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Shunt Active Power Filter/STATCOM Topology for Medium/High Power Applications: Parallel Inverters Operating at Different Switching Frequencies

Tuhin S. Basu, Avik Bhattacharya, Member IEEE and Chandan Chakraborty, Senior Member IEEE

Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Kharagpur, 721302, WB, India Email: thnsbasu@gmail.com, avik.iitkgp@gmail.com, chakraborty@ieee.org

AbstractThis paper deals with a unique combination of two inverters those may work as an active power filter (APF) or a STATCOM. Two inverters are switched at different frequencies. The low frequency inverter takes care of the reactive power demand of the system and makes the source current in phase with the voltage, while, the high frequency inverter mostly compensates for the harmonics. In the limiting case, the low frequency inverter operates in square wave mode with minimum number of switching per cycle, thereby, also reducing the switching losses in the inverter. The high frequency inverter includes a L-C passive filter to mitigate the lower order harmonics and to bring down the operating voltage of the

inverter to a very convenient level. It will be shown that the proposed combination has all the merits to work as a STATCOM or as an APF. Performance of the proposed topology is verified

MATLAB/SIMULINK and also confirmed by prototype

by

experimentation. Index Terms- Active power filter, passive filter, hybrid topology, STATCOM, harmonics.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Owing to wide spread use of adjustable speed drives (ASD), arc furnace, SMPS, UPS etc. harmonics compensations have become increasingly important for power systems. Harmonics not only increase the losses but also produce unwanted disturbance to the communication network, more voltage and/or current stress etc. Passive filters have the advantages of low cost and losses. However, they have the problems of harmonic resonance with the source and/or the load. Moreover they need to be tuned properly to take care of a wider frequency range. Active filter may completely replace the passive counterpart [1-6]. This requires higher voltage/current switches for medium/high power applications. Use of hybrid filter, where a passive filter is connected in series with a lower rating active filter, has the merit of operating the active filter at a convenient voltage and current level. Fujita and Akagi [7-8] proposed such topology in 1991. However, it required a transformer to couple the passive filter with the active filter. Later the transformer is eliminated and Srianthumrong and Akagi [11] proposed a hybrid combination

for application with diode rectifier. The passive filter connected in series is tuned at 5 th harmonics and the active filter is operated at a much lower voltage (at 300V for a 3.3kV line). Bhattacharya et al. [12] and Cheng et al. [13] put forward a dual hybrid configuration where the series filters are tuned to eliminate 5 th and 7 th current harmonics. This paper reports a system, which is a combination of low and high frequency inverters to optimally compensate the load. The purpose of the low frequency inverter is to compensate for the reactive power demand of the load. In case the system works as a STATCOM, the reactive power demand being very high, this inverter needs to switch very high current. Therefore in marginal case it is desired that the switching frequency be very less and the inverter may work in square wave mode. The high frequency inverter, on the other hand, takes care of all the harmonics injected by the load and also generated by the low frequency inverter. Hybrid topology uses a passive L-C filter and has the advantage to work at a convenient voltage level. The L-C filter if tuned properly may eliminate/reduce lower order harmonics (LOH). This paper is organized in eight sections. The following section explains the proposed system. Section-III deals with the limiting case of study for the low frequency inverter. A detail discussion on the square wave mode is presented.

low frequency inverter. A detail discussion on the square wave mode is presented. Fig.1 . Proposed

Fig.1 . Proposed APF/STACOM Topology.

Section-IV explains the operation of high frequency inverter. Section-V discusses the filter design of low and high frequency inverters respectively. Section-VI and VII report simulation and experimental results. Section-VIII concludes the work.

II. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

The topology of the proposed active power filter is shown in Fig.1. Two back-to-back connected inverters, one switching at low frequency (LFI) and another switching at high frequency (HFI) are used sharing a common dc link. The dc link capacitor may be split across HFI and LFI to make the system suitable for high power and high switching frequency. The HFI mainly responsible for compensating harmonics and it is required to operate at higher switching frequency. The total dc link voltage is applied across the LFI which is designed to compensate for the reactive power demand of the load. A diode bridge rectifier feeding a resistive load is used as nonlinear load for this study. A 3-phase R-L load may be connected in parallel to the rectifier load to investigate the VAR compensation.

III. OPERATION OF LOW FREQUENCY INVERTER IN SQUARE WAVE MODE

In marginal case the LFI may operate in square wave mode. This is particularly important when the system works as a STATCOM. Fig.2 shows the control circuit of square wave inverter. The load current is detected and it is transformed into d-q synchronous reference frame using Phase Locked Loop (PLL). Low pass filter (at 16Hz cut off frequency) is used to

and

fundamental component of active and reactive current of the

is set as reference-reactive-current. The 3-phase

output current of the inverter is transformed into d-q

synchronous reference frame. The

q component is compared

extract the dc component

,which corresponds to the

i

*

d

i

*

q

load.

*

i q

i

*

with

i

*

q

and processed using a PI controller to generate the α

* q and processed using a PI controller to generate the α Fig. 2. Control circuit

Fig. 2. Control circuit of square wave inverter.

the α Fig. 2. Control circuit of square wave inverter. (a) (b) ` (c) Fig 3.

(a)

the α Fig. 2. Control circuit of square wave inverter. (a) (b) ` (c) Fig 3.

(b)

`

(c)

Fig 3. (a) Single phase equivalent circuit diagram connected to grid (b) Reactive compensation for inductive load (c) Reactive compensation for capacitive load

V

an

=V + jXI

ao

a

(1)

I

=

[

V

an

V

ao

]

a jX

(2)

(which is the angle between the inverter output voltage and the line voltage). The operation of the square wave inverter may be explained using single phase equivalent circuit diagrams shown in Fig.3b. The current injected by the inverter is given by (2). To satisfy the reactive compensation for both inductive as

well as capacitive load, the fundamental ac voltage supplied by

the inverter has to be increased or decreased [9]. For inductive load, when the inverter supplies pure reactive power, V ao (inverter output voltage) is greater than V an (source phase voltage) as shown in Fig.3c.To meet this value of V ao , a small

.

real power flows to charge the capacitor to the required

Similarly for capacitive load, V ao is less than V an and a small negative real power flows to discharge the capacitor to maintain

dc .The dc link is split (as shown in Fig.1) The

voltage across the dc link capacitor (

HFI is held constant (by the high frequency inverter) and the

voltage across the dc link (

according to the reactive compensation provided by the inverter.

adjusted

the required

) that is applied to the

V

dc

V

V dc 2

)

of

V

dc

the

LFI

is

IV. HIGH FREQUENCY INVERTER OPERATION

The high frequency inverter (HFI) is a shunt hybrid active filter and operates at 10kHz switching frequency. This only compensates the load harmonics but also takes care for the harmonics injected by the LFI. The inverter consists of LC filter tuned optimally to compensate 5 th and 7 th harmonics. Therefore, the dc-link voltage is controlled by q-axis current

[11].

Fig. 4. Control circuit of high frequency inverter. The operation of the HF inverter can
Fig. 4. Control circuit of high frequency inverter.

Fig. 4.

Control circuit of high frequency inverter.

Fig. 4. Control circuit of high frequency inverter.

The operation of the HF inverter can be explained by a single phase equivalent circuit as shown in Figs.5 and 6. Z F , is the impedance of the LC filter. The harmonic currents injected by the LFI and the load can be modeled as independent current

current

sources

present in supply is given by:

I

ah

and

I

lh

respectively.

The

harmonic

I

sh

=

Z

F

Z

K

+

sL

Z

+

SF

(

II

lh

+

ah

)

(3)

The terminal voltage at PCC is given by:

V

pcc

=

sL Z

S

K

Z

K

+

sL

Z

+

SF

(

II +

lh

ah

)

(4)

The inverter output voltage is given by:

V HFI

=

(

Z ZI

F

K

lh

+

I

ah

)

Z

K

+

Z

F

+

sL

S

(5)

by: V HFI = ( Z ZI F K lh + I ah ) Z K

Fig 5 Single phase equivalent circuit of the system, when both the inverters are working.

circuit of the system, when both the inverters are working. Fig. 6 Single phase equivalent circuit
circuit of the system, when both the inverters are working. Fig. 6 Single phase equivalent circuit

Fig. 6 Single phase equivalent circuit of the system, when feedback control is applied.

where

Z

R

=+

FF

jL

ω

F

+

1

j

C

ω

F

(6)

From the relation given in (3), if Z K >>Z F there is less

harmonic current

sink to Z F . If the Z K tends to infinity then the relation (3) is given as:

in source as all the harmonic current will

I sh

I

sh

= 0

(7)

V

HFI

(

= ZI

F

lh

+I

ah

)

(8)

V. FILTER DESIGN OF LOW FREQUENCY INVERTER

In the limiting condition the LFI will operate in the square wave mode. Here the filter design is carried out for this mode of operation. The value of the inductor is determined by the THD of current supplied by the inverter [9]. With reference to Figs.1 and 3,

V = V + jXI an ao a VVV= + dc dc1 dc 2 V
V
= V
+ jXI
an
ao
a
VVV=
+
dc
dc1
dc 2
V
=
V
2 +
(
XI
) 2
ao
an
a
≥ V
V dc
dc2
V
dc
=
V ao
2
π
2
X = 2π fL
1
V
dc
− V
an
2
π
2
X =
I
a

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

For eliminating lower order harmonic current, the value of the inductor (L 1 ) increases as a result of which the reactance (X) drop also increases. During capacitive load the value of dc voltage must be smaller to produce ac voltage as given in (11). The filter is designed by considering maximum value of capacitive load to be compensated and by eliminating 13 th , 11 th and 7 th harmonic. The filter for the HFI is selected depending on the predominant lower order harmonics in the load current.

VI. SIMULATION RESULTS

To understand the performance and importance of each inverter, the low and high frequency inverters are operated one at a time. Fig.7 shows the dynamic performance of the LFI. It is to be noted that the source current becomes in phase with the source voltage, when the inverter starts operating.

However, the source current consists of considerable harmonics which is due to the net harmonic injected by the load as well as inverter. To understand the performance of high frequency inverter, the inverter is started after LFI (operated in square wave mode). Fig.8 shows simulation results. Satisfactory performance is noted. To study the dynamics of the high frequency inverter, a step change of load is carried out at the rectifier side. Fig.10 shows the simulation results, which explain that the transient effect is negligible and it is overcome within a few cycle of operation. The simulation of the combined performance of the two inverters is shown in Fig.9. Satisfactory source current in phase with the source voltage is noted.

source current in phase with the source voltage is noted. Fig.7 Dynamic performance of dual parallel

Fig.7 Dynamic performance of dual parallel square wave topology for non-linear balanced load Waveform (a): Source voltage (Scale: 50V/DIV) Waveform (b): Source current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (c): Load current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (d): Compensating current of low frequency inverter (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (e): square wave inverter line to line voltage voltage (Scale: 5A/div) Waveform (f): Inverter voltage of low frequency inverter (Scale: 200V/div) Time Scale: 20ms/div

frequency inverter (Scale: 200V/div) Time Scale: 20ms/div Fig.8 Dynamic performance of dual parallel square wave

Fig.8 Dynamic performance of dual parallel square wave topology for non-linear balanced load Waveform (a): Source voltage (Scale: 50V/div) Waveform (b): Source current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (c): Load current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (d): Compensating current of low frequency inverter (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (e): Compensating current of high frequency Waveform (f): Inverter voltage of low frequency inverter (Scale:

200V/div)

Time Scale: 20ms/div

frequency inverter (Scale: 200V/div) Time Scale: 20ms/div Fig.9 Dynamic performance of dual parallel square wave

Fig.9 Dynamic performance of dual parallel square wave topology for non-linear balanced load Waveform (a): Source voltage (Scale: 50V/div) Waveform (b): Source current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (c): Load current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (d): Compensating current of low frequency inverter (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (e): Compensating current of high frequency Waveform (f): Inverter voltage of low frequency inverter (Scale:

200V/div)

Time Scale: 20ms/div

frequency inverter (Scale: 200V/div) Time Scale: 20ms/div Fig.10 Dynamic performance of dual parallel square wave

Fig.10 Dynamic performance of dual parallel square wave topology for non-linear balanced load Waveform (a): Source voltage (Scale: 50V/div) Waveform (b): Source current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (c): Load current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (d): Compensating current of low frequency inverter (Scale:

10A/div)

Waveform (e): Compensating current of high frequency (Scale: 5A/div) Waveform (f): Inverter voltage of low frequency inverter (Scale: 200V/div) Time Scale: 20ms/div

VII. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

An experimental prototype is also made in the laboratory to verify the performance. Two inverters using IGBTs those are available in the laboratory are used for this purpose. Initially 110V, 50Hz mains supplying a load of 3kW is considered. The switching frequency of the high frequency and low frequency inverters are set at 10kHz and 330Hz respectively for experimental verification of the proposed topology. Details are available in the Table-1. Fig.11 shows the result when both the inverters are applied. Excellent performance is achieved.

Fig. 12 shows the performance in steady state of the low frequency inverter when it is operated as six-pulse STATCOM. The low frequency inverter has compensated VAR demand of 880VA. The source current is polluted with load harmonics as well as the harmonics injected by the low frequency inverter. Now as the high frequency inverter started in parallel with the LFI the source current is improved as given in Fig.13 and 14. The dc link of the high frequency and low frequency inverters are operated at 30V and 180V respectively. The hybrid filter works only with feedback control.

The hybrid filter works only with feedback control. Fig.11. Dynamic performance with compensating current from

Fig.11. Dynamic performance with compensating current from LFI for a step-change in inductive load. Waveform (a): Source voltage (Scale: 50V/div) Waveform (b): Source current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform(c): Load current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (d): Compensating current from LFI (Scale: 5A/div) Time Scale: 20ms/div

current from LFI (Scale: 5A/div) Time Scale: 20ms/div Fig.12. Steady state performance with LFI Waveform (a):

Fig.12. Steady state performance with LFI Waveform (a): Source voltage (Scale: 100V/div) Waveform (b): Source current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform(c): Load current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform(c): compensating current of LFI(Scale: 10A/div) Time Scale: 10ms/div

current of LFI(Scale: 10A/div) Time Scale: 10ms/div Fig.13. Performance with compensating current from LFI and

Fig.13. Performance with compensating current from LFI and HFI Waveform (a): Source voltage (Scale: 100V/div) Waveform (b): Source current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform(c): Load current (Scale: 10A/div) Time Scale: 10ms/div

Load current (Scale: 10A/div) Time Scale: 10ms/div Fig.14. Performance with compensating current from LFI and

Fig.14. Performance with compensating current from LFI and HFI for a step-change in inductive load. Waveform (a): Source current (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (b): compensating current of HFI (Scale: 10A/div) Waveform (c): Compensating current from LFI (Scale: 10A/div) Time Scale: 10ms/div

VIII. CONCLUSIONS

This paper has proposed a combination of two inverters to operate as an active power filter/STATCOM. Two inverters are operated at different switching frequencies. The low frequency inverter takes care of the reactive power demand, whereas the high frequency inverter compensates for the harmonics. In the extreme condition the low frequency inverter may be operated in the square wave mode with minimum number of switching per cycle. This has the advantage of low loss. However under such condition the low frequency inverter also injects harmonics to the system. The high frequency inverter needs to be properly designed such that the source current adheres to IEEE 519 standard. The use of passive L-C filter in the high frequency inverter compensates for lower harmonics and also reduces the magnitude of dc link voltage. The controller used in this topology is very simple and can be implemented by analog /digital hardware circuit. The proposed topology is validated in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results proves that two objectives, harmonic and reactive current compensation can be achieved by this topology.

REFERENCES

1.

A. Moreno-Munoz Ed., Power Quality, Chapter -9 by P. Salmeron and J. R. Vazquez, Springer-Verlag London Ltd., 2007.

2.

F. Z. Peng, “Application issues of active filters,” IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, Vol.4, pp.21-30, 1998.

3.

S. Bhattacharya, T. M. Frank, D. M. Divan and B. Banerjee,

“Active Filter System Implementation,” IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, Vol.4, pp.47-61, 1998.

4.

B Singh, K Al-Haddad and A Chandra, “A Review of Active

Filters for Power Quality Improvement,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 46, No.5, pp 960-971, 1999.

5.

H. Akagi, “Large Static Converters for Industry and Utility

applications,” Proceedings of IEEE, Vol.89, No.6 pp.976-2141, June, 2001.

6.

H Akagi, “Active Harmonic Filters”, Proceedings of IEEE, Vol.93, No.12 pp 2128-2141, Dec.2005.

7. H. Fujita and H. Akagi, “The unified power quality conditioner:

The integration of series- and shunt- active filters,” IEEE Trans. Pwr. Electron., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 315-322, 1991.

8. H. Fuiita and H. Akagi, “A practical approach to harmonic compensation in power system-series connection of passive and active filters,” IEEE Trans. Industry Appl., vol. 27, no. 6 pp. 1020-

1025, 1991

9. L.T.Moran,P.D Ziogas and Geza Joos”Analysis and Design Three Phase Synchronous Solid -State Var comoensator”IEEE Trans. Industry Appl, vol 25,no. 4 July/Aug 1989.

10. S. Kim and P. N. Enjeti, “A new hybrid active power filter (APF) topology,” IEEE Trans. Pwr. Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 48-54,

2002.

11. S. Srianthumrong and H. Akagi, “A medium-voltage transformer less ac/dc power conversion system consisting if a diode rectifier and a shunt hybrid filter,” IEEE Trans. Industry Appl., vol. 39, no.3, pp. 474-882, 2003.

12. S. Bhattacharya, P-T. Cheng and D. M. Divan, “Hybrid solution

for improving passive filter performance in high power applications,” IEEE Trans. Industry Appl., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 458- 882, 1997.

13. P-T. Cheng, S Bhattacharya and D. M. Divan, “Control of square wave inverters in high-power hybrid active filter systems,” IEEE Trans. Industry Appl., vol. 34, no. 3 pp. 458-872, 1998.

TABLE-1: System Parameters(experimental)

Load ratings

5kW

Load ratings 5kW Line volatge(line to 110V line) Line frequency   Power inductance(L S )
Load ratings 5kW Line volatge(line to 110V line) Line frequency   Power inductance(L S )

Line

volatge(line

to

110V

line)

Line frequency

 
Power inductance(L S ) system AC inductor to the rectifier:L AC Series capacitor C F1
Power
inductance(L S )
system
AC
inductor
to
the
rectifier:L AC
Series capacitor C F1
Filter inductors L F1
Filter inductors L 1
Quality factor of L F and
C F
Dc link capacitor
Switching frequency of
inverter-1
Switching frequency of
inverter-2

50Hz

0.2mH

3mH

200μF

1mH

15mH

56

2200μF

330Hz/six-pulse

10kHz