak-axis buckling

respectively, while for these cross-sections in steel grades S235 up to and including

S420 the buckling curves b and c are proposed for strong and weak-axis buckling

respectively.

Quenched and Self-Tempered (QST) steel cross-sections are currently

manufactured under the proprietary name HISTAR (HIgh STrength ARcelorMittal)

by ArcelorMittal. For stocky HD cross-sections in HISTAR 460 with h/b 1.23

and tf > 100 mm it was shown that the buckling curves a0 and b can be used for

strong and weak-axis buckling respectively. For slender HL cross-sections in

HISTAR 460 with h/b 2.35 and tf > 100 mm it was shown that the buckling

curves a and b can be used for strong and weak-axis buckling respectively.

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PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT

OF STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCES IN EN 1090-2

ON THE STABILITY DESIGN OF STEEL COLUMNS

ANDREAS TARAS*

Abstract. This paper addresses a current, practical topic which has interesting

implications for design practices and research in the steel construction industry: the

impact of new, relaxed fabrication tolerances on the strength of compression

members. The current debate on this topic held at a code committee level was

triggered by the introduction of increased tolerances for the out-of-straightness of

steel members in the new European standard for the execution of steel structures for

constructional steelwork, EN 1090-2 [1]. The extent to which these changes are still

covered by the present design rules is currently unknown. To date, a consistent,

logically coherent justification for the acceptance of these changes is still missing.

The study presented in this paper is therefore intended as a contribution to this debate.

In the broader scientific context, it is intended to serve as an example for the

possibility of answering questions regarding the impact of changes to production

tolerances and manufacturing habits on design rules by probabilistic approaches.

Key words: buckling, imperfections, tolerances, structural reliability, eurocode 3,

probabilistic assessment, steel columns.

1. INTRODUCTION

for the fabrication and erection of steel structures brought about a number of

innovations to the allowable shape deviations (or tolerances) of members, plates

etc. In the case of compression members, the most significant and controversial

change, when compared to most previous national standards, was the introduction

of an out-of-straightness limit of = L/750. This value is noticeably larger than the

value of L/1000 known to form the basis of the stability design rules for column

and beam-column buckling in Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1 [2] (EC3). Therefore, the

pertinent ECCS and CEN committees are currently confronted with the question of

what impact must be expected to the safety level of slender steel structures

designed in accordance with EC3 and fabricated following EN 1090-2.

This paper presents the results of a study that addressed this question for the

most relevant case of steel compression members (columns). Thereby, the case

of weak-axis buckling of one exemplary section was considered; this allowed for

*

Graz University of Technology, Institute for Steel Structures, Austria

206 Andreas Taras 2

terms of relative differences between different scenarios and tolerance prescriptions.

The study makes use of plausible scenarios for future column production habits and

of an advanced probabilistic and mechanical-deterministic methodology. This

methodology includes Monte Carlo simulations based on statistical distributions

of the basic variables of the stability problem, coupled with geometrically and

materially non-linear FEM analyses (GMNIA, see section 4.2) of imperfect members

with random distributions of these same variables. A large number (exceeding

2000) of single simulation runs was carried out for this study. The results of these

FEM calculation runs were then evaluated, as results of numerical tests, in

accordance with Annex D of EN 1990 [3].

IN INTERNATIONAL CODES

manufacturing and erection tolerances. The former, also called shop fabrication

tolerances, are concerned with deviations from the nominal dimensions and are

measured in the workshop. They mainly serve as control quantity for the production

quality in the shop or factory. The latter are measured on site, after erection. They

are a control quantity for the quality of the erection works on site.

Table 1 summarizes the regulations of the out-of-straightness tolerances for

compression members according to different international codes. The following

comments can be made:

i. The manufacturing (shop) tolerances for out-of-straightness of compression

members were fixed at a value of L/1000 in all codes of practice preceding the

publication of the new European standard EN 1090-2. As a side note, it should be

mentioned that hollow sections produced according to the standard EN 10210-1

(2006) had and still have a larger tolerance limit of L/500 [4].

ii. The value of L/1000 is identical to the imperfection assumptions on

which the European column buckling curves (now found in the Eurocode) are

based, e0 = L/1000 [5, 6]. Historically, this tolerance value was actually the initial

motivation for the adoption of e0 = L/1000 in the non-linear numerical calculations

that were carried out during the development of the European column buckling

curves. With L/750, EN 1090-2 increases the tolerance limit by 1/3.

iii. In previous national European and current international codes, the

sections devoted to erection tolerances did not generally include provisions

regarding the out-of-straightness of compression members. The AISC code only

recently added a clarifying drawing where columns are shown to have L/1000

also in the erected configuration, but no comment is given on this and on how

this should be measured. The same can be stated about the former Austrian

Standard N B 4300-7 (1994). Other codes only mention positioning and

inclination restrictions for the erection of columns.

3 The impact of straightness tolerances on the stability design of steel columns 207

Table 1

Out-of-straightness of compression members (except hollow sections)

according to different international standards

Measurement Manufacturing Erection

Standard Country

Definition Tolerance Tolerance

AISC Code of

None

Standard Practice USA L/1000

L/1000)

(2005)

BS 5920-2 (2001)

& UK max(3mm ; L/1000) None

NSSS (2007)

Product standards

DIN 18800-7

DE hot-rolled: EN 10034 None

(2002)

welded: ISO 13920

N B4300-7 (1994) AUT L/1000 L/1000

(from EN 1090- ENV 1993-1-

Some EU L/1000

2) 1:1992 / None

countries max (3 mm; L/1000)

ENV 1090-1:1996

L/667 &

ECCS Rec. 1978 - L/1000

statistics

EN 1090-2:2008 CEN members L/750 L/750

difficulty and cumbersomeness associated with measuring a columns curvature

once it is built in. Furthermore, if the curvature is specified as an erection tolerance

it must also be specified how, and with what frequency, this quantity ought to be

measured on site this is not straight-forward and potentially controversial.

v. The only provision known to specify clear and uncontroversial acceptance

criteria for column out-of-straightness on site is contained in the ECCS European

Recommendations for Steel Construction (1978), see [7]. While this code also

uses the value of L/1000 for workshop fabrication, it loosens this value to

L/667 = 0.0015 L on site. According to this recommendation, if individual

measured values exceed this value, the construction contracts parties are expected

to agree upon the subsequent procedure by judging the fitness-for-purpose of the

compression element.

vi. Additionally to this criterion, the emphasis is placed on the statistical

distribution of the measured curvature. This is schematically illustrated in Fig. 1.

A series of measurements is accepted as conforming to the requirements when the

mean value plus times the estimated standard deviation of measurements

lies within the tolerance limit. The value of decreases with a rising number of

measurements n, spanning a range of 3.7 for n = 6 to 2.1 for n = 100. They are

meant to lead to a 90% confidence level regarding the non-exceedance of the

tolerance value.

208 Andreas Taras 4

1.2

OK accep tance criteria for out-of-straightness

tolerance limit

m not OK 1) single value i L / 667

1.0

m = i /n ; sn = ( m) / (n 1)

scaled probability density [-]

L/667

i

0.8 2) m + sn L / 667

.sn

0.6

0.4 .s n

0.2

0.0

/L

00

05

10

15

20

25

30

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

Fig. 1 Visualization of the acceptance criteria for column curvature according to [7].

compression members. However, no indication is given about how, and how often,

these ought to be measured. One must assume that, in theory, all columns must be

measured and checked against the tolerance criterion if EN 1090-2 applies as part

of a construction contract.

BY THE EUROCODE 3 BUCKLING RULES

The code survey in the preceding section confirmed that the tolerance

definition for column straightness in EN 1090-2 differs from and is more

generous than all other important international codes, including those that were

valid (with earlier editions) in Europe when the current EC3 rules were created. In

this section, a closer look is taken at the imperfections that can be considered to be

covered by these rules. As is discussed in more detail in [5] and [6] and was

more recently summarized in [8], the current EC3 column buckling rules are based

on an extremely thorough, international experimental campaign, combined with an

equally thorough theoretical/numerical study, both carried out under the auspices

of ECCS. The experimental campaign consisted of both large scale buckling tests

and small-scale auxiliary tests that included the measurement of yield stress,

cross-sectional geometry and column out-of-straightness. While the buckling tests

5 The impact of straightness tolerances on the stability design of steel columns 209

formed the direct experimental basis of the current EC3 rules, the auxiliary tests

were originally mainly used for the purpose of documentation and test quality

control. Figure 2 shows the measurements of the out-of-straightness amplitude

for some of these tests; as can be seen, the limit of /L = 1/1000 = 0.001, valid at

the time of the tests, was exceeded by a non-negligible amount of tested columns,

especially for smaller, slender cross-sections like the IPE 160 shown in the figure.

However, the statistical distribution of the out-of-straightness had a fairly narrow

scatter-band, with a mean value of /L of m = 0.00085 = 1/1176 and a standard

deviation of s = 0.0002 = 1/5000. This would have fulfilled the above-mentioned

procedure in the 1978 ECCS recommendation for field measurements, which also

required L/1000 in the shop. The probabilistic/statistical evaluation of the full-

scale tests corresponding to the above measurements for IPE 160 sections is

illustrated in Fig. 3, leading to a maximum value of the necessary safety factor M*

of approximately 1,13. In the main diagram, the test results are plotted over the

nominal value of the slenderness , evaluated statistically and shown as vertical

lines with markers at the values m and m 2s. This evaluation was found to be

reproducible by numerical simulations of a model beam with nominal member

geometry, bow-imperfections of amplitude e0 = L/1000 and standardized patterns

of residual stresses [5]. This is also shown in Fig. 3, where the line marked with fy,k

represents the characteristic curve (evaluated with the measured value m 2s of

the yield stress), while fy,nom identifies the curve evaluated with nominal values of

yield stress. As can be seen, the characteristic GMNIA line describes the m 2s

points of the test result evaluation very well. This knowledge was then used to

numerically determine the shape and position of the 5 European column buckling

curves in [5].

n=150 measurements

30 6

m=0.00085 m=0.00032

IPE 160 s=0.0002 HEM-sections s=0.0003

25 5

[-] [-]

20 4

frequency [-]

frequency [-]

15 3

10 2

5 1

0 0

00

02

04

06

08

10

12

14

0. 0 0

0. 0 1

0. 02

0. 03

0. 04

0. 05

0. 06

0. 07

0. 08

0. 09

10

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

/L [-] a) /L [-] b)

for some of the ECCS column tests.

210 Andreas Taras 6

Fig. 3 Original ECCS test results [6] for IPE 160 sections compared with GMNIA analyses

and safety-factor evaluation of the current, calibrated EC3 design formula.

ANALYSIS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP

TO STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCES

for column buckling, the ECCS column bucking curves were transformed into

Ayrton-Perry type design formulae by Rondal and Maquoi [9]. These design

expressions, which represent a combination of second-order internal forces with a

linear cross-sectional failure criterion and equivalent, generalized and calibrated

imperfections, are the familiar expressions currently found in EC3, Eqs. 1 and 2.

1

= 1.0, (1)

2 2

+

1

(

= 1 + + ; = 0.2 . )

2

with (2)

2

The starting point for the derivation of these equations is represented by a

first-yield buckling condition using second-order internal forces resulting from a

sinusoidal pre-deformation.

N N e0 1

+ 1.0, (3)

A f y W f y 1 (N/N cr )

with: N axial force ; Ncr elastic (Eulers) critical buckling load;

A cross-sectional area; W section modulus (plastic or elastic);

e0 amplitude of a sinusoidal imperfection shape (out-of-straightness);

fy yield strength.

7 The impact of straightness tolerances on the stability design of steel columns 211

variables = N/(A.fy), = (A f y ) / Ncr , and = A e0 / W , leading to Eq. 4:

+ 2

= 1.0. (4)

1

Equation 4 is a quadratic equation, the lowest solution of which is given by

Eq. 1 and 2. Thus, in the Eurocode column buckling curves, the original elastic

term for (= A. e0 / W) was substituted by a calibration term containing the

buckling curve coefficient . This substitution can be reversed to obtain the

implicit equivalent imperfection amplitudes e0 contained in the Eurocode column

buckling curves. In the following Eq. 5, these are represented as a fraction of the

column length L:

1 W

( e0 /L ) =

W

= 0.2 .

A L A L

( ) (5)

In some reviews (e.g. [10]) of the current Eurocode design formulae for

column buckling, it is argued that the loosening of the curvature tolerances /L

may be justifiable on the basis of the above equivalent imperfections for second-

order calculations. Acknowledging the fact that the values of the generalized

imperfection coefficient also have to cover the influence of residual stresses in

the Ayrton-Perry formulation, it is argued (assumption 1) that, at = , the

influence of the residual stresses is practically zero. Furthermore, it is implicitly

assumed (assumption 2) that the buckling curve a0 ( = a0 = 0.13) is representative for

a column with practically no locked-in stresses. The following formula can then be

derived for strong-axis flexural column buckling FBy-y:

2 I y a0 2 i y a0 fy

( e0 / L )lim,GEOM,FBy y = = . (6)

h A L h E

In a third assumption (assumption 3), the ratio iy/h is set to 0.5. With this

value, the following theoretical limit value of the purely geometrical imperfection

that is already covered by the current buckling rules can be calculated, for the most

inconvenient case of steel grade S235:

0.13 235

( e0 / L )lim,GEOM,FBy y = 2 0.5 = 1/ 722. (7)

210000

Since e0 /L = 1/722 is larger than /L = 1/750, one may believe that the new

tolerance limit is covered by the current design rules. In fact, this line of

argumentation appears to represent the main background for the loosening of the

straightness tolerances for columns.

212 Andreas Taras 8

become evident when a more in-depth verification of its basic assumptions is

performed. The following points can be brought forward:

i. First of all, the assumption regarding iy/h is not realistic for most commercial

I & H-sections, where this value moves in the range of 0.350.42. This simple

corrective remark, regarding only one of the three assumptions made above, would

disprove the above argumentation, since e.g. with iy/h = 0.4, e0 /Llim,GEOM,FBy-y =

= 1/903, which is smaller than /L = 1/750.

ii. If assumption 2 were true, applying Equ. 7 in the case of weak-axis

flexural buckling FBz-z of typical I- and H-sections (which have ratios of iz/b~0.25)

would correspondingly lead to the conclusion that a tolerance of only /L = 1/1444

is covered by the design rules an even smaller value than the one that was

previously valid at /L = 1/1000.

iii. If assumption 2 is dropped, or said not to apply for weak-axis buckling of

a member made of S235 steel, the next most plausible buckling curve for this

assumption is line b, the highest curve for weak-axis buckling of S235 I-sections.

In this case, the covered imperfection is calculated as follows:

0.34 235

( e0 / L )lim,GEOM,FBz z 2 0.25 = 1/ 552. (8)

210 000

larger than any value ever recorded in the ECCS tests (Fig. 2), it is hard to imagine

that this could be covered by the present rules.

These two points confirm that it is not purposeful to attempt to draw any

conclusions regarding the permissibility of loosening geometrical shape tolerances

by inference from considerations stemming from the second-order beam theory and

the generalized imperfection amplitude factor . The current column buckling

formulae are essentially based on curve-fitting of a second-order equation onto

previously established buckling curves, derived from tests and numerical analyses

(geometrically and materially non-linear analyses, including imperfections: GMNIA,

see section 4.2). Thereby, these manipulated second-order equivalent imperfections

lost much of their physical meaning, particularly in the quantitative sense that is of

interest here. Finally, it must be remembered that, from a safety point of view, the

values of must cover more than just residual stresses and column curvature:

since the structural designer eventually calculates a columns strength with nominal

values of cross-sectional geometry and material strength, but in reality these values

scatter, the values of must also account for the scatter of these quantities. This is

not acknowledged in the above considerations.

9 The impact of straightness tolerances on the stability design of steel columns 213

In this paper, a probabilistic approach was used in order to assess the impact

of changes to the straightness tolerances on the safety of the stability design rules

for steel compression members. Thereby, First Order Reliability Methods were

considered, following the general philosophy employed in the Eurocodes (EN 1990

[3]). Possible scenarios for the future impact of loosened straightness tolerances

were considered in a numerical parametric study with randomly generated input

parameters, whereby physical tests were simulated/replaced by non-linear numerical

tests with scattering input parameters. In the steel research community, this type of

test data generation is generally referred to as a type of Monte Carlo

assessment procedure, in reference to related, fully probabilistic approaches using

random input data generation. These test results were then analyzed statistically,

using the FORM procedures of EN 1990, in order to obtain representative values

for the necessary safety factors of the design rules.

The study was performed exemplarily for flexural buckling about the

weak z-z axis (FBz-z-) and for one section. This apparent limitation is not

particularly relevant for the aims of this paper, which are to highlight potential

relative differences in the safety level prompted by the chance in tolerances, rather

than absolute values. Thus, a representative I-section geometry had to be chosen

for the Monte Carlo simulations of this paper. The IPE 160 section made of S235

steel, already shown in Fig. 3, was selected because it was very thoroughly studied

during the development of the European column buckling curves and thus

comparisons with physical tests are possible.

The modelling techniques sketched in Fig. 4 were used for the numerical

analyses with scattering input parameters, using the software package ABAQUS

(Dassault Systems). The boundary conditions of the member, as well as the chosen

shapes of imperfection and the used finite element mesh, are shown in the figure.

Single-span compression members with in-plane, out-of-plane and torsional restraints

at the supports were considered (end fork conditions). An end load eccentricity

in the same direction as the assumed column out-of-straightness was considered as

one of the possible scattering quantities.

Four-node linear shell elements (S4) with six degrees of freedom per node

and finite strain formulation were chosen to model the flange and web plates of the

studied sections. The contribution of shear stresses in plasticity is accounted for by

this modelling technique. The mesh density was left constant, with 16 elements per

flange and web plate generally found to be a sufficient number. The number of

nodes in longitudinal direction was varied between 100 and 200, depending on

214 Andreas Taras 10

total member length. Rigid coupling beams were used to connect the single plates

with each other. At the supports, the stiffness terms of these elements were

manipulated in order to obtain a stiff load introduction mechanism (allowing one to

define concentrated loads to simulate moments and axial loads) that nevertheless

allowed the cross-section to warp and rotate freely.

Since the studied section is a hot-rolled IPE 160, the fillets were included in

the calculations by adding equivalent beam elements that were placed in the

centroids of the flanges. By defining the cross-sections of these beam elements as

equivalent box or square hollow sections (SHS) of variable depth and wall thickness,

the total area and torsional stiffness of the modelled member could be calibrated to

precisely match the tabulated values given by the production standards for rolled

11 The impact of straightness tolerances on the stability design of steel columns 215

sections. The exact bending capacity, as well as the weak- and strong-axis sectional

inertia (moments of area) were thereby also approximated with negligible error (in

the range of less than 2% error).

In the calculation of all relative quantities (such as slenderness , the buckling

reduction factor , etc.), the properties of the actually modelled section (with the

equivalent SHS section) were considered, rather than the original rolled section,

thereby further reducing the error of the calculation results, when expressed again

in these relative variables.

In order to obtain realistic numerical values of the ultimate buckling strength,

Geometrically and Materially Non-linear Analyses with Imperfections (GMNIA)

were carried out these were already mentioned above and were also used for the

development of the column buckling curves themselves. As the name implies,

imperfections are included in these calculations, whereby both geometric and

structural imperfections (residual stresses) were considered:

i. The initial geometric imperfections were assumed to follow a sinusoidal

shape. Since a double-symmetric section failing in weak-axis flexural buckling was

studied, no twist of the section needed to be considered.

ii. The residual stresses were assumed to vary linearly over the single cross-

section components, following the provisions given by ECCS in [11].

In addition to the imperfections, the material non-linearity (stress-strain

curve), as well as geometric non-linearities (equilibrium in the deformed state),

were considered. Strain hardening was included in the calculations, again following

the long-established recommendations of ECCS in [11].

Order Reliability Methods that allows for the determination of appropriate values

(in a semi-probabilistic design concept) of partial safety factors M on the basis of

test results. A summary of the procedure, as applicable to the problem studied in

this paper, is given in the following.

EN 1990 recognizes the relevance of the accuracy of a design formulation

and of its ability to react to the variability of the input parameters that govern a

design problem. The design formulation therefore takes on an immediate, central

part in the statistical evaluation procedure of EN 1990. In the notation of the code,

the theoretical value of strength rt is expressed as a function of its individual input

parameters

rt = g rt ( X ) . (9)

216 Andreas Taras 12

strength rt = A fy may be considered, with the vector of the basic variables X

containing such parameters as the cross-sectional geometry, the yield stress, the

column length, etc.

The theoretical strength rt is compared with the experimental strength re in

the methodology of Annex D. Thereby, the actual values of the basic parameters

should be determined for each individual test result re,i. This information about the

basic variables is used to calculate the specific strength prediction rt,i for a single

test result, which can then be plotted as shown in Fig. 5.

For a number of n pairs re,i/rt,i, plotted in the rt/re plane, a regression line

through the origin can then be calculated through least-square approximation, using

the following formula:

n n

( rt,i ) .

2

b = re,i rt,i (10)

i =1 i =1

re

design model with measured input data

compared with physica or numerical tests

V

b

rt

Fig. 5 Schematical representation of the interpretation of V as variance of the design model.

design function is calculated as follows:

V = exp( s2 ) 1, (11)

with s2 =

1 n

(

i

n 1 i =1

) (12)

1 n

= i (13)

n i =1

r

i = ln e,i = ln i . (14)

b rt,i

Up to now, the methodology has only accounted for the differences between

a certain pool of test data results (usually in terms of strength) and the prediction of

13 The impact of straightness tolerances on the stability design of steel columns 217

the same strength according to the design function. In the next step, the sensitivity

of the design function itself to the variability of the basic input variables must be

accounted for, by calculating the error propagation term Vr,t. In the usual case of a

complex, multi-variable design function, Vr,t is calculated using the following

formulae:

VAR [ g r,t ( X ) ]

2

1 j

g

V r,t 2 = = r,t i , (15)

g r,t ( X m ) 2 rm,t 2 i =1 X i

g r,t

with i .. partial derivative for the variable Xi times its standard deviation.

X i

The log-normal variation coefficients can now be calculated as follows:

Q = ln (V 2 + 1) , (17)

(

Q = ln Vr 2 + 1 , ) (18)

Vr

,

t

with Vr 2 = 2

+ V 2 . (19)

Qrt 2 Q2

for n 100: rd = b g r,t ( X m ) exp( kd , kd ,n 0.5 Q 2 ), (20)

Q Q

with g rt ( X m ) rm,t representing the value of the design function evaluated with

the mean values of all basic input variables, and kd,n and kd, being the design

fractile factors for n and infinite single test results (see [3], Annex D, Table D.2).

Finally, the required partial safety factor M*, applicable for designs based on

nominal input data, can be calculated as follows

rtk rnom

M * = N , (22)

rd n EC3 rd

with rnom = g rt ( X NOM ) , i.e. the design function evaluated with nominal values of

the input parameters. This is the quantity usually determined by designers in EC3.

218 Andreas Taras 14

random input variables (Monte Carlo simulations) are nowadays increasingly

being used instead of expensive and time-consuming physical tests. This procedure

is fully legitimate, provided that the real scatter bands of the single input

parameters, as well as the way these parameters correlate, are known [12].

This paper makes use of so-called Monte Carlo simulations in order to

generate random sets of input parameters for these numerical tests. The numerical

values for the single calculations were generated using the standard inverse

transform method [13] on the basis of cumulative distribution functions (cdf) F for

the normal or log-normal distribution, depending on the modelled parameter. A

single, randomly generated value X is therefore obtained from F and a randomly

generated value U ~ Unif[0,1], i.e. a random, uniformly distributed real number in

the interval [0,1]:

X = F 1 (U ), U ~ Unif [ 0,1]. (23)

shown in Fig. 6, where the frequency plot for randomly generated variable values

for column curvatures and load eccentricities is shown to follow the underlying

distribution (in form of its probability density function) very well.

An issue for the application of the FORM and Monte Carlo methods is the

question of the correlation of the single parameters. This is graphically illustrated

in Fig. 7 for the example of the initial curvature and the residual stresses in a

column, generated either without any correlation (a) or with strong correlation (b).

In the latter case, the maximum of one variable corresponds to the minimum of the

other variable, while no such relationship exists in Fig. 7a.

70 100

generated values

60 assumed pdf

number of MC tests [-]

80

number of MC tests [-]

50

L

e0 60 N

40

ecc.

30 40 L

20

20

10

0 0

00

50

00

50

00

50

00

50

00

0

8

0

0.

0.

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

ecc.[mm]

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

e0/L a) b)

on the basis of distribution functions.

15 The impact of straightness tolerances on the stability design of steel columns 219

sometimes suspected to be inversely correlated with each other, meaning that smaller

residual stresses are systematically present whenever high curvatures are present

(see e.g. [14, p. 387]). However, for the purposes of this paper, no systematic

correlation was considered. This is motivated by the following considerations:

i. No statistical evaluations exist that would definitively prove such

correlations between parameters that are relevant for buckling.

ii. More importantly, the statistical evaluation procedure integrated in the

Eurocode EN 1990 and discussed in section 4.2 is a First Order Reliability

Method, based on the assumption that all variables are independent. Since the

results of Monte Carlo simulations are intended to be evaluated using this procedure,

any information stemming from the inclusion of the correlation would be ignored

by the EN 1990 evaluation procedure itself.

100 100

no correlation strong correlation

80 80

res [N/mm]

res [N/mm]

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0

00

02

04

06

08

10

12

14

00

02

04

06

08

10

12

14

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

e0/L a) e0/L b)

Fig. 7 Example: two variables that: (a) do not correlate at all; (b) strongly correlate.

SCENARIOS REGARDING COLUMN STRAIGHTNESS

random input parameters, the numerical calculations in the Monte Carlo simulations

need to take into account the scatter of as many parameters as are necessary to

represent the scatter of the resulting buckling strengths with sufficient accuracy. In

this paper, the case of flexural buckling of a hot-rolled IPE-section about the weak

axis is documented; for this case, the main cross-sectional parameters (width, depth,

flange and web thickness) as well as the yield strength are of great significance. It

is thus important to make use of representative information regarding the scatter

band of these and other related quantities.

220 Andreas Taras 16

Some very valuable studies [1517] have already been published that deal

with a systematic statistical analysis of the properties of steel products for

structural steelwork. Nevertheless, no final consensus seems to have been reached

at the present stage as to what set of structural parameters can be regarded as truly

representative for the statistical properties of internationally manufactured steel

products that are placed onto the European market. Another early application of the

general approach used in this paper, which also contained representative input

parameters for the buckling of I-sections, is documented in [18].

As was stated in section 4.1, a representative I-section geometry had to be

chosen for the Monte Carlo simulations of this paper, and the IPE 160 section

made of S235 steel was selected for this purpose.

On the basis of the above-mentioned studies, scatter bands of the parameters

as shown in Table 2 were considered in this study, in addition to four scenarios

regarding the scatter of the member out-of-straightness discussed in section 5.2.

The normal or log-normal (ln) distribution was assumed in all cases. These values

represent a lower-bound consensus for the considered quantities. Sometimes

even higher mean values of the yield strength of S235 steel are mentioned in the

literature [17]. However, one must consider that the product standard for hot-rolled

steel products, EN 10025, only mentions minimum values of yield strength, with

no mention of a required scatter band or non-exceedance probability, meaning that

steel production could in fact comply with this standard without much over-

strength of the scatter band of the yield stress; thus, it is prudent to use scatter

band values for the yield strength that are not exceedingly optimistic.

Table 2

Parameter variation for the Monte Carlo simulations IPE 160 S235

Parameter mean value m standard dev. s

Initial curvature e0 See scenarios Fig. 8

Yield stress fy 285 N/mm 17.1 N/mm

Eccentricity 0.60 mm (ln) 0.45 mm (ln)

Residual stress res 0.20235 N/mm 0.05235 N/mm

Flange thickness tf 7.4 mm 0.37 mm

Web thickness tw 5.0 mm 0.25 mm

Depth h 160 mm 1.6 mm

Width b 82 mm 0.82 mm

In order to assess the possible impact of changes to the production habits for

steel compression members that may (plausibly) be caused by the loosening of

straightness tolerances in EN 1090-2, four different scenarios were considered in

this study. They represent four different assumptions regarding the scatter of the

amplitude of the column out-of-straightness. They are represented in Fig. 8 which

shows the histograms of the values of the initial column curvature (with index e0

instead of used to indicate that a sinusoidal equivalent imperfection shape

17 The impact of straightness tolerances on the stability design of steel columns 221

was assumed in the GMNIA calculations) which were randomly generated for the

Monte Carlo simulations. All scenarios are referred to the best-documented (by

tests and calculations) case of the weak-axis flexural buckling of IPE 160 sections

made of steel grade S235, see section 5.1. Scenario 1 (Fig. 8a) is used as reference

for the other 3 scenarios, thus the histogram of this scenario is plotted in light grey

in Fig. 8b to d. The red continuous lines in the plots shown the assumed,

underlying probability density functions, scaled to match the total frequency of

produced numerical tests, while the light-blue histograms show the randomly

produced input data. The vertical, dashed red lines show the locations of the

tolerance limits of L/1000 and L/750 in comparison with the produced data.

SCENARIO 1 SCENARIO 2

L/750

L/750

L/1000

L/1000

70 350

60 300

number of MC tests [-]

50 250

40 200

30 150

20 100

10 50

0 0

00

02

04

06

08

10

12

14

16

18

00

02

04

06

08

10

12

14

16

18

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

_ _

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

e0 /L a) e0 /L b)

SCENARIO 3 SCENARIO 4

L/750

L/750

L/1000

L/1000

80 80

number of MC tests [-]

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0

00

02

04

06

08

10

12

14

16

18

00

02

04

06

08

10

12

14

16

18

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

_ _

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

e0 /L c) e0/L d)

Fig. 8 Scenarios for the future development of the scatter band of column curvatures.

SCENARIO 1. The production habits of steelwork fabricators are not

altered by the new manufacturing and erection tolerances. The deviations found

during the ECCS tests are thought to be representative of real production; thus, the

probability density function (pdf) for ~ e0 found in [18] on the basis of the test

results in [6] is assumed to be correct and still valid: m = 0.00085 L, s = 0.0002 L.

222 Andreas Taras 18

~ e0 = L/750. Although very unrealistic, this scenario is the most unfavourable

possibility still in full compliance with the new tolerance limits in EN 1090-2.

SCENARIO 3. Steelwork fabricators make use of the new, relaxed

tolerances and produce columns that are on average somewhat more curved, i.e. by

a shift of L/750L/1000 = L/3000 towards the right in Fig. 8c. The scatter of the

production is otherwise left unmodified. No measurements are undertaken, neither

in the shop nor on site, therefore columns with curvatures exceeding the erection

tolerance of = L/750 are not prevented from being used in the structure.

SCENARIO 4. This final scenario is almost identical to 3, with the

addition that all columns are thought to be measured on site. Columns that exceed

the erection tolerance value of = L/750 are not allowed; in practical terms, a new

random value was generated in this case until ~ e0 < L/750.

6. RESULTS

The results of the statistical analysis are shown in Fig. 9 to Fig. 12 for the

four different scenarios discussed in the previous section. In order to give a more

complete und understandable picture of the outcome of these simulations, the

form of representation with m 2s bars representing the statistical distribution

(mean value m +/ 2s standard deviations s) of the single numerical test results is

complemented by a plot showing the result of a reliability assessment in accordance

with EN 1990 Annex D, i.e. following section 4.2 of this paper up to Eq. 22. This

assessment was performed using the same input parameters of the statistical data as

contained in Table 2, and is shown in terms of the required values of the partial

safety factor M* (note: the * is used to differentiate this calculated value from the

normative value M1 found in Eurocode 3). This factor gives a clear indication of

the impact of the single scenarios on the safety level of the column buckling rules,

especially when compared to the current reliability level discussed in section 3.1

and shown in Fig. 3.

The figures can be commented upon as follows:

SCENARIO 1. Figure 9 shows the position of the m 2s points to lie

very close to the applicable ECCS column buckling curve b. This would not

represent any noticeable change with respect to the current reliability level, see Fig.

3. The maximum value of M* that was calculated by following the procedure of

EN 1990 is very similar to the one calculated by Mller [19] for the ECCS tests

(1.115 vs. 1.13). This is not surprising, since Scenario 1 simulates the case where

the initial curvatures are left untouched by the changes of tolerance.

SCENARIO 2. Figure 10 shows the position of the m 2s points to lie

noticeably lower than the applicable ECCS column buckling curve b. The

difference is most pronounced in the region of intermediate slenderness, around

19 The impact of straightness tolerances on the stability design of steel columns 223

= 1.0, where the m 2s points are very close to the line representing curve c.

The maximum value of M* has increased to 1.177 in this scenario.

SCENARIO 3. Figure 11 where the m 2s points start falling

significantly below the applicable buckling curve at a slenderness of = 0.8. In

terms of M*, a maximum value of 1.161 is calculated for this scenario.

SCENARIO 4. Figure 12 again, the m 2s points start falling significantly

below the applicable buckling curve at a slenderness of = 0.8. In terms of M*, a

maximum value of 1.155 is calculated, only slightly lower than for scenario 3.

SCENARIO 1

1.50

1

m+2s

2

1.25 z,nom

m

1.00

m-2s

1.20

0.75 1.15

z,nom

1.115

ENV

1.10

0.50 M*

IPE 160, S235 EC3: a

weak axis buckling 1.05

EC3: b

0.25 EC3: c EC3

1.00

0.00 0.95

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

0

2

4

6

8

0

2

4

6

8

0

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

2.

z,nom a) z,nom b)

Fig. 9 Monte Carlo simulation of FBz-z of an IPE 160 section S235: SCENARIO 1;

statistical distribution of the simulated tests in a - plot (a); reliability analysis acc. to EN 1990 (b).

SCENARIO 2

1.50

m+2s

1

2

1.25 z,nom

m

1.00

m-2s

1.20

1.177

0.75 1.15

z,nom

ENV

1.10

M*

0.50

IPE 160, S235 EC3: a

weak axis buckling 1.05

EC3: b

0.25 EC3: c EC3

1.00

0.00 0.95

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

0

2

4

6

8

0

2

4

6

8

0

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

2.

z,nom a) z,nom b)

Fig. 10 Monte Carlo simulation of FBz-z of an IPE 160 section S235: SCENARIO 2.

224 Andreas Taras 20

SCENARIO 3

1.50

m+2s

1

1.25 2

z,nom

m

1.00

m-2s

1.20

1.161

0.75 1.15

z,nom

ENV

1.10

M *

0.50

IPE 160, S235 EC3: a

weak axis buckling 1.05

EC3: b

0.25 EC3: c EC3

1.00

0.00 0.95

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

0

2

4

6

8

0

2

4

6

8

0

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

2.

z,nom a) z,nom b)

Fig. 11 Monte Carlo simulation of FBz-z of an IPE 160 section S235: SCENARIO 3.

SCENARIO 4

1.50

1

m+2s

2

z,nom

1.25

m

1.00 1.20

m-2s

1.155

0.75 1.15

z,nom

ENV

1.10

M*

0.50

IPE 160, S235 EC3: a 1.05

weak axis buckling EC3: b

0.25 EC3: c EC3

1.00

0.00 0.95

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

0

2

4

6

8

0

2

4

6

8

0

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

2.

z,nom a) z,nom b)

Fig. 12 Monte Carlo simulation of FBz-z of an IPE 160 section S235: SCENARIO 4.

The results of the Monte Carlo simulations shown in Figs. 9 to 12 point out

that the reliability level of column buckling could be affected by the introduction of

new tolerance limits. The scenarios 2 to 4 all treated the possibility that columns

produced in the future have on average larger initial curvatures than was customary

up to now, while all other parameters were left (in terms of scatter band) unmodified.

21 The impact of straightness tolerances on the stability design of steel columns 225

Thus, it is not surprising that the calculations led to an (average) loss of column

strength, respectively of margin of safety. The magnitude of this loss is in the order

of 4 to 6%.

As far as the likelihood of the single scenarios is concerned, it must certainly

be admitted that scenario 2 is not plausible, since it cannot be expected that all

steelwork fabricators will produce columns that have a value of out-of-straightness

of exactly = L/750. However, this extreme scenario is still interesting when

compared to the (much more plausible) scenarios 3 and 4: these scenarios treat the

possibility that fabricators relax their fabrication habits with respect to column

curvatures, an outcome that, even if not necessary, must certainly be seen as

desired by the new tolerance specifications. The calculations in this section have

shown the differences between the extreme scenario 2 and the desired

scenarios 3 and 4 to be rather small. Interestingly, scenario 4 is plausible even if

every single column is verified for initial curvature on site and replaced if curvatures

above = L/750 are detected. Compared to the (similar) scenario 3, where no such

measurements are undertaken, the advantage stemming from these measurements is

negligible.

It is important to understand that it is often not the purpose of geometric

erection (i.e. on-site) tolerance limits to specify the extreme upper values of shape

deviations in the erected structure, which must never be exceeded in order to

design a structure safely with a given set of design rules. On the contrary, as the

presentation (in section 2, Fig. 1) of the acceptance criteria in the 1978 ECCS

recommendation has shown, the philosophy with respect to tolerances on site was

that single values above the specified tolerance (in that case, still /L = 1/1000) are

acceptable as long as the statistical distribution of these deviations is kept in

check, and the production in the shop is confirmed to produce columns within the

(shop) limits for . Other international codes implicitly followed a similar

philosophy, by assuming that site measurements were entirely unnecessary if /L =

L/1000 was checked in the shop, since the statistical distribution of values on site

could then be assumed to be acceptable.

Of course, this study only discussed some, possibly too pessimistic

scenarios. The correlation between tolerance limits and actual deviations is not

always quite as clear-cut as has been assumed here. To name one example, Chan &

Gardner [4] have found that the tolerance limits of = L/500 for the initial

curvature of cylindrical hollow sections may be unduly lax as evidenced by both

the observed structural performance and measured imperfections of real columns.

In other words, they observed a poor correlation between actual shape deviations

and tolerance limit. They then justified the use of the current buckling rules for

such sections, which are also based on GMNIA calculations with e0 /L = 1/1000

and fixed residual stresses, by the actual statistical distribution of the shape

226 Andreas Taras 22

fabrication habits dont acknowledge actually laxer fabrication tolerances. The

conclusion in [4] is coherent: a reassessment of the tolerance limit towards more

realistic, lower levels, as opposed to adjusting buckling curves to match current

tolerance levels.

Other arguments could be brought up to declare the scenarios discussed

above as too pessimistic: for example, residual stress distributions could be lower

now than back in the 1960s and 70s, when the ECCS tests were carried out. Then

again, actual column imperfections might be smaller than the deviations measured

in the ECCS program. Finally, as stated before, a beneficial inverse correlation

between and res (i.e. res is systematically lower when is large) is sometimes

thought to exist. These are valid points, but purely speculative at this stage;

practically nothing is known about real column curvatures in buildings, and the

knowledge and data about residual stresses in mill- or shop-fabricated column sections

has also not yet reached a satisfying level in terms of statistical representativeness.

8. CONCLUSIONS

On the basis of the above findings, it can be concluded that the new manu-

facturing and erection tolerances for compression members, as contained in EN

1090-2, cannot be logically proven to be covered by current buckling rules. On

the contrary, the implicit intent of the new limits, i.e. allowing steelwork fabricators

to loosen their fabrication habits with regard to column straightness, has been

shown to (plausibly) lead to a drop of the reliability level of column buckling rules

by about 5%. Whether this is acceptable or not should be carefully considered by

the concerned code committees. In this sense, considering the already present

differences between (published, and confirmed in this paper) evaluations of the

appropriate safety factor for column buckling M* (i.e. values of around 1.1) and

the actual code recommendation for compression members in buildings (M1=1.0),

the implications of further potential loss of 5% of safety must be considered with

particular care.

As a more general conclusion, it was shown that the methodology presented

in this paper is a suitable tool for the assessment of the influence of parameter

scatter bands on the safety level of design rules for steel structures. It can be

applied to problems similar to the one studied in this paper, i.e. studies of the

impact of changes of production habits, as well as for product and design rule

development. Further applications of this method are discussed in [20].

23 The impact of straightness tolerances on the stability design of steel columns 227

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