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Assumptions:

1) The uncertainties are the same for all of the data points.

= +

= +

If the point does not lie on the line, the y-co-ordinate has error by distance

So, = + +

or, = ()

Now, according to the theory of least squares, the best straight line through a set of points is that

which minimizes 2

2

= 0 ()

2

And = 0 ()

From equations (i, ii and iii), we have normal equations

= + ()

( ) = (2 ) + ()

Then the intercept c and the slope m can be found from Cramers rule

( )

=

(2 ) ( )

=

Where,

2

= (2 ) ( )

2

()2 =

2

()2 = (2 )

1

2 = ( )2

2

Class work

Example:

In an experiment to determine the acceleration of the free fall g the period T of a simple

pendulum was determined for various values of the l. The following results were obtained.

Time (s) 0.98 1.21 1.34 1.50 1.60 1.75

Plot a graph of T2 against l, and use it to obtain a value for g, with the associated uncertainty.

Example:

In an experiment to determine the acceleration of the free fall g the period T of a simple

pendulum was determined for various values of the l. The following results were obtained.

Time (s) 0.98 1.21 1.34 1.50 1.60 1.75

Plot a graph of T2 against l, and use it to obtain a value for g, with the associated uncertainty.

=== = 2

g

42

or, 2 = ( )

g

42

2

y =T , m= , l=x ,c=0

g

( )

Since, c = 0, = (2 )

2

2

() =

(2 )

1

2 = ( )2

1

mx = y-mx (y-mx)2

l=x T T2 =y x.y x2 ( )

x

(2 )

0.25 0.98 0.9604 0.2401 0.0625 1.0088 -0.0484 0.002343

0.35 1.21 1.4641 0.51243 0.1225 1.41232 0.05178 0.002681

0.45 1.34 1.7956 0.80802 0.2025 1.81584 -0.02024 0.00041

0.55 1.50 2.2500 1.2375 0.3025 2.21936 0.03064 0.000939

0.65 1.60 2.5600 1.6640 0.4225 2.62288 -0.06288 0.003954

0.75 1.75 3.0625 2.29688 0.5625 3.0264 0.0361 0.001303

( ) =

= = =

= 3 0.011629

12.0926 6.75893 1.675

( )

Now, [since, = (2 )

]

6.75893

m= = 4.0352

1.675

y = 4.0352 x x 0 1

y 0 4.0352

Also,

1

2 = 0.011629

61

= 0.0023258

= 0.05

= 0.03726

= 0.04

42

Now, m=

g

or, g = 4 (3.14159)2/4.0352

= 9.7835

Hence,

T2 Vs. l

4

3.5

3

y = 4.0352x

2.5

T2 (s2)

2

Series1

1.5

1 Linear (Series1)

0.5

0

0 0.5 1

l (m)

Probable error:

(i)

R = R 1 + R2

Taking log on both sides

ln R = ln ( R1 + R2 )

Differentiating we get,

1 2

= +

1 + 2 1 + 2

1

1 2 2 2 2

= [( ) +( ) ]

1 + 2 1 + 2

(ii)

1 2

=

1 + 1

Taking log on both sides

ln R = ln (R1R2) - ln (R1+R2)

Differentiating we get,

1 2 1 2

= +

1 2 1 + 2 1 + 2

1

1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2

= [( ) +( ) + ( ) +( ) ]

1 2 1 + 2 1 + 2

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