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You are on page 1of 6

Assumptions:

1) The uncertainties are the same for all of the data points.

y=mx +c

y i=m xi +c

If the point does not lie on the line, the y-co-ordinate has error by distance e y i

So, y i=m xi +c +e y i

or, e y = y im xi c(i)

i

Now, according to the theory of least squares, the best straight line through a set of points is that

which minimizes e 2y i

i

i

e2y i

i

=0(ii)

m

e2y

=0(iii) From equations (i, ii and iii), we

i

i

c

have normal equations

y i=m x i +nc(iv)

x

x

( i )+c x i(v)

2

( i y i )=m

Then the intercept c and the slope m can be found from Cramers rule

n ( x i y i ) x i y i

m=

c=

( x 2i ) y i x i (xi y i)

Where,

2

=n ( x 2i )( xi )

2

m 2=n

2 2

( c ) =

( x 2i )

2 1 2

n2 i

with = ( y m x ic )

Class work

Example:

In an experiment to determine the acceleration of the free fall g the period T of a simple

pendulum was determined for various values of the l. The following results were obtained.

Time (s) 0.98 1.21 1.34 1.50 1.60 1.75

Plot a graph of T2 against l, and use it to obtain a value for g, with the associated uncertainty.

Example:

In an experiment to determine the acceleration of the free fall g the period T of a simple

pendulum was determined for various values of the l. The following results were obtained.

Time (s) 0.98 1.21 1.34 1.50 1.60 1.75

Plot a graph of T2 against l, and use it to obtain a value for g, with the associated uncertainty.

=== T =2

g

l

4 2

or, T 2 = ( )

g

l

4 2

y = T2 , m= ,l=x ,c=0

g

m=

( xi yi )

Since, c = 0,

( x 2i )

2

m 2=

( x 2i )

1

with 2= 2

n1 i

( y m x i)

mx = y-mx (y-mx)2

( xi y i )

l=x T T2 = y x.y x2

( x 2i )

x

0.25 0.98 0.9604 0.2401 0.0625 1.0088 -0.0484 0.002343

0.35 1.21 1.4641 0.51243 0.1225 1.41232 0.05178 0.002681

0.45 1.34 1.7956 0.80802 0.2025 1.81584 -0.02024 0.00041

0.55 1.50 2.2500 1.2375 0.3025 2.21936 0.03064 0.000939

0.65 1.60 2.5600 1.6640 0.4225 2.62288 -0.06288 0.003954

0.75 1.75 3.0625 2.29688 0.5625 3.0264 0.0361 0.001303

2

x i= y i= x i y i= 2

x i = ( y im x i) =

3 12.0926 6.75893 0.011629

1.675

m=

( xi yi )

Now, [since, ]

( x 2i )

6.75893

m= = 4.0352

1.675

y = 4.0352 x x 0 1

y 0 4.0352

Also,

1

2 = 0.011629

61

= 0.0023258

= 0.05

m= 0.03726

= 0.04

4 2

Now, m=

g

or, g = 4 (3.14159)2/4.0352

= 9.7835

Hence,

T2 Vs. l

3.5

3 f(x) = 4.04x

2.5

2

T2 (s2)

1.5 Linear ()

1

0.5

0

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

l (m)

Probable error:

(i)

R = R 1 + R2

Taking log on both sides

ln R = ln ( R1 + R2 )

Differentiating we get,

R R1 R2

= +

R R 1+ R 2 R 1+ R 2

2 1

R= R

[( ) ( ) ]

R1 2

R 1+ R 2

+

R2

R 1 + R2

2

(ii)

R 1 R2

R=

R 1 + R1

Taking log on both sides

ln R = ln (R1R2) - ln (R1+R2)

Differentiating we get,

R R1 R2 R1 R2

= +

R R1 R2 R 1+ R 2 R 1 + R 2

2 1

R= R

[( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ]

R1 2 R 2 2

R1

+

R2

+

R1 2

R 1+ R 2

+

R2

R1 + R 2

2

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