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Ian Shanahan (1997)

In Memoriam James Owen Shanahan (25/9/1922 8/7/1997)

To Winsome Evans;
For The Renaissance Players 30th anniversary:

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[p]s(t)ellor/mnme
a mandalikon
for
soprano recorder
and
a broken consort of early-music instruments

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

1997, by Ian Shanahan.


PROGRAMME ANNOTATION

[p]s(t)ellor/mnme

a mandalikon
for soprano recorder and a broken consort of early-music instruments

Ian Shanahan (1997)

Although not always grammatically accurate, the following linguistic homologies apply:
mnme [Greek] memory (whence mnemonic);
psellor [Greek] stuttering, recursion;
stellor [Latin] of stars (whence stellar).
So ... [p]s(t)ellor/mnme stuttering memory; memory of stars, this being my
second composition thus far to embrace total non-teleology. Like the sacred Buddhist [p]s(t)ellor/mnme was premired and broadcast live across
mandalas or the ikons of Orthodox Christianity, it is a static object which exists solely to be
contemplated a stuttering memory that recapitulates data inexorably: here, the same Australia on ABC Classic FM radio by Ian Shanahan (soprano
gesture is repeatedly re-perspectivized, somewhat as one might examine from various recorder) and The Renaissance Players (Nick Wales, Eleanor Lewis,
angles the facets of a jewel. (Such works of mine I now refer to as mandalikons.) Cathy Tabrett, Jenny Ericksson, Kim Poole, Winsome Evans, Andrew
How is [p]s(t)ellor/mnme a memory of stars? Firstly, it occurred to me that our Lambkin, Sally Treloyn, Barbara Stackpool, Tim Chung, and Simon
basic unit of time (the second) is quite arbitrary, in that it does not stem from any easily
Lobelson), during the Eighth Sydney Spring International Festival of
discernible natural phenomena ... whereas some older units of length-measurement are
geodetic, being directly related to the dimensions of the Earth itself. I was then astonished New Music, Eugene Goossens Hall, ABC Centre, Harris Street,
to learn that the Great Pyramid at Giza is a scaled-down representation of Earths northern Ultimo, Sydney, on 19 September 1997.
hemisphere: the ratio of the Pyramids perimeter to its original height is very close to 2;
this perimeter, when multiplied by 43,200, matches the Earths equatorial circumference to
within a 1% error. The number 43,200 in turn derives, apparently, from Earths cycle of The composer received the inaugural Sydney Spring Award for
precession (periodicity: 25,776 years).* Furthermore, the Giza Pyramids relative sizes and Composition, for the most outstanding original Australian
locations parallel the magnitudes and alignment of those stars which comprise the belt of
composition {[p]s(t)ellor/mnme} performed during the Eighth
the constellation Orion! Hence I asked myself: Could I not create something analogous
something just as intellectually exquisite with the chronomorphology of this new Sydney Spring International Festival of New Music (1997).
composition? To summarize, [p]s(t)ellor/mnme encompasses a notional duration of ([p]s(t)ellor/mnme was then also nominated for a 1998 Sounds
332.28", partitioned internally according to certain well-known mathematical constants;
Australian National Award, for the Best Composition by an
these same constants are employed in a rather arcane way to yield 332.28" through a
reiterative division of Earths 25,776-year precessional cycle. [p]s(t)ellor/mnme is, Australian Composer performed during 1997.)
therefore, literally the Precession of the Equinoxes in microcosm a memory of stars,
insofar as cycles of precession are computed through long-term astronomical observation.
Since I am one of several composers who has been an occasional member of The
Renaissance Players, Winsome Evans commissioned [p]s(t)ellor/mnme from me as part
of the groups thirtieth anniversary celebrations. But perhaps there is also a tenuous
connection (because of my stellar title and quadrivial preoccupations) to The
Renaissance Players Spanish Medival repertoire Santiago de Compostela? In any
case, I dedicate this festschrift piece to Winsome, from whom I shall always continue to
learn, with the greatest respect and thanks.
It is equally appropriate, given the titles fabricated meaning, that [p]s(t)ellor/mnme
be written in memory of my father, Jim Shanahan (25/9/1922 8/7/1997): in life, he
certainly burned bright as a star. (Who knows? The Old Man might have even liked this
piece!)
* see Graham Hancock: Fingerprints of the Gods (Mandarin Paperbacks, London, 1995), pp.459461.

Ian Shanahan, Sydney, Australia; 9 July 1997.


PERFORMANCE NOTES damped; whenever bowed, notes are to be sustained either fully (i.e. right up to the next
sonority) or as much as is practicable given local technical exigencies - with inevitable
caesurae being as brief as possible (lasting at most 1 second under any circumstance).
When there is no 'next sonority' within my framework of temporal proportionality - as is the
1. GENERAL REMARKS case for the last notes of each section - the end-point of an extender will indicate the
I wish to thank Winsome Evans and each member of The Renaissance Players - they termination-moment of a (previously sustained) note.
are all listed after my Programme Annotation - for their technical advice regarding early-
* The three viola da gamba parts in section 5 and section 6 are all, I must confess, extremely
music instruments ... not to mention their constant support during the composition and difficult to execute in time when the formula 40 millimetres '" 1 second is operative. So -
rehearsal of [p]s(t)ellor/mneme. I do appreciate their affable generosity. Andrew Stiller's although it does undermine my compositional intentions (being contrary to my
wonderful Handbook of Instrumentation (University of California Press, Berkeley, chronomorphological conception of this piece) - if it proves absolutely necessary, the 'time-
Califomia, U.S.A., 1985) also proved invaluable. space tempo' may be slowed down, to a minimum of 40 millimetres '" 2 seconds throughout the
whole work. Sectional proportionalities must be preserved at all costs!
INSTRUMENTATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
THE OPTIONAL PAUSES BETWEEN SECTIONS
Soprano Recorder ('soloist')
Finger Cymbals (1 pair) Optional pauses between certain sections of [p]s(t)ellor/mneme - denoted by peaked
Small Clash Cymbals (1 pair, hand-held) fermatas C~} - have been proposed, to assist in the coordination of sectional beginnings.
16 Handbells (2 players) Since they all lie between sections, the consort must not 'play through' them; it will also
{the bells are suspended in a framework and struck by pairs of mallets} prove necessary to agree in rehearsal upon which of these pauses shall occur during live
1 Mandola performance. Precise durational details of such optional pauses are left to the discretion of
1 Celtic Harp the timekeeper - although they all ought to be varied in length, lasting somewhere
1 Alto Rebec between 0.5 and 3 seconds.
1 Waterphone (played by the rebecist only during the final section of the work)
3 Bass Viola da Gambas DYNAMIC INDICATIONS
Note: descriptions of all of these instruments (as well as acceptable substitutions) shall be
given later; I have also appended to these Performance Notes a table that shows their Apart from the traditional dynamic markings (ppp, pp, p, mp, mf, f, ft, fff) - all of which I
specific tunings or scordature, and a diagram depicting the instruments' physicallayout. have envisaged as representing (absolute) perceived loudnesses rather than (relative)
The tuning of all (well-pitched) instruments must be centred upon either A440 Hz or A415 Hz performative actions - the following symbols are employed in [p]s(t)ellor/mneme:
- unless semitonal string-retunings are practicable.
o represents the final vanishing into inaudibility: allow the sound to attenuate to
silence;
TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION, CONSORT COORDINATION, RESONANCE AND
NOTE-LENGTH f poss. is an abbreviation for performers to play 'as loudly as possible'.

Aside from the soloist's part, the score of [p]s(t)ellor/mneme is notated entirely in time- PITCH DESIGNATION AND MICROTONES
space notation, with each 'ictus' (short, thick vertical stroke) corresponding to one second
of elapsed time, according to the formula 40 millimetres '" 1 second = metronome 60.* In any references to pitch in [p]s(t)ellor/mneme:
Therefore, musical events in this piece should be deployed chronometrically in direct
proportion to their relative horizontal placement upon the score-page: an electronic "Middle C" shall be designated as C\ 3, the C\ one octave higher as C\4, etc. (i.e.
metronome flashing once per second might prove to be an effective practice tool in this assuming that A\ 3 = 440 Hz, then C \ 3 =:: 261.6255653 Hz).
respect. Yet I strongly discourage any sense of metricated rigidity! (Indeed, temporal
asymmetry ought to be strived for.) * and J denote a quartertone above ~ , and a quartertone below ~ , respectively.
Nevertheless, in order to facilitate ensemble coordination, the broken consort in (These quartertones are well-tempered, being the generative interval of 24-tone
[p]s(t)ellor/mneme definitely requires a timekeeper - somebody, seated behind the equal temperament.) Smaller degrees of intonational deviation - slight microtonal
soloist, who simply 'beats' each ictus and paces inter-sectional pauses. (The timekeeper is inflections, non-tempered, of up to an eighthtone - upwards and downwards are
not a conductor in any conventional sense: their role is by no means interpretative.) If indicated by upward-pointing and downward-pointing arrowheads, respectively,
there is a shortage of personnel, a not entirely desirable solution would be to have the upon accidental symbols. Examples: BJ 5; F14; At3; G~2 etc.
finger-cymbalist sit behind the soloist to fulfil the role of timekeeper as well!
RANDOMIZED PARAMETERS
At the microformal level, 'rhythmic' notation for the string instruments in
[p]s(t)ellor/mneme has been radically economized, consisting merely of painstakingly Within most of the instrumental parts which comprise [p]s(t)ellor/mneme, a number of
deployed noteheads (all but a few of them without any 'extenders'): whenever plucked, technical/musical parameters have been bracketed thus: Rand { }. Until countermanded
strings must be allowed to vibrate to extinction - wherever possible - and are never to be by some other randomization directive, all of these bracketed parameters may be

- ii-
randomly transformed, introduced, or eliminated in performance. As such, they provide an the < ~ > pitch-material might just be a relatively straightforward or simple reading-
'embellish mental' stimulus to the consort players and soloist while framing the artistic through of the given pitches, with little or no embellishment.
boundaries within which my music can evolve - thereby according an early-music
ensemble the opportunity to stamp their own distinctive personality upon their SOPRANO RECORDER FINGERINGS
interpretation of this piece.
Research into the fingering-configurations that yield the eleven 'fractalous' < a >
Related 'curly bracket notations' involving randomized parameters are: sonorities in [p]s(t)ellor/mneme was carried out upon an ebony Moeck Rottenburgh
soprano recorder. On any other models of soprano recorder however, different
Optional Rand { } - these bracketed parameters may be optionally randomized;
(microtonal) pitches will probably be produced; if these pitch-discrepancies are indeed
Rand Only { } - from amongst the previous Rand { } directive's bracketed parameters, small, then they can be safely ignored. In some circumstances, nonetheless, it might prove
henceforth randomize only those parameters now bracketed; beneficial to modify some of the given fingerings accordingly. (If this proves to be
impracticable, then just do your best with the provided fingering.)
End Rand - end all randomization of technical/musical parameters: Rand { } is
concluded. THE SOPRANO RECORDER'S RANDOMIZED PARAMETERS
Whenever Rand { } is operative, any instructions notated between orthogonal brackets < a > Randomize: {alternations between flutterlonguing and tongue-tremolo; normal
- [ ] - take mandatory precedence, locally and temporarily overriding the randomization articulations (e.g. staccato, porlato, legato); "breath trills" (i.e. pitch-oscillations and
process. For example, a sonority assigned the dynamic indication [Ppp] during a passage -fluctuations generated through breath-control, without any finger-movement
when Rand {p ...... mf} is functional, must be played in ppp, irrespective of this particular whatsoever!); air-flow (such that the given pitches are elicited)}
Rand { } directive!
Note: pitches between pairs of bold-faced orthogonal brackets [ ] manifest themselves
as distinct vibrational modes of a single fingering: hence, no finger-movement whatsoever
2. THE SOLO SOPRANO RECORDER PART: DETAILS
should take place prior to progressing on to the < ~ > material! However, as a direct
outcome of engaging the < a > randomized parameters listed above, compel these
THE SOPRANO RECORDER PART'S IMPROVISATORY STRUCTURE orthogonal-bracketed pitches to 'crack' upwards or downwards, flickering chaotically
between and through several vibrational modes and multiphonic component tones. The
The soloist's part comprises eleven 'modules' that correlate to [p]s(t)ellor/mneme's
overall impression of these coruscant < a > objects should therefore be one of volatile
eleven sections. These modules all commence with a single sustained volatile 'fractalous'
instability - a locally unpredictable 'acoustic fractal', which may be sustained for almost an
sonority (the < a > material) - such unstable sound-objects should sometimes last almost a
entire breath-length.
whole breath-length! - which then merges into pitch-material that forms the basis for
improvisation (the < ~ > material). The soprano recorder part, whose sounds enter not less < ~ > Randomize: {(multi)octave transpositions; the addition of unspecified material; the
than 15 to 20 seconds after the conclusion of the first handbell-peal, on the whole unfurls (s)pacing of events (i.e. their speed and density); the insertion of SILENCES;
autonomously relative to the consort music - not being rigidly locked in step with it. articulations (sputato [i.e. a noisy, exaggerated, overblown attack], flutterlonguing,
Modules 2-10 begin somewhere towards the end of their correlative handbell-peals (or tongue-tremolo, normal articulations [e.g. staccato, porlato, legato], etc.); microtonal
even just beyond them); module 11, however, can start straight after the initial attack of the pitches; glissandi; vibrati (of various types); air-flow; multiphonics; the admixture and
final hand bell-peal, but must stop as soon as the terminal clash of cymbals is heard. Within withdrawal of vocalized sounds; air-noises}
modules 1-10, their < ~ > pitch-materials are 'repeated' over and over again - being cycled
through, orbit-like, until the next section's handbell-sounds signal an immediate halt.' (The Note: for tongue-tremolo, articulate, as quickly and as evenly as possible, the (double-
eleventh module's < a > pitch-material, on the other hand, is interpreted or 'read straight tonguing) phonemes '[d]idl(d)idl(d)idl. ..' - as in "middle" - or the much more common
through' just once.) Note that each module's materials must be presented in full: residual (double-tonguing) pattern '[t]eketeke .. .' ('[d]egedege .. .'). The type and intensity of the
< ~ > material, if any, has to be played during the next section before the succeeding tongue-tremolo to be employed at each occurrence is left to the discretion of the recorder-
module's < a > pitch-material can be proceeded to! player.

Notwithstanding this rule, an occasional brief overlap of the soprano recorder's < ~ > pitch-cycles
with the following section's handbell tintinnabulations is by no means unacceptable! Equally, the 3. THE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS: DETAILS
soloist may choose once in a while to suspend the orbital process before the end of a section
has been reached. Once animated, the sounds of all percussion instruments are to be permitted to ring on
indefinitely: under no circumstances is any damping of resonance ever to take place.
Some Interpretative Possibilities
FINGER CYMBALS
Within the < ~ > pitch-material of each module, subsets of pitches can be looped
'epicyclically': as one encounters a smaller internal subset of adjacent pitches, it too The finger cymbals required for [p]s(t)ellor/mneme are 'antique cymbals' or 'hand
can be looped (cyclically, or even permutatively!). crotales' - a pair of very thick high-domed finger cymbals up to about 120 mm in diameter,
connected by a cord, and tuned at least a semitone apart. Because of their size and
ii. Another interpretative possibility: within each module, the initial presentation (only) of weight, they have to be held in opposite hands rather than on two fingers of one hand.

- iii- - iv-
RANDOMIZED PARAMETERS

Randomize: {altemations between clashes of parallel cymbal-plates (i.e. like hi-hat


i denotes a hard felt-wound mallet. {Handbells 1 - playing the eight highest bells}

cymbals being held vertically) and where one instead suspends the finger cymbals
horizontally and taps them together, edge-to-edge; ppp ...... (m)p (dynamic levels
ranging between ppp and (m)p)) I denotes a felt-wound mallet of medium hardness. {Handbells 2 - playing the eight lowest
bells}
Such pictographs are vague guidelines only! Both campanists are wholeheartedly
SMALL CLASH CYMBALS
encouraged to experiment by changing mallet-types from one peal to another - for the
The pair of small clash cymbals required for [p]s(t)ellor/mneme are the traditional sake of timbral and dynamic variety. The hand bells' sounds, though, should never, under
hand-held clash cymbals, of thin gauge, between 350 mm and 400 mm in diameter - the any circumstances, be too clangorous: their pitches must always be clearly discemible,
sort of clash cymbals employed for 'authentic' performances of early music. possessing a rich and yet at times fairly mellow timbre (wherein the hand bells' lower
partials are suppressed or attenuated as little as possible) ... even when the highest bells
RANDOMIZED PARAMETERS have been hit hard!

Randomize: {strisciato (i.e. an effect produced by starting with the cymbal-plates in contact WATERPHONE
with each other and then sliding them apart rapidly to produce a delicate 'zing');
single point of attack along the edge (e.g. one suspends the clash cymbals The waterphone - played by the rebecist only during the final section of
horizontally and taps them together, edge-to-edge); ppp ...... (m)p (dynamic levels [p]s(t)ellor/mneme - is a very rare and unusual instrument that hails from Califomia:
ranging between ppp and (m)p)) invented during the 1970s by Richard Waters, it is a strange-looking yet absolutely
exquisite sound-source, having a bulbous metal body, a small elongated cylindrical funnel
16 HANDBELLS through which water is poured, and a series of metal prongs of different lengths welded
around the outer edge of its base. The waterphone is held by the end of its funnel, and
The 16 handbells required for [p]s(t)ellor/mneme are all suspended in a framework and may be continuously tilted through various angles to induce the water to slurp around
struck by pairs of mallets; 2 (or more) campanists will be needed, each controlling (up to) 8 inside. Whenever its prongs are bowed, flicked, scraped, stroked, plucked or otherwise
bells. (The handbells' pitches have been appended to these Performance Notes.) activated, an eerie, ethereal, kaleidoscopic sound (somewhat reminiscent of whale-song?)
is forthcoming. Because a waterphone is so visually conspicuous, for the sake of surprise
These 16 hand bells - each with its own internal felt 'clapper' and a leather hand-strap - during a live performance it should be well hidden from the audience's gaze by being
all came from a somewhat larger series, comprising the pitches: placed within a sufficiently large box - only to be brought out at the very end of section 10,
just prior to being played.
G\2, A\2, B\2, thence chromatically - from C\3 to C\6, inclusive.
Procuring a waterphone may well be quite problematic; less recherche substitute-
There are no truly satisfactory substitutes for hand bells - although, as a last resort, the instruments are likely to be needed. I have found that one or - better still - two flexatones,
lowest ones (which might be quite difficult to acquire) could be supplanted by appropriately bowed and subjected to random pitch-changes while being allowed to resonate freely,
tuned gongs or even by large, suitably pitched Japanese temple bells (rin). mimics the timbral signature of a waterphone surprisingly well! An even more delicious
THE 11 HANDBELL-PEALS
possibility (involving not just the rebecist, but some additional instrumentalists chosen from
among those who would not otherwise play throughout [p]s(t)ellor/mneme's eleventh
The initial attack of each handbell-peal must be precisely synchronized by both section): with the flexatone(s) being most prominent acoustically (situated towards the
campanists, after which their remaining ten attacks ought to be "uncoordinated and front, nearest the soloist), the consort could easily congregate a diverse corpus of
irregular - at your own pace". It would also be musically advantageous if the campanists appropriately-sounding metallic percussion instruments - musical saws (primarily bowed,
were to vary the duration of every handbell-pea/: in my score of [p]s(t)ellor/mneme, such yet also struck occasionally with vibraphone mallets of medium hardness), bowed cymbals
peal-durations have been signified on purpose somewhat ambiguously by large oblong (Turkish- and/or Chinese-style), a one-octave chromatic set of bowed crotales (bowed
fermatas (,..,); each handbell-peal's pacing and time-span might even be made to correlate and/or struck [with hard glockenspiel mallets]), metal-tube windchimes of various sizes and
approximately with the length and density of the section it introduces! Beyond the final tessituras, a Mark tree, sleighbells, sistrums, strings of jingle bells (comprising small pellet-
attack of every handbell-peal, a momentary hiatus of 'suspended time' - through which the bells, tiny bronze bells, or miniature iron herd-bells), a Chinese bell tree, windchimes of
hand bell-sounds resonate beautifully - shall be permitted to assert itself: notated using triangles, etc.
peaked fermatas (,~), these, too, should be temporally variegated; they also fulfil a
practical function - to allow the timekeeper to coordinate the consort's time-count 4. THE STRING INSTRUMENTS: DETAILS
thereafter.

HANDBELL MALLETS PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS

The following pictographs illustrate the two basic types of hand bell mallets called for Throughout my score of [p]s(t)ellor/mneme, all string parts (except for that of the Celtic
throughout [p]s(t)ellor/mneme: harp) are essentially transposing - in accordance with those tunings or scordature

-v- - vi-
tabulated after these Performance Notes. I have therefore adopted a tablature approach PLECTRA
herein: my string notation does not necessarily show the resultant pitches heard, but rather
those 'notes' to be fingered. For louder dynamic levels and improved sound-projection on the mandola, I recommend
the use of a thicker, less flexible plectrum - such as a "Fender Heavy". Indeed, to obtain
THE SPECIFICATION OF STRINGS AND COURSES the widest possible dynamic and timbral range throughout [p]s(t)ellor/mneme, having the
mandolist draw upon a menu of two or more different plectra would be ideal.
Within the alto rebec and three bass viola da gamba parts from [p]s(t)ellor/mneme,
particular strings are specified by Roman numerals (as is usual for bowed string STRUMMING mE MANDOLA'S STRINGS BEHIND THE NUT OR BEHIND mE BRIDGE
instruments), with the Roman numeral I representing the highest-pitched string. In the
case of the mandola, however, the course to be played upon at any given moment is
indicated thus: G, D, A, E (each letter being circled within my score). Whenever any such
symbols have been omitted, the musical context surely renders the choice of string/course
rt0

~ X
- strum the mandola's strings behind the nut, and strum the mandola's
I~[E~~~ strings behind the bridge, respectively. In both cases, all eight strings are to
be strummed, and they should always be permitted to ring on unimpeded.
obvious; in these situations, there will probably be just a single possibility anyway ... Note, moreover, that the direction of arpeggiation is always indicated in
conjunction with these two symbols.
ARPEGGIATION
RANDOMIZED PARAMETERS
\ . - rapidly arpeggiate the notes of the chord; speed of execution is left to the
J... discretion of the player. Randomize: {the addition of unspecified material; hammer/pull-off (i.e. pluck only the first
note and hammer or pull-off the subsequent notes with the left-hand fingers,
Arrowheads indicate the direction of the arpeggio's action: t = play the lowest pitch of according to the melodic contour), legato (i.e. pluck only the first note, but for the
the chord first; 1 = play the highest pitch of the chord first.
subsequent notes, merely place or lift left-hand fingers on or off the fingerboard,
NATURAL HARMONICS
according to the melodic contour); altemations between plucking materials (i.e.
plectra, and the pad or tip of a right-hand finger); plucking position, from molto sui
V - on the specified open string(s) or course(s), lightly touch the node (with a left- ponticello (i.e. plucking the string(s) very close to the bridge indeed) through to molto
hand finger) at or near that freVlocation corresponding to the pitch notated with a sui tasto (i.e. plucking precisely at the middle of the vibrating length of the string(s) -
broken-diamond notehead, while bowing or plucking ... in order to produce the directly above the twelfth fret for the open string(s), or directly above the fret which is
natural harmonic sound. Harmonics must always be allowed to ring on. twelve frets higher than that fret where the finger stops the string [which may actually
be beyond the end of the fingerboard]); pp<-+mf (dynamic levels ranging between pp
I encourage the string players themselves to find a bowing or plucking position that and mf), but occasionally (f)f}
fumishes the cleanest, most sonorous timbral quality for each harmonic. (Occasionally,
however, technical or physical constraints may restrict the ambit of choice for a harmonic's Optional: also Randomize: {pitch-bending and vibrato (i.e. the mandolist can either
bowing or plucking position.) Note: Resultant pitches of natural harmonics are nowhere depress and release the string(s) behind the bridge with the right-hand index finger
displayed within the score itself. [and/or other right-hand fingers] causing the pitch to fluctuate above the written note,
or they can instead push and release the string(s) laterally - i.e. parallel to the frets-
The viola da gambas' broken-diamond noteheads are always preceded by ~ (never by with the left-hand finger(s), causing the pitch to fluctuate slightly above the written
any other accidentals). note) - both less than 10% of the time}

MANDOLA CELTIC HARP

The name mandola is apparently somewhat ambiguous; it can refer to several distinct, Unlike our modem harp (with its pedal-operated mechanism that retunes pitch-classes
hybrid instruments from - or cognate to - the mandolin family (including one that is tuned globally), the Celtic harp instead possesses many levers which retune its strings
just like a viola, and the so-called Irish bouzouki)' However, the instrument I have in mind individually: when a lever is engaged, its corresponding string's pitch will be raised by a
for [p]s(t)ellor/mneme is synonymous with the octave mandolin - namely, a large semitone. (Despite the Celtic harp's smaller pitch-range by comparison with the modem
mandolin whose strings, when tuned normally, sound one octave lower than those of the harp, the former's system of autonomous levers proffers the potentiality for composers to
mandolin. devise multi-octave scale-pattems - as I have done within [p]s(t)ellor/mneme.)

MICRO TUNING OF THE MANDOLA'S OPEN STRINGS With its levers deactivated, the Celtic harp's strings - upon the particular instrument
which was employed for the world premiere of [p]s(t)ellor/mneme - sound thus:
One string from each course of the mandola ought to be very slightly lowered in pitch,
thereby producing a richer basic timbre - a 'chorus effect'. The resultant beat-frequencies D \ 1; thence diatonically - from G \ 1 to G \ 5, inclusive. *
should be no greater than 6 Hz (beats-per-second) on the open strings, with different beat-
frequencies being generated upon each (open) course; precise details are left to the * The lowest (0\1) string has no lever, but can be variably tuned 'by hand' from about C\1 up to
discretion of the mandolist. around F\1. Note too that for [p]s(t)ellor/mneme, the E\4 string must also be tuned down 'by
hand' a quartertone, to EJ 4, before its lever is applied.

- vii- - viii-
HARP GLISSANDI LEFT-HAND STOPPING TECHNIQUE, AND PIZZICATI

Execute glissandi on the Celtic harp by sweeping finger-pads or -nails across its strings, Should certain wide left-hand stretches (particularly in double stops) from
(roughly) according to the given contours. (Throughout [p]s(t)ellor/mneme, the first and [p]s(t)ellor/mneme prove too uncomfortable for those viola da gamba players with small
last notes of all Celtic harp glissandi ought not to be overly emphasized!) hands, then 'thumb position' violoncello technique might be adopted - although this was
seldom, if ever, done historically.
RANDOMIZED PARAMETERS
Left-hand pizzicati may prove expeditious within those passages from
Randomize: {the addition of unspecified material; glissandi - less than 10% of the time; [p]s(t)ellor/mneme where pizzicati executed ordinarily by the right hand seem too
pres de la table (i.e. plucking the string(s) near the Celtic harp's soundboard); cumbersome - particularly for section 3, wherein pizzicati and arco are interlocked.
arpeggiation (which may be interpreted quite radically, with chords being 'broken up' However, since the left-hand-pizzicato sound is (at least to my ear) weak and timbrally
unevenly across a time-span of several seconds); pp ...... mf (dynamic levels ranging 'inferior', it should only be used if absolutely necessary - as a last resort.
between pp and mf), and occasionally louder - if possible}
RANDOMIZED PARAMETERS

ALTOREBEC Randomize: {the addition of unspecified material; bowing position, from (molto) suI
Because the three-string alto rebec is normally not supported under the chin, position- ponticel/o (i.e. bowing the string(s) [very] close to the bridge) through to (molto) suI
changes may be rather awkward and perhaps time-consuming. Hence, throughout tasto (i.e. bowing the string(s) 'up the neck' somewhat [on or towards the
[p]s(t)ellor/mneme, I have restricted most of the alto rebec's pitches to those which are fingerboard], nearer to the middle of the vibrating string-length than usual); vibrato-
playable in 1st position. (The few exceptions, all of them playable in 2nd position, have less than 20% of the time; changes of bowing direction (upbow ...... downbow);
been well flagged within my score.) Given this constraint, certain higher pitches (as well as ppp ......mf (dynamic levels ranging between ppp and mf), but occasionally f}
those sounding below open-string II's pitch) can only be produced on one string -
circumventing the need for me to specify their strings explicitly with Roman numerals.

RANDOMIZED PARAMETERS Ian Shanahan, Sydney, Australia; 31 July 2001.

Randomize: {the addition of unspecified material; bowing position, from (molto) suI
ponticel/o (i.e. bowing the string(s) [very] close to the bridge) through to (molto) suI
tasto (i.e. bowing the string(s) 'up the neck' somewhat [on or towards the
fingerboard], nearer to the middle of the vibrating string-length than usual); vibrato-
less than 20% of the time; changes of bowing direction (upbow ...... downbow); bowed
tremolo; spiccato tremolo (i.e. throwing the rebec bow onto the string(s) - jete - and
then allowing it to bounce freely, perhaps with some assistance from the right hand)
- less than 10% of the time; col legno battuto (i.e. turning the rebec bow upside
down so that its wooden part alone is bounced on the string(s), to produce a
distinctive woody 'click' with each attack) - less than 10% of the time; overbowing
(i.e. using excessive bow-pressure to produce a rather harsh grating or squawking
sound) - less than 10% of the time; snap pizzicato (i.e. 6 : lifting the string(s) with
the thumb and forefinger then allowing it to snap back percussively against the
rebec's fingerboard) - less than 10% of the time; portamenti (not glissandi); ppp ......mf
(dynamic levels ranging between ppp and mf), but occasionally f}

BASS VIOLA VA GAMBAS

Although bass viola da gambas are not at all uncommon instruments nowadays, any
one of them in [p]s(t)ellor/mneme may gainfully be replaced by a much rarer bowed string
instrument (if it is available!) - the baryton. (A baryton is essentially a bass viola da gamba
possessing nine or so additional wire strings which are not activated directly, but instead
vibrate sympathetically in response to vibrations from the instrument's six main strings:
baryton players are therefore encouraged to experiment with the sympathetic strings'
tunings - to discover [microtonal] intonations for them that furnish maximal sympathetic
resonance; an extra 'randomized parameter' might also be considered for any barytons -
the judicious, tasteful and intermittent intermingling of plucked or arpeggiated sympathetic-
string tones with more orthodox sounds from the baryton's main strings.)

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