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3-Cell Division

3-Cell Division

Cell Division

3.1 : The concept of cell division

3.2

: The cell cycle

3.3 : Mitosis

3.4 : Meiosis

3.1 : The concept of cell division • 3.2 : The cell cycle • 3.3 :

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION

Cell Division

3.1

:

The concept of cell division

3.2

: The cell cycle

3.3

:

Mitosis

3.4

:

Meiosis

concept of cell division • 3.2 : The cell cycle • 3.3 : Mitosis • 3.4

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION

OBJECTIVES (3.1)

At the end of this topic, students should be able

to :

Explain cell division

State the importance of cell division in living organisms

students should be able to : • Explain cell division • State the importance of cell

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION

Cell Division

related to the Cell Theory : Rudolph Virchow ; 1855

Omnis cellula e cellula

Every cell is from a cell

All new cells are derived from pre-existing cell through cell division

The new cell is called daughter cell

pre-existing cell refer to the parent

(mother) cell

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION

Cell Division

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION Cell Division Parent cell Daughter cells •It is a formation

Parent cell

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION Cell Division Parent cell Daughter cells •It is a formation

Daughter

cells

OF CELL DIVISION Cell Division Parent cell Daughter cells •It is a formation of two or

•It is a formation of two or more daughter cells from a single mother cell •The new cell is called daughter cell •Pre-existing cell refer to the parent (mother) cell

Cells duplicate their genetic material (DNA) before they

divide, to ensure that each daughter cell receives an exact

copy of the genetic material (DNA)

material (DNA) before they divide, to ensure that each daughter cell receives an exact copy of
Chromosomes contain DNA molecule in the form of helix

Chromosomes contain DNA molecule in the form of helix

• Each duplicated chromosome, has two sister chromatids, which separate during cell division • Before

Each duplicated

chromosome, has two sister chromatids, which separate

during cell division

Before chromosomes divide, its DNA strands separate

and replicated to form

identical strands

Therefore cell division

results in genetically identical daughter cells

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION

Concept Of Cell Division

Basic characteristics:

Cell division increase the number of cells

Cell division is the means whereby parents pass on genetic material to the

daughter cells

the number of cells  Cell division is the means whereby parents pass on genetic material

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION

Cell division involves the distribution of identical genetic material

A cell’s genetic information, packaged as DNA is called genome.

the distribution of identical genetic material  A cell’s genetic information, packaged as DNA is called

Before the cell can divide,DNA must be copied

Before the cell can divide,DNA must be copied

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION

Daughter
Daughter

cells

Parent cell

Before the cell can

divide,DNA must be copied

and then the two copies separated so that each daughter

cell ends up with a

complete genome.

The nucleus divides (karyokinesis) first followed by division of cytoplasm (cytokinesis)

The nucleus divides (karyokinesis) first followed by division of cytoplasm (cytokinesis)

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION

Every eukaryotic species has a specific number of chromosomes

in each cell nucleus.

Organism

No. of chromosome in somatic cell

No. of chromosome in gamete cell

Human

46

23

Fruit fly

8

4

Cat

38

19

Human Chromosome

Human Chromosome

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION

Cell Division

2 types of cell division Mitosis Meiosis - Occurs in somatic cells - Occurs in
2 types of cell
division
Mitosis
Meiosis
- Occurs in
somatic cells
- Occurs in
reproductive
cell
18

Diploid(2n) number of chromosomes

•Contains two chromosomes of

each kind, found in somatic cells

Haploid(n) number of chromosome

•Contains one chromosome of

each kind,found in gamete cells

kind, found in somatic cells Haploid(n) number of chromosome •Contains one chromosome of each kind,found in

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION

Importance Of Cell Division

Asexual and Sexual Reproduction Growth and Development Tissue renewal Immunity system
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Growth and Development
Tissue renewal
Immunity system

1. Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

1. Asexual and Sexual Reproduction Reproduction An amoeba, a single-celled eukaryote, is dividing into two cells.

Reproduction

An amoeba, a single-celled

eukaryote, is dividing into two cells. Each new cell will be an individual organism .

Sexual Reproduction In Meiosis

2. Growth and Development

2. Growth and Development Sand dollar embryo shortly after fertilized egg divided, forming two cells

Sand dollar embryo shortly after fertilized egg divided, forming two cells

3. Tissue renewal

3. Tissue renewal These dividing bone marrow cells (arrow) will give rise to new blood cells

These dividing bone marrow cells (arrow) will give rise

to new blood cells

4. Immunity system

4. Immunity system

Importance Of Cell Division

It enables a

Multicellular organism

Unicellular and multicellular organisms

-to produce new cell -for growth and development -to replace worn out or damaged cells -to renew tissues

-As basis of reproduction

Terminologies

Terminologies

Chromosomes of eukaryotic cells are composed of DNA & histone protein.

DNA

 Chromosomes of eukaryotic cells are composed of DNA & histone protein . D N A
 Chromosomes of eukaryotic cells are composed of DNA & histone protein . D N A

histone

protein

 Chromosomes of eukaryotic cells are composed of DNA & histone protein . D N A

nucleosome

DNA

DNA Nucleosomes Coiled nucleosomes Extended chromatin Condensed chromatin Chromosome 3 0

Nucleosomes

DNA Nucleosomes Coiled nucleosomes Extended chromatin Condensed chromatin Chromosome 3 0

Coiled nucleosomes

DNA Nucleosomes Coiled nucleosomes Extended chromatin Condensed chromatin Chromosome 3 0

Extended chromatin

DNA Nucleosomes Coiled nucleosomes Extended chromatin Condensed chromatin Chromosome 3 0

Condensed chromatin

DNA Nucleosomes Coiled nucleosomes Extended chromatin Condensed chromatin Chromosome 3 0

Chromosome

30

1. Chromatin

Refer to the complex of

DNA and proteins that makes up an eukaryotic

chromosome

Very long and thin :

cannot be seen under light

microscope

When eukaryotic cell is not dividing (interphase)

chromatin

thin : cannot be seen under light microscope  When eukaryotic cell is not dividing (interphase)

chromosome

2.Chromosome

Chromo = color

Soma = body

Must be stained with a dye to be seen with

the light microscope.

2.Chromosome  Chromo = color  Soma = body  Must be stained with a dye
2.Chromosome  Chromo = color  Soma = body  Must be stained with a dye

3.Chromosome

3.Chromosome  When chromatin becomes highly coiled and folded  Can be seen during cell division

When chromatin becomes

highly coiled and folded

Can be seen during cell division

The duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids :

- both are genetically

identical

4.Homologous Chromosome

non-sister chromatid R r Loci
non-sister chromatid
R
r
Loci

homologous

chromosome

Pair of chromosome which

has :

(i)

same length

(ii)

same position of

centromere (iii) posess genes for the same character

at corresponding loci.

5.Centromere

5.Centromere  The region which two sister chromatids attach to each other  The position of

The region which two

sister chromatids attach

to each other

The position of centromere varies among different chromosome

6.Kinetochore

A protein that is located at centromere Is a structure to which microtubule of spindle

fiber is attached microtubule
fiber is attached
microtubule

7.Aster

A radial array of short microtubule Extend from each centrosome

Star shaped structure

Function to help organize the spindle

fiber

microtubule  Extend from each centrosome  Star shaped structure  Function to help organize the

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION

DIPLOID VS HAPLOID

Diploid number of chromosomes (2n)

 

Haploid number of chromosomes (n)

Contains two sets of chromosome.

Contains one set of chromosome.

One set from paternal and one set from maternal

In gamete cell eg : sperm & ovum

In all somatic cells

 
and one set from maternal  In gamete cell eg : sperm & ovum  In

+

and one set from maternal  In gamete cell eg : sperm & ovum  In
and one set from maternal  In gamete cell eg : sperm & ovum  In

3.1 THE CONCEPTS OF CELL DIVISION

SISTER CHROMATID Vs NON SISTER CHROMATID

Sister Chromatid

Non-sister Chromatid

Replicated chromosome

Genetically non-identical

Genetically identical

One from maternal (mother)

One from paternal (father)

 Genetically identical  One from maternal (mother)  One from paternal (father) 39 Non-sister chromatids

39

Non-sister chromatids

Cell Division

3.1 : The concept of cell division

3.2

: The cell cycle

3.3 : Mitosis

3.4 : Meiosis

3.1 : The concept of cell division • 3.2 : The cell cycle • 3.3 :

OBJECTIVES (3.2)

At the end of this topic, students should be

able to :

Explain the stages in cell cycle

OBJECTIVES (3.2) At the end of this topic, students should be able to : • Explain

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE

Cell Cycle

The sequence of

events in the life of an

individual diploid cell

Start during the

formation of a cell

Until the cell

undergoes its own division to form

daughter cells

cell  Start during the formation of a cell  Until the cell undergoes its own

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE

Cell Cycle

The length of stages vary among species and type of cell.

The length of stages vary among species and type of cell.  The Interphase  G

The Interphase

G 1 phase

S phase

G 2 phase

The Mitotic Phase

Mitosis involve the nuclear division (karyokinesis)

Cytokinesis

involve the cytoplasmic

division

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE

Cell Cycle

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE Cell Cycle  The Interphase  G 1 phase  S phase

The Interphase

G 1 phase

S phase

G 2 phase

The Mitotic Phase

Mitosis ; involve the nuclear division (karyokinesis)

Cytokinesis ; involve the cytoplasm divisi

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE

The G 1 phase

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE  The G 1 phase

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE

Interphase

The G 1 phase

; First growth/gap phase

The longest phase (10 hours)
The longest phase (10 hours)
Synthesis of organelles; number of organelles increase – increase in cytoplasmic mass
Synthesis of organelles; number of organelles increase –
increase in cytoplasmic mass

Cell metabolic rate is high

Synthesis of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and RNA

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE

The S phase

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE  The S phase

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE

Interphase

The S phase

: DNA synthesis

DNA replication occurs

DNA replication occurs

Chromosome duplicates into sister chromatids; attached together at centromere

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE

Interphase

The G 2 phase

: Second growth / gap phase

Mitochondria divide, energy stores increases Further synthesis of organelles

- increase in organelles/mitochondria/Golgi body/endoplasmic reticulum

Duplication of centriole & formation of microtubule Further increase in nucleus size

Chromosome start to condense

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE

The G 2 phase

3.2 THE CELL CYCLE  The G 2 phase

Chromosomal Behavior In Interphase

Chromosomal Behavior In Interphase The G 1 phase The S phase The G 2 phase
Chromosomal Behavior In Interphase The G 1 phase The S phase The G 2 phase
Chromosomal Behavior In Interphase The G 1 phase The S phase The G 2 phase

The G 1 phase

The S phase

The G 2 phase

Cell Division

3.1

:

The concept of cell division

3.2

: The cell cycle

3.3

:

Mitosis

3.4

:

Meiosis

concept of cell division • 3.2 : The cell cycle • 3.3 : Mitosis • 3.4
OBJECTIVES (3.3) • Describe the 4 stages of mitosis • Explain the behaviour of chromosomes
OBJECTIVES (3.3) • Describe the 4 stages of mitosis • Explain the behaviour of chromosomes

OBJECTIVES (3.3)

OBJECTIVES (3.3) • Describe the 4 stages of mitosis • Explain the behaviour of chromosomes at

Describe the 4 stages of mitosis

Explain the behaviour of chromosomes at each stage

Describe briefly about cytokinesis

Compare the cell division in animal & plant cell

State the significance of mitosis

Cell Cycle

The length of stages vary among species and type of cell.

The length of stages vary among species and type of cell.  The Interphase  G

The Interphase

G 1 phase

S phase

G 2 phase

The Mitotic Phase

Mitosis ; involve the nuclear division (karyokinesis)

Cytokinesis ;

involve the cytoplasm

division

MITOSIS Definition

A cell nucleus divides

(karyokinesis)

to produce two daughter cells

each daughter cell contains the

identical number of chromosomes to the parent cell which is diploid.

Occur in somatic cells

Process of mitosis will be followed by cytokinesis

MITOSIS

Two main phases in Mitotic Phase:

MITOSIS Two main phases in Mitotic Phase :  Mitosis; (Karyokinesis)  Cytokinesis; 3.3 MITOSIS -

Mitosis; (Karyokinesis)

Cytokinesis;

3.3 MITOSIS

- The division of nucleus

- Four stages of Mitosis :

- The division of cytoplasm

1. Prophase

2. Metaphase

3. Anaphase

1-Prophase

3.3 MITOSIS

1.Chromatin/chromosome densely

coiled & folded ; become shorten

& thicken (condense)

& folded ; become shorten & thicken (condense) 2. Each chromosome exist as a pair of
& folded ; become shorten & thicken (condense) 2. Each chromosome exist as a pair of
& folded ; become shorten & thicken (condense) 2. Each chromosome exist as a pair of

2. Each chromosome exist as a

pair of sister chromatids (identical chromatid) attached together at centromere

3.The centrioles migrate to

opposite poles of the cell

4. From each centriole,microtubule extend and form a star-shaped structure called an aster 5. Aster
4. From each centriole,microtubule extend and form a star-shaped structure called an aster 5. Aster
4. From each centriole,microtubule extend and form a star-shaped structure called an aster 5. Aster

4. From each centriole,microtubule extend and form a star-shaped structure called an aster

5. Aster form the spindle fibre

and spindle fibres span the cell from pole to pole

fibre and spindle fibres span the cell from pole to pole 6. The nucleolus dissappear and

6. The nucleolus dissappear and nuclear envelope disintegrate

3- Metaphase

plate
plate

Metaphase

1. Centrosomes are at opposite poles of the cell

1. Centrosomes are at opposite poles of the cell 2. Spindle fibers pull the chromosomes until

2. Spindle fibers pull the

chromosomes until they

are all aligned along the equatorial / metaphase plate

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62

3 - Anaphase

1. Centromeres divide

2. Sister chromatids separate

and migrate to the opposite

poles as kinetochore microtubule shorten

to the opposite poles as kinetochore microtubule shorten Sister chromatid 3. The energy for this process

Sister

chromatid

poles as kinetochore microtubule shorten Sister chromatid 3. The energy for this process is provided by

3. The energy for this process is provided by mitochondria

4.At the end of this phase, each pole contains a complete set of chromosome

4 - Telophase

1. Chromosome distributed/reach to the opposite pole of the cell

distributed/reach to the opposite pole of the cell 2. Nuclear envelope reforms and nucleolus reappear 3.

2. Nuclear envelope reforms

and nucleolus reappear

3. The chromatids uncoil

and lengthen, thus

becoming invisible again.

4. The spindle fibers

disintegrate

Nuclear

envelope

reform

Nucleolus

reappear

Cell Cycle

The length of stages vary among species and type of cell.

The length of stages vary among species and type of cell.  The Interphase  G

The Interphase

G 1 phase

S phase

G 2 phase

The Mitotic Phase

Mitosis ;

involve the nuclear division

(karyokinesis)

Cytokinesis ;

involve the cytoplasm

division

Cytokinesis in Animal and Plant

Cytokinesis in Animal and Plant

3.3 MITOSIS

Cytokinesis in Animal

Cytokinesis in Animal
Cytokinesis in Animal

Occur by a process known as cleavage

Involve the formation of cleavage furrow

cell membrane invaginate forming furrow that will join up and splits the cell into two

of cleavage furrow  cell membrane invaginate forming furrow that will join up and splits the

3.3 MITOSIS

Cytokinesis in Plant

Cytokinesis in Plant
Cytokinesis in Plant

Involved formation of cell plate.

Because plant cell has cell wall

3.3 MITOSIS Cytokinesis in Plant • Involved formation of cell plate. • Because plant cell has
During telophase, cell wall polymer synthesized at the Golgi body, packaged into vesicles and transported

During telophase, cell wall polymer synthesized at the

Golgi body, packaged into vesicles and transported

along microtubule to the middle of the cell producing a cell plate.

3.3 MITOSIS

Cell Membrane
Cell
Membrane

The vesicles fused with each other & formed middle lamella . Vesicle membrane form cell membrane.

3.3 MITOSIS

3.3 MITOSIS The place where vesicle not fuse formed plasmodesmata.

The place where vesicle not fuse formed

plasmodesmata.

3.3 MITOSIS Cellulose, pectin & other components deposited between the 2 membranes to form primary

3.3 MITOSIS

3.3 MITOSIS Cellulose, pectin & other components deposited between the 2 membranes to form primary cell

Cellulose, pectin & other components deposited

between the 2 membranes to form primary cell wall.

3.3 MITOSIS

3.3 MITOSIS • The cell plate enlarges until its surrounding membrane fuses with the plasma membrane

The cell plate enlarges until its surrounding

membrane fuses with the plasma membrane along the perimeter of the cell.

Two daughter cells result, each with its own

plasma membrane. A new cell wall arising from the contents of the cell plate has formed

between the daughter cells.

Mitosis in a generalized animal cell.

Mitosis in a generalized animal cell .

Mitosis in a generalized animal cell.

Mitosis in a generalized animal cell .

DIFFERENCES OF MITOSIS IN PLANT &

ANIMAL CELL

 

PLANT CELL

 

ANIMAL CELL

No aster is formed

Aster is formed

No centriole present

Centriole present

Cell plate is formed during cytokinesis

Cleavage furrow is formed during cytokinesis

Occur in root tip/shoot

Occur in cells / tissues

 

apex/cambium/ meristem

 

throughout the body

 

except the reproductive

cell

Cytokinesis begins from the center outwards

Cytokinesis begins from the outer inwards

Significance of Mitosis

Significance of Mitosis 1. Genetic stability • Mitosis produce two nuclei which have the same number

1. Genetic stability

Mitosis produce two nuclei which have the same number of chromosomes as

the parent cell.

Daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell and no variation in genetic information can be introduced during mitosis.

Thus maintain the genetic content

Significance of Mitosis

Significance of Mitosis 2. Growth & Development - to increase cell numbers in tissues and organ.

2. Growth & Development

- to increase cell numbers in tissues and organ.

Significance of Mitosis

Significance of Mitosis 3. Cell replacement • Replacement of cells and tissues involves mitosis.

3. Cell replacement Replacement of cells and tissues involves mitosis.

Significance of Mitosis

4. Regeneration

Some animal are able to regenerate

whole parts of the body, such as

planaria and arms in star fish. Production of the new cells involve

mitosis.

- to repair worn out / damaged cells

5. Asexual reproduction for unicellular

organism

Mitosis is the basis of asexual reproduction

- to facilitate asexual reproduction

eg : binary fission

unicellular organism Mitosis is the basis of asexual reproduction - to facilitate asexual reproduction eg :
unicellular organism Mitosis is the basis of asexual reproduction - to facilitate asexual reproduction eg :

The amount of DNA present

per cell during cell division

Amount

of DNA

4n 46 2n 23 23 Mitosis
4n
46
2n
23
23
Mitosis

Cell cycle

Time

Cell Division

3.1

:

The concept of cell division

3.2

: The cell cycle

3.3

:

Mitosis

3.4

:

Meiosis

concept of cell division • 3.2 : The cell cycle • 3.3 : Mitosis • 3.4
OBJECTIVES (3.4)  Define chromatid, synapsis, bivalent, tetrad, chiasma crossing over and centromere  Explain
OBJECTIVES (3.4)  Define chromatid, synapsis, bivalent, tetrad, chiasma crossing over and centromere  Explain

OBJECTIVES (3.4)

OBJECTIVES (3.4)  Define chromatid, synapsis, bivalent, tetrad, chiasma crossing over and centromere  Explain the

Define chromatid, synapsis, bivalent, tetrad, chiasma

crossing over and centromere

Explain the position & changes of the chromosome at each stage of Meiosis

Explain & compare the processes in Meiosis I and II

State the significance of Meiosis

Compare Meiosis & Mitosis

MEIOSIS Definition

A process :

A cell nucleus divides.

To produce FOUR daughter cells

Each daughter cell contains half number of chromosomes of parent cell (haploid)

Involving a reduction number of chromosomes from diploid (2n) to haploid (n)

Meiosis occurs during :

1. The formation of gamete (sperm & ovum) in

animals during gametogenesis

Meiosis occurs during : • 1. The formation of gamete (sperm & ovum) in animals during

Meiosis occurs during :

2. The production of megaspore and microspore

in plant

Meiosis occurs during : 2. The production of megaspore and microspore in plant

Meiosis occurs during :

3. The production haploid multicellular organism

in most Fungi and some protista

Meiosis occurs during : 3. The production haploid multicellular organism in most Fungi and some protista

TERMINOLOGIES

TERMINOLOGIES

1.Homologus Chromosome

non-sister chromatid R r
non-sister chromatid
R
r
Loci
Loci

homologous

chromosome

Pair of chromosome that are identical in:

(i)

length

(ii)

position of centromere

(iii) posess genes for

the same character at corresponding

loci.

Chromosomes is inherited from paternal and maternal gamete nuclei

2. Synapsis

A process where homologous

chromosomes are

attached tightly (pairing) together

91
91

3.Bivalent

A pair of homologous

chromosomes which undergo

synapsis

A Bivalent

(A pair of Homologous Chromosomes)

4.Tetrad

4 chromatids of a pair of homologous chromosomes

which undergo synapsis

4.Tetrad  4 chromatids of a pair of homologous chromosomes which undergo synapsis 93

5.Crossing Over

The exchange of genetic material

between non-sister chromatids

The segments at the chiasma break off

and recombine

Lead to :

- genetic variation

- genetic recombinant ( new

combination of chromosome)

break off and recombine  Lead to : - genetic variation - genetic recombinant ( new
break off and recombine  Lead to : - genetic variation - genetic recombinant ( new

94

6.Chiasma

6.Chiasma  The regions / point at which crossing over occur between non-sister chromatid 95

The regions / point at which crossing over occur

between non-sister chromatid

95

The Meiotic Division

(1)Interphase

- Same as in Mitosis

(2) Meiosis I

- Genetic recombination

- Separation of homologous chromosome

(3) Interkinesis

- No further DNA replication

(4) Meiosis II

- Separation of sister chromatids

98
98

98

Meiosis MEIOSIS I PROPHASE I - Leptotene - Zygotene - Pachytene - Diplotene - Diakinesis
Meiosis
MEIOSIS I
PROPHASE I
-
Leptotene
- Zygotene
- Pachytene
- Diplotene
- Diakinesis
METAPHASE I
ANAPHASE I
TELOPHASE I
- Diakinesis METAPHASE I ANAPHASE I TELOPHASE I MEIOSIS II PROPHASE II METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II
MEIOSIS II PROPHASE II METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II TELOPHASE II
MEIOSIS II
PROPHASE II
METAPHASE II
ANAPHASE II
TELOPHASE II

99

Meiosis I

Meiosis I 100
Meiosis I
100

Diploid parent cell (2n)

TWO haploid daughter cells (n)

Meiosis MEIOSIS I PROPHASE I - Leptotene - Zygotene - Pachytene - Diplotene - Diakinesis
Meiosis
MEIOSIS I
PROPHASE I
-
Leptotene
- Zygotene
- Pachytene
- Diplotene
- Diakinesis
METAPHASE I
ANAPHASE I
TELOPHASE I
- Diakinesis METAPHASE I ANAPHASE I TELOPHASE I MEIOSIS II PROPHASE II METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II
MEIOSIS II PROPHASE II METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II TELOPHASE II
MEIOSIS II
PROPHASE II
METAPHASE II
ANAPHASE II
TELOPHASE II

101

Prophase I

1.

Nucleolus disappear and nuclear envelope disintegrate

2.

Each pair of centriole move to opposite pole

3.

Formation of spindle fibre

4.

Chromatin condensed highly coiled and folded

5.

Chromosome become visible can be seen under microscope

6.

Homologous chromosome undergo synapsis forming tetrad

7.

Crossing over may occur between non-sister chromatid

3.4 MEIOSIS

Prophase I

103
103

The longest phase (90% of meiosis)

This phase can be divided into

5 stages;

a)

b)

c)

-over)

d)

e)

Leptotene

Zygotene

Pachytene (crossing

Diplotene

Diakinesis

Prophase I

a) Leptotene

- The earliest stage of Prophase I - Chromosomes start to condense and become visible

- Nucleolus has disappeared and

spindle starts to form.

and become visible - Nucleolus has disappeared and spindle starts to form . Chromosome first become
Chromosome first
Chromosome first

become visible

104
104
and become visible - Nucleolus has disappeared and spindle starts to form . Chromosome first become

Prophase I

b) Zygotene

- Pairing of homologous chromosome form in a process known as synapsis

Prophase I b) Zygotene - Pairing of homologous chromosome form in a process known as synapsis
Prophase I b) Zygotene - Pairing of homologous chromosome form in a process known as synapsis
Prophase I b) Zygotene - Pairing of homologous chromosome form in a process known as synapsis

105

Synapsis begin

Prophase I

c) Pachytene

Chromosomes more thicken &

can be seen clearly

Each chromosome has 2 chromatids

Each pair of homologous

chromosome= tetrad

Crossing over occur at chiasma

 Each pair of homologous chromosome= tetrad  Crossing over occur at chiasma Crossing over Sister
 Each pair of homologous chromosome= tetrad  Crossing over occur at chiasma Crossing over Sister
Crossing over
Crossing over

Sister chromatid

Prophase I

d) Diplotene

- Homologous chromosome

separate from each other except at chiasma.

Prophase I d) Diplotene - Homologous chromosome separate from each other except at chiasma. Chiasma Bivalent
Prophase I d) Diplotene - Homologous chromosome separate from each other except at chiasma. Chiasma Bivalent

Chiasma

Prophase I d) Diplotene - Homologous chromosome separate from each other except at chiasma. Chiasma Bivalent

Bivalent / tetrad

107

Prophase I

e) Diakinesis

The homologous pair of which

is held together by chiasma

Bivalent move to equator

Spindle complete formed

Nuclear envelope starts to disintegrate

equator  Spindle complete formed  Nuclear envelope starts to disintegrate S p i n d

Spindle fiber

108

Meiosis MEIOSIS I PROPHASE I - Leptotene - Zygotene - Pachytene - Diplotene - Diakinesis
Meiosis
MEIOSIS I
PROPHASE I
-
Leptotene
- Zygotene
- Pachytene
- Diplotene
- Diakinesis
METAPHASE I
ANAPHASE I
TELOPHASE I
- Diakinesis METAPHASE I ANAPHASE I TELOPHASE I MEIOSIS II PROPHASE II METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II
MEIOSIS II PROPHASE II METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II TELOPHASE II
MEIOSIS II
PROPHASE II
METAPHASE II
ANAPHASE II
TELOPHASE II

109

Metaphase I

Metaphase I 1.The homologous chromosome aligned along the equatorial/metaphase plate 2.The mechanism involves is

1.The homologous chromosome aligned along the equatorial/metaphase plate

2.The mechanism involves is Independent Assortment of chromosome

3. Attached by their centromeres.

110

Anaphase I

Anaphase I 1.Spindle fiber shorten 2.Homologous chromosomes separate 3.Each chromosomes pulled to opposite poles lead by

1.Spindle fiber shorten

2.Homologous chromosomes separate

3.Each chromosomes pulled to

opposite poles lead by

centromere

4.This separate the chromosomes into two haploid sets, one set at

each pole.

Anaphase I

Anaphase I 112

Telophase I

1.Homologous

chromosome arrived at opposite poles

2.Reduce the chromosome

number (2n to

n)

3.But one chromosome are

still composed of two

chromatids.

113

CELL A
CELL A

CELL B

TELOPHASE I

CELL A
CELL A

CELL B

4.Spindle fibers usually disintegrate

5.Chromosomes uncoil, lengthens and becomes fine.

6.Cytokinesis occur

7. Each cell contain haploid

number of chromosome

114

Interkinesis

Interkinesis A period of time between two nuclear divisions of a cell. No further DNA replication

A period of time between two nuclear

divisions of a cell.

No further DNA replication occur.

Meiosis MEIOSIS I PROPHASE I - Leptotene - Zygotene - Pachytene - Diplotene - Diakinesis
Meiosis
MEIOSIS I
PROPHASE I
-
Leptotene
- Zygotene
- Pachytene
- Diplotene
- Diakinesis
METAPHASE I
ANAPHASE I
TELOPHASE I
- Diakinesis METAPHASE I ANAPHASE I TELOPHASE I MEIOSIS II PROPHASE II METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II
MEIOSIS II PROPHASE II METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II TELOPHASE II
MEIOSIS II
PROPHASE II
METAPHASE II
ANAPHASE II
TELOPHASE II

116

Prophase II

Prophase II 1.The nucleolus disappears and nuclear envelope disintegrates 2.The chromatids become shorten and

1.The nucleolus disappears and

nuclear envelope disintegrates

2.The chromatids become shorten and thicken.

3.Centrioles, if present move to opposite poles of the cells and the end of Prophase II and new spindle fibers formed

CELL A

present move to opposite poles of the cells and the end of Prophase II and new

CELL B

117

Metaphase II

Metaphase II CELL A CELL B 1. Sister chromatids/chromosome align at the equatorial / metaphase plate.
Metaphase II CELL A CELL B 1. Sister chromatids/chromosome align at the equatorial / metaphase plate.

CELL A

CELL B

Metaphase II CELL A CELL B 1. Sister chromatids/chromosome align at the equatorial / metaphase plate.

1. Sister chromatids/chromosome align

at the equatorial / metaphase plate.

118

Anaphase II

1.The spindle fibers shorten

2.The centromere divides

3.Sister chromatids

separate

4. Each chromatid is

pulled to opposite poles.

2.The centromere divides 3.Sister chromatids separate 4. Each chromatid is pulled to opposite poles. CELL A
2.The centromere divides 3.Sister chromatids separate 4. Each chromatid is pulled to opposite poles. CELL A

CELL A

2.The centromere divides 3.Sister chromatids separate 4. Each chromatid is pulled to opposite poles. CELL A

CELL B

119

TELOPHASE II

TELOPHASE II CELL A CELL A1 CELL A2 CELL B CELL B1 CELL B2 120
TELOPHASE II CELL A CELL A1 CELL A2 CELL B CELL B1 CELL B2 120
TELOPHASE II CELL A CELL A1 CELL A2 CELL B CELL B1 CELL B2 120

CELL A

TELOPHASE II CELL A CELL A1 CELL A2 CELL B CELL B1 CELL B2 120

CELL A1

CELL A2

TELOPHASE II CELL A CELL A1 CELL A2 CELL B CELL B1 CELL B2 120
TELOPHASE II CELL A CELL A1 CELL A2 CELL B CELL B1 CELL B2 120
TELOPHASE II CELL A CELL A1 CELL A2 CELL B CELL B1 CELL B2 120

CELL B

TELOPHASE II CELL A CELL A1 CELL A2 CELL B CELL B1 CELL B2 120

CELL B1

CELL B2

Telophase II

Telophase II 1.Chromosomes arrived at opposite poles 2.The chromosomes decondense - uncoiled and lengthen 3.The spindle
Telophase II 1.Chromosomes arrived at opposite poles 2.The chromosomes decondense - uncoiled and lengthen 3.The spindle

1.Chromosomes arrived at opposite poles 2.The chromosomes decondense - uncoiled and lengthen 3.The spindle fibres disintegrate. 4.Nucleolus reappears and nuclear envelope reforms 5. Cytokinesis occur - Four haploid daughter cellls are formed

4.Nucleolus reappears and nuclear envelope reforms 5. Cytokinesis occur - Four haploid daughter cellls are formed
4.Nucleolus reappears and nuclear envelope reforms 5. Cytokinesis occur - Four haploid daughter cellls are formed
4.Nucleolus reappears and nuclear envelope reforms 5. Cytokinesis occur - Four haploid daughter cellls are formed
4.Nucleolus reappears and nuclear envelope reforms 5. Cytokinesis occur - Four haploid daughter cellls are formed
122
122
Cell Division 09/10 123
Cell Division 09/10
123
124
124

Significance of Meiosis

Significance of Meiosis (1) Halving the chromosome number in sexual reproduction - Produce haploid gametes -

(1) Halving the chromosome number in sexual reproduction

- Produce haploid gametes

- After fertilisation : Produce diploid zygote

: Number of chromosome

remain the same as the

parent - diploid

125

Significance of Meiosis

Significance of Meiosis (2) Increase genetic variation (i) By crossing over which occur during Prophase I

(2) Increase genetic variation

(i) By crossing over which occur during Prophase I

- Crossing over also lead to genetic recombinant

(ii) By independent assortment which occur during

Metaphase I

126

Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis

No

MITOSIS

MEIOSIS

1.

Occurs in somatic cell. (animal all somatic cells :

Occurs in reproductive cells (animal - ovaries in females and testes in males) (plant anther & ovary / ovule)

liver & muscle cell (plant root tip, shoot apex, cambium/ meristem)

2.

Maintain chromosome number (2n) as the parent cell

Reduces the chromosome number by half (n)

127

Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis

No.

MITOSIS

MEIOSIS

3.

No synapsis occur to form tetrad / bivalent.

Synapsis occurs during Prophase I forming tetrad / bivalent

4.

No chiasma occurs so there is no crossing over.

Chiasma occurs.

Genetic variability is a result

 

from the crossing over which occur at chiasma during Prophase I

 

128

Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis

No.

MITOSIS

MEIOSIS

5.

Daughter cells are

The content of genetic in

genetically identical to

daughter cell is not identical as

parent cell

the parental cell.

6.

Produce two diploid daughter cells

Produce four haploid daughter cells

7.

Cytokinesis occurs once.

Cytokinesis occurs twice.

8.

The daughter cell can

The daughter cell can undergo

undergo mitosis.

mitosis but not meiosis.

129

Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis

Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis MITOSIS PRODUCES 2 IDENTICAL DAUGHTER CELLS MEIOSIS PRODUCES 4 NON-IDENTICAL

MITOSIS PRODUCES 2 IDENTICAL DAUGHTER

CELLS

MEIOSIS PRODUCES 4

NON-IDENTICAL DAUGHTER

CELLS

Cell

MITOSIS

MEIOSIS I

Division

Prophase

No synapsis occur

Synapsis occur between

between chromosome

homologous chromosome during Prophase I

 

No crossing over occur

Crossing over occur during

between chromosome

Prophase I between non-sister

chromatids

Metaphase

Chromosome align at equatorial plate / metaphase plate

Homologous chromosome align at equatorial plate during Metaphase I

Anaphase

Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles

Homologous chromosome separate and move to opposite poles in Anaphase I

Telophase

Two daughter cells produced are diploid

Two daughter cells produced

are haploid

132

The amount of DNA present

per cell during cell division

Amount

M1 4n 92 M2 2n 46 46 23 n Meiosis I Meiosis II
M1
4n
92
M2
2n
46
46
23
n
Meiosis I
Meiosis II

of DNA

Time