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According to Ellen G White,our ideas of education take too narrow and too
low a range. There is need of a broader scope, a higher aim. True education
means more than the pursual of a certain course of study. It means more than a
preparation for the life that now is. It has to do with the whole being, and with the
whole period of existence possible to man. It is the harmonious development of
the physical, the mental, and the spiritual powers. It prepares the student for the
joy of service in this world and for the higher joy of wider service in the world to

Education continues to mold people to become better persons and apply

their learning to their lives. It can also implies that it is a continued process
wherein there is no reason to stop progressing. Like today it continues the
discovery and makes some update about the different aspects of life together
with the modern technologies.

Education was still consistent on achieving their goals. It taught us about

different things, from the simples to the most comprehensive part of it. Some
people said that education could bring us to a better future, which is true. The
knowledge we gained during our kindergarten and even the things that we
learned from our parents was affecting us towards our profession.

There are many studies conducted to know the effectiveness of teaching

to the students and how they can improve the learning process. But there are few
who tried to investigate about the perception of the students to their teachers.

Our teachers, instructors, professors or whatever name that we want to

call them. It still doesn’t change their role on our life. Teaching is never an easy
task. Everyday they also need to repetitively share their knowledge like their
experience to the students. They are the equipments of the education on molding
the future people that can bring change on this world.

Comparing this on a family structure, the students are the children and our
teachers are the parents. The parents improve our attitude and some basic
things to know while the teachers are focusing more on the information. As a
student, their role is to gain as many information as they can, so that they can
apply this on their daily lives.

A good teacher can mold a good student and a bad teacher can mold a
bad student. This is just a simple phrase but it is the unacceptable truth. As a
preparation of the students to have a good background on their profession,
teachers have many responsibilities that they need to accomplish. First,
Preceptor facilitates learning to assist the learner to attain the Program
competencies of Professionalism, Critical Thinking, Leadership, Relationship-
Centered Practice, and Clinical Practice. Second, to become a role model-
Preceptor exemplifies behaviors to promote learner’s professional Development.

According to Minister Louis Farrakhan, One of the things that separates

man from beast is knowledge. Knowledge feeds the development of the human
being so that the person can grow and evolve into Divine and become one with
The Creator. It’s not one’s maleness or femaleness, being Black or being White,
rather it is our growth and reflection of knowledge that distinguishes us from the
lower forms of life.

Knowledge circulates the earth and without this we cant be able to

achieve our goals but attaining the knowledge that we needed is just an miles a
way. We need to be smart on where we can get the right information and put in
mind that not all of the things that the man or woman in from of your sit is true.

Not all smart people, those who graduated as Cum Laude can teach you
the best information above the land. There are some people who are smart but
don’t have the ability to teach. There are some teachers that are good on
teaching but don’t have enough knowledge. What do you prefer?

We have different kinds of teachers and we also have different kind of

students. We have different ways on learning. But how can we maximize the
promotion of good education. That’s why we need to know the different
perception of the students about their teachers to know their different opinions.

According to Emmanuel Kant, all human beings have ‘such a strong

inclination to freedom’, they must be ‘accustomed from an early age to accept the
dictates of reason’ (1963, p. 10). Man (as a collective designation) is that which
education makes of him and nothing more. ‘It will be noted that man is always
educated by other men who have themselves been educated previously’.
Education may be viewed firstly in empirical terms, that is, in the manner in which
the educational process takes place in a given real situation; secondly, it must be
considered in its anthropological profundity and with reference to its normative
idea. Here it will be noted that ‘an idea is nothing other than the concept of a
perfection which has not as yet been experienced’ (p. 12).

He also stated that idea of education is a yardstick for the practice of

education. It permits a critique of education and a critique of schools and training.
Even if it has not yet been put into practice, or has only been done so in its basic
principles by a process of approximation, the ‘idea of an education that develops
all the natural gifts of man’ appears to contain the ‘truth’.
Theoretical framework
According to Jean Piaget’s constructivism theory, which knowledge is
internalized by learners. He suggested that through processes of accommodation
and assimilation, individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences.
When individuals assimilate, they incorporate the new experience into an already
existing framework without changing that framework. This may occur when
individuals' experiences are aligned with their internal representations of the
world, but may also occur as a failure to change a faulty understanding; for
example, they may not notice events, may misunderstand input from others, or
may decide that an event is a fluke and is therefore unimportant as information
about the world. In contrast, when individuals' experiences contradict their
internal representations, they may change their perceptions of the experiences to
fit their internal representations. According to the theory, accommodation is the
process of reframing one's mental representation of the external world to fit new
experiences. Accommodation can be understood as the mechanism by which
failure leads to learning: when we act on the expectation that the world operates
in one way and it violates our expectations, we often fail, but by accommodating
this new experience and reframing our model of the way the world works, we
learn from the experience of failure, or others' failure.

This can actually related on the relationship of the preceptors and the
student where the preceptors change the initial information on the students and
the role of the students is to accommodate that knowledge. The experience of
the preceptors on the hospital is an important knowledge that they need to share
to the students to produce competitive nurses.

Lev Vygotsky's social constructivist theory, teacher should creates a

context for learning in which students can become engaged in interesting
activities that encourages and facilitates learning. The teacher does not simply
stand by, however, and watch children explore and discover. Instead, the teacher
may often guide students as they approach problems, may encourage them to
work in groups to think about issues and questions, and support them with
encouragement and advice as they tackle problems, adventures, and challenges
that are rooted in real life situations that are both interesting to the students and
satisfying in terms of the result of their work. Teachers thus facilitate cognitive
growth and learning, as do peers and other members of the child's community.

The theory can be implies on the way the nursing students the
competency of their preceptors and the way teaching should be done according
to their way. There are different kinds of teachers and undeniably, there are also
different kinds of students. So, they have different way of teaching strategies and
the students also have different kinds of learning process. With the use of the
theory of social constructivist, it actually generalized the way learning should be
According to Dr Patricia Benner, the concept that expert nurses develop
skills and understanding of patient care over time through a sound educational
base as well as a multitude of experiences. She proposed that one could gain
knowledge and skills ("knowing how") without ever learning the theory ("knowing
that"). She further explains that the development of knowledge in applied
disciplines such as medicine and nursing is composed of the extension of
practical knowledge (know how) through research and the characterization and
understanding of the "know how" of clinical experience. She conceptualizes in
her writing about nursing skills as experience is a prerequisite for becoming an

Dr. Benner only wants to emphasize the difference between how to

become a good professional nurse with taking note of the separation on having
skills and knowledge. It only gave us cues to become and good or even expertise
on nursing.

In the theory of Heckhausen about competence-motivation, high

competence-motivation is opposed by either total lack of motivation (no interest
in achieving) or by a strong motivation to avoid failure. The differences between
these two opposites of high competence-motivation can be explained by
attributions. In the case of total lack of motivation all achievement outcomes are
ascribed to external non-controllable factors. In the case of a strong motivation to
avoid failure, failures are probably ascribed to internal non-controllable factors,
i.e. factors threatening one’s self-esteem.

The motivation should be started from the students itself but the
preceptors should also motivate them and guide them on attaining the goal.
Sometimes students do have lack in motivation where time is can also be related
on it. But with the help of the preceptors they should also be a motivation for the
students for example they should be a role model for them, making them realize
that nursing profession is really a great job.
Conceptual theory

Demographical Other factors

profile: • Masteral taken
• Age • University
• Sex Environmental graduated
• Civil status • School • Clinical
• Religion • Home experience
• Subject taught • hospital • Seminars taken
• Year level
• Year of

Clinical instructor’s competency

Method: • Level of
• Random understandin
sampling g of the
• Questionna students after
ires lecture

Student’s perception

Figure 1.1 Illustrate the development of the correlation between the Optimism of
students toward clinical competency in special area.

The demographic profile, environmental and other factors are the

factors affecting the performance of the preceptor’s competencies on giving the
right information to the students. Some examples are on the boxes like their
attainment during their studies. The clinical instructor cannot give what they don’t
have. So, ideally they should also have a good background on their studies and
experience on the hospital settings.
Method of the studies is also stated on the chart. Random sampling
is one of it wherein random population can be considered as the subject.
Questionnaires should also be conducted in order to know the perception of the
students about the learning process during their hospital duties. And the last part
will be the result or the perception of the students over their preceptors.