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Aug 18, 2017

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FIlm Drop Lab

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FIlm Drop Lab

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Report Deliverables

Report format followed as described in the syllabus

Individual names/Net IDs listed on EACH PAGE of a section for which a particular

is individually responsible for writing (DONT MAKE US GUESS WHO WROTE A

PARTICULAR SECTION OR HAVE TO LOOK FOR A NAME/Net ID)put it in the

header of the section you write.

Use a MINIMUM of 4 literature citations effectively in your report. EVERY TEAM

MEMBER MUST USE LITERATURE CITATIONS IN HIS/HER REPORT

SECTION.

Follow the general comments about troubleshooting lab reports (provided in the

syllabus) before submitting

Present clearly labeled figures showing your experimental data (e.g. condensate

rate as a function of cooling water flow rate) AND use the theory presented in this

handout to process your experimental data in a variety of ways to analyze the

performance of this apparatus and to compare drop-wise and film condensation.

The BIG PICTURE you are to provide is an energy balance around the condensation

steam chest to try and determine if there is any discernable difference between the film

condensation and the drop-wise condensation. It is up to you to determine what stream

flow rates, temperatures, etc. are to be measured to conduct this energy balance. Your

report grade will depend, in part, on the thoroughness with which you conduct this energy

balance. See the questions at the end of this document for guidance on the calculations

you are to perform for this experiment.

Introduction

Condensation is an important physical phenomenon that comes into play in numerous

industrial processes. In some instances, the entire objective is to CAUSE condensation

(say to separate lower boiling components in a complex chemical mixture from higher

boiling components by partially condensing the vaporized streamwhich you will

student in depth in your Separations course). When condensate forms on a surface

through which heat transfer is desired (say the tube bundle in a shell and tube heat

exchanger) an additional resistance to heat

transfer is formed by the condensing liquid.

So, for example, if the goal is to get heat

THROUGH the pipe wall from one vapor to

another, any formation of condensate would

slow down this rate of heat transfer because

the liquid would absorb heat and resist the

rate of heat transfer.

different forms of condensation: film

condensation (which is occurring on the black

painted diameter copper pipe in your

experimental apparatus) and drop-wise

condensation (which is formed on the

chrome-plated diameter copper pipe in

the steam chest). The image at right, while it

shows multiple pipes (and we have only a

single pipe for each type of condensation), illustrates the two mechanisms of

condensationdropwise in (a) and film in (b). Images (c) through (f) are beyond the

scope of this discussion.

The steady-state rate of heat gain by each of the two copper pipes (black

and chrome) when water is flowing through them AT THE SAME FLOW

RATE. Keeping the same flow rate for each pipe is critical so that you can

compare the rates of heat transfer for each.

The steady-state condensate rate for each type of condensation (film

condensation on the black pipe and drop-wise condensation on the

chrome pipe).

Calculate the convective heat transfer coefficients for both the inside and

outside of the condensing tubes. Details of how all of these

measurements and calculations are to be performed are contained in this

handout.

A live steam chest where open steam is fed directly into the chamber,

filling it to maintain a constant steam bulk fluid temperature

A flow meter and valve arrangement through which water (tap water from

the municipal water system) is fed through either the black painted or

chrome plated tubes. NOTE: You MUST send the total water flow

either through the black or chrome tube (one at a time)because

that flow rate is what is indicated on the flow rotameter. Otherwise,

you would have no way to readily determine the flow in each

individual tube. Also, the rates of heat transfer are to be calculated

for steady-state operation of ONLY ONE CONDENSATION TYPE (i.e.

film versus drop-wise) AT A TIME.

Safety

The national Chemical Safety Board has strongly emphasized increasing safety

awareness and instruction across chemical engineering and chemistry degree programs

throughout the country. In response to this we are reinforcing our longstanding safety

policies with new activities designed to increase your awareness and conduct of safe

practices during all Unit Operations laboratory activities. More details are presented

elsewhere laboratory documentation, but a few rules for working in the Unit Operations

laboratory are emphasized here:

Upon entering the laboratory, you are to put on safety glasses. They are to be

worn throughout your participation in laboratory experiments.

You MUST wear long pants and closed-toed shoes (you can use a locker,

providing your own lock). Locks will be removed (by cutting if necessary) at the

end of the semester to allow the juniors access for the spring lab section.

Absolutely NO food or drink in the lab.

Purpose

The purpose of this laboratory experiment is to investigate heat transfer in a system

experiencing film or drop condensation. The determination of individual heat transfer

coefficients and rates of heat transfer as a function of fluid flow rates, and tube

characteristics is an expected outcome.

Equipment Description

The Film and Drop Condensation experiment consists of a steam chest into which

saturated steam is passed from an adjacent boiler. Two copper tubes (one with a black

finish and one with a chrome plating) pass through the steam chest. Cool water is passed

through these tubes (one at a time) to evaluate the heat transfer from each one (under

similar operating conditions of steam and cooling water flow). See figure below.

various steams. A junction box for all thermocouples allows selection of various points

throughout the system (points in the system corresponding to the thermocouples have

been written on the experimental apparatus). Water flow may also be obtained from a

rotameter.

The condensate flow rate (from the steam condensing on either the flat black or chrome-

plated tube) must be measured by collecting the condensate dripping from the outlet pipe.

The simplest way to do this is to get a graduated beaker of 1 liter volume (or more) and

allow the condensate to collect over a measured time period (you can use your stopwatch

function on your cell phone).

written report).

Answer the following questions in the context of your laboratory report. The

questions below can serve as excellent feedstock for writing your lab report. HINT:

The material for answering these questions comes directly from your heat transfer

textbook. Though there are numerous online references available, as well. The

answers to these questions also provide excellent material for use in your written

report.

2. Define the difference between drop-wise and film condensation. What conditions

can lead to each?

3. Present the energy balance equation (i.e. model) that appropriately describes the

general condition of heat transfer through a cylindrical tube undergoing

condensation.

4. Discuss how differences in flow regime affect this model (presented in question 3)

(i.e. laminar v. turbulent flow of the condensate on the outside of the pipe (not the

inside!)). How will you practically determine which flow regime you are in?

5. How will you practically determine the condensation rate? The condensation

phenomenon (i.e. drop-wise or film)? Hint: consider visual inspection for

determining the actual type of condensation occurring.

6. Present a suitable model for determining the individual heat transfer coefficient for

film condensation and drop-wise condensation in a cylindrical, horizontal tube and

define each term.

7. Present raw data with a sample calculation for the individual heat transfer

coefficient, the overall rate of heat transfer and the condensation rate. BE SURE

TO REPORT THESE VALUES FOR EACH OF YOUR OPERATING

CONDITIONS (YOU MUST OPERATE THE SYSTEM WITH AT LEAST TWO

DIFFERENT COOLING WATER FLOW RATES IN EACH OF THE TWO

DIFFERENT TUBES).

8. Discuss the determination of the mass flow rate by the heat transfer rate (q) divided

by the modified latent heat of vaporization (see Incropera and DeWitt). Why is this

valid for our system?

9. Discuss why we can use q=mCpT to determine the overall rate of heat transfer

for a given tube (using the cold water flow rate and fluid properties for this

calculation)? Should it be equal to the heat transfer rate by the absorbing

condensate? Why or why not?

for EACH pipe

b. The rate of heat transfer (q=mCpT) for both tubes based on the cold

water flowing through the tubes.

c. The rate of heat transfer from each tube based on the external

condensation conditions (and appropriately chosen model)

d. A thorough discussion comparing and contrasting these calculated

parameters and what they mean regarding the performance of your

system.

Experimental Process/Procedures

1. Prior to the lab period, the electric boiler will be started to produce approximately

20-30 psig steam supply for this apparatus.

2. Steam entering the steam chest should be between 0-10 psig and visibly

condensing on the chrome and black copper tubes in the chest.

3. The cool water supply valve (just upstream from the Rotameter) is VERY tight.

The lab instructor will provide directions on how to adjust this valve.

4. Orange handled valves control cool water into and out of the steam chest. Select

either the black or chrome tube on which to take your first measurements and open

both the inlet and outlet valves.

5. Note ALL thermocouple positions and set up a table in Excel to record data similar

to what is shown below: IMPORTANT: you will note that we only have a

thermocouple soldered to the surface of the black tube. However, the film

condensation model from your heat transfer textbook (e.g. Incropera and DeWitt)

is applicable to the black tube (not the chrome tube which is experiencing drop-

wise condensation). Therefore this surface temperature will be taken only when

you have cold water flowing through the black tube.

6. Your experimental data is relatively simple to obtain. The boiler will be turned on

by the lab teaching team prior to the start of the days experiments so you should

not have to be concerned with it throughout the experiment. Essentially, you will

adjust the cold water flow with the inlet valve (as instructed). You record the water

flow rate by measuring at the top of the flow in the rotameter.

7. Next, you will select EITHER the black or chrome pipe and open both the inlet and

exit valves to your chosen pipe. You MUST make sure the valves are closed to

the other pipe. Immediately begin monitoring the temperatures at the inlet and

outlet of this pipe. When they are unchanging you are at a thermal steady-state.

ONLY THEN are you to place a beaker or graduated cylinder under the

condensate outlet and measure the condensate flow rate for 2-5 minutes duration

(of course, dividing the volume obtained by the time interval to get the condensate

flow rate). Record ALL temperature readings (EXCEPT those for the water inlet

and outlet of the pipe NOT being used.

8. Once you have obtained the condensate flow rate, empty the beaker and set aside

while you adjust the valves to direct THE SAME WATER FLOW RATE through the

other pipe. Repeat the process of recording the flow rate (just to make sure it is

the same as originally set) and then recording the temperatures of the inlet and

outlet water in your operating pipe (at steady state) along with the other temps (i.e.

steam chest temp, and, if needed, the surface temperature reading).

9. Adjust your water flow to a new setting and repeat the entire experiment for both

the flat-black pipe and the chrome-plated pipe.

One precaution to take throughout your experiment is to note the steam pressure

gage on the blue boiler. The boiler is located at the end of the bay in which this

experiment is located. The steam pressure should be reading approximately 30

psig. IF NOT, please notify Dr. Elmore IMMEDIATELY. There is a possibility that

the pressure could drop suddenly. This is not a cause for alarm but we DO need

to know when this occurs as it will affect your experimental data. MOST

IMPORTANTLY is to note if any pressure rise above 30 psig occurs. It is very

unlikely (and not observed EVER) but you should ALWAYS monitor the operation

of a boiler when working in the vicinity.

Type rate (gpm) (or Tsat of steam water in water out surface temp on the black tube)

entering chest)

Black

Chrome

Theoretical Background

shows a schematic for one

aspect of our process

though the direction of

heat flow is from the

outside to the inside

(opposite of that shown).

Cold fluid (water from the

municipal water supply)

flows through the pipe in

the axial direction (i.e.

along the length of either

the flat black painted

copper pipe of the chrome-

plated copper pipe). The

hot fluid (steam fed live

to the steam chest) flowing by forced convectionit is generally stagnant though you

might be able to periodically observe natural convection currents in the steam chest.

However, with the cool water in the tube, the steam will condense on the outer surface of

the tube (either forming a film over the flat-black copper pipe or forming droplets on the

outer surface of the chrome-plated pipe). The focus of our experiment is on the steady-

state convective heat transfer rate along the axial length of the pipe and the

simultaneous steady-state condensation rate rate of steam from either of the outer pipe

walls. You see in the lower right hand corner of our diagram a heat transfer circuit. As

it turns out, the flow of heat can be shown as analogous to the flow of electricity. The

squiggly lines represent resistance. In electricity, those squiggles would represent

electrical resistors. In heat transfer, they represent resistance to heat flow. The first

resistance between the temperatures T,1 (which is the bulk fluid temperature of the

heated air in the pipe) and Ts1 (which is the inner pipe surface temperature) is known as

the film resistance. Similar to our discussion in fluids, as the velocity profile of liquid

flowing in a pipe reaches zero at the inner pipe wall, the rate of heat transfer is resisted

by that film of zero velocity fluid on the inner pipe wall. This is described by a heat

transfer resistance term

(Eq 1)

Determination of the heat transfer coefficient (h1) is a big part of your study in our heat

transfer lecture course. It will be addressed below in the Convective Heat Transfer

discussion.

The heat from the steam is first transferred through a condensate film forming on the

outside of the pipe. (We will present a models for describing this later). Then, heat

transfers from the film through the pipe wall. Once again, just to be clear, the heat is

flowing in the direction from the steam ON THE OUTSIDE of the pipe through the

pipe wall TO THE WATER ON THE INSIDE. I repeat this because it is flowing in the

opposite direction to that shown in the diagram (but the diagram was handy for

illustrating the concepts discussed herein). The heat is then transferred from the

inner stagnant film of liquid on the inner pipe wall into the build fluid flowing through the

pipe. An inside convective heat transfer coefficient (h1) can be calculated from a

relationship similar to what was shown above in Equation 1.

For heat transfer through the pipe wall (by conduction), the heat transfer rate may be

described by

This means that the heat transfer rate in the radial direction (through the pipe wall) is

equivalent to the thermal conductivity (typical units of Watts/meter-Kelvin) multiplied by

the area perpindicular to the direction of heat flow through which the heat is being

transferred multiplied by the temperature differential (dT) across the pipe wall (dr).

Expressing that area in cylindrical coordinates as 2rL, we can actually divide the rate of

heat transfer by this area (since there is no actual length of pipe when we are calculating

the radial conduction through a single slice of the pipe, as we are doing in this

experiment). This heat flux would then look like

"

2

Note that the heat flux is the rate of heat transfer per unit area. Again, there is no actual

area perpendicular to the direction of heat flow when we are talking about a point of heat

transfer, so this conveniently incorporates area into the heat rate term. The minus sign

on the right hand side of the equation indicates that we are calculating heat loss with dT

being positive but dr being negative (as you move from the inner pipe to outer pipe radius,

that term is negative). Thus you get a positive heat flux value.

Assuming steady-state conditions (meaning the heat flux term is constant), we can

separate the variables and integrate for the boundary conditions shown below

, ,

, ,

It is left to you to perform this simple integration, into which you will plug your experimental

data to calculate the heat flux from experimental data obtained at each of the two

individual stations.

Convective Heat Loss in the Axial Direction

As we have already mentioned above, convective heat transfer occurs in a moving fluid

(as natural or forced convection currents are introduced with the fluid movement). An

important parameter for characterizing this heat convection is the heat transfer coefficient

(h). This was presented earlier for the convection inside the pipe (shown in our diagram)

as

1

2

The complex nature of fluid movement in a system means that, prior to advanced

computational fluid dynamics, many systems were studied and characterized empirically

(i.e. by taking large amounts of experimental data and developing a mathematical

empirical models based upon these observations). Such an emprical model for

calculating the convective heat transfer coefficient is the Dittus-Boelter equation

Remember, from fluids, the Reynolds number is a dimensionless number which describes

the flow characteristics (i.e. laminar, turbulent, or transition). Just to refresh your memory,

the Reynolds number is defined as

Where = the fluid density (you will have to used the ideal gas law and the

molar mass of air to get this in the proper units)

rate (obtained from the water rotameter and the inside pipe diameter of

the copper pipeboth used in the continuity equation)

DONT FORGET! Each of these terms MUST be in units allowing everything to cancel.

Similarly, the Prandtl number (Pr) is a dimensionless number expressing the ratio of

momentum diffusivity to thermal diffusivity.

In heat transfer, the Prandtl number describes the relative thickness of the momentum

boundary layer (that film where the velocity of the moving fluid nears zero) and the

thermal boundary layer (a similar thermal film)you will discuss these in detail in your

heat transfer lecture.

When the Prandtl number is small in magnitude, it indicates that, in comparison to the

velocity, the rate of heat diffusion is much larger. When the Prandtl number is large in

magnitude, the opposite is true (i.e. heat diffusion is smaller in comparison to the velocity).

For example, in liquid metals, which we know to be highly thermally conductive, the

thermal boundary layer thickness is much larger than the velocity boundary layer.

Typical values for the Prandtl number are (from our ever-reliable Wikipedia!):

around 0.16-0.7 for mixtures of noble gases or noble gases with hydrogen

around 0.7-0.8 for air and many other gases,

between 4 and 5 for R-12 refrigerant

around 7 for water (At 20 degrees Celsius)

13.4 and 7.2 for seawater (At 0 degrees Celsius and 20 degrees

Celsius respectively)

between 100 and 40,000 for engine oil

You will calculate the Prandtl number for use in the Dittus-Boelter equation by looking up

specific heats (cp), viscosities () and thermal conductivities (k) for water at your average

temperatures (that is, the average between the copper tube inlet and outlet temperatures

in a given experimental run). These temperatures are obtained from thermocouple

readouts available on a meter affixed to the experimental apparatus.

In the Dittus-Boelter equation, we see that the heat transfer coefficient (hfc in the above

equation) is multiplied by the inside pipe diameter and divided by the fluid thermal

conductivity (already found for use in the Prandtl number calculation described). You will

need to manipulate this equation algebraically to give you the heat transfer coefficient as

shown below

. .

0.023

You will calculate a heat transfer coefficient for conditions in both the black and chrome

copper tubes, and for EACH set of experimental conditions and report in your Final

Report.

The Nusselt Number (Nufc in the Dittus-Boelter equation) is another dimensionless

parameter described by

The Nusselt number is the ratio of the convective to conductive heat transfer at a

boundary.

A Nusselt number close to a value of 1.0 indicates near or at laminar flow in the system

and the relative effect of conduction would be near the same magnitude of convection

(which makes sense for the definition presented). A larger Nusselt number indicates that

a turbulent flow condition exists (and is therefore likely the controlling mechanism in the

overall rate of heat transfer). For the purposes of our discussion, NuL = Nufc.

Similarly h1 = hfc = h. I do want to note that, as described earlier, you can calculate

a heat transfer coefficient for the water flowing inside the pipe and one for the

steam condensing outside the pipe. The above use of the Dittus Boelter equation

is for calculating the heat transfer coefficient for the INSIDE conditions of water

flow.

Calculating the heat transfer coefficient for the Film Steam Condensation on the outside

of the pipe

Similar to the model developed above for calculating the heat transfer coefficient for the

water flowing in the pipe via the Dittus-Boelter equation, models (developed by Nusselt

and others) exist for calculating a heat transfer coefficient for the steam condensing on

the outside of the equation. As might be anticipated, the theoretical analysis for such a

phenomenon is very complex and is beyond the scope of this laboratory. However, we

can use the models easily.

An empirical model describing the heat transfer coefficient for laminar flow on the outside

of the pipe due to condensation is given by

0.76

Where

hv = the heat transfer coefficient for steam vapor condensing

D = the tube outside diameter upon which condensate is forming

k = the thermal conductivity of the steam condensate (i.e. liquid water at the steam

temperature)

= the density of the steam condensate (again liquid water at the steam temperature

Why? Because we are making the assumption that the saturated steam vapor and

liquid are in equilibrium and therefore at the same temperature)

g = the gravitational constant

= the viscosity of the steam condensate

= as defined below

Where

= the mass flow rate of steam condensate (i.e. liquid water) leaving the steam chest

remember you are going to measure that by putting a graduated cylinder or beaker under

that stream and capture a volume over a time interval (several minutes).

Of course, to use the above empirical model for steam condensing on the outside of the

pipe under laminar flow conditions, you must know the Reynolds number. To calculate it

use the following equation

2

Re

If this value of the Reynolds number is equal to or less than 2100, then you have laminar

flow conditions and you can calculate the thickness of the liquid film on the outside of the

pipe by

You must calculate the heat transfer coefficient and the Reynolds number for the film-

wise condensation on the black-painted copper pipe for EACH of three different flow

rates of water on the inside of the pipe. Presuming that the flow will be laminar (which

is expected), then calculate and report the thickness of the film formed.

Calculating the heat transfer coefficient for the Dropwise Steam Condensation on the

outside of the pipe

Note: The procedure for this particular model is beyond the scope of this

experiment for the current semester. If you wish to examine the model, you may

study the handout provided on MyCourses for the Scott Film and Drop

Condensation Experimental Apparatus. However, we will NOT be calculating a heat

transfer coefficient for the drop-wise condensation on the outside of the chrome-

plated copper pipe.

Convective heat loss in the axial direction for the water flowing INSIDE the pipe.

The heat lost through the acrylic pipe walls due to conduction will result in heat loss of the

air moving along the pipe axis. We can calculate this heat loss between stations one and

two by using the bulk heat equation

Where

is the mass flow rate (typical English units of pounds mass per hour lbm/hr

Cp is the specific heat of air (the amount of energy, in the form of heat, to raise a

certain mass of your working fluid a degree in temperature. While specific heat is

a strong function of temperature, you can look up a value for air using the average

bulk fluid temperature between stations 1 and 2.

T is the change in temperature from the inlet to the outlet stream in oF (typically

outlet temp minus inlet temp).

You will need to calculate a value of q for each of your experimental runs to describe the

rate of heat transfer in the axial direction. Of course, to determine the heat flux, you would

divide by the cross-sectional area of the inside of the pipe perpendicular to the direction

of the Water flow inside the pipe.

Summary of calculations to perform:

1. Enter all of your raw experimental data in a clearly labeled Excel spreadsheet and

easily readable format. Using the bulk heat equation (q = mcpT) calculate the

heat gain by the water stream in ALL experimental runs (three experimental runs

for each of the two pipes).

2. Calculate the heat transfer coefficient for the inside of the pipe using the Dittus-

Boelter equation

3. Calculate the rate of heat transfer through the pipe wall using Fouriers law

4. Calculate the heat transfer coefficient for the Film Condensation only using the

model provided (check to see if the condensate is flowing in a laminar condition).

5. Calculate the thickness of the condensate film as described. Do this for all of your

experimental runs in the black-walled pipe.

6. Compare the rates of heat gain in the two pipes for each of your experimental runs

7. Place your temperature data for each run in a column format that allows you to

determine the averages and standard deviations for every data set. You can now

see why it is important to take the data precisely at the same water flow rate in

each tube (for a given experimental run) to allow you to make direct comparisons

of the temperature data.

8. One question we want to answer is whether or not the two forms of condensation

are statistically the same or significantly different. You will do this by performing a

Student t test in Excel on your data sets. A wonderfully helpful YouTube video

is provided at the link belowexplaining in straightforward terms how to do this.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JlfLnx8sh-o

Can you say anything definitive about any differences between the two forms of

condensate comparing either the heat gain by the water in the two different tubes

or by the heat transfer coefficients calculated by the Dittus-Boelter equation?

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