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Chapter 1


1.1 Anatomy of human heart

The human heart is located in the chest between the lungs, behind the sternum and
above the diaphragm. It weighs between 200 to 425 grams and is a little larger than
the size of a fist [2, 3, 4]. The basis end and the apex end of the heart lie on its main
axis which is oriented from the back-top-right to the front-bottom-left of the torso .
Everyday it beats in average 100000 times pumping about 7600 liters of blood to the
body [5]. Like a sack, a double-layered membrane called the pericardium surrounds
the heart. Its outer layer covers the roots of the heart’s major blood vessels and is
attached by ligaments to the spinal column, diaphragm, and other parts of your
body. The inner layer of the pericardium is connected to the heart muscle. The
layers are separated by a coating of fluid, letting the heart move as it beats and
keeping it attached to the body. The normal periodic contractions and relaxations of
the heart allow the human cells receiving the necessary amount of oxygen and
nutrients and carrying away their end product of the metabolism.

The walls of the heart are composed of cardiac muscle, Myocardium. It is similar to
skeletal muscle, because it has striations. The cardiac muscle consists of four
chambers: the right and left atria and ventricles. The anterior aspect of the heart is
the right ventricle, whereas the posterior aspect is the left atrium giving the heart its
orientation. The endocardium is defined as the thin serous membrane that lines the
interior of the heart, whereas the epicardium touches the inner layer of the
pericardium that is in actual contact with the surface of the heart. The left ventricle
pumps blood to the systemic circulation, where pressure is considerably higher than
for the pulmonary circulation, which arises from right ventricular outflow. The left
ventricular free wall and the septum is much thicker than the right ventricular wall
[6]. The tricuspid valve lays between the right atrium and ventricle, and the mitral

valve is between the left atrium and ventricle. Between the right ventricle and the
pulmonary artery lies the pulmonary valve, while the aortic valve is in the outflow
tract of the left ventricle controlling blood flow to the aorta. Carried in the inferior
and superior vena cava, the blood returns from the systemic circulation to the right
atrium [7, 8, 9]. First, it has to go through the right ventricle, then it is

ejected through the pulmonary valve and the pulmonary artery to the lungs. Oxygen-
rich blood returns from the lungs to the left atrium and to the left ventricle. Finally
blood is pumped through the aortic valve to the aorta and the systemic circulation.
The left and right coronary arteries branch off the aorta. They are divided afterward
into numerous smaller arteries supplying oxygen and nourishments to all heart

Fig 1.1 : The location and the orientation of the human heart in the

1.2 Heart Structure

Anatomically, the heart consists of cardiac myocytes, pacemakers and conducting

tissues, and extracellular space. Myofibers are connected together by further strands
of collagen.

1.2.1 Cardiac Myocytes

The cell is the basic unit of living tissue. Cells perform different tasks relating to
their anatomy and physiology, and exhibit a voltage difference across their
membranes. Only nerve and muscle cells are excitable. The working myocardium
consists of muscle cells or cardiomyocytes, which have in general a roughly
cylindrical shape and are able to produce mechanical tension. The individual
contractile muscle cells account more than half of the heart’s weight. In atria, they
are quite smaller in length and diameter than in ventricles. Each cardiac myocyte is
bounded by a complex cell membrane, sarcolemma, separating its intracellular
components from the extracellular space.

1.4 The Heart Valves (illustration)
Four types of valves regulate blood flow through your heart:

• The tricuspid valve regulates blood flow between the right atrium and right

• The pulmonary valve controls blood flow from the right ventricle into the
pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen.

• The mitral valve lets oxygen-rich blood from your lungs pass from the left atrium
into the left ventricle.

• The aortic valve opens the way for oxygen-rich blood to pass from the left
ventricle into the aorta, your body’s largest artery, where it is delivered to the rest
of your body.

1.4 The Conduction System

Electrical impulses from your heart muscle (the myocardium) cause your heart to
contract. This electrical signal begins in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located at the top of the
right atrium. The SA node is sometimes called the heart’s “natural pacemaker.” An
electrical impulse from this natural pacemaker travels through the muscle fibers of the
atria and ventricles, causing them to contract. Although the SA node sends electrical
impulses at a certain rate, your heart rate may still change depending on physical
demands, stress, or hormonal factors.

1.4 The Circulatory System

Your heart and circulatory system make up your cardiovascular system. Your heart works
as a pump that pushes blood to the organs, tissues, and cells of your body. Blood delivers
oxygen and nutrients to every cell and removes the carbon dioxide and waste products
made by those cells. Blood is carried from your heart to the rest of your body through a
complex network of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries. Blood is returned to your heart
through venules and veins. If all the vessels of this network in your body were laid end-
to-end, they would extend for about 60,000 miles (more than 96,500 kilometers), which
is far enough to circle the earth more than twice!

Chapter 2



The heart-beat rate, also known as the pulse rate, is the number of times a person’s heart
beats in a minute. It is one of the four vital signs that are often taken by
doctors to assess the most basic functions of the patient’s body. So counting
of heart-beats sometimes becomes essential for proper treatment.

Although the pulse rate can be measured manually by ourselves, an electronic digital
heart-beat counter gives the opportunity to measure it automatically and continuously.
Here is a digital heart-beat counter that has the following features.

A piezoelectric accelerometer used as the sensor.

1. A blinking LED for visual indication of heart-beats.

2. Counts are automatic and displayed on a 2-digit, 7-segement display.

3. Continuous monitoring can be done.

4. Counting can be read from a remote place.

5. The processed signal can be fed to a data-acquisition system (DAS) to observe or

save the nature of the pulse.

6. Works off AC mains or batteries.

Chapter 3


A person’s heart forces hic blood to flow through the arteries. As a result, the arteries
throb in synchronization with the beating of the heart. This throbbing can be felt at the
person’s wrist and other places over the body.

Electronically, this throbbing can be sensed with an accelerometer that generates

electrical signals against the vibration-resulted processing of the signals. The counter the
pulses for 10 seconds and then displays the same for the text five seconds. The process
repeats as long as the accelerometer sensor is tied tightly around the person’s wrist.

Fig 3.1 : Block Digram of Digital Heart Beat Counter

Chapter 4


4.1 What is an accelerometer?

An accelerometer measures the real-time, instantaneous acceleration of the object on

which the accelerometer is mounted. It transduces the acceleration, which results from
some shock or vibration, into a proportional analogue signal. Although there exist
numerous types of accelerometers, the piezoelectric type is the most widely used.

4.2 Piezoelectric accelerometer

The basic construction of a high-impedance, single-axis piezoelectric accelerometer is
shown in Fig. 1. At the heart of the accelerometer is a piezoelectric crystal. Apart from

the natural quartz, many ceramics are nowadays used as the piezoelectric crystal for
accelerometer construction. The most common ceramics used fro this purpose are lead
metaniobate, leadzirconate and lead titanate. A small mass is affixed over the crystal. The
whole system is housed in an enclosure such that the mass can move along the axis
shown, while the spring opposes its movement.

When the accelerometer is subjected to acceleration, the mass exerts a force on the
crystal along the axis of the accelerometer. The magnitude of the force is dependent upon
two laws: Newton’s second law of motion (P=mf) and Hook’s law fro linear spring
temporary infinitesimal change (dx) in the dimension of the crystal, is directly
proportional to the acceleration (f). Here ‘k’ is the spring constant.

When such an accelerometer is tightly coupled to one’s wrist, throbbing of arteries

supplies this acceleration. Due to temporary deformation of the crystal by the exerted
force, the piezoelectric crystal develops a charge across the across the electrodes attached
to its lower and upper surfaces. The crystal regains its original dimensions as soon as the
acceleration disappears.

Fig 4.1 : Basic construction of high impedance, single axis
Piezoelectric accelerometer

Chapter 5


The circuit of digital heart-beat counter. The total circuit can be divided into various
sections as follows: preamplifier, low-pass filter pulse monitor, and pulse counter with
digital readouts.

5.1 Preamplifier

As indicated above, at the heart of the circuit is a piezoelectric accelerometer or
vibration sensor. When attached to a person’s wrist tightly, the sensor outputs an
electrical charge, directly proportional to the magnitude of throbbing of the arteries. The
charge gives a voltage of the order of a few millivolts across very high impedance of the
piezoelectric crystal. Hence, a high-input impedance preamplifier is required to amplify
the signal properly from the accelerometer. Although a single ‘FET-Input’ operational
amplifier (op-amp) can be used for it, an instrumentation amplifier is the ideal choice, as
it greatly enhances the CMRR. A high CMRR considerably reduces the ground noise and
other common-mode noises from the surrounding environment.

In the circuit here, three op-amps IC1, IC2 and IC3 (all MOSFET input CA3140)
unitedly act as an instrumentation amplifier. The gain can be altered easily by simply
varying resistor R3.

5.2 Low-pass filter

The output signal from the instrumentation amplifier gets adulterated with some
harmonics of 50HZ AC power frequency, along with some other high-frequency
interfering signal coming from the surrounding. A Sallen key low-pass filter (LPF) is
used to reduce all these interferences.

The amplified output voltage from IC3 of the 3-op-amp intrumentation amplifier is fed
to op-amp IC4 through resistor R10. Op-amp IC4 along with resistor R10 and R12 and
capacitors C4 and C5 forms the unity-gain Sallen key low-pass filter. Although the
presence of R11 and VR3 (offset adjustable) reduces the output voltage slightly, the
upper cut-off frequency of the filter, set by the said registers and capacitors, is 1.5 HZ
(approx.). All frequencies above 10 HZ would be greatly filtered out.

5.3 Pulse monitor

A part of the filtered output from IC4 is fed through a one-stage RC low-pass filter
comprising R14 and C7,to pin 3 of op-amp IC5 (µA741). The RC filter enhances the
steepness of the previous filter response curve. This additional stage of amplification is
required for driving LED1 and LED2.

The LEDs blink in synchronization with heart-beat pulses coming from the
accelerometer. These are fed though diodes D1 and d2 such that while One LED blinks
during diastoles, the other one blinks during systoles. The stage has a gain of ‘22’

5.5 Pulse counter and digital readouts

CMOS decade counters IC9 and IC10 (each CD4033) connected in tandem form the 2-
digit decimal counter, which counts the heart-beat pulses coming from the Sallen Key
low-pass filter (LPF). If pin 2 (CE input) of IC10 is at logic 0, each pulse from the LPF
advances the counter by ‘1.’ The logic condition of pin 2 is dependent upon the logic
condition of the monoshot configured around IC8 (NE555). The time period of the
monoshot is governed by the combination of resistor R22, preset VR5 and capacitor C12,
and can be set for 10 seconds. Another monoshot, configured around IC7 (NE555), can
be set by varying preset VR6 to give a time period of 15 seconds.
The two monoshots are triggered simultaneously whenever a low-going pulse from the
LPF reaches the common trigger input (pin 2 of each NE555) line. As soon as they are
triggered, their respective output goes low at the same time. While the output of IC8
stays in this logic state for 10 seconds, the output of IC7 is designed to stay low for
additional five seconds.

Transistor T2 inverts the output of IC8 (logic1) to drag CE input of IC10 (pin 2) to
logic 0. As soon as IC8 is triggered, the leading edge of the positive-going output pulses

resets decade counters IC9 and IC10 via capacitor C13. The two 7-segment display DIS1
and DIS2 now show the counts as ’00.’ The counter is now enabled to count for 10

Since the output of monoshot IC7 is triggered at the same time, pin 9 of the OR gate
IC6 goes high. It remains high for the time equal to the time period of IC7, i.e., 15
seconds. During that period, no further heart-beat pulse is allowed to trigger monoshot
IC7 or IC8. This is because the output of OR gate holds the common trigger input high.
However, the beating pulses are allowed to teach counter goes on counting the pulses as
long as the output of IC8 remains high. At the end of 10 seconds, the output of IC8 goes
low. This disables IC10 and no further counting is allowed. The so-far counted result is
now displayed on 7-segment displays – DIS1 and DIS2 –connected to the output of
decade counters IC9 and IC10, respectively.

At the end of 15 seconds, the output of monshot IC7 again goes low, allowing the
incoming pulses to trigger the monoshots to repeat the cycle. The process continues as
long as the accelerometer is tied to one’s wrist.

Fig 5.1 : Circuit digram of digital heart beat counter
5.6 Power supply

Fig. shows the power supply circuit. The 230V AC mains is stepped down by
transformer X1 to deliver a secondary output of 9V-0-9V, 500 ma. The transformer
output is rectified by a full-wave bridge rectifier comprising diodes D3 through D6,
filtered by capacitors C14 and C15, and regulated by IC11 and IC12. Regulators 7805
and 79-5 provide +5V regulated supply to the circuit. Capacitors C16I and C17 bypass
any ripple present in the regulated supply.

Fig 5.2 : Power supply circuit

Chapter 6


6.1 Method of construction :

Instead of a commercial accelerometer, a self-constructed piezoelectric accelerometer is
used in this project. It is constructed by using a ceramic piezobuzzer element. These
elements are widely used in landline telephone sets to produce ring tones. In the market,
they are found in two varieties: with oscillator and without oscillator. The without-
oscillator variety is suitable for our purpose .

The diameters of the brass plate and the silver layer of the piezobuzzer plate used in this
project are around 27 mm and 18 mm, respectively. To start construction, first of all
remove the top cover of the plastic case. Connect one of the 2- core cable to the brass
plate of the element. The shielded part of the cable should be kept open, but it should not
touch the element.

Mount the mass (1cm long piece of solid cylindrical brass rod having 1cm diameter)
centrally over the white silver layer with some adhesive-like Quickfix. Add the adhesive
at the sides of the mass to fix it over the crystal. Allow sufficient time fro drying up.

Generally, the cases have mounting holes at diametrically opposite sides. Attach a
length of Velcro belt (hooks) with the help of a small nut-bolt through one of the
mounting holes. Similarly, attach another length of Velcro belt (loops) at the other
mounting hole of the case. Bridge the two holes with a small piece of Velcro belt
(hooks/loops). The piece should be short enough to put some pressure on the top surface
of the brass rod. Too low or too high a pressure would hamper the sensitivity of the
accelerometer. The hooks-loops combination of the Velcro belts should be long enough
so that the accelerometer can grip a person’s wrist tightly.

Fig 6.1 : Telephone piezobuzzer

6.2 Adjusting the offset

Before using the counter, adjust it properly for effective functioning. To do so,
adjust the effective trimpots as follows: disconnect the accelerometer if connected, and
connect a 1-kilo-ohm resistor in between the two input leads of the instrumentation
amplifier (pin 2 of IC1 and IC2). Connect a digital voltmeter (DVM) across the outputs
of IC1 and IC2 (pin 6). Adjust offset trimpot VR1 to get 0.000V reading on the
voltmeter. Then adjust offset trimpot VR2 to get 0.000V reading at pin 6 of difference
amplifier IC3. Similarly, adjust VR3 to get 0.000Vat pin 6 of op-amp IC4. The output of
IC5 can not be set to 0.000V by similar adjustment. Try to keep it at its minimum by
varying trimpot VR4. It may be set to 0.a5V.

6.3 Testing the amplifier
With a 1-kilo-ohm resistor in between the inputs, connect pin 2 of IC1 to +5 volts
through a 1-mega-ohm resistor and pin 2 of IC2 through another 1-mega-ohm resistor. As
a result, the input of the instrumentation amplifier would be driven by a 4m V DC
differential signal. The differential voltage at the outputs of IC1 and IC2 would be about

Although the Sallen Key filter is configured as unity gain, the presence of the offset-
adjusting resistors reduces the input voltage, and hence the out put at pin 6 of IC4 would
reduce to around 0.4V. With such an input voltage signal, the output at IC5 goes to
saturation and it is towards the +5V supply side. Reserving the polarity of the differential
voltage at the input of IC1 and IC2 would drag it to the –5V supply side. Depending upon
the direction of excursion of the output of IC5, either LED1 or LED2 starts glowing.

Now connect the accelerometer removing the 1-kilo-ohm and the other two 1-mega-ohm
resistors. A slight movement of the accelerometer with hand would trigger the
monoshots. The LEDs would also blink.

6.4 Using the counter

The heart-beat rate (pulse) of any person can be measured merely by fastening the
accelerometer tightly around his wrist with the help of the two Velcro belts attached to it.
After a few moments, LED1 and LED2 fo the pulse-monitor would start blinking in
synchronization with the person’s hart-beats. The digital counter also starts counting at
the same time. It would count for 10 seconds and after that the 2-digit, 7-segment display
gives steady counts for the next 5 seconds. The cycle repeats as long as the as the
accelerometer is tied to the person’s wrist. The displayed counts should be multiplied by
‘6’ to get the counts/minute.

Monitoring of the heart-beat rate of a person from a remote place is also possible. To
do so, the 2-digit, 7-segment counter may be placed at the remote place and the signal
output from the LPF may be conveyed to the counter via a length of the coaxial cable.

Besides its rate, some other qualities of the pulse reflect the state of the cardiovascular
system. These are its rhythm, fullness and shape fo the pulse wave. The signal output
from the LPF/amplifier IC5 may be fed to a DAS system for monitoring all these

Chapter 7


An actual-size, single-side PCB for digital heart-beat counter is shown in Fig. 6 and its
component layout in Fig. 7. Since CA3140 is MOSFET input op-amp, it possesses a very

high input impedance. The piezoelectric accelerometer is also a very high-output
impedance. Device. Hence, a glassepoxy PCB is used for the construction job to avoid
any leakage of current through the PCB. It would otherwise reduce the circuit gain and
sensitivity of the accelerometer. The shielded cable connecting the accelerometer to the
PCB may be around 1.5 meters long. The trimpots used for offset adjustments should be
25-turn type.

Fig 7.1 : Actual size single- side PCB fot the digital heart beat

PCB Layout :

Fig 7.2 : Component layout for the PCB

Chapter 8

IC1-IC3…………………………CA 3140 operational amplifier
IC4-IC5…………………………CA7410.operational amplifier
IC6……………………………..CD4071 OR Gate

IC7,IC8………….......................NE555 timer
IC9,IC10………………………CD4033 counter,seven
segment display driver
IC11…….……………………..+5V 7805 regulator
IC12...........................................-5V 7905 regulator
DIS1,DIS2........................LT543 commen-cathode,7-segment
D1-D6…………………………..1N4007 Diode
LED1,LED2……………………..5mm LED
T1,T2….........................BC377 npn transistor


 R1,R2,R14,R16,R20,R25............... 470-kilo-ohm
 R,4R5,15R,R24 ........................... 22-kilo ohm
 R3............................................ 270 ohm
 R6-R13,R22,R23............................ 1-mega ohm
 R17.................................................. 560 kilo ohm
 R18,R19....................................... 1 kilo ohm
 R21................................................. 27-kilo ohm
 R26................................................. 100 kilo ohm
 VR1-VR4....................... 10-kilo ohm, 25-
turn trimpot
 VR5,VR6…………………………. 1-mega ohm preset


C1-C3, C6-C8 …………………………0.1microFarad ceramic

C4,C5…………………………….47 nano farad

C10-C12………………………………….4.7 microFarad,12V
C9,C11,C13……………………………0.01 microFarad ceramic
C14,C15 .....………………………1000 microFarad,25V
C16,C17 ………………………….100 microFarad,16V


230V AC primary to 9V-0-9V,500m

secondary transformer.


Velcro belt

Chapter 9



The jobs done by resistors include directing and controlling current, making
changing current produce changing voltage (as in a voltage amplifier) and obtaining
variable voltages from fixed ones (as in a potential divider). There are two main types
of resistor-those with fixed values and those that are variable.

Resistance is the opposition of a material to the current. It is measured in Ohms ( ). All
conductors represent a certain amount of resistance, since no conductor is 100% efficient.
To control the electron flow (current) in a predictable manner, we use resistors.
Electronic circuits use calibrated lumped resistance to control the flow of current.
Broadly speaking, resistor can be divided into two groups viz. fixed & adjustable
(variable) resistors. In fixed resistors, the value is fixed & cannot be varied. In variable
resistors, the resistance value can be varied by an adjuster knob. It can be divided into (a)
Carbon composition (b) Wire wound (c) Special type. The most common type of resistors
used in our projects is carbon type. The resistance value is normally indicated by colour
bands. Each resistance has four colours, one of the band on either side will be gold or
silver, this is called fourth band and indicates the tolerance, others three band will give
the value of resistance (see table). For example if a resistor has the following marking on
it say red, violet, gold. Comparing these coloured rings with the colour code, its value is
27000 ohms or 27 kilo ohms and its tolerance is ±5%. Resistor comes in various sizes
(Power rating). The bigger, the size, the more power rating of 1/4 watts. The four colour
rings on its body tells us the value of resistor value as given below.
When choosing a resistor there are three factors which have to be considered, apart
from the stated value.

9.1.1 The Tolerance

values cannot be guaranteed by mass-production methods but this is snot a great
disadvantage because in most electronic circuits the values of resistors are not critical.
The tolerance tells us the minimum and maximum values a resistor might have, e.g.

one with a stated (called nominal) value of 100 and a tolerance of +-10% could
have any value between 90 and 110

9.1.2 The Power Rating

If the rate which a resistor changes electrical energy into heat exceeds its power rating,
it will overheat and be damaged or destroyed. For most electronic circuit 0.25 Watt or
0.5 Watt power ratings are adequate. The greater the physical size of a resistor the
greater is its rating.

9.1.3 The Stability

This is the ability of a component to keep the same value as it ‘ages’ despite
changes of temperature and other physical conditions. In some circuits this is an
important factor.

9.1.4 Colour Coding



Fig 9.1 : Different type of resistors

The first rings give the first digit. The second ring gives the second digit. The third
ring indicates the number of zeroes to be placed after the digits. The fourth ring gives
tolerance (gold ±5%, silver ± 10%, No colour ± 20%).In variable resistors, we have the
dial type of resistance boxes. There is a knob with a metal pointer. This presses over
brass pieces placed along a circle with some space b/w each of them.

Resistance coils of different values are connected b/w the gaps. When the knob is
rotated, the pointer also moves over the brass pieces. If a gap is skipped over, its
resistance is included in the circuit. If two gaps are skipped over, the resistances of both
together are included in the circuit and so on.

A dial type of resistance box contains many dials depending upon the range,
which it has to cover. If a resistance box has to read upto 10,000, it will have three
dials each having ten gaps i.e. ten resistance coils each of resistance 10. The third dial
will have ten resistances each of 100.The dial type of resistance boxes is better because
the contact resistance in this case is small & constant.

9.2 Capacitors

A capacitor stores electric charge. It does not allow direct current to flow
through it and it behaves as if alternating current does flow through. In its simplest
form it consists of two parallel metal plates separated by an insulator called the
dielectric. The symbols for fixed and variable capacitors are given in fig. Polarized
types must be connected so that conventional current enters their positive terminal.
Non-polarized types can be connected either way round.
The capacitance (C) of a capacitor measures its ability to store charge and is
stated in farads (f). The farad is sub-divided into smaller, more convenient units.

1 microfarad (1uF) = 1 millionth of a farad = 10 F
1 nanofarad (1 nF) = 1 thousand- millionth of a farad = 10 F
1 picofarad ( 1pF ) = 1 million-millionth of a farad = 10 F

In practice, capacitances range from 1 pF to about 150 000 uF: they depend on
the area A of the plates (large A gives large C), the separation d of the plates (small d
gives large C) and the material of the dielectric (e.g. certain plastics give large C).
When selecting a particular job, the factors to be considered are the value
(again this is not critical in many electronic circuits), the tolerance and the stability.
There are two additional factors.

The working voltage

The is the largest voltage (d.c.or pead a.c.) which can be applied
across the capacitor and is often marked on it, e.g. 30V wkg. It is exceeded, the
dielectric breaks down and permanent damage may result.

The leakage current

No dielectric is a perfect insulator but the loss of charge through it

as leakage current’ should be small.

9.2.1 Fixed Capacitors

Fixed capacitors can be classified according to the dielectric used; their

properties depend on this. The types described below in (i), (ii) and (iii) are non-
polarized, those in (iv) are polarized.

(i) Polyester : Two strips of polyester film (the plastic dielectric) are
wound between two strips of aluminum foil (the plates). Two connections, one to each
strip of foil, form the capacitor leads. In the metallized version, films of metal are
deposited on the plastic and act as the plates. Their good all-round properties and
small size make them suitable for many applications in electronics. Values range from
0.01uF to 10uF or so and are usually marked (in pF) using the resistor colour code.
Polycarbonate capacitors are similar to the polyester type; they have smaller leakage
currents and better stability but cost more.

(ii) Mica: Mica is naturally occurring mineral, which splits into very thin
sheets of uniform thickness. Plates are formed by depositing a silver film on the mica
or by using interleaving sheets of aluminum foil. Their tolerance is low ( + 1% ),
stability and working voltage high, leakage current low but they are used in radio
frequency tuned circuits where low loss is important and are pictured in figs.
Polystyrene capacitors have similar though not quite so good properties as mica types
but are cheaper.

(iii) Ceramic. There are several types depending on the ceramic used. One type
has similar properties to mica and is used in radio frequency circuits. In another type,
high capacitance values are obtained with small size, but stability and tolerance are poor;
they are useful where exact values are not too important. They may be disc, rod- or plate-
shaped. A disc-shaped capacitor is shown in



10.1 Transistors

The name is transistor derived from ‘transfer resistors’ indicating a solid state
Semiconductor device. In addition to conductor and insulators, there is a third class of
material that exhibits proportion of both. Under some conditions, it acts as an insulator,
and under other conditions it’s a conductor. This phenomenon is called Semi-conducting
and allows a variable control over electron flow. So, the transistor is semi conductor
device used in electronics for amplitude. Transistor has three terminals, one is the
collector, one is the base and other is the emitter, (each lead must be connected in the
circuit correctly and only then the transistor will function). Electrons are emitted via one
terminal and collected on another terminal, while the third terminal acts as a control
element. Each transistor has a number marked on its body. Every number has its own
There are mainly two types of transistor (i) NPN & (ii) PNP

10.1.1 NPN Transistors:

When a positive voltage is applied to the base, the transistor begins to conduct by
allowing current to flow through the collector to emitter circuit. The relatively small
current flowing through the base circuit causes a much greater current to pass through the
emitter / collector circuit. The phenomenon is called current gain and it is measure in

10.1.2 PNP Transistor:

It also does exactly same thing as above except that it has a negative voltage on its
collector and a positive voltage on its emitter.

Fig 10.1 : Symbols & representation of transistors

Transistor is a combination of semi-conductor elements allowing a controlled current

flow. Germanium and Silicon is the two semi-conductor elements used for making it.
There are two types of transistors such as POINT CONTACT and JUNCTION
TRANSISTORS. Point contact construction is defective so is now out of use. Junction
triode transistors are in many respects analogous to triode electron tube.

A junction transistor can function as an amplifier or oscillator as can a triode tube, but
has the additional advantage of long life, small size, ruggedness and absence of cathode
heating power.

Junction transistors are of two types which can be obtained while manufacturing.

The two types are: -

(1) PNP TYPE: This is formed by joining a layer of P type of

germanium to an N-P Junction

(2) NPN
TYPE: This is formed by joining a layer of N type
germanium to a P-N Junction.


Both types are shown in figure, with their symbols for

representation. The centre section is called the base, one
of the outside sections-the emitter and the other outside
section-the collector. The direction of the arrowhead gives the direction of the
conventional current with the forward bias on the emitter. The conventional flow is
opposite in direction to the electron flow.

10.1.3 Operation of PNP Transistor :

A PNP transistor is made by sand witching two PN germanium or silicon diodes, placed
back to back. The centre of N-type portion is extremely thin in comparison to P region.
The P region of the left is connected to the positive terminal and N-region to the negative
terminal i.e. PN is biased in the forward direction while P region of right is biased
negatively i.e. in the reverse direction as shown in Fig. The P region in the forward

biased circuit is called the emitter and P region on the right, biased negatively is called
collector. The centre is called base.

Fig 10.2 : Working of PNP transistor

The majority carriers (holes) of P region (known as emitter) move to N region as they are
repelled by the positive terminal of battery while the electrons of N region are attracted
by the positive terminal. The holes overcome the barrier and cross the emitter junction
into N region. As the width of base region is extremely thin, two to five percent of holes
recombine with the free electrons of N-region which result in a small base current while
the remaining holes (95% to 98%) reach the collector junction. The collector is biased
negatively and the negative collector voltage aids in sweeping the hole into collector

As the P region at the right is biased negatively, a very small current should flow but the
following facts are observed:-

1) A substantial current flows through it when the emitter junction is biased in

a forward direction.

2) The current flowing across the collector is slightly less than that of the

emitter and ,

3) The collector current is a function of emitter current i.e. with the
decrease or increase in the emitter current a corresponding change in the
collector current is observed.

The facts can be explained as follows:-

1. As already discussed that 2 to 5% of the holes are lost in recombination with the
electron n base region, which result in a small base current and hence the collector
current is slightly less than the emitter current.

2. The collector current increases as the holes reaching the collector junction are
attracted by negative potential applied to the collector.

3. When the emitter current increases, most holes are injected into the base
region, which is attracted by the negative potential of the collector and hence
results in increasing the collector current. In this way emitter is analogous to the
control of plate current by small grid voltage in a vacuum triode.

Hence we can say that when the emitter is forward biased and collector is
negatively biased, a substantial current flows in both the circuits. Since a small emitter
voltage of about 0.1 to 0.5 volts permits the flow of an appreciable emitter current the
input power is very small. The collector voltage can be as high as 45 volts.

10.2 L.E.D. (Light Emitting Diode)

Light emitting diode (LED ) is basically a P-N junction semiconductor diode

particularly designed to emit visible light. There are infra-red emitting LEDs which
emit invisible light. The LEDs are now available in many colour red, green and
yellow,. A normal LED emit at 2.4V and consumes MA of current. The LEDs are
made in the form of flat tiny P-N junction enclosed enclosed in a semi-spherical dome
made up of clear colured epoxy resin. The dome of a LED acts as a lens and diffuser
of light. The diameter of the base is less than a quarter of an inch. The actual diameter
varies somewhat with different makes. The common circuit symbols for the LED are
shown in fig. 1. It is similar to the conventional rectifier diode symbol with two arrows
pointing out. There are two leads- one for anode and the other for cathode.
LEDs often have leads of dissimilar length and the shorter one is the cathode. This is
not strictly adhered to by all manufacturers. Sometimes the cathode side has a flat
base. If there is doubt, the polarity of the diode should be identified. A simple bench
method is to use the ohmmeter incorporating 3-volt cells for ohmmeter function.
When connected with the ohmmeter: one way there will be no deflection and when
connected the other way round there will be a large deflection of a pointer. When this
occurs the anode lead is connected to the negative of test lead and cathode
to the positive test lead of the ohmmeter.

10.2.1 Action.

An LED consists of a junction diode made form the semiconducting compound

gallium arsenide phosphide. It emits light when forward biased, the colour depending
on the composition and impurity content of the compound. At present red, yellow and
green LEDs are available. When a p-n junction diode is forward biased, electrons

move across the junction from the n-type side to the p-type side where they recombine
with holes near the junction. The same occurs with holes going across the junction
from the p-type side. Every recombination results in the release of a certain amount of
energy, causing, in most semiconductors, a temperature rise. In gallium arsenide
phosphide some of the energy is emitted as light which gets out of the LED because
the junction is formed very close to the surface of the material. An LED does not light
when reverse biased and if the bias is 5 V or more it may be damaged.

10.2.2 External resistor.

Unless an LED is of the ‘constant-

current type’ (incorporating an
integrated circuit regulator—see Unit 20.4—for use on a 2 to 18 V d.c. or a. c.
supply), it must have an external resistor R connected in series to limit the forward
current which, typically, may be 10 mA (0.01 A). Taking the voltage drop (Vf) across
a conducting LED to be about 107 V, R can be calculated approximately from:

(supply voltage – 1.7) V

R = ——————————————————

For example, on a 5 V supply, R = 3.3/0.01 = 330 Ohm.

10.2.3 Decimal display.

Many electronic calculators, clocks, cash registers and measuring instruments have
seven-segment red or green LED displays as numerical indicators (Fig. 9.18(a)). Each
segment is an LED and depending on which segments are energized, the display lights up
the numbers 0 to 9 as in Fig. 9.18(b). Such displays are usually designed to work on a 5 V

supply. Each segment needs a separate current-limiting resistor and all the cathodes (or
anodes) are joined together to form a common connection

10.3 Diode

The simplest semiconductor device is made up of a sandwich of P-type semiconducting

material, with contacts provided to connect the p-and n-type layers to an external circuit.
This is a junction Diode. If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type
material (cathode) and the negative terminal to the N-type material (Anode), a large
current will flow. This is called forward current or forward biased.

If the connections are reversed, a very little current will flow. This is because under this
condition, the p-type material will accept the electrons from the negative terminal of the
battery and the N-type material will give up its free electrons to the battery, resulting in
the state of electrical equilibrium since the N-type material has no more electrons. Thus
there will be a small current to flow and the diode is called Reverse biased.

Thus the Diode allows direct current to pass only in one direction while blocking it in the
other direction. Power diodes are used in concerting AC into DC. In this, current will
flow freely during the first half cycle (forward biased) and practically not at all during the
other half cycle (reverse biased). This makes the diode an effective rectifier, which
convert ac into pulsating dc. Signal diodes are used in radio circuits for detection. Zener
diodes are used in the circuit to control the voltage.

Fig 10.3 : Symbols & representation of diodes

Some common diodes are:-

1. Zener diode.

2. Photo diode.

3. Light Emitting diode.

10.3.1 ZENER DIODE:-

A zener diode is specially designed junction diode, which can operate

continuously without being damaged in the region of reverse break down voltage. One of
the most important applications of zener diode is the design of constant voltage power
supply. The zener diode is joined in reverse bias to d.c. through a resistance R of suitable

10.3.2 PHOTO DIODE:-

A photo diode is a junction diode made from photo- sensitive semiconductor or

material. In such a diode, there is a provision to allow the light of suitable frequency to
fall on the p-n junction. It is reverse biased, but the voltage applied is less than the break
down voltage. As the intensity of incident light is increased, current goes on increasing
till it becomes maximum. The maximum current is called saturation current.


When a junction diode is forward biased, energy is released at the junction diode
is forward biased, energy is released at the junction due to recombination of electrons and

holes. In case of silicon and germanium diodes, the energy released is in infrared region.
In the junction diode made of gallium arsenate or indium phosphide, the energy is
released in visible region. Such a junction diode is called a light emitting diode or LED.

10.4 7-Segment Display

Design LED Products 7-segment display technology is scalable to meet individual

customer requirements. Less than 2mm thick they can be made to any size and include
other illuminated icons, text or backlights to create a fully customized display product.
The following data is based on Design LED Products 7-Segment evaluation (part No. 10-
10003) component as shown below.

Fig 10.4 : Dimensions of a 7- segment display

10.4.1 Component specification

Display Format 7 independent display segments

Viewing Area 7 segments each of 16.0(W) × 5.0(H) mm (1mm non illuminated border
between segments)

Dimensions 33.0(W) × 59.0(H) × 1.2 max.(D) mm

Weight 10g max.

Viewing Angle Lambertian Luminance >500 Cd/m2

Colour Red

10.4.2 Environmental factors

Operating Temp min. 0o C max. 50o C

Storage Temp. min. -20o C max. 70o C

Operating Humidity 5% - 95% RH

10.4.3 Electrical Specification

LED Drive requirements and specification See LED specification data sheet 4-10002

Current/ Voltage 7 channels 1.9 V (typ) @ 20mA each

Track resistance TBD Ohms/cm Insulation Resistance TBD Ohms

Dielectric Strength TBD Electrical connection 10 way 1mm pitch FFC/FPC

10.4.4 Optical Specifications

Luminance: Note 1 >500 Cd/m2 Colour: Note 2 Red

Homogeneity: Note 3 >70% Viewing Angle: Note 4 Lambertian

Light isolation: Note 5 >100:1

10.4.5 Notes

1. Measured with calibrated luminance meter, can be modified or optimized by

reselection of LED(s).

2. See LED data sheet 4-10002 for colour co-ordinates and binning specification.

3. Homogeneity – this refers to global homogeneity (or luminance variations across the
panel) on
scale ~10mm, and local homoge neity (or bright/dark spots or defects) on scale ~1mm.
Value shows minimum level permitted as percentage of highest measured luminance on
the sample. This level would not be visible to human viewer.

4. Top graphic layer is lambertian diffuser – not measured

5. Light isolation – this ratio relates to the ratio of luminance measured between two side-
by-side segments, one simultaneously switched ON the other OFF. This gives a measure
of contrast ratio between segments. Under standardambient lighting conditions, the OFF
segment should appear not illuminated to observer.

10.5 555 Timer IC

The block diagram and pin connections are shown in figure; R1, R2 C1 and C2 are
external components. (Note that the circle is omitted from the transistor symbol in an
IC). Threshold (pin 6) is joined to trigger (pin 2). Initially C1 charges up through R1
and R2 and, when the voltage across it just exceeds 2\3Vcc, the output from the
threshold comparator (with a reference voltage 2\3 Vcc on its other input form the
voltage divider chain formed by the three equal resistor R in series across Vcc) goes
‘high’ and resets the flip-flop, i.e. Q goes ‘high’. This has two results. First, the output
from the IC (pin 3) goes ‘low’ (due to the inverting buffer output stage) and second,
Tr1 switches it and R2.

Fig 10.5 : Astable operation of 555 timer IC

10.5.1 555 Timer as an astable device

When the voltage across C1 has fallen to just below 1\3 Vcc, the output from the
trigger comparator (with a reference voltage of 1\3 Vcc at its other input form the
three-resistor chain) goes ‘high’ and sets the flip-flop. Q therefore goes ‘low’ with two
results. First, the output from the IC goes ‘high’ and second, Tr1 turns off (since its
base is no longer positive) so letting C1 charge up to 2\3 Vcc again through R1 and
R2, as it did at the start. This cycle is repeated continuously giving an oscillatory
output with a rectangular waveform which is ‘high’ while C1 is charging and ‘low’
while it discharges.

10.6 CD4033 IC (CMOS Decade Counter/Divider)

10.6.1 Description
CD4033BMS consists of a 5 stage Johnson decade counter and an output decoder which
converts the Johnson code to a 7 segment decoded output for driving one stage in a
numerical display. This device is particularly advantageous in display applications where
low power dissipation and/or low package count is important. A high RESET signal
clears the decade counter to its zero count. The counter is advanced one count at the
positive clock signal transition if the CLOCK INHIBIT signal is low. Counter
advancement via the clock line is inhibited when the CLOCK INHIBIT signal is high.
The CLOCK INHIBIT signal can be used as a negative-edge clock if the clock line is
held high. Antilock gating is provided on the JOHNSON counter, thus assuring proper
counting sequence. The CARRY-OUT (Cout) signal completes one cycle every ten
CLOCK INPUT cycles and is used to clock the succeeding decade directly in a multi-
decade counting chain. The seven decoded outputs (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) illuminate the
proper segments in a seven segment display device used for representing the decimal
numbers 0 to 9. The 7 segment outputs go high on selection.

Fig 10.6 : Pin dig. & functional dig. Of CD 4033

10.6.2 Features

• High Voltage Types (20V Rating)

• Decoded 7 Segment Display Outputs and Ripple


• Counter and 7 Segment Decoding in One Package

• Easily Interfaced with 7 Segment Display Types

• Fully Static Counter Operation DC to 6MHz (typ.) at VDD =


• Ideal for Low-Power Displays

• “Ripple Blanking” and Lamp Test

• 100% Tested for Quiescent Current at 20V

• Standardized Symmetrical Output Characteristics

• 5V, 10V and 15V Parametric Ratings

• Schmitt-Triggered Clock Inputs

• Meets All Requirements of JEDEC Tentative Standards No. 13B, “Standard

Specifications for Description of “B” Series CMOS Device’s

10.6.3 Applications

• Decade Counting 7 Segment Decimal Display

• Frequency Division 7 Segment Decimal Displays

• Clocks, Watches, Timers (e.g. ÷ 60, ÷ 60, ÷12 Counter/ Display

• Counter/Display Driver For Meter Applications

The CD4033BMS has provisions for automatic blanking of the non-significant zeros in a
multi-digit decimal number which results in an easily readable display consistent with
normal writing practice. For example, the number 0050.0700 in an eight digit display
would be displayed as 50.07. Zero suppression on the integer side is obtained by
connecting the RBI terminal of the CD4033BMS associated with the most significant
digit in the display to a low-level voltage and connecting the RBO terminal of that stage
to the RBI terminal of the CD4033BMS in the next-lower significant position in the
display. This procedure is continued for each succeeding
CD4033BMS on the interger side of the display.

On the fraction side of the display the RBI of the CD4033BMS associated with the least
significant bit is connected to a low-level voltage and the RBO of that CD4033BMS is
connected to the RBI terminal of the CD4033BMS in the next more-significant-bit
position. Again, this procedure is continued for all CD4033BMS’s on the fraction side of
the display. In a purely fractional number the zero immediately preceding the decimal
point can be displayed by connecting the RBI of that stage to a high level voltage (instead
of to the RBO of the next more-significant-stage). For example: optional zero → 0.7346.
Likewise, the zero in a number such as 763.0 can
be displayed by connecting the RBI of the CD4033BMS associated with it to a high-level
voltage.Ripple blanking of non-significant zeros provides an appreciable savings in
display power. The CD4033BMS has a LAMP TEST input which, when connected to a
high-level voltage, overrides normal decoder operation and enables a check to be made
on possible display malfunctions by putting the seven outputs in the high state.

10.7 CA3140 Operational amplifier

The CA3140A and CA3140 are integrated circuit operational amplifiers that combine the
advantages of high voltage PMOS transistors with high voltage bipolar transistors on a
single monolithic chip. The CA3140A and CA3140 BiMOS operational amplifiers
feature gate protected MOSFET (PMOS) transistors in the input circuit to provide very
high input impedance, very low input current, and high speed performance. The
CA3140A and CA3140 operate at supply voltage from 4V to 36V (either single or dual
supply). These operational amplifiers are internally phase compensated to achieve stable
operation in unity gain follower operation, and additionally, have access terminal for a
supplementary external capacitor if additional frequency roll-off is desired. Terminals are
also provided for use in applications requiring input offset voltage nulling. The use of
PMOS field effect transistors in the input stage results in common mode input voltage
capability down to 0.5V below the negative supply terminal, an important
attribute for single supply applications. The output stage uses bipolar transistors and
includes built-in protection against damage from load terminal short circuiting to either
supply rail or to ground. The CA3140A and CA3140 are intended for operation at supply
voltages up to 36V (±18V).

10.7.1 Features

- MOSFET Input Stage

- Very High Input Impedance (ZIN) -1.5T. (Typ)
- Very Low Input Current (Il) -10pA (Typ) at ±15V
- Wide Common Mode Input Voltage Range (VlCR) – Can be Swung 0.5V Below
Negative Supply Voltage Rail
-Output Swing Complements Input Common Mode

10.7.2 Range

• Directly Replaces Industry Type 741 in Most

• Applications
• Ground-Referenced Single Supply Amplifiers in
Automobile and Portable Instrumentation
• Sample and Hold Amplifiers
• Long Duration Timers/Multivibrators
• Photocurrent Instrumentation
• Peak Detectors
• Active Filters
• Comparators
• Interface in 5V TTL Systems and Other Low
Supply Voltage Systems
• All Standard Operational Amplifier Applications
• Function Generators

• Tone Controls
• Power Supplies
• Portable Instruments
• Intrusion Alarm Systems

Fig 10.7 : Pin dig. of CA 3140 IC




DC Supply Voltage (Between V+ and V- Terminals) . . . . . . . . . 36V

Differential Mode Input Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8V
DC Input Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (V+ +8V) To (V- -0.5V)
Input Terminal Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1mA
Output Short Circuit Duration. (Note 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indefinite
Operating Conditions
Temperature Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -55oC to 125oC
Thermal Resistance (Typical, Note 1) θJA (oC/W) θJC (oC/W)
PDIP Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 N/A

SOIC Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 N/A
Maximum Junction Temperature (Plastic Package) . . . . . . . 150oC
Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . -65oC to 150oC
Maximum Lead Temperature (Soldering 10s) . . . . . . . . . . . . 300oC

10.7.3 Application Information

Circuit Description
As shown in the block diagram, the input terminals may be operated down to 0.5V below
the negative supply rail. Two class A amplifier stages provide the voltage gain, and a
unique class AB amplifier stage provides the current gain necessary to drive low-
impedance loads.A biasing circuit provides control of cascoded constant current flow
circuits in the first and second stages. The CA3140 includes an on chip phase
compensating capacitor that is sufficient for the unity gain voltage follower

10.8 CD4071 (OR Gate IC)

10.8.1 General Description

The CD4071BC and CD4081BC quad gates are monolithic complementary MOS
(CMOS) integrated circuits constructed with N- and P-channel enhancement mode
transistors.They have equal source and sink current
capabilities and conform to standard B series output drive. The devices also have
buffered outputs which improve transfer characteristics by providing very high gain.All
inputs protected against static discharge with diodes to
VDD and VSS.

10.8.2 Features

Low power TTL compatibility:

Fan out of 2 driving 74L or 1 driving 74LS

5V–10V–15V parametric ratings

Symmetrical output characteristics

Maximum input leakage 1 mA at 15V over full temperature range

Fig 10.8 : Connection dig. of CD 4071

Fig 10.9 : Schematic dig. of CD 4071

10.9 LM 741 Operational Amplifier

The LM 741 series are general purpose operational amplifiers which feature
improved performance over the industry standards like LM 709

Parametric Table
Gain Bandwidth 1 MHz
Channels 1 Channels
Input Not Rail to Rail
Slew Rate 0.5 Volts/usec
Supply Min 10 Volt
Supply Max 36, 44 Volt
Offset Voltage 6, 5 mV
max, 25C
Supply Current 1.7 mA
Per Channel
PowerWise 1700 uA/MHz
Rating 2
Gain Bandwidth 1 MHz
Channels 1 Channels
Input Not Rail to Rail
Slew Rate 0.5 Volts/usec
Supply Min 10 Volt
Supply Max 36, 44 Volt
Offset Voltage 6, 5 mV
max, 25C
Supply Current 1.7 mA
Per Channel
PowerWise 1700 uA/MHz
Rating 2
Max Input Bias 800, 1500 nA
Output Current 25 mA
Voltage Noise 30 nV/√Hz
Shut down No
Special Features Vos Adj
Function Op Amp
Temperature Min -55, 0 deg C
Temperature 70, 125 deg C

Fig 10.10 Pin dig. of LM 741

Chapter 11


11.1 Introduction
In alternating current the electron flow is alternate, i.e. the electron flow increases to
maximum in one direction, decreases back to zero. It then increases in the other direction

and then decreases to zero again. Direct current flows in one direction only. Rectifier
converts alternating current to flow in one direction only. When the anode of the diode is
positive with respect to its cathode, it is forward biased, allowing current to flow. But
when its anode is negative with respect to the cathode, it is reverse biased and does not
allow current to flow. This unidirectional property of the diode is useful for rectification.
A single diode arranged back-to-back might allow the electrons to flow during positive
half cycles only and suppress the negative half cycles. Double diodes arranged back-to-
back might act as full wave rectifiers as they may allow the electron flow during both
positive and negative half cycles. Four diodes can be arranged to make a full wave bridge
rectifier. Different types of filter circuits are used to smooth out the pulsations in
amplitude of the output voltage from a rectifier. The property of capacitor to oppose any
change in the voltage applied across them by storing energy in the electric field of the
capacitor and of inductors to oppose any change in the current flowing through them by
storing energy in the magnetic field of coil may be utilized. To remove pulsation of the
direct current obtained from the rectifier, different types of combination of capacitor,
inductors and resistors may be also be used to increase to action of filtering.

11.2 Need of power supply

Perhaps all of you are aware that a ‘power supply’ is a primary requirement for the ‘Test
Bench’ of a home experimenter’s mini lab. A battery eliminator can eliminate or replace
the batteries of solid-state electronic equipment and the equipment thus can be operated
by 230v A.C. mains instead of the batteries or dry cells. Nowadays, the use of
commercial battery eliminator or power supply unit has become increasingly popular as
power source for household appliances like transreceivers, record player, cassette players,
digital clock etc.

11.3 Theory


Electric energy is available in homes and industries in India, in the form of alternating
voltage. The supply has a voltage of 220V (rms) at a frequency of 50 Hz. In the USA, it
is 110V at 60 Hz. For the operation of most of the devices in electronic equipment, a dc
voltage is needed. For instance, a transistor radio requires a dc supply for its operation.
Usually, this supply is provided by dry cells. But sometime we use a battery eliminator in
place of dry cells. The battery eliminator converts the ac voltage into dc voltage and thus
eliminates the need for dry cells. Nowadays, almost all-electronic equipment includes a
circuit that converts ac voltage of mains supply into dc voltage. This part of the
equipment is called Power Supply. In general, at the input of the power supply, there is a
power transformer. It is followed by a diode circuit called Rectifier. The output of the
rectifier goes to a smoothing filter, and then to a voltage regulator circuit. The rectifier
circuit is the heart of a power supply.


Rectification is a process of rendering an alternating current or voltage into a

unidirectional one. The component used for rectification is called ‘Rectifier’. A rectifier
permits current to flow only during the positive half cycles of the applied AC voltage by
eliminating the negative half cycles or alternations of the applied AC voltage. Thus
pulsating DC is obtained. To obtain smooth DC power, additional filter circuits are

A diode can be used as rectifier. There are various types of diodes. But, semiconductor
diodes are very popularly used as rectifiers. A semiconductor diode is a solid-state device
consisting of two elements is being an electron emitter or cathode, the other an electron
collector or anode. Since electrons in a semiconductor diode can flow in one direction
only-from emitter to collector- the diode provides the unilateral conduction necessary for

rectification. Out of the semiconductor diodes, copper oxide and selenium rectifier are
also commonly used.

It is possible to rectify both alternations of the input voltage by using two diodes in the
circuit arrangement. Assume 6.3 V rms (18 V p-p) is applied to the circuit. Assume
further that two equal-valued series-connected resistors R are placed in parallel with the
ac source. The 18 V p-p appears across the two resistors connected between points AC
and CB, and point C is the electrical midpoint between A and B. Hence 9 V p-p appears
across each resistor. At any moment during a cycle of vin, if point A is positive relative

to C, point B is negative relative to C. When A is negative to C, point B is positive

relative to C. The effective voltage in proper time phase which each diode "sees" is in
Fig. The voltage applied to the anode of each diode is equal but opposite in polarity at
any given instant.

When A is positive relative to C, the anode of D1 is positive with respect to its cathode.

Hence D1 will conduct but D2 will not. During the second alternation, B is positive

relative to C. The anode of D2 is therefore positive with respect to its cathode, and D2

conducts while D1 is cut off.

There is conduction then by either D1 or D2 during the entire input-voltage cycle.

Since the two diodes have a common-cathode load resistor RL, the output voltage across

RL will result from the alternate conduction of D1 and D2. The output waveform vout

across RL, therefore has no gaps as in the case of the half-wave rectifier.

The output of a full-wave rectifier is also pulsating direct current. In the diagram, the two
equal resistors R across the input voltage are necessary to provide a voltage midpoint C

for circuit connection and zero reference. Note that the load resistor RL is connected

from the cathodes to this center reference point C.

An interesting fact about the output waveform vout is that its peak amplitude is not 9 V

as in the case of the half-wave rectifier using the same power source, but is less than 4½
V. The reason, of course, is that the peak positive voltage of A relative to C is 4½ V, not
9 V, and part of the 4½ V is lost across R.

Though the full wave rectifier fills in the conduction gaps, it delivers less than half the
peak output voltage that results from half-wave rectification.

11.3.3 Bridge Rectifier

A more widely used full-wave rectifier circuit is the bridge rectifier. It requires four
diodes instead of two, but avoids the need for a centre-tapped transformer. During the
positive half-cycle of the secondary voltage, diodes D2 and D4 are conducting and diodes
D1 and D3 are non-conducting. Therefore, current flows through the secondary winding,
diode D2, load resistor RL and diode D4. During negative half-cycles of the secondary
voltage, diodes D1 and D3 conduct, and the diodes D2 and D4 do not conduct. The
current therefore flows through the secondary winding, diode D1, load resistor RL and
diode D3. In both cases, the current passes through the load resistor in the same direction.
Therefore, a fluctuating, unidirectional voltage is developed across the load.


The rectifier circuits we have discussed above deliver an output voltage that
always has the same polarity: but however, this output is not suitable as DC power supply
for solid-state circuits. This is due to the pulsation or ripples of the output voltage. This
should be removed out before the output voltage can be supplied to any circuit. This
smoothing is done by incorporating filter networks. The filter network consists of
inductors and capacitors. The inductors or choke coils are generally connected in series
with the rectifier output and the load. The inductors oppose any change in the magnitude
of a current flowing through them by storing up energy in a magnetic field. An inductor
offers very low resistance for DC whereas; it offers very high resistance to AC. Thus, a
series connected choke coil in a rectifier circuit helps to reduce the pulsations or ripples
to a great extent in the output voltage. The fitter capacitors are usually connected in
parallel with the rectifier output and the load. As, AC can pass through a capacitor but
DC cannot, the ripples are thus limited and the output becomes smoothed. When the
voltage across its plates tends to rise, it stores up energy back into voltage and current.
Thus, the fluctuations in the output voltage are reduced considerable. Filter network
circuits may be of two types in general:


If a choke coil or an inductor is used as the ‘first- components’ in the filter
network, the filter is called ‘choke input filter’. The D.C. along with AC pulsation from
the rectifier circuit at first passes through the choke (L). It opposes the AC pulsations but
allows the DC to pass through it freely. Thus AC pulsations are largely reduced. The
further ripples are by passed through the parallel capacitor C. But, however, a little nipple
remains unaffected, which are considered negligible. This little ripple may be reduced by
incorporating a series a choke input filters.

If a capacitor is placed before the inductors of a choke-input filter network, the
filter is called capacitor input filter. The D.C. along with AC ripples from the rectifier
circuit starts charging the capacitor C. to about peak value. The AC ripples are then
diminished slightly. Now the capacitor C, discharges through the inductor or choke coil,
which opposes the AC ripples, except the DC. The second capacitor C by passes the
further AC ripples. A small ripple is still present in the output of DC, which may be
reduced by adding additional filter network in series.



A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another
through inductively coupled electrical conductors. A changing current in the first circuit
(the primary) creates a changing magnetic field; in turn, this magnetic field induces a
changing voltage in the second circuit (the secondary). By adding a load to the secondary
circuit, one can make current flow in the transformer, thus transferring energy from one
circuit to the other.

The secondary induced voltage VS is scaled from the primary VP by a factor ideally equal
to the ratio of the number of turns of wire in their respective windings:

By appropriate selection of the numbers of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating

voltage to be stepped up — by making NS more than NP — or stepped down, by making it

Transformers are some of the most efficient electrical 'machines',[1] with some large units
able to transfer 99.75% of their input power to their output.[2] Transformers come in a
range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage
microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of
national power grids. All operate with the same basic principles, though a variety of
designs exist to perform specialized roles throughout home and industry.

TRANSFORMER is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another
by electromagnetic induction (transformer action). The electrical energy is always
transferred without a change in frequency, but may involve changes in magnitudes of
voltage and current. Because a transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic
induction, it must be used with an input source voltage that varies in amplitude. There are
many types of power that fit this description; for ease of explanation and understanding,
transformer action will be explained using an ac voltage as the input source.

In a preceding chapter you learned that alternating current has certain advantages over
direct current. One important advantage is that when ac is used, the voltage and current
levels can be increased or decreased by means of a transformer.

As you know, the amount of power used by the load of an electrical circuit is equal to the
current in the load times the voltage across the load, or P = EI. If, for example, the load in
an electrical circuit requires an input of 2 amperes at 10 volts (20 watts) and the source is
capable of delivering only 1 ampere at 20 volts, the circuit could not normally be used
with this particular source. However, if a transformer is connected between the source
and the load, the voltage can be decreased (stepped down) to 10 volts and the current
increased (stepped up) to 2 amperes. Notice in the above case that the power remains the
same. That is, 20 volts times 1 ampere equals the same power as 10 volts times 2