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Ian Shanahan (1988/1999)

To Adrian and Paul Hooper


Solar Dust
Orbits and Spirals

solo mandolin


1999, by Ian Shanahan.

PROGRAMME ANNOTATION heighten the performative attributes of virtuosity and intensity. Here, an extended 'theme' -
composed primarily of the abovementioned 'B-naturals' - undergoes a process of gradual
metamorphosis while being repeated incessantly ... Notions of tension and release are then
Solar Dust: Orbits and Spirals imposed upon the work as a whole, to forge climactic points and places of repose.
Solar Dust: Orbits and Spirals is dedicated to Paul and Adrian Hooper.
for solo mandolin

Ian Shanahan (1988/1999) Ian Shanahan, Sydney, Australia; 17 September 1989.

Solar Dust: Orbits and Spirals was commissioned by Adrian Hooper and The
Sydney Mandolins, for performance by Adrian's brother Paul - a mandolinist of
considerable virtuosity. My intention was to create a work which exploited (and even
extended) Paul's technical capabilities. The composition was completed in March 1988,
receiving its first performance in September of that year. It has since been played,
broadcast, and recorded by Paul Hooper (and his students) on numerous occasions - and
also most notably by the Melboume-based mandolinist Stephen Morey. Solar Dust was
chosen by the Australian Branch of the International Society for Contemporary Music
Solar Dust: Orbits and Spirals was premiered by Paul Hooper
[ISCM] as part of our National Entry to the 1990 ISCM World Music Days, to be held in
Oslo, Norway. during a Sydney Mandolins concert held at The Nether/ands Uniting
Church, Quarry Street, Ultimo, Sydney, on 9 September 1988.
The title of this work "Solar Dust" is derived from some poetry I wrote in 1986, though
the sound-world of the piece is intended to evoke the image of a particular 'spacescape'
painting - I do not recall the artist - in which one observes the planet Saturn through the Two recordings of Solar Dust: Orbits and Spirals, played by Paul
myriad of ice crystals and other nebulous matter which comprise its rings. Therefore, much
Hooper and by Michael Hooper, are now commercially available on
of Solar Dust consists of filigree sound-atoms: delicate, subtle, and detailed sonic events
that warrant careful and refined listening, but which also outline a larger macrostructure. the Compact Discs "Solar Dust" and "American Dream" (Broad Music
(In order for such sounds to be perceived intimately, the mandolin must often be subtly Records Jade JAD CD 1080 and JAD CD 1090, respectively).
amplified in performance.)
The subtitle "Orbits and Spirals" clearly imports further astronomical evocations, but
also relates to a structural schema wherein musical material recurs unchanged (i.e. orbits)
or is transformed (i.e. spirals). This basic idea is applied at various architectonic levels,
from whole phrases and statements down to successive pitches (i.e. unison '" 'orbit';
different octave'" 'spiral').
At a technical level, my conceptual approach to the mandolin was rather unorthodox.
Solar Dust treats this instrument purely as a sound-generator devoid of any specific
cultural resonances, an 'acoustical tool' that embraces four distinct (but interrelated)
elements: {1} the string-length between the bridge and the tailpiece; {2} the string-length
between a stopping finger (if any) and the bridge; {3} the string-length between a stopping
finger and the nut (the so-called 'bitone' register, prized for its controllable microtonal (In celebration of an Artistic Alliance.)
resources); and {4}, the string-length behind the nut. These elements are all interwoven
into a complex tapestry of timbral counterpoint. At times, the mandolinist's exertions in Sun's Solar Flares
creating this amalgam bestow an additional theatrical or gestural dimension that is lick at the Dust, but barely
intended to enhance the music in live performance. penetrate your shadows;
Much of the pitch-material of Solar Dust - which falls into two main sections - grows Moon's Scimitar
out of a brief quotation, a germinal fragment from an earlier work of mine that also utilizes cuts the Cosmos, yet cannot
the mandolin: Arcturus Timespace (1987/1994). This minuscule passage, consisting of sever your icy shapes;
just the same pitch reiterated three times (but with diverse plucking-positions and colours),
is declared near the beginning of Solar Dust and forms an anchor-point for the variegated You, of The Grand Cross,
material of the first section. Consequently, the composition as a whole revolves around who knots together our Brainflowers:
this pitch (B-natural, with microtonal deviations)! And yet Solar Dust: Orbits and Spirals Cold Neptune!
is definitely not 'tonal'! The second section of Solar Dust juxtaposes detailed and precise 1. L. Shanahan, 13.3.1986.
musical instructions with considerable degrees of freedom for the mandolinist - in order to - To Donald Stallybrass.
PERFORMANCE NOTES Dynamic indications apply until they are modified by the next dynamic instruction.

c 7 " The approximate duration of the pause is indicated in seconds above the
Solar Dust: Orbits and Spirals assumes a normal mandolin - Flat-back or Neapolitan I-l squared fermata.
- possessing at least 19 frets. For maximum visual impact in performance, the
mandolinist's music stand(s) should be set as low as possible. sllor\"
_ Pause as indicated. (Precise durations are left to the discretion of the
, mandolinist.)
AMPLIFICATION OF THE MANDOLIN The durations of other pauses are determined by instrumental characteristics or other
acoustical properties: "Pause until the sound is lost in the distance"; "Pause until the
Although the mandolin should not need to be amplified in an intimate chamber music dynamic level falls to 'mp"'; etc. A squared fermata (,..,) is given in conjunction with such
context, if Solar Dust: Orbits and Spirals is to be performed in larger auditoria (where verbal instruction.
considerable sound-projection is required), some sound-reinforcement of the instrument
will prove necessary in order to achieve adequate acoustical projection. Amplification with
a high-quality cardioid or omnidirectional condenser microphone is suggested. Optimally, GRACE-NOTE GROUPS
the loudspeaker(s) for the mandolin should be positioned near the mandolinist, so as to
create the impression of a single sound-source for the instrument. In any event, the level Grace-note groups all lie 'outside time' - locally independent of any other durational
of amplification ought to be kept to a minimum, so that the mandolin's natural timbre will be schemata. In general, they should be played quite rapidly or even 'as fast as possible' (i.e.
heard as clearly as possible: discreetly implement sound-reinforcement only when as [very] short indeterminate durations, left to the discretion of the player) - although
necessary. tenuto markings and various pauses may be used to suggest a more leisurely or irregular
approach. Indeed, nuances in horizontal spacing amongst grace-notes propound a
correspondingly sophisticated rhythmic interpretation that is, notwithstanding, left to the
TUNING OF THE OPEN STRINGS mandolinist to some extent. Furthermore, despite their autonomous unfurling, grace-notes
ought not to be thought of as mere 'ornaments', of secondary architectonic status, to the
One string on each course of the mandolin is to be very slightly lowered in pitch, thereby 'main notes': all sonorities in Solar Dust: Orbits and Spirals are equally important!
producing a richer basic timbre: a 'chorus effect'. The resultant beat-frequencies should be
no greater than 4 - 5 Hz (beats-per-second) on the open strings, with different beat-
frequencies being generated upon each (open) course; precise details are left to the
(rfffi - an accelerando within the grace-note grouping.
discretion of the mandolinist.
SPECIFICATION OF COURSES All strings must be allowed to ring on as much as possible. Noteheads marked with a
small tie 'to nothing' (i.e. a 'Iasciare vibrare') are to be sustained, or left to resonate,
The course to be played upon at any given moment is indicated in the usual manner: G, beyond their given duration. (To a large extent, this directive, together with course
0, A, E (each letter being ringed within the score). When such a symbol is omitted, either specifications, determines the texture and hence the required fingerings.) The following
the musical context renders the choice of course obvious, or a whole sequence of notes is symbology applies especially to articulation:
to be played upon the same course as specified at the beginning of the sequence.
~ ~ - up- and down-stroke, respectively.
- tenuto (hold the note for the full duration as given, or even a little longer)
The use of accidentals is kept to a minimum in Solar Dust: Orbits and Spirals - and staccatissimo (very short, malta staccato), respectively. These symbols
though some precautionary natural (\) signs are utilized. Essentially, any accidental do not imply the application of any additional accent or stress, unless
otherwise indicated.
applies only to the note which it precedes.

DYNAMIC INDICATIONS ~. - pluck only the first note and hammer or pull-off the subsequent notes with
the left-hand fingers, according to the melodic contour.

Apart from the usual dynamic indications (ppp, pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff, fff), the following ~. -legato: pluck only the first note, but for the subsequent notes, merely place
symbols are employed in Solar Dust: Orbits and Spirals: or lift left-hand fingers on or off the fingerboard, according to the melodic
p pass. and f pass. are abbreviations for 'as soft as possible (but still audible)' and
'as loud as possible', respectively;
- pluck only one string within the course. (This directive applies to single
notes only.) Unless this symbol is given, the number of strings per course
o represents the final vanishing into inaudibility: allow the sound to resonate to that are to be plucked is left to the discretion of the mandolinist.

-i- - ii-
1: - arpeggiate the notes in a somewhat leisurely manner. - the normal plucking position (abbreviation: pas. ord.) is notated in the usual
~: - strum (i.e. rapidly arpeggiate) the notes of the chord.
<p - sui tasto: pluck the string(s) 'up the neck' somewhat (on or towards the
For both forms of arpeggiation, their speed of execution is left to the interpretation of the fingerboard), nearer to the middle of the vibrating string-length than usual.
player. Arrowheads upon the above symbols indicate the direction of the arpeggio's action:
t = play the lowest-pitched course first; t = play the highest-pitched course first. <P - malta sui tasto: pluck precisely at the middle of the vibrating length of the
string(s) - directly above the twelfth fret for the open string(s), or directly above the
PLUCKING MATERIAL fret which is twelve frets higher than that fret where the finger stops the string: this
plucking position may actually be beyond the end of the fingerboard. Plucking the
- pluck the string(s) with a plectrum. The point or the side (i.e. rounded string(s) malta sui tasto will yield a timbre that is very mellow, rich in odd-
edge) of the plectrum may be used at the discretion of the mandolinist. numbered harmonics.

- pluck the string(s) with the right-hand index finger (or thumb). The pad or o -----A - in tremolo only, a smooth transition of plucking position (as indicated). The
the tip of the finger may be used at the discretion of the mandolinist. dotted line defines the moment in time when the transition begins; precise
details of execution are otherwise left to the discretion of the mandolinist.
Note: The specified plucking material is employed until the other is called
The mandolinist should seriously consider the possibility of holding the plectrum, for the - strum the strings behind the nut, and strum the strings behind the bridge,
entire duration of the piece, between the thumb and the middle finger of the right hand, respectively. In both cases, all eight strings are to be strummed, and should
since the right-hand index finger is used consistently as a sound-generator or -modifier in be permitted to ring on unimpeded. The direction and speed of arpeggiation,
its own right.
x::: as well as the plucking position, are always indicated in conjunction with
these symbols. Note that for strumming behind the nut, plucking-position
TREMOLO instructions are always, mutatis mutandis, relative to the nut, instead of to
the bridge as previously defined.

t - a tremolo (successive up- and down-strokes) is to be executed very quickly or as

quickly as possible (tastefully, according to the musical context). TRILLS
- tremolo for only part of the given duration, allowing the string(s) to ring on for the
+-r~ - trill with the left-hand fingers after plucking the primary note (the

* remainder of the note. (The precise duration of the tremolo action is left to the
interpretation of the mandolinist.)

When playing tremoli with a plectrum, the side (i.e. rounded edge) of the plectrum may
be used in soft dynamic levels to impart a more gentle, slightly fuzzier quality than is
(e) secondary note being indicated with a small notehead in parentheses). The
speed of the trilling motion is suggested by the frequency of the triangular
waveform contour. Articulation (either legato or hammer/pull-off) is always
indicated in conjunction with these symbols.
usually obtained by using the plectrum's point.
Furthermore, in tremolo, a diminuendo to very low dynamic levels may be achieved by
gradually rotating the flat face of the plectrum through 90 relative to the length of the
0 Two types of pitch-bend and vibrato are employed in Solar Dust: Orbits and Spirals.
string. (This tremolo technique was apparently developed by the Hoopers.) Vibrato is generated simply through the repeated application of a pitch-bend technique.

When playing soft tremoli with the finger, the fingertip may be utilized instead of the pad .......... .. : ........
~ - koto vibrato/pitch-bend: according to the given contour, depress and
in order to achieve a different subdued quality. release the string(s) behind the bridge with the right-hand index finger
(and/or other right-hand fingers), causing the pitch to fluctuate above the
All of these techniques may be used at the discretion of the mandolinist. written note.

- push vibrato/pitch-bend: according to the given contour, push and release

the string(s) laterally - i.e. parallel to the frets - with the left-hand finger(s),
causing the pitch to fluctuate slightly above the written note. (The perceived
The following symbols are mostly affixed to the relevant note's stem - except in the
pitch-fluctuation is less for this technique than for the kata vibrato/pitch-
case of plucking-position transitions in tremolo, when they are drawn beyond the
bend; however, the two techniques do vary in sound-quality and modulation
.. - malta sui ponticello: pluck the string(s) very close to the bridge indeed.
The waveform contours provide only an approximate indication of the frequency and
4> - sui ponticello: pluck the string(s) close to the bridge. amplitude of the required actions. The maximum amplitude of the given contour should

- iii- - iv-
correspond directly to the maximum pitch-bend physically attainable in the musical BITONES
context. Both techniques are applied to single notes only in Solar Dust: Orbits and
Spirals. - bitone: on the specified course, stop the string(s) normally at the fret

E corresponding to the pitch notated with an oblong notehead, and pluck the
string(s) between the stopping finger and the nut! Specific plucking positions for
bitones are never requested herein, due to limitations imposed by technical and
- portamento: slide the left-hand finger(s) along the fingerboard from one physical exigencies - although it can be said that it is generally easier and more
position to another, thereby allowing the pitch to (smoothly) rise or fall, as successful to pluck the string(s) somewhat away from the stopping finger.
indicated. The speed of the sliding action is carried out according to the
notated duration. Articulation - 'legato': do not pluck the terminal note of the In references to pitch within the table below, "Middle C" shall be designated as C \ 3, the
portamento; or 'tenuto': conduct the sliding action and then pluck the C\ one octave higher as C\4, etc.; ~ denotes an intonation approximately a quartertone
terminal note of the portamento - is always indicated in conjunction with sharp from \ .
these symbols.
The following bitones - shown with their projected resultant pitches (which are not given
STRING MUFFLING anywhere else within the score itself) - have been utilized in Solar Dust: Orbits and
- muffle the string(s) lightly with the side or palm of the right hand (below the little
finger), while simultaneously plucking. The resultant sound should still be quite Course Fingered pitch Resultant bitone pitch
resonant yet muted in quality, with a somewhat shorter decay-time than normal.
As the piece moves to a close, the degree of muffling could progressively G\2 E~3 0\4
increase, attenuating the resonance even further (at the discretion of the
G\2 F\3 B~3
G\2 B~3 F~3

- natural harmonic: on the specified open string(s), lightly touch the node (usually 0\3 B~3 A\4
t with a left-hand finger) at or near the fret corresponding to the pitch notated with a
broken-diamond notehead, while plucking - in order to produce the harmonic
sound. Natural harmonics must always be allowed to ring on.


- artificial harmonic: on the specified course, stop the string(s), normally, at the fret A\3 G#4 B~4
corresponding to the pitch given in parentheses, while lightly touching the node at E\4 C\5 B\5
or near the fret corresponding to the higher pitch notated with a broken-diamond
notehead, and pluck, as for natural harmonics. Similarly, artificial harmonics must
NB: Assuming that A\ 3 = 440 Hz, then C \ 3 =:: 261.6255653 Hz.
always be allowed to ring on as long as possible.
Note: Because mandolins' actions can vary considerably from one instrument to
For diamond noteheads with an "R" to the right of them, the right-hand index finger will
another, resultant bitone pitches in practice might not correspond exactly to those
definitely be needed to lightly touch the specified node while plucking. In circumstances
predicted within the table above. Regardless of inaccuracies, however large (or small) any
where the use of a left-hand finger to lightly touch the required node is unduly onerous, the
bitone pitch-discrepancies might be, the mandolinist whenever performing these bitones is
right-hand index finger may be substituted - provided that the string(s) can be plucked
on no account ever to attempt to 'correct' such deviations - should they occur - by
adequately, and the resulting harmonic timbre is satisfactory.
selecting some other course or fret to stop: only those courses and conjunct fingered
Where applicable, alternative nodal (and stopping) positions upon the specified course pitches specified herein may be engaged for the production of bitones throughout Solar
may be substituted at the discretion of the mandolinist - subject, naturally, to the proviso Dust: Orbits and Spirals.
that the same resultant pitch is elicited!
Specific plucking positions for harmonics are never requested herein, in order to
encourage the mandolinist themselves to locate a plucking position that furnishes the 'String drumming' appears to be a new mandolin technique (proposed by Adrian
cleanest, most sonorous timbral quality for each harmonic! (Occasionally, however, Hooper) in which the plectrum, instead of plucking as usual, 'drums' or strikes the string(s)
technical and physical constraints may restrict the ambit of choice for a harmonic's from above according to the given rhythm and dynamic levels. The resultant percussive
plucking position.) sonority modulates in response to variations in the left-hand stopping position (if
applicable) as well as the exact spot where the plectrum 'drums' the string(s). ('String
Note: Resultant pitches of harmonics are nowhere shown within the score itself. drumming' obviously may be applied to open courses - or even bitones - too.)

-v- - vi-
Note: It has been confirmed that 'drumming' string(s) with the side (i.e. the rounded
edge) of the plectrum is far more efficacious than attempting to 'drum' string(s) with the
plectrum's point.

- 'drum' the string(s) beyond the end of the fingerboard: with the left hand,
stop the string(s) normally (if applicable) on the specified course at the fret
corresponding to the pitch given in parentheses, and 'drum ' the string(s)
beyond the end of the fingerboard. The 'drumming' spot is determined here
according to the relative vertical locations of the wedge-shaped noteheads:
a blacked-in wedge-shaped notehead denotes the highest practicable
'drumming' spot (very close to the bridge), whereas the lowest-placed open
wedge-shaped notehead just above the stave denotes a 'drumming' spot
very close to the end of the fingerboard (or even just upon it, for some

- 'drum' the string(s) upon the fingerboard: with the left hand, stop the
string(s) normally (if applicable) on the specified course at the fret
corresponding to the pitch given in parentheses, and 'drum' the string(s)
upon the fingerboard at the spot where a left-hand finger would stop the
string(s) in order to produce the pitch indicated by the open wedge-shaped

The resonant percussive sonority which ensues from 'string drumming' a course
contains two discernible pitches: a sustained 'drone tone' (the pitch notated in
parentheses), and a brief, delicate and percussive 'strike tone' (the pitch notated with a
wedge-shaped notehead when 'drumming' upon the fingerboard, or an indeterminate high
pitch when 'drumming' beyond the end of the fingerboard). Here, the string-length between
the 'drumming' spot and the bridge establishes the pitch of the 'strike tone'.

Ian Shanahan, Sydney, Australia; 27 March 1988.

- vii- - viii-
Solar Dust
Orbits and Spirals

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