ELE 486: INDUCTION MOTOR CONTROL
Instructor: Dr. Habibur Rehman Department of Electrical Engineering American University of Sharjah Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Chapter # 7 Induction Motor
Review of Fundamentals of Induction Machine ELE 351
7.1: Induction Motor Construction
• The name induction machine because the rotor voltage (which produces the rotor current and rotor magnetic field) is induced in the rotor winding rather than being physically connected by wires.
• A distinguishing feature is that no DC field current is required to run this machine. Motor Construction:
• Stator: An induction motor has the same physical stator as a synchronous generator.
• Rotor: is of two types.
1. Squirrel Cage Rotor or simply cage rotor
2. Wound rotor
3
7.1: Induction Motor Construction
• Squirrel Cage Rotor: In squirrel cage rotor series of conducting bars are laid in the slots carved in to the face of rotor and shorted at either end by large shortening rings.
4
7.1: Induction Motor Construction
• Wound Rotor: It has a complete set of three phase windings that are mirror image of the windings on the stator. Three phases are usually yconnected. The ends of rotor wires are tied to slip rings on the rotor shaft. The rotor windings are shorted through brushes riding on the slip rings.
Rotor current can be examined and extra resistance can be inserted into the rotor circuit.
• Wound rotor induction motors are expensive than the cage rotor, and they require much more maintenance because of the wear associated with their brushes and slip rings. As a result, woundrotor induction motors are rarely used.
5
7.2: Basic Induction Motor Concepts
• When three phase set of voltages are applied to stator, three phase current flows in the stator winding.
• A magnetic field B _{S} is produced, which is rotating counter clock wise.
• The speed of magnetic field’s rotation is given by:
n sync
^{}
120
f
e
P
• The rotating magnetic field p asses over the rotor bars and induces voltage in them.
^{e}
^{B} ^{l}
_{i}_{n}_{d} ( ).
^{v}
• It is the relative motion of the rotor compared to the stator magnetic field that produces induced voltage in the rotor bar.
6
The Development of Induced Torque
• The velocity of the upper rotor bars relative to the magnetic field is to the right, so the induced voltage in the upper bars is out of the page, while the induced voltage in the lower bars is into the page.
• This results in a current flow out of the upper bars and into the lower bars.
• Since the rotor assembly is inductive, the peak rotor current lags behind the peak rotor voltage.
• The rotor current produces a rotor magnetic field B _{R} which results in induced torque in the machine:
ind
K B B
R
S
The Development of Induced Torque
• The resulting torque is counter clockwise. Since the rotor induced torque is counter clock wise, the rotor accelerates in that direction. There is a finite upper limit to the motor’s speed.
• If the induction motor rotor were running at synchronous speed, then the rotor bars would be stationary relative to the magnetic field and there would be no voltage induced.
• If e _{i}_{n}_{d} were equal to zero, then there would be no rotor current, and no rotor magnetic field, thus the induced torque would be zero.
• Practically, as a result of friction and windage losses, an induction motor can speed up to only nearsynchronous speed, but it can never exactly reach synchronous speed.
• In the normal operation both the rotor and stator magnetic fields B _{R} and B _{S} rotate together at synchronous speed, while the rotor itself turns at a slower speed.
8
The Concept of Rotor Slip
• The voltage induced in the rotor depends upon the speed of the rotor relative to the magnetic fields. This relative motion is commonly defined by two terms:
I. Slip Speed n _{S}_{l}_{i}_{p}
II. Slip, S
n
n
n
n
slip
n
sync
n
m
slip slip speed
sync magnetic field speed
m rotor speed
n slip
n sy nch
S 

100% (1 ) n m S n 

n synch
synch
S 

synch 
m 
100% (1 ) m S 
synch
synch
9
S
100%
n
synch
n
m
Class Activity 1
• Example 71: A 208V, 10 hp, four pole, 60 Hz, Yconnected induction motor has a full load slip of 5 percent.
a) What is the synchronous speed of this motor.
b) What is the rotor speed of this motor at rated load.
c) What is the rotor frequency of this motor at rated load.
d) What is the shaft torque of this motor at the rated load.
10
f
r
(
n
synch
n
m
)
f e
f
r
(
n
synch
n
m
)
7.3: The Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor
• An induction motor is called a singly excited machine (as opposed to a doubly excited synchronous machine), since power is supplied only to the stator circuit.
• We will begin with the transformer model and try to include the variable frequency and other similar induction motor effects into account.
• An induction motor equivalent circuit differs from a transformer equivalent circuit primarily in the effects of varying rotor frequency on the rotor voltage E _{R} and impedance R _{R} and X _{R} .
12
The Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor
• Due to the air gap in an induction machine, the reluctance of the flux path is increased greatly, which reduces coupling between primary (stator) and secondary winding (rotor). The higher reluctance caused by the air gap means that a higher magnetizing current is required to obtain a given flux. Therefore, magnetizing reactance will be much smaller.
• E _{1} coupled to E _{R} by an ideal transformer with an effective turn ratio a _{e}_{f}_{f} .
• The voltage E _{R} produced in the rotor in turn produces a current flow in the shorted rotor (or secondary) circuit of the machine.
13
Rotor Circuit Model
• In an induction motor when voltage is applied to stator winding, a voltage is induced in the rotor winding of the machine.
• The greater the relative motion (Slip Speed) between rotor and stator magnetic fields, the greater the resulting rotor voltage and rotor frequency.
is
• The
largest
relative
motion
occurs
when
the
rotor
stationary, called Locked Rotor or Blocked Rotor condition.
• The smallest voltage (0 V) and frequency (0 Hz) occurs when the rotor moves at the same speed as the stator magnetic field, resulting in no relative motion.
• The magnitude and frequency of the voltage induced in the rotor at any speed is proportional to the slip of the rotor.
E
R
sE
R 0
E _{R}_{0} is the magnitude of the induced voltage at locked rotor condition.
14
•
r
e
Rotor Circuit Model
• The rotor current in this circuit can be written as:
• From Eq.(i), notice that it is possible to treat all of the rotor effects due to varying
rotor spee
by a varying impedance supplied with a power from a constant voltage source E _{R}_{O} . The equivalent rotor impedance from this point of view is given in Eq (ii).
• Thus the equivalent rotor circuit can modified as shown in Fig.
I
I
R
R
R
Z
R eq
,
)
16
d as
b
i
e ng cause
d
I
^{'}
2
a Z
Z
2
a
eff (
R
jX
R 0
)
Final Equivalent Circuit
• The rotor resistance and locked rotor reactance X _{R}_{0} are very difficult or impossible to determine on a cage rotor also the effective turn ratio a is difficult to obtain for squirrelcage rotor .
• Fortunately, it is possible to make measurements that will directly give the referred resistance and reactance R _{2} and X _{2} , even though R _{R}_{1} ,X _{R}_{0} and a _{e}_{f}_{f} are not known separately.
eff
18
Class Activity 2
• Example 72: A 480 V, 60Hz, 50 hp, three phase induction motor is drawing 60 A at 0.85 pf lagging. The stator copper losses are 2 kW, and rotor copper losses are 700 W. The friction and windage losses are 600 W, the core losses are 1800 W, and the stray losses are negligible. Find the following quantities:
a) The airgap power P _{A}_{G} .
b) The power converted P _{c}_{o}_{n}_{v} .
c) The output power P _{o}_{u}_{t} .
d) The efficiency of motor.
19
Class Activity 3
• Example 73: A 460 V, 25hp, 60 Hz, four pole, Yconnected induction motor has the following impedances in ohms per phase referred to stator circuit:
R _{1} =0.641 Ω X _{1} =1.106 Ω
The total rotational losses are 1100 W and are measured to be constant. The core loss is lumped in with rotational losses. For a rotor slip of 2.2 percent at the rated voltage and rated frequency, find the motor’s
R _{2} =0.332 Ω X _{2} =0.464 Ω, X _{M} =26.3 Ω
a) Speed
b) Stator current
c) Power factor
d) P _{c}_{o}_{n}_{v} and Pout
and T
f) Efficiency
e) ind
T
load
20
4.2: The Rotating Magnetic Field
• Just as a rotating magnetic field induces three phase set of voltages in the coils of a stator, a three phase set of currents in the stator coils can produce a rotating magnetic field.
• The fundamental principle of ac machine operation is that if “a three phase set of currents, each of equal magnitude and differing in phase by 120 ^{o} flows in three phase windings, spaced physically 120 ^{o} apart around the surface of the machine, then it will produce a rotating magnetic field of constant magnitude.”
21
4.2: The Production of Rotating Magnetic Field
• Mark the polarities and demonstrate how the rotating magnetic field is produced at ωt=0 ^{o} , ωt=90 ^{o} , ωt=180 ^{o} and at ωt=270 ^{o} ,
4.2: The Rotating Magnetic Field
• Like wise at ωt=180 ^{o} and
at ωt=270 ^{o} the net
,
magnetic field is given as:
• Thus the direction of B _{n}_{e}_{t} changes but magnitude remains constant. The net magnetic field is rotating in a circle.
• This rotating magnetic field in the stator can be represented as a moving north and south pole.
• Run Matlab Program
B
B
net
net
1 . 5
1 . 5
B
B
M
M
90
180
26
The Relationship between Electrical Frequency and Speed of Magnetic Field Rotation
• Where the flux leaves is denoted as North Pole, and where it enters is called South Pole.
• When the electrical cycle of the applied current completes one rotation the magnetic poles also complete one mechanical rotation.
• Therefore, mechanical speed of rotation of magnetic field in revolution per second is equal to the electric frequency in Hertz.
• The windings on the two pole stator occur in the order (taken
l 
k 
i 
’ b 
’ 
b’ 

a c 
. 
counter c oc w se): ac 
f
e
f
m
e
m
2
2
poles
poles
27
The Relationship between Electrical Frequency and Speed of Magnetic Field Rotation
•
•
If the winding pattern is repeated twice; ac’ba’cb’ac’ba’cb’; then when the three sets of currents are applied, two north and two south poles will be created.
A pole moves only half way around the stator surface in one electrical cycle. Therefore, electrical movement is 360 whereas mechanical movement of poles is 180.
e
f
e
2
m
2 f
m
2
e
m
28
u
p
ro ram
g
M
7.4: Power and Torque in Induction Machine
• An induction motor can be basically described as a rotating transformer. It’s input is 3phase systems of voltages and currents.
• For an ordinary transformer the output of transformer is electric power from secondary winding.
• The secondary (rotor) of an induction machine is shorted. Therefore, no electrical output form induction machine instead the output is mechanical.
31
Power and Torque in Induction Machine
• The core losses of an induction motor come partially from the stator circuit and partially from the rotor circuit. Since an induction motor normally operates at a speed near synchronous speed, the relative motion of the magnetic field over the rotor surface is quite low, and the rotor core losses are very tiny compared to the stator circuit. Since the largest fraction of the core losses comes from the stator circuit, all the core losses are lumped together at that point on the diagram.
• The higher the speed of an induction machine, the higher its friction, windage and stray losses. On the other hand the higher the speed of the motor the lower its core losses. Therefore, these three categories of losses are sometimes lumped together and called rotational losses.
• The total rotational losses of a motor are often considered constant with the changing speed, since the component losses change in opposite directions with a change in speed.
32
Power and Torque in Induction Machine
33
Power and Torque in Induction Machine
V
Z
eq
• Therefore, the stator copper losses and the core losses can be found.
• The airgap power can be found as:
• The only element across which the airgap power can be consumed is the rotor resistance. Therefore, the airgap power can be given as:
1 

G 
jB 

1 

c 
M 
R 
2 
/ S j X 
2 

I 2 1 R 1 

3 2 E G 1 
C 
3
P
SCL
P CORE
34
I
1
,
Z
eq
R
1
jX
1
Power and Torque in Induction Machine
• The actual resistive losses in the rotor circuit are given by:
• When referred to the stator side will still remain the same.
• After stator copper losses, core losses, and rotor copper losses are subtracted from the input power to the motor, the remaining power is converted into mechanical power.
P RCL
2
3 I R
R
2
R
35
Power and Torque in Induction Machine
• The rotor copper losses can be also expressed in terms of airgap power.
• Therefore, the lower the slip of the motor, the lower the rotor copper losses in the machine.
• If the rotor is not running, the slip S=1 and the airgap power is entirely consumed in the rotor. This is logical since if the rotor is not turning, the mechanical output power must be zero.
P OUT
T
load
m
P P P
P RCL
s P
AG
36
Chapter # 7 Induction Motor
ELE 486 Variable Speed AC Drives
ELE 486 Course Outcomes on Induction Motor Control
• Describe the principle of operation of an induction motor and its torquespeed characteristic.
• Describe basic induction motor speed control concepts, equivalent circuit, power, torque and V/f speed control technique.
41
Final Equivalent Circuit
• The rotor resistance and locked rotor reactance X _{R}_{0} are very difficult or impossible to determine on a cage rotor also the effective turn ratio a is difficult to obtain for squirrelcage rotor .
• Fortunately, it is possible to make measurements that will directly give the referred resistance and reactance R _{2} and X _{2} , even though R _{R}_{1} ,X _{R}_{0} and a _{e}_{f}_{f} are not known separately.
eff
42
7.5: Induction Motor TorqueSpeed Characteristics
• How does the torque of an induction motor changes as the load changes?
• How much torque can an induction motor supply at starting conditions?
• How much does the speed of an induction motor drops as its shaft load increases?
• To find out the answers to these and similar questions, it is necessary to clearly understand the relationships among the motor’s torque, speed, and power.
43
Induced Torque from a Physical Standpoint:
No Load Condition
• Figure shows the induction motor operating at noload. At no load the rotor slip is very small and so the relative motion between the rotor and the magnetic fields is small.
• The voltage E _{R} induced in the bars of the rotor is very small and the resulting current flow I _{R} is very small.
• Also, because the rotor frequency is very small, the reactance of the rotor is nearly zero, and the maximum rotor current I _{R} is almost in phase with the rotor voltage E _{R} .
• The rotor current thus produces a small magnetic field B _{R} at an angle slightly greater than 90 ^{o} behind the net magnetic field B _{n}_{e}_{t} .
• Notice that the stator current must be quite large even at no load, since it must supply most of B _{n}_{e}_{t} . This is why induction motor have large no load current compared to other types of the machines.
44
Induced Torque from a Physical Standpoint:
No Load Condition
• The induced torque which keeps the motor running is given by:
• Since the rotor magnetic field is very small, the induced torque is also quite smalljust large enough to overcome the motor rotational losses.
ind
ind
kB
R
R
B
net
kB B Sin
net
45
Induced Torque from a Physical Standpoint:
Machine under Loaded Condition
• Now suppose the induction motor is loaded down as shown in the Figure. As the motor’s load increases, its slip increases, and the rotor speed falls.
• Since the rotor speed is slower, there is more relative motion between the rotor and the stator magnetic fields in the machine.
• Greater relative motion produces a stronger rotor voltage E _{R} which in turn produces a larger rotor current I _{R} . With a larger rotor current, the rotor magnetic field B _{R} also increases.
• However, the angle of the rotor current and B _{R} changes as well. Since the rotor slip is larger, the rotor frequency (f _{r} =sf _{e} ), and the rotor reactance increases (ωL _{R} ).
• Therefore, the rotor current now lags further behind the rotor voltage, and the rotor magnetic field shifts with the current.
Induced Torque from a Physical Standpoint:
Machine under Loaded Condition
• Figure shows induction motor operating at a fairly high load.
• Notice that the rotor current has increased and that the angle δ has increased.
• The increase in B _{R} tends to increase the torque while increase in angle δ tends to decrease the torque (T _{i}_{n}_{d} is proportional to sin δ and δ>90 ^{o} ).
• Since the first effect is larger than the second one, the overall induced torque increases to supply the motor’s increased load.
• When does the induction motor reaches pullout torque?
• This happens when the point is reached where, as the load on the shaft is increased, the sin δ term decreases more than the B _{R} term increases. At that point a further increase in load decreased T _{i}_{n}_{d} , and the motor stops.
• u torque on the curve will be 200 to 250 percent of rated full load torque of the machine.
For a t 
ical ind ction motor the 
llo 

yp 
, 
pu 
u
t
crossing
the
gap
from stator
synch
The Derivation of Induction Motor Induced Torque Equation
• Perhaps the easiest method to find the current I _{2} is to determine the Thevenin equivalent of the portion of the circuit to the left of the X’s in the Figure.
• X _{M} >> X _{1} and
X _{M} >> R _{1} , the
magnitude of the Thevenin voltage can be approximated as:
jX
M 

R 
1 

jX 
1 

jX 
M 
X 
M
V
TH
V
R
2
1
.
X
1
X
M
X
X
X
M
^{2}
1
M
49
V TH
V .
V TH
V .
R 1
M
V TH
P
3
I
2
2
2
ind
Comments on the Induction Motor Torque Speed Curve
1. The induced torque of the motor is zero at synchronous speed.
2. The torquespeed curve is nearly linear between no load and full load.
3. There is maximum possible torque that can’t be exceeded. This torque is called the pullout torque or breakdown torque, is 2 to 3 times rated full load torque.
4. Starting torque is slightly larger than its full load torque, so this motor will carry any load that it can supply at full power.
5. The torque on the induction motor for a given slip varies as a square of the applied voltage.
52
Induced Torque and Power Versus Speed
• The power converted to mechanical form in an induction machine is equal
^{t}^{o} ^{P} conv ^{=}^{T} ind ^{ω} m
• The resulting plot for the power is shown in the figure.
• Notice that the peak power supplied by the motor occurs at a speed different than the maximum torque.
• Also, of course no power is converted to mechanical form when the rotor is at zero speed.
53
Comments on the Induction Motor Torque Speed Curve
• If rotor runs at a speed faster than synchronous speed then the direction of the induced torque in the machine reverses and the machine becomes a generator, converting mechanical power to electric power.
• If the motor is turning backward relative to the direction of the magnetic fields, the induced torque in the machine will stop machine very rapidly and will try to rotate it in the
other direction. Since reversing the direction of the magnetic field is matter of only switching any two stator phases, this fact can be used as a way to very rapidly stop the induction motor. The act of switching two phases in order to stop the motor very rapidly is called plugging.
54
Maximum Pull out Torque in Induction Machine
• Since induced torque is equal P _{A}_{G} /ωsynch, the maximum possible torque occurs when the airgap power is maximum.
• The air gap power is power consumed in the resistor R _{2} /S, the maximum induced torque will occur when power consumed by resistor is maximum.
• i
U
t
f
s ng max power rans er
theorem, drive the condition for
^{S} max ^{.}
• Substitute the S _{m}_{a}_{x} condition in the T _{i}_{n}_{d} equation and get the expression for T _{m}_{a}_{x} .
ind
Z source 
Z load 

_{Z} s ource 
_{R} TH 

_{j}_{X} 
TH _{j}_{X} 
2 

R 

2 
R 2 X 

X 

2 

S 
T H 
T H 
2 

S 

R 
2 

max 


R TH 2 


X 
TH 

X 
2 
^{2} 

3 ^{V} 
2 
R 
2 

TH 

s 

^{} 


SYNC 
R 
TH
2
s
R 
2 


X TH 

X 
2 

2 

T
^{m}^{a}^{x}
2
^{3}^{V} TH
2
SYNC
R
TH
55
Maximum Pull out Torque in Induction Machine
• The maximum torque is proportional to the square of the supply voltage and is also
inversely related with the size of the stator impedances and rotor
t
reac ance.
• The smaller the machine reactance the larger the maximum torque it is capable of achieving.
• Notice that the slip at which maximum torque occurs directly proportional to the rotor resistance, but the value of the maximum torque is independent of the value of the rotor resistance.
T
max
S max
56
Class Activity 4
• Example 74: A two pole, 50 Hz induction motor supplies 15 kW to a load at a speed of 2950 rpm.
a) What is the motor slip.
b) What is the induced torque in the motor in N.m. under these conditions.
c) What will the operating speed of the motor be if its torque is doubled.
d) How much power will be supplied by the motor when the torque is doubled.
57
Class Activity 5
• Example 75: A 460 V, 25hp, 60 Hz, four pole, Yconnected induction motor has the following impedances in ohms per phase referred to stator circuit:
R1=0.641 Ω X1=1.106 Ω
a) What is the maximum torque of the motor. At what speed and slip does it occur.
b) What is the starting torque of this motor.
c) When the rotor resistance is doubled, what is the speed at which the maximum torque occurs. What is the new starting torque of the motor.
d) Calculate and plot the torquespeed characteristics of this motor both with the original rotor resistance and with the rotor resistance doubled.
R2=0.332 Ω X2=0.464 Ω, X _{M} =26.3 Ω
58
Class Activity 5
59
7.9: Speed Control of Induction Motor
• Until the advent of modern solid state drives, induction motors in general were not good machines for applications requiring considerable speed control.
• The normal operating range of a typical induction motor is confined to less than 5 percent slip, and the speed variation over that range is more or less directly proportional to the load on the shaft of motor.
• Even if the slip could be made larger, the efficiency of the motor would become very poor, since the rotor copper losses are directly proportional to the slip on the motor. (P _{R}_{C}_{L} =sP _{A}_{G} )
60
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