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Wireless Communications The Early Days

Excerpt from the Scientific American July 1892

In the specification to one of his recent patents,

Thomas A. Edison says:

I have discovered that if sufficient elevation be

obtained to overcome the curvature of the earths
surface and to reduce to the minimum the earths
absorption, electric signaling between distant
points can be carried on by induction without the
use of wires.

The First Wireless Communications Age

The radio is one hundred years old, but it doesnt
look it!
... it is interesting to note that Samuel F. B. Morses
telegraph was followed only 40 years later by the
increasingly remarkable invention of radio frequency

Thomas Edison experimented with signals that could

be generated and detected at a distance in 1883, but did
not appreciate the importance of the Edison Effect.
Edison received a patent for wireless telegraphy in
1885, but was preoccupied with other projects. Edison
sold the patent for a song to Marconi, who put
extensive effort into the technology. By 1901, he sent
Morse Code from Massachusetts to Cornwall, England.
Wireless Marconi Inventor of the Radio?
January 1897
An invention which promises to be of the greatest
practical value in the world of telegraphy has received
its first public announcement at the hands of Mr.
William H. Preece, the telegraphic expert of the London
post office. During a lecture on "Telegraphy Without
Wires" recently delivered in London, Mr. Preece
introduced a young Italian, a Mr. Marconi, who, he said,
had recently come to him with such a system.
Telegraphing without wires was, of course, no new idea.
In 1893, telegrams were transmitted a distance of three
miles across the Bristol Channel by induction. Young
Marconi solved the problem on different principles, and
post office officials had made a successful test on
Salisbury Plain at a distance of three-quarters of a mile.
- Scientific American - January 1897

The roots of modern radio-links can be perceived in the first experiments carried out by
Marconi, as he used very high frequenciespractically in the field of microwavesand
had recourse to parabolic-cylinder reflectors. Here is the first invention which Marconi
anticipated. Many scientists before Marconi had devoted their work to the electric and
magnetic phenomena, taking advantage of the extraordinary synthesis which James
Clerk Maxwells equations had given them. In 1894, when he was only twenty, the
young man from Bologna set up his first laboratory at Villa Griffone, about fourteen
kilometers from his native city. Marconis basic contribution, for which he deserves the
name of inventor of the radio, was, first of all, that he modulated by a signal the
electromagnetic waves that a spark produced in a Hertz oscillator sent in space.

- Gian Carlo Corazza 1996 European Conference for Radio-Relay, Bologna

Wireless Marconi Inventor of the Radio? Or Not!!

On 11 June 1943, the U.S Supreme Court overturned most

of Marconis wireless communications patents thus
upholding Nikola Teslas earlier September 1897 patent
for radio, that in 1904 was reversed by the U.S. Patent
Office and awarded to Marconi, based upon Teslas
wireless communication demonstrations in 1894.
This Supreme Court decisionfive months after he died
impoverished, alone in a New York hotel roomin effect
recognized Tesla (who, shortly after arriving in the U.S. in
1884, had worked for Thomas Edison for $18 per week) as
the inventor of the radio. This added to Teslas remarkable
credentials as the inventor and architect of alternating
current machinery and long-distance electrical
distribution, this rendering obsolete his adversary
Edisons direct current electrical powerhouses that had
been built up and down the Atlantic seaboard.

Propagation Huygens Principle? Or Not!!

Christiaan Huygens, a contemporary of Sir Isaac Newton, is said to have gained most of
his insights into wave motion by observing waves in a canal. In 1678, this great Dutch
physicist wrote the treatise Traite de la Lumiere on the wave theory of light, and in this
work he stated that the wavefront of a propagating wave of light at any instant
conforms to the envelope of spherical wavelets (Huygens Combination Wavefront of
separate waves) emanating from every point on the wavefront at the prior instant, with
the understanding that the wavelets have the same speed as the overall wave.
An illustration of this idea,
now known as Huygens'
Principle, is shown.
Disbelieving, Newton
continued to push his
Corpuscular Theory of
particle propagation of light,
so because of that it was not
until some 100 years later
when Augustin-Jean Fresnel
of Fresnellens and Fresnel
zone fame revisited
Huygens Principle in 1815
that his term diffraction
was reintroduced.*

Microwave Radio Links - The Early Days

2 GHz PPM Digital Radios 6 Bays!! 24xVF or 24x300 baud
data channel capacity!! General Electrics 2 GHz radar-like
pulse position modulated (PPM, used during WW2 then
declassified) hot standby terminal. Many hundreds of similar
GE and ITT PPM radio hops were deployed in long pipeline,
power and turnpike systems in the 1940s-50s, some up to 75
hops in length with no end-to end noise buildup (like modern
digital systems), all over the U.S. and worldwide for the

AT&T Long-Haul Analog Routes Deployed 35,000

TD2 Repeaters The San Francisco-New York
transcontinental route of hundreds of 4 GHz TD2
analog FM-FDM hops completed in 1951 for all
long distance VF and TV was upgraded with
high-capacity L6 GHz TH1 radios in 1955 and
TD3 radios in 1962. The performance of analog
hops was far more affected than later generation
digital radio hops to equipment nonlinearities,
interference, thermal noise, multipath
distortion, waveguide echoes and moding, and fading.
The Migration from Analog to Digital Microwave Links

Canadian Marconi delivered the first PCM

digital radios to private microwave users in North
America in 1970, some hops remaining in service
into the millennium, thus triggering the rapid
development and deployment of higher capacity
(first 1152 VF ch/78 Mbit/s, then 1344 VF ch/90
Mbit/s) digital radios for LOS (line-of-sight) radio-
relay hops.

This culminated in 1980 with the

realization that the alarm/network management
systems and adaptive equalization in these
trailblazing digital radios were often found totally
inadequate to accommodate the fragile, bursty
characteristics of many high capacity digital
microwave radios and spectral distortion caused by dispersive fading in hops not
before seen in FM-FDM analog radio systems.

The 1980s thus brought about dramatic improvements in digital microwave

modulation efficiencies and, with new adaptive equalization and powerful error
correction, robustness to the dispersive (spectrumdistorting) fade activity that so
degraded digital radio hop performance in the 1970s.

The mid-1990s heralded DSP equalizers that replaced discrete devices in far
more robust advanced asynchronous (PDH) and 2016/1890 ch SONET/SDH point-to-
point TDM digital radios. The FCCs relocation of analog microwave hops from 2 GHz
in the late 1990s to accommodate cellular deployment sped this digital migration.

These new PDH and SDH digital technologies supported the explosive birth of
new high-performance terrestrial Fixed Wireless Systems and Fixed Wireless Access
networks in all of their forms, e.g. Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint, in synergism
with fiber optics and FSO (freespace optical) networks.

Microwaves are electromagnetic

waves with a frequency greater than 1 GHz
(1,000,000 Hz). Microwave signal due to their
inherently high frequencies, have relatively
short wavelengths, hence the name "micro"
waves. The wavelengths of microwave
frequencies fall between 1 cm and 60 cm;
slightly longer than the infrared energy.
Operating in the microwave region solves
many problems of the overcrowding in the
radio spectrum. It also introduces additional
benefits but also causes some unique
problems. Working with equipment that
operates in this region requires special knowledge and skills considerably different
from those needed for conventional electronic equipment.

For a typical microwave radio link, information originates and terminates at the
terminal stations, while repeaters simply relay the information to the next downlink
microwave station. Stations must be placed in a way that the terrain such as mountains,
buildings and lakes, do not interfere with the transmission of signals. Geographic
location of stations must be carefully selected in such a way that natural and man-made
barriers do not interfere with propagation between stations.

Microwave Repeaters
Microwave communications requires the line-of-sight or space wave propagation
method. There are some instances where barriers are inevitable which cause
obstructions between the transmitter and receiver. This kind of problem is best resolved
by repeaters.

Passive Repeater
It is a device used to re-radiate the intercepted microwave energy without the use of
additional electronic power. It also has the ability to redirect intercepted microwave
radars to the other direction.
Active Repeater
It is a receiver and a transmitter placed back to back or in tandem with microwave
repeaters. There are two types of active repeater namely: baseband and heterodyne or

In baseband repeaters, the received radio frequency (RF) carrier is down-converted to

an intermediate frequency (IF), amplified, filtered, and then demodulated to baseband.
In a heterodyne repeater, the received RF carrier is down-converted to an IF, amplified,
reshaped, up-converted to RF, and then retransmitted. The baseband signal is unaltered
by the repeater because the signal is never demodulated below IF.

The microwave systems use LOS transmission, thus a direct signal path must exit
between the transmit and receive antennas. When the signal path undergoes a sever
degradation, a service interruption will occur. The radio path losses vary with
atmospheric conditions that can cause corresponding reductions in the received signal
strength. This reduction in signal strength is temporary and is referred to as radio fade.
The purpose of using diversity is to increase the reliability of the system by increasing
its ability. There is more than one transmission path or method of transmission
available between a transmitter and a receiver in diversity. Depending on the type of
combiner in use, the output signal-to-noise ratio is improved as compared to any single

Frequency Diversity
Frequency diversity is simply modulating two different RF carrier frequencies with the
same IF intelligence, then transmitting both RF signals to a given destination. It utilizes
the phenomenon that the period of fading differs for carrier frequencies separated by 2-
5%. This system employs two transmitters and two receivers. Frequency diversity
arrangements provide simple equipment redundance. Its disadvantage is that it
doubles the amount of necessary frequency spectrum and equipment.

Space Diversity
In space diversity, the output of a transmitter is fed to two or more antennas that are
physically separated by an appreciable number of wavelengths. At the receiving end,
there may be more than one antenna providing the input signal to the receiver. It has
been observed that multipath fading will not occur simultaneously at both antennas.
Polarization Diversity
In polarization diversity, a single RF carrier is propagated with two different
electromagnetic polarizations (either vertical or horizontal). Electromagnetic waves of
different polarizations do not necessarily experience the same transmission
impairments. This type of diversity is used in conjunction with space diversity. One
transmit/receive antenna pair is vertically polarized, and the other is horizontally
polarized. It is also possible to use frequency, polarization and space diversity

Hybrid Diversity
It is specialized form of diversity that consists of a standard frequency-diversity path
where the two transmitter/receiver pairs at one end of the path are separated from each
other and connected to different antennas that are vertically separated as in space
diversity. This arrangement provides a space-diversity effect in both directions: in one
direction because the receivers are vertically spaced and in the other direction because
the transmitters are vertically spaced.

The image shows some radiation properties of electromagnetic waves, which includes the microwaves. The
approximate wavelengths are also indicated in this photo.
Microwave Communication Systems

Like any other communication system. a microwave communication system uses

transmitter, receivers and antennas. The same modulation and multiplexing technique
used at lower frequencies arc also used in the microwave range. But the RF part of the
equipment is physically different because of the special circuits and components that
are used to implement the components.

Like any other transmitter, a microwave transmitter starts with a carrier generator and a
series of amplifiers. It also includes a modulator followed by more stages of power
amplification. The final power amplifier applies the signal to the transmission line and
antenna. The carrier generation and modulation Mages of a microwave application are
similar to those of lower-frequency transmitters. Only in the later power amplification
stages are special components used.

Microwave transmitters- (a) Microwave transmitter using frequency multipliers to reach the microwave
frequency. The shaded stages operate in the microwave region. (b) Microwave transmitter using up-
conversion with a mixer to achieve an output in the microwave range.
Microwave receivers, like low-frequency receiver, are the superheterodyne type. Their
front ends are made up of microwave components. Most receivers use double
conversion. A first down-conversion gets the signal into the UHF or VHF range where it
can be more easily processed by standard methods. A second conversion reduces the
frequency to an IF appropriate for the desired selectivity.

A microwave receiver. The shaded areas denote microwave circuits

Transmission lines

The transmission line most commonly used in lower frequency radio communication is
coaxial cable. However, coaxial cable has very high attenuation at microwave
frequencies, and conventional cable is unsuitable for carrying microwave signals except
for very short runs, usually several feet or less. Newer types of coaxial cables permit
lengths of up to 100ft at frequencies to 10 GHz.

Special microwave coaxial cable called hard line, which is made of hard tubing rather
than wire with an insulating cover, can be used on the lower microwave bands.


At low microwave frequencies, standard antenna type including the simple dipole and
the one-quarter wavelength vertical antenna, are still used. At the frequencies antenna
sizes are very small; e.g., the length of a half-wave dipole at 2 GHz is only about 3 in. A
one-quarter wavelength vertical antenna for the center of the C band is only about 0.6 in

Advantages of Microwave Radio

Distances between switching centers are less.
Radio systems do not require a right-of way acquisition between stations.
Due to their high operating frequencies, microwave systems can carry large
quantities of information.
It requires small antennas
Minimum crosstalk exists between voice channels.
Few repeaters are necessary for amplification
Increased reliability and less maintenance are important factors.

Disadvantages of Microwave Radio

Measuring techniques are difficult to perfect and implement at microwave
It is more difficult to analyze and design circuits at microwave frequencies.
Transient time is more critical.
It is necessary to use specialized components
Microwave frequencies propagate in straight line, which further limits their use to
LOS applications.

The photo displays the screen control unit of a maritime navigation and search radar.
Microwave Applications

Two of the most historically important RF/microwave applications are

communication systems and radar; but there are many others. Currently, the market is
driven by the phenomenal growth of PCSs, although there is also an increased demand
for satellite-based video, telephone, and data communication systems.

Radio waves and microwaves play an important role in modern life. Television
signals are transmitted around the globe by satellites using microwaves. Airliners are
guided from takeoff to landing by microwave radar and navigation systems.

Telephone and data signals are transmitted using microwave relays. The military
uses microwaves for surveillance, navigation, guidance and control, communications,
and identification in their tanks, ships, and planes. Cellular telephones are everywhere.

The RF and microwave wireless technologies have many commercial and

military applications. The major application areas include communications, radar,
navigation, remote sensing, RF identification, broadcasting, automobiles and highways,
sensors, surveillance, medical, and astronomy and space exploration. The details of
these applications are listed below:

Wireless Communications.
Space, long-distance, cordless phones, cellular telephones, mobile, PCSs,
local-area networks (LANs), aircraft, marine, citizen's band (CB) radio,
vehicle, satellite, global, etc.

Airborne, marine, vehicle, collision avoidance, weather, imaging, air
defense, traffic control, police, intrusion detection, weapon guidance,
surveillance, etc.

Microwave landing system (MLS), GPS, beacon, terrain avoidance,
imaging radar, collision avoidance, auto-pilot, aircraft, marine, vehicle,

Remote Sensing.
Earth monitoring, meteorology, pollution monitoring, forest, soil
moisture, vegetation, agriculture, fisheries, mining, water, desert, ocean,
land surface, clouds, precipitation, wind, flood, snow, iceberg, urban
growth, aviation and marine traffic, surveillance, etc.
RF Identification.
Security, antitheft, access control, product tracking, inventory control,
keyless entry, animal tracking, toll collection, automatic checkout, asset
management, etc.

Amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM, FM) radio, TV, DBS,
universal radio system, etc.

Automobiles and Highways.

Collision warning and avoidance, GPS, blind-spot radar, adaptive cruise
control, autonavigation, road-to-vehicle communications, automobile
communications, near-obstacle detection, radar speed sensors, vehicle RF
identification, intelligent vehicle and highway system (IVHS), automated
highway, automatic toll collection, traffic control, ground penetration
radar, structure inspection, road guidance, range and speed detection,
vehicle detection, etc.

Moisture sensors, temperature sensors, robotics, buried-object detection,
traffic monitoring, antitheft, intruder detection, industrial sensors, etc.

Surveillance and Electronic Warfare.

Spy satellites, signal or radiation monitoring, troop movement, jamming,
antijamming, police radar detectors, intruder detection, etc.

Magnetic resonance imaging, microwave imaging, patient monitoring, etc.

Radio Astronomy and Space Exploration.

Radio telescopes, deep-space probes, space monitoring, etc.

Wireless Power Transmission.

Space to space, space to ground, ground to space, ground to ground
power transmission.

Microwave Equipment Category

Trunk Microwave Equipment

High cost, large transmission capacity, more stable performance, applicable to

long haul and trunk transmission
RF, IF, signal processing, and MUX/DEMUX units are all indoor. Only the
antenna system is outdoor.
All Outdoor Microwave Equipment

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment

Antenna - Focuses the RF signals

transmitted by ODUs and increases the
signal gain.
ODU RF processing, conversion of IF/RF
IF Cable transmitting of IF signals,
management signal and power supply of
IDU performs access, dispatch,
multiplex/demultiplex, and
modulation/demodulation for services.

The RF unit is an outdoor unit

(ODU). The IF, signal processing,
and MUX/DEMUX units are
integrated in the indoor unit (IDU).
The ODU and IDU are connected
through an IF cable.

Antennas used to send and receive microwave signals. Parabolic antennas and
Cassegrainian antennas are two types of microwave antennas. Microwave antennas
diameters includes: 0.3m, 0.6m, 1.2m, 1.8m, 2.0m, 2.4m, 3.0m, 3.2m etc.

Different frequency channels in same frequency band can share one antenna.
Antenna Adjustment

During antenna adjustment, change the direction

vertically or horizontally. Meanwhile, use a multimeter to test
the RSSI at the receiving end. Usually, the voltage wave will
be displayed as shown in the lower right corner. The peak
point of the voltage wave indicates the main lobe position in
the vertical or horizontal direction. Large-scope adjustment is
unnecessary. Perform fine adjustment on the antenna to the
peak voltage point.

When antennas are poorly aligned, a small voltage

may be detected in one direction. In this case, perform coarse
adjustment on the antennas at both ends, so that the antennas
are roughly aligned.

The antennas at both ends that are well aligned face a little bit upward. Though
12 dB is lost, reflection interference will be avoided.

During antenna adjustment, the two wrong adjustment

cases are show here. One antenna is aligned to another antenna
through the side lobe. As a result, the RSSI cannot meet the
Split-Mount Microwave - Antenna

Definition: Ratio of the input power of an isotropic antenna Pio to the input power of a
parabolic antenna Pi when the electric field at a point is the same for the isotropic
antenna and the parabolic antenna.

Calculating formula of antenna gain:

G = Pio/Pi = (D/)2 *

Half-power angle

Usually, the given antenna specifications contain the gain in the largest radiation (main
lobe) direction, denoted by dBi. The half-power point, or the 3 dB point is the point
which is deviated from the central line of the main lobe and where the power is
decreased by half. The angle between the two half-power points is called the half-power

Calculating formula of half-power angle:

0.5 = (65o ~ 70o) /D

Cross polarization discrimination

Suppression ratio of the antenna receiving heteropolarizing waves, usually, larger than
30 dB.


Po: Receiving power of normal polarized wave

Px: Receiving power of abnormal polarized wave

Antenna protection ratio

Attenuation degree of the receiving capability in a direction of an antenna compared

with that in the main lobe direction. An antenna protection ratio of 180 is called front-
to-back ratio.
Split-Mount Microwave Equipment ODU

Specifications of Transmitter

Working frequency band

Generally, trunk radios use 6, 7, and 8 GHz frequency bands. 11, 13 GHz and higher
frequency bands are used in the access layer (e.g. BTS access).

Output power
The power at the output port of a transmitter. Generally, the output power is 15 to 30

Local frequency stability

If the working frequency of the transmitter is unstable, the demodulated effective signal
ratio will be decreased and the bit error ratio will be increased. The value range of the
local frequency stability is 3 to 10 ppm.

Transmit Frequency Spectrum Frame

The frequency spectrum of the transmitted signal must meet specified requirements, to
avoid occupying too much bandwidth and thus causing too much interference to
adjacent channels. The limitations to frequency spectrum is called transmit frequency
spectrum frame.
Specification of Receiver

Working frequency band

Receivers work together with transmitters. The receiving frequency on the local station
is the transmitting frequency of the same channel on the opposite station.

Local frequency stability

The same as that of transmitters: 3 to 10 ppm

Noise figure
The noise figure of digital microwave receivers is 2.5 dB to 5 dB

To effectively suppress interference and achieve the best transmission quality, the
passband and amplitude frequency characteristics should be properly chosen. The
receiver passband characteristics depend on the IF filter.

Ability of receivers of suppressing the various interferences outside the passband,
especially the interference from adjacent channels, image interference and the
interference between transmitted and received signals.

Automatic gain control (AGC) range

Automatic control of receiver gain. With this function, input RF signals change within a
certain range and the IF signal level remains unchanges.

Wireless Communications
PLDT is the leading telecommunications service provider in the Philippines.
Through its principal business groups fixed line, wireless and others PLDT offers a
wide range of telecommunications services across the Philippines most extensive fiber
optic backbone and fixed line and cellular networks.

Transmission Networks
Nera's microwave radio networks solutions have
several clear advantages over traditional options. They are
faster to plan and install than fibre optic cable. Radio
networks have unparalleled rollout speed, and lower
installation and lifetime costs. They are compact, and
scalable since they are easily reconfigured and simple to

Nera's total wireless access solutions provide coverage for all

network aspects. Point-to-point (PtP) transmission options deliver
backbone services, and economical Access services are supplied by
connecting base stations. High-capacity microwave solutions solve
Access backhaul needs by delivering upgradeability and the Last
mile challenge can be met by PtP or Point-to-Multipoint access

Philippine Coast Guard

The Philippine Coast Guard uses Microwave Communication System to enhance
the communication system for Maritime safety and security.

Free space attenuation or path loss in dB

Lp = 20log

Lp = 32.4 + 20logd(km) + 20logf(MHz)

Lp = 92.4 + 20logd(km) + 20logf(GHz)

Lp = 36.6 + 20logd(mi) + 20logf(MHz)

Lp = 96.6 + 20logd(mi) + 20logf(GHz)

System Gain, Gs(dB)

Gs = Po Cmin

where: Po = transmit output power (dBm)

Cmin = minimum receiver input power (dBm)

Receiver threshold or sensitivity, Cmin(dBm)

Cmin = N (dB) + N(dBm)

where: S/N = signal-to-noise ratio

N = input noise power
N(dBm) = -174(dBm) + 10logBW(Hz)
Receive Signal Level (RSL)

RSL(dBm) = Po(dBm) Lf(TA) + GT Lp + GR Lf(TB)

RSL(dBm) = (min. RF input)(dBm) + FM(dB)

where: Po = transmitter output power (dBm)

Lf(TA) = total fixed losses at the transmitter side which includes feeder loss,
connector loss, branching loss, waveguide loss, etc.
Lf(TB) = total fixed losses at the receiver side
GT = transmitter antenna gain
GR = receiver antenna gain
min. RF input = practical receiver threshold
FM = fade margin, dB
= an attenuation allowance so that the anticipated fading will
still keep the signal above specified minimum RF input

Fade Margin, FM(dB)

FM = 30logd(km) + 10log6abf(GHz) 10log(1 R) - 70

where: a = roughness factor/terrain characteristics

= 4 over water or a very smooth terrain
= 1 over an average terrain
= 0.25 over a very rough, mountain terrain
b = climate factor/characteristics
= 0.5 for hot humid areas
= 0.25 for average inland areas
= 0.125 for very dry or mountain areas
R = reliability objective

System Reliability Estimates

(a) Based on propagation

R = (1 Undp) x 100%

where: Undp = non-diversity probability for a given path

Undp = abf(GHz) 1.5d(mi)3 (1.25x10-6)10-FM/10

(b) Based on equipment
R = (1 U) x 100%

where: U = unavailability or probability of outgage


if MTBF then U = MTBF

where: MTTR = Mean Time To Repair

MTBF = Mean Time Before Failure or Mean Time Between Failures


Downtime or Outgage time (in hours per year)

U= 8760 hours
A = MTBF + MTTR ; A = availability or reliability

Earths Curvature (EC)

d 1d 2
EC = 1.5k

where: d1 = distance from a point to one end of the path (mi)

d2 = distance from the same point to the other end of the path (mi)
k = equivalent earths radius factor

For k = , EC = 0

For k = 4/3, d 1d 2
EC = 2

For k = 2/3, EC = d1d2

For k = 1, EC = 0.67d1d2
Also, with k = ,

h1 d1 d1
h1 + h2 = (d1 + d2) = d

where: h1 = elevation of the lower antenna (ft)

h2 = elevation of the higher antenna above the reflecting surface
d1 = distance (mi) from h1 end to the reflecting point
d = path length (mi)

Fresnel zone clearance or radius or height

1() 2()
h(ft) = 72.1 () ()

1() 2()
h(m) = 17.3 () ()

where: n = no. of Fresnel Zones

n = 1 for 1st FZ; n = 2 for 2nd FZ; etc.

Note: Optimum clearance of an obstacle is accepted as 0.6 of the first Fresnel zone.


Gain of passive repeater

4A cos
Gp = 20log 2

Gp = 22.1 + 20logAp( ) + 40logf(GHz)


where: A = actual surface area of the passive

= W x L, ft2
Acos = Ap or Aeff = projected or effective area of the passive (ft2)
Ap = A sin /2
Beamwidth of a fully illuminated passive

= L (degrees)

where: = wavelength in (m)

L = effective lineal dimension of the passive in feet (m) in the direction
in which the beamwidth is to be measured

The Net Path Loss (NPL)

NPL(dB) = GT Lp1 + GP LP2 + GR

where: GT = transmit antenna gain, (dB)

LP1 = path loss on path 1, (dB)
GP = passive repeater gain, (dB)
LP2 = path loss on path 2, (dB)
GR = receive antenna gain, (dB)

Near field and far field conditions

1 d'
k = 4A
if 1/k < 2.5, near field condition exists;
1/k > 2.5, far field conditions exists
d' = length of the path in question (i.e., the shorter distance)

Space diversity antenna separation requirement for optimum operation

S= L

where: S = separation (m)

Re = effective earths radius (km)
= wavelength (m)
L = path length (km)

Note: Any spacing between 100 to 200 is usually to be satisfactory.