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. 18; . . .|7. !. . . : . 21.;
. . . : . 1 (. 1.5), . 2; . . : . 24;
. . : . 22; . . : . 4 ( . 4.5);
. . : . 9, .10; . . : . 25;
. . : . 17; . . : . 7;
. . : . 5, . 6 (. 6.3, 6.4, 6.5), . 8, . 15, . 19;
. . : . 6 (. 6.1, 6.2), . 16, . 20; . . : . 23

: / . . . . -.
75 .: , 2015. 752 .
ISBN 978-5-7567-0771-7
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66.4

ISBN 9785756707717 , 2015


() , 2015
, 2015

www.aspectpress.ru

.......................................................................................................................... 9

I
, ,

1. ..........................16
1.1. ......................16
1.2. .......................................................18
1.3. , ................................. 21
1.4. ....................................25
1.5. ....... 26
1.6. .........................................30
1.6.1. (31); 1.6.2.
(32); 1.6.3. (33);
1.6.4. (37); 1.6.5.
(37); 1.6.6. (40);
1.6.7. (42)
1.7.
........................................................................43
2. .............................. 55
2.1.
XIX ......................................... 57
2.2. XX ...............59
2.3. .............................................................. 62
2.4. ................................................ 65

3. ..............................................70
3.1> ...................... 70
3.2. - .............. 75
3.3. .............................................................. 78
3.4. - ..................... 82
3.5. ................................................................ 86
3.5.1. (86); 3.5.2.
(87); 3.5.3. - (Cross-time
comparisons) (96); 3.5.4. (98)
3.6. - ..................................................... 99
3.7. ........................................................ 101

3
4.
...................................................................................... 111
4.1. ..............................................................................................111
4.2. . . .......................... 113
4.3. ........................ 121
4.4. ...................................123
4.5.
4.5.1. (126); 4.5.2. , ,
(128)
4.6.
........................................................................................................ 135
4.6.1. :
(135); 4.6.2.

(138); 4.6.3.
(139)

5. .................................143
5.1. .........................................................143
5.2. .............................................................146
5.3. : ..................................153
5.4. ........................................................................... 156
6. ................................166
6.1. ............................................. 166
6.2. .................................................................. 171
6.3. ...............................172
6.3.1. (173); 6.3.2. (173);
6.3.3. (178); 6.3.4.
(181); 6.3.5. (183); 6.3.6.
. (185); 6.3.7. (185);
6.3.8. (187); 6.3.9.
( ) (189)
6.4. ........................................................191
6.5. ...............................196
7. ........................................................... .......................................... 204
7.1.
........ 204
7.2. ?.............................................................................. 209
7.3. ....212
8. ........................................................................... 224
8.1. ..................................226
8.1.1.
(226); 8.1.2. -

4
I
(227); 8.1.3. (229);
8.1.4. (230)
8.2. .................................... 232
9. .......................................................................................253
9.1. ........................................253
9.2. ..........................................................259
9.3. .........................269
10. ................................................................................ 280
, 10.1. ..........................................281
" 10.2. ..........283
, ? 10.3. ..................................................291
^ 10.4. .............................................................. 299
10.5. .................................. 303
/ 11. ...........................................................314
11.1. . .................................... 315
11.2. .................................317
11.3. .
........................................................................319
11.4. ............................................................................. 321
11.5. .................................................................................... 325
11.6. , ..................................................326
11.7. ............................... 328
12.
............................................................................. 335
12.1.
.............................................................................................335
12.2. ................ 347
12.3. .............................358
12.4.
................................................................................ 361
12.5.
....,............................................................................366

II


13.
........................................................................ 386
13.1. .................. 387

5
13.2, ..........................................397
13.2.1. :
(397); 13.2.2.
(406); 13.2.3.
(414); 13.2.4. :
(420)
14. ............ ...........433
14.1.
............................................................................................. 434
14.2. : .......................................................... 441
14.3. ......................................444
14.4. ....................................................................449
15.
..................................... ..............................................454
15.1. ................................................................................... 454
15.2. ................................................................................. 456
15.3. .................................................................................. 463
15.4. ...............................464
15.5. .................................................................................... 467
15.6. ......................................................................... 469
16.
...................................................................................................476
16.1.
................................................................................... 477
16.2. ............480
16.3.
.....................................................................488
16.4. ...................................492
16.5.
..................................................................................................496
17. ...... ......506
17.1.
..................... .fr...........................................508
17.2. : ...... 521
18. : .............................538
18.1. ............. - ....................................539
18.2. . .................... 540
18.3. ........................................ 547
18.4. ?.............................................................550
18.5. ...................... 552

6
18.6. ...................................................................................... 554
18.7. . ................................................................558
19. ..............................562
19.1. ..............................................................564
19.2. .................................................................................... 565
19.3. .................................................................................. 571
19.4. .................................................................................................576
19.5. .......................................................................................................577
19.6. ........................................................................... 581
19.7. .............................................................................. 583
19.8. ........................................................................585
19.9. ........................................................................... 590
20.
..........................................................................................599
20.1. -
...........................................................................................599
20.2.
(50-70- XX .)......................................................................................... 605
20.3. ........................... 608
20.4. ................................................ 612
20.5. ...............................................................................................616
20.6. ....................... 619
21. ............................. 625
21.1. ..................... 625
21.2. .................................................................................. 628
21.3. ................................................................................ 630
21.4. ...............................................................632
21.5. ...............................................................641
21.6.
.................................................... 643
21.7.
4 ...... ............................................................................. 649
21.8.
.....................................................................................................653
22. .............................. 660
22.1. ................................................................................... 662
22.2. ..................................................................................... 663
22.3. ....................................................................................... 669
22.4. ............................................................................... 670
22.5. .................................................................................... 671

7
22.6. ..............................................................................673
22.7. ...........................................................................................................674
22.8. .......................................................................................677
23.
........................................................................................... 679
23.1. ......................................................................... 679
23.1.1. (679); 23.1.2.
(681); 23.1.3.
(683); 23.1.4.
(684); 23.1.5.
(686);23.1.6. ?
(688)
23.2. ....................................................................... 689
23.2.1. (689);
23.2.2. (690); 23.2.3.

(691)
23.3. .......................................................................692
23.3.1. (692);
23.3.2. (695)

24.
............................................................................................ 701
24.1. - ...............................703
24.2. ..................................................................706
24.3.
............................................................................................ 708
24.4. ............... 710
24.5. ................ 714
24.6. 2010-2012 ......................................................719
25. ..................................725
25.1. ................................................................................ 725
25.2. ....................................................................................... 727
25.3. ^.............................. 733
........................................................................................................................ 738
.............................................................................................................. 741
....................................................................................................................................751

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3 Newton . and Van Deth J. W. Foundation o f Comparative Politics. Democracies of the
Modern World. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. P. 1,5.
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6.
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47 .: - . . :
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10 Burgess J. W. Political Science and Comparative Constitutional Law. Boston,
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1Q u erm on ne J. L. Les regimens politiques occidentaux. Paris: Ed. du Seuil, 1986.
P. 12.
2 . M ., . . . M.: , 1985.
. 12.
3 / . . . . . .:
, 1991. . 34.
* L in z J-, S tep a n A. Problems of democratic transition and consolidation. Balti
more and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
200
6.

5A r e n d t . The origins of totalitarianism. San Diego, N.Y.; L.: Harcourt Brace


and company, 1975. P. 460.
6 . . . 1989.
. 51-54.
7 . a u th o r ity ,p a tr im o n ia l, . H errsch aft,
p a t r i m o n ia l . . , ,
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1999. . .: ACT, 1999. . 36, 102.
11L in z !-, S tep a n A . Problems of democratic transition and consolidation. Balti
more and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. P. 4445.
12G e d d es B. What do we know about democratization after twenty years? / / Annu.
Rev. Polit. Sci. 1999. No 2. P. 121.
(^/ . .
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. .
XX .
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201
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.
16H u n tin gton S. . Political Order in changing societies. New Haven and L.: Yale
University Press, 1968. P. 424.
17G e d d es B. What do we know about democratization after twenty years? / / Annu.
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w M a g a lo n i B. Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and its Demise in
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19Tbid. P. 19.
20M a g a lo n i B., K ric h e li R. Political Order and One-Party Rule / / Annu. Rev.
Polit. Sci. 2010. No 13. P. 123-143.
21 G e d d es B. What do we know about democratization after twenty years? / /
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authoritarianism//Journal of Democracy. 2007. Vol. 18.No I. P. 143156.
22G e d d es B. What do we know... 1999. No 2. P. 131.
23G ed d es B. Paradigms and Sand Castles: Theory Building and Research Design
in Comparative Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003. P. 54.
24H u n tin gton S. P. Political Order in changing societies. New Haven and L.: Yale
University Press, 1968, P. 238.
25 W in trobe R. Dictatorship: Analytical Approaches / / The Oxford Handbook of
Comparative Politics / C. Boix, S. C. Stokes (eds.). N.Y.: Oxford University Press,
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26 G a n d h i J ., P rze w o rsk i A. Cooperation, Cooptation, and Rebellion under Dicta
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27E gorov G ., S on in K. Dictators and Their Viziers: Agency Problems in Dictator
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28S v o lik M . W . Power Sharing and Leadership Dynamics in Authoritarian Re
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29G e d d es B. What do we know about democratization after twenty years? / / Annu.
Rev. Polit. Sci. 1999. No 2. P. 115-144.
iaA cem oglu D ., E g o ro v G., S on in K . Political Economyunder weak Institutions: Do
Juntas Lead to Personal Rule? / / American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings.
2009. Vol. 99. No 2. P. 298-303.
31H u n tington S . P. Political Order in changing societies. New Haven and L.: Yale
University Press, 1968. P. 12.
32 G a n d h i P rzew o rsk i A . Authoritarian Institutions and the Survival of Auto
crats//Comparative Political Studies. 2007. Vol. 40. No II. P. 12791301.
33H u n tin gton S. P. Political Order in changing societies. New Haven and L.: Yale
University Press, 1968. P. 11.
34 G ed d es B. Why Parties and Elections in Authoritarian Regimes? / / American
Political Science Association Washington DC. 2005. P. 8-9.
35H u n tin gton S. P. Political Order in changing societies. New Haven and L.: Yale
University Press, 1968. P. 91.

202
6.

36G e d d es . What do we know about democratization after twenty years? / / Annu.


Rev. Polit. Sci. 1999. No 2. P. 133.
37 H a d en iu s A ., T eorell J. Pathways from authoritarianism / / Journal of Demo
cracy. 2007. Vol. 18. 1. P. 50.
38G a n d h i J., P rze w o rsk i A . Cooperation, Cooptation, and Rebellion under Dicta
torship/ / Economics & Politics. 2006. Vol. 18. No 1. P. 15.
39H u n tin gton S. P. Political order in changing societies. New Haven and L.: Yale
University Press, 1968. P. 423.
40 W right J ., E scrib a -F o lch A . Authoritarian Institutions and Regime Survival:
Transitions to Democracy and Subsequent Autocracies. October 2010. P. 22.
41 G a n d h i J ., P rze w o rsk i A . Cooperation, Cooptation, and Rebellion under Dicta
torship/ / Economics & Politics. 2006. Vol. 18. No 1. P. 15.
42 G a n d h i J. Political Institutions Under Dictatorship. N.Y.: Cambridge University
Press, 2008. P. 39.
42S v o lik M . W. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule. 2012. Chapter6.
44G a n d h i J. Political Institutions Under Dictatorship. N.Y.: Cambridge University
Press, 2008. P. 94.
45 W right J ., E scrib a -F o lch A . Authoritarian Institutions and Regime Survival:
Transitions to Democracy and Subsequent Autocracies. October 2010. P. 22.
46G a n d h i J ., P rze w o rsk i A. Cooperation, Cooptation, and Rebellion under Dicta
torship// Economics & Politics. 2006. Vol. 18. No 1. P. 14.
47G a n d h i J. Political Institutions Under Dictatorship. N. Y.: Cambridge Univer
sity Press, 2008. P. 35.
48S c h e d le r A . Elections without democracy: The menu of manipulation / / Journal
of Democracy. 2002. Vol. 13. No 2. P. 37.
49M a g a lo n i B. Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and its Demise in
Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. P. 810.
50S c h e d le r A . Elections without democracy: The menu of manipulation / / Journal
of Democracy. 2002. Vol. 13. No 2. P. 47.
51 B row n lee J. Authoritarianism in the Age of Democratization. N.Y.: Cambridge
University Press, 2007. P. 8.
52 G e d d es B. Why Parties and Elections in Authoritarian Regimes? / / American
Political Science Association. Washington DC. 2005.
53Ibid.
54 G a n d h i, j. P rze w o rsk i A . Authoritarian Institutions and the Survival of Auto
crats/ / Comparative Political Studies. 2007. No 11. P. 12791301.
55 H a d en iu s A ., T eorell J. Pathways from authoritarianism / / Journal of Demo
cracy. 2007. Vol. 18. No 1. P. 143-156.
56M a g a lo n i B ., K ric h e li R. Political Order and One-Party Rule //Annu. Rev. Polit.
Sci. 2010. No 13. P. 130-131.
57Ibid.
58 D ia m o n d L. Thinking about hybrid regimes / / Journal of Democracy. 2002.
Vol. 13. No 2. P. 21-35.
59B row n lee J. Authoritarianism in the Age of Democratization. N.Y.: Cambridge
University Press, 2007. P. 10.
60 T em plem an K. A . Who's Dominant?: Incumbent Longevity in Multiparty Re
gimes, 1950-2006. APSA 2010. P. 37.
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1 .: Morlino L. Workshop on Transitions from Communist Rule Stanford,
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itpyr - -

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1 ,
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41 Ibid. P .67.
4 O Donnell an d Schmitter. Op cit. P. 11.
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44 T. ,
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46 O' Donnell an d Schmitter. Op cit. P. 5556.
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1Kitschelt Herbert and Wolfgang Streek. From Stability to Stagnation: Germany hi
the Beginning of Twenty-First Century. In: Germany: Beyond the Stable State / I il
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Deutschland, 2004.
5.: . M. . .
6 .
7 .
8 .
9 .: . . .:
, 1996.
10Goertemaker . Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Fischer-Verlag,
2004. P. 106.
11C m.: Dalton R., Buerklin W. Two German Electorates? Ed. Russell Dalton. Ger
mans Divided. Oxford (UK), Washington (DC) Berg Publishers, 1996. P. 183208.
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Irinceton University Press, 1990.
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Power: Germany in Europe. Ed. by Peter Katzenstein. Ithaca: Cornell University
Press, 1997. P. 1-48.
14 Lees Ch. Party Politics in Germany: A Comparative Politics Approach.
Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. P. 177178.
15.: . . .
16 .
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: Richard S. Conley From Elysian Fields to the Guillotine?: The Dynamics ul
Presidential and Prime Ministerial Approval in Fifth Republic France / / Comparative Political
Studies. 2006. Vol. 39. 5. P. 570-598.

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.
1JulliardJ. Surla monarchie prdsidentielle / / D6bat. 1989. 45. P. 3134. UKI
http://www.cairn.info/revue-le-debat-1989-3-page-31.htm.
3 : Ware A. Political parties and party systems. Ap
pendix. Oxford. N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1996. P. 383399.
4 . . iipi.
/ / . 05.11.1997. [ ].
: www.russ.ru.
5 De Gaulle Ch. The Bayeux manifesto (address delivered 16 June 1946) / Alciiil
Lijphart (ed.) / Parliamentary versus presidential government. Oxford. Oxford Univ. i
sity Press, 1992. P. 140.

472
( 15.

" Ibid. . 141.


7Dogan . Comparing Two Charismatic Leaders: Ataturk and de Gaulle / / Com
parative Sociology. 2007. Vol. 6. . 1-2. P. 7584.
8 Revel J-F. Sur la monarchie prdsidentielle / / Debat. 1989. 45. P. 5960.
9 Mitterand F. Le coup dEtat permanent. URL: http://www.mitterrand.org/
I,ecoup-d-Etat-permanent.html.
10 . 1958 .
| ]. : http://www.labex.ru/page/konst_france.
Ill ml : , . / . . . . -
. 4- ., . . .: , 2003.
. : [ ]. : http://www.assemblee-
imtionale. fr/connaissance/constitution_l 1-201 l.pdf; [ ].
: http://www.conseil-constitutionnel.fr/conseil-constitutionnel/root/
bnk_mm/ constitution/constitution_russe_version_aout2009.pdf.
11
,
(. 11).
12 25 1962 .
( 54%) . French legislative
elections. URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_legislative_election,_1962.
13 French presidential election referendum, 1962. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/French_presidential_election_referendum,_1962.
14 ,
,
;
,
(. 89).
15 2000 . .
16 General presentation. URL: http://www.conseil-constitutionnel.fr/ conseil-
I'onstitutionnel/english/presentation/general-presen tation/generalpresentat ion.
25739.html. . , . 1999. . 67, 71.
17
,
(. 18).
18Duverger . Sur la Constitution// Debat. 1987. 43. . 1519.
19Passarelli G. The government in two semi-presidential systems: France and Por-
tugal in a comparative perspective / / French Politics. 2010. Vol. 8. 4. P. 409.
20 - -

- .
, , ,
, . . 49.
21 , - -
, .
I'assarelli G. Op. cit. . 408.

473
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n Passarelli G. Op. cit. P. 409.


23 Ibid.
24Blondel J. Dual leadership in the contemporary world / Arend Lijphart (ed.) /
Parliamentary versus presidential government. Oxford. Oxford University Press, 199.'
P. 162-172.
25 Ibid.
26Jean-Frangois Revel. La France est sur-etatisee mais sous-gouvernee. Interview
paruedans Le Figaro du 15 f6vrier 1996. URL: http://chezrevel.net/jean-francois rev-
el-la-france-est-sur-etatisee-mais-sous-gouvernee/.
27 . , . 1999. . 65.
28 , !
(. 12).
29 . , . 1999. . 66.
30 , , ,
, .
31 .: Shugart ., Carey J. Presidents and assemblies. Cambridge
Cambridge University Press, 1992.
32 .: Siaroff A. Comparative Presidencies: The Inadequacy of Ihr
Presidential, Semipresidential and Parliamentary Distinction / / European Journal ol
Political Research. 2003. 42. P. 287312.
33Duverger M. Surla Constitution / / D6bat. 1987. 43. P. 1519.
34Conley R. S. From Elysian Fields to the Guillotine?: The Dynamics of Presidcn
tial and Prime Ministerial Approval in Fifth Republic France / / Comparative Political
Studies. 2006. Vol. 39. 5. P. 570-598.
KElgie R. Duverger, Semi-presidentialism and the Supposed French Archetype //
West European Politics. 2009. Vol. 32. 2. P. 248-267.
3bDebre M. Sur la Constitution / / D6bat. 1987. 43. P. 911.
37 Electoral system. URL: http://www.elections-legislatives.fr/en/system.asp.
38 M. . M.: , 2000
. 301.
39 The French Voter Before and After the 2002 Elections. Ed. Michael S. Lewi*
Beck. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Palgrave MacMillan, 2004. Ch. 6.
40 : Richard S. Conley From Elysian Fields to the Guillotine?: I la
Dynamics of Presidential and Prime Ministerial Approval in Fifth Republic Franco /
Comparative Political Studies. 2006. Vol. 39. 5. P. 570-598.
41Duverger M. Duvergers laws: forty years later / Electoral laws and their political
consequences / Ed. Bernard Grofman and Arend Lijphart. N.Y.: Agathon press, l9Nn
P. 83.
42 Ibid. P. 69-84.
43 M. . M.: . 20011
. 263-265.
44 Ware Alan. Political parties and party systems. Oxford. N.Y.: Oxford Univeisllt
Press. 1996. P. 194195; Duverger M. Duvergers laws: forty years later. Electoral law
and their political consequences. Ed. Bernard Grofman and Arend Lijphart. N.Y.: Am
athon press, 1986.
474
15.

45 .
, , (
) .
46 Presidential and Legislative Elections in France. URL: http://www. electionre-
nources.org/fr/.
47Dalron R. J. The Quantity and the Quality of Party Systems Party System Po
larization, Its Measurement, and Its Consequences// Comparative Political Studies.
2008. Vol. 41. 7. P.913.
48 June 10-17, 2012 National Assembly Election Results France Totals URL:
http://www.electionresources.org/fr/deputies.php?election=2012.
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' . .: , 1989. . 12412*
2 Gonzalez Hernandez J. . Desarollo politico consolidacion democratica.rn
Portugal (1974-1998). Madrid: CIS, 1999. P. 121.
3 Birmingham D. Historia de Portugal. Cambridge University Press, 1993. P. 228,
4 -- X. / .
--, 1994.
5L inz /. Una teoria del regimen autoritario. El caso de Espana. La Espana de lo*
anos 70. Vol 111. El Estado la Politica. Madrid: Taurus, 1974. P. 624.
6 Ibid. P. 443.
7 Ibid. P. 447.
8 . . : . .: , 1990
. 76-77.
9 . . 150.
1(1 . . 153-154.
11Galli G. II bipartidismo imperfetto: comunisti e democristiani in Italia. Milan
Rizzoli, 1984. P. 56.; Martinelli A., ChiesiA. M. La sociedad italiana. Madrid: CIS
2005. P. 98.
12 Sistema politico espanol (coordinadora P. Roman Marugan). Madrid: Univci
sidad Complutense de Madrid, 2002. P. 75.

504
16.

13Barreto A ., Gomez Fortes ., M a g a lh a esl. Portugal: democraciaysistema


politico.Madrid, 2003. P. 94.
14Ibid. P. 86-87,91.
15 Ibid. P. 151.
16 .: . / /
. 2012. 4. . 7780.
17



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2 .: . ., . . : / /
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grave, 2005.
4 .: . . / /
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5 .: . . / / .
., 1993.

560
18. :

6 .: Rosamond Bert. Theories of European Integration. London: Palgrave, 2006.


7 Ibid.
8 Ibid.
9Monnet /. A Ferment of Change / / Journal of Common Market Studies. 1962.
1. P. 121.
10 Ibid.
11Haas Ernst. The Uniting of Europe. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1958.
12 C m .: Stojanovic Bozo. Uncertain Future of the European Integration / / Pano-
economicus. 2011. 4. P. 559570.
13 C m .: Vibert F. Europe simple, Europe strong: the future of European Gover
nance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
14
, 1996 . , .
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().
18 , .
16.: . / / Pro et Contra. . 15.
2012. 126; . // .
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: Political Polarization in the American Public. How Increasing Ideo
logical Uniformity and Partisan Antipathy Affect Politics, Compromise and Everyday Life. Pew
Research center for people and press. URL: http://www.people-press.org/2014/06/12/political-
polarization-in-the-american-public/.



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2 . . 2930.
' . . 214.
4 . . . 55.
5. . . 10.
" . . . 71.
1 Dahl R. How dem ocratic is the A m erican C onstitution. New Haven, L.: Yale
University Press, 2001. P. 65.
8 . . . 51.
4 . . .: . 1992. . 107.
10 .: Dahl R. How democratic is the American Con
stitution. New Haven, L.: Yale University Press, 2001. P. 6668.
" . . C. 68.
12 2 1787 .
13 22 1951 . .
14 ( 4, . 2 ), -
,
.
15 United States v. Nixon (1974).
16Dahl R. How democratic is the American Constitution. New Haven, L.: Yale
University Press, 2001. P. 80. Appendix 1.
17Ibid. P. 87.
18 Bush v. Palm Beach County Canvassing Board. (2000).
14Gore speech in full. BBC. 14 December, 2000. URL: http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/
hi/americas/1069866.stm
211 . . . 51.
21 1 .
22 ,
,
, ,
,
, ,
, . .: SchmidtS. W.,
Bardes . A., Shelley . . American Government and Politics today. N.Y.: L.A. West
Publishing Company, 1995. P.451-453.

594
19.

23 2
0,28% (5835 ). Schmidt S. W., Bardes . A., Shel
ley . . American Government and Politics today. N.Y.: L.A. West Publishing Com
pany. 1995. P. 452.
24 Myers v. United States. (1924).
25. . . 47.
29 . . 51.
27Kuria G. . (ed.). Datapedia of the United States. American history in num
bers. 4th ed. 2007. Lanham. MD. Bernan press. P. 686.
2 Schmidt S. W., Bardes B. A., Shelley M. C. American Government and Politics
today. N.Y.: L.A. West Publishing Company, 1995. P. 467468.
29 19731974 .
. , 1973 .
14%, 1974 . 19%,
11%. ,
(, .).
30 Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act. 1974.
31 Train v. City of New York (1975).
32 Public Law 104-130. 104th Congress.
33 Clinton v. City of New York (1998).
34 Executive Order 9981. July 26, 1948.
35 Executive Order 10340. April 8, 1952.
36 Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co.v. Sawyer (1952).
37 Peters G. Executive Orders. The American Presidency Project / Ed. John T.
Woolley and Gerhard Peters. Santa Barbara, CA. 19992014.
38 .
39 ,
, 48
.
60 .
,
60-
, 60

. 60-
30 .
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.
40
. .: Senate bill amends
War Powers Act. URL: http://thehill.com/blogs/fl oor-action/senate/195704-senate-
billantends-war-powers-act
41 . . . 10.
42 .

595
II

43 ,
(1920-1933). 1921 . 100 000
, 457 000 1922 . 726 000 1926 . URL: http://
www2.potsdam.edu/alcohol/Controversies/Association-Against-the-Prohibition
Amendment.html#.U8JAb_l_tX0. .
, , .
44 , 100 2
6 .
435 2 .
45 . . . 51.
46 . . . . 106.
47 ,
, .
48 The Bush Tax Cuts of 2001 and 2003. Harvard Law School Federal Budget
Policy Seminar. Briefing Paper No. 37. URL: http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/
hjackson/2001 -2003TaxCuts_37.pdf.
49Matthews Donald R. U.S. Senators and Their World. Chapel Hill: University of
North Carolina Press, 1960.
50Fenno R. F. Congressmen in Committees. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1973.
51 . /
. .: , 2013. . 407.
52 . /
. .: , 2013. . 389.
53 . . 382.
34 . . 388.
55 Storey W. US Government and Politics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
Press, 2007. P. 76.
56 Ibid. P. 67.
57 Impeachments of Federal Judges. URL: http://www.fjc.gov/history/home.nsf/
page/judges_impeachments.html.
58Storey W. Op. cit. P. 77.
54 Marbury v. Madison (1803).
60 Chisholm v. Georgia (1793).
61Storey W. Op. cit. P. 73.
62 . . . . 142.
63 13
,

.
64 . . . 51.
65 . . 10.
66 .
67 . . 51.
68 . . . . 106.
69 10. ,
,
.
596
19.

70 14 (1868). ,
.
71 1994 . ,
,

72
.
73 ,
, .
74 1960-
.
75 1787 . ,
.
16 . . .: , 2000. . 130.
11 . . .: , 2000.
. 279, 288.
78 . /
. .: , 2013. . 388.
79 . . 391.
80 . . . 10.
81 ,
. 1792 .
The Gazette.

, .

. .: Dahl R. How democratic is the American Constitution. New
Haven, London: Yale University Press, 2001. P. 34.
82 . : . /
. .: , 2013. . 359.
83 . : . . 358.
84 . : .
85 Dahl R. How democratic is the American Constitution. New Haven, London:
Yale University Press, 2001. P. 30.
86 M. . M.: , 2000.
. 288.
87 . . 286.
881912 Presidential General Election Results. URL: http://uselectionatlas.org
89 Ibid.
90 X. M. /
/ . . . , . . ML: ,
2013. . 259.
91 ( 1776 .). URL: http://ru.wikisource.org/
wiki/fleKJiapauHH_He3aBHCHMOCTH_CLUA.
92 Republican platform 2012. We believe in America. URL: http://www.gop.
com/2012-republican-platform_home/.

597
II

93 Moving America Forward. 2012 Democratic National Platform. URL: http://


www.democrats.org/democratic-national-platform.
94 Republican platform 2012 // .
95

.
% 1963 . ,
. Abington School District v. Schempp (1962).
97 American Convention on Human Rights, San Jose, Costa Rica, 22 November
1969.
98 .
35 ( 38)
1972 1979 ., 5 .
99 District of Columbia v. Heller (2007), McDonald v. Chicago (2009).
100 ,
,
.
101 . 1993 .
. ,
. 30 1981 .
102Political Polarization in the American Public. How Increasing Ideological Uni
formity and Partisan Antipathy Affect Politics, Compromise and Everyday Life. Pew
Research center for people and press. URL: http://www.people-pre.ss. org/2014/06/12/
political-polarization-in-the-american-public/
103 . . . . 378379.
104Verba S., Nie N. Participation in America. Political democracy and social equal
ity. New York: Harper and Row, 1972.
105 , 4
6 , : , ,
.
106Putnam R. D. Bowling Alone: Americas Declining Social Capital. Interview//
Journal of Democracy. 1995. Vol, 6. 1. P. 6578.
ln7Ibid. P. 67.
108Macedo S. Democracy at Risk. How Political Choices Undermine Citizen Par
ticipation and What We Can Do About It. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution
press, 2005. P.l.
109Dalton R. J. Citizenship Norms and the Expansion of Political Participation / /
Political Studies. 2008. Vol. 56. P. 76-98.
11,1 Ibid. P. 94.
111 Political Polarization in the American Public. How Increasing Ideological Uni
formity and Partisan Antipathy Affect Politics, Compromise and Everyday Life. Pew
Research center for people and press. URL: http://www.people-press. org/2014/06/12/
political-polarization-in-the-american-public/.
20



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14Lasagna . Polltica desarollo: la brecha institucional de America Latina / /
Revista de Estudios Politicos. 2000, . P. 214.
15Mansilla H. C. F. La mentalidad tradicional obstaculo a la democra-
tizacidn en el caso boliviano. Factores historicos culturales en los procesos de mod-
ernizacion / / Ibid. 2002. 118. P. 46.
16 M. . . . . 8.
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1.: . . . .:
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curious/democracy/book_sergeev/page 12.html.
2 .: . . :
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14Nathan J. Japan Unbound: A Volatile Nations Quest for Pride and Purpose.
N.Y.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2004. P. 19.
15Kingston J. Contemporary Japan: history, politics and social change since the
1980s. Oxford-Chichester: Blackwell Publishing, 2011. P. 20.
16Ibid. P. 146-148.
17Myers D. Nine Myths about Contemporary Japan / / Japan at the Crossroads.
Hot Issues for the 21st Century. Nagoya, 1998. P. 142.
18 .: . M. . .:
. ., 1999. URL: http://www.democracy. /
curious/democracy/book_sergeev/page 12.html.
19 : (
) / . . . . .: ; , 1991. . 21.
30Kingston J. Contemporary Japan: history, politics and social change since the
1980s. Oxford-Chichester: Blackwell Publishing, 2011. P. 210.
31 . . . 3 / .
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33 .: . . ,
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: Democracy Index 2010. Democracy in Retreat. A Report from the Economist
Intelligence Unit. Mode of access: http://graphics.eiu.com/PDF/Democracy_lndex_20IO_
web.pdf; Diamond L. Thinking about Hybrid Regimes / / Journal of Democracy. 2002, April.
Vol. 13, 2. P. 21-35; Fish M. S., Kroenig M. The Handbook of National Legislatures: A Global
Survey. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Mode of access: http://polisci.berkeley.
edu/sites/default/ti les/people/u3833/PPIScores.pdf.

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mist Intelligence Unit. URL: https://portoncv.gov.cv/dhub/porton.por_global.open_
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