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CivilFEM Geotechnical

Webinar

Peter R. Barrett,, M.S.C.E.,, P.E.

2009 CAE Associates


What is CivilFEM?
CivilFEM is an integrated Pre
Pre- , Solu - and Post-processor
Post processor add
add-on
on to
traditional ANSYS developed by ANSYSs Spain distributor
INGECIBER
AASHTO LRFD NSYS/CivilFEM
Bridge Design Specifications 130
130 120
120 110 100
(Western USA) 5
5 CANADA

2.5 50

60
60 5

15

40
5
5
15 40
50 2.5
2.5
5
5

60 80 5
30

A Seismic 2.5
Acceleration Coefficient Zone
2.5
< 0.09 1 5
_ 0.19
> 0.09 and < 2
Tro
_ 0.29
> 0.19 and < 3 pic
of C
ance
_
> 0.29 4 r
MXICO

2
INGECIBER- CivilFEM Developer / ANSYS Partner
Ingeciber S.A. is a CAE company and ANSYS Channel Partner
with more than 20 years of experience using and developing
CAE Software

Ingecibers
g Qualityy Assurance System
Q y is ISO 9001 certified.

Ansys, Inc and Ingeciber, S.A. have a long standing OEM


Agreement and established a strategic alliance for FEA solutions
i the
in h construction
i iindustry.
d S
Some worldwide
ld id CCustomers:

3
ANSYS Today

Worlds
World s Largest Simulation Community

>10,000TotalCustomers >6,000TotalCustomers >2,000TotalCustomers

>125,000CommercialSeats
>125 000 Commercial Seats >60,000CommercialSeats
>60 000 Commercial Seats >10,000CommercialSeats
>10 000 Commercial Seats
>140,000UniversitySeats >70,000UniversitySeats
>200ChannelPartners >20ChannelPartners
>75IndustryPartners >80IndustryPartners

4
ANSYS/CivilFEM

ANSYS/CivilFEM combines the world leading general


purpose structural analysis features of ANSYS (ISO-9001)
with high-end civil engineering-specific structural analysis
capabilities of CivilFEM (ISO-9001).

Current Customers include: AREVA, AECOM, Parsons,


Leslie
L li E.E Robinson,
R bi Westinghouse
W ti h

5
CivilFEM & ANSYS

6
CivilFEM Help

Interactive Online Help


Examples Manuals
Advanced Workshops
Training Courses

7
Current CivilFEM Distributors

8
CAE Associates, Inc.

One of first 4 ANSYS


Channel Partners
Since 1985
Engineering Co.
Co
Since 1981
9
CAE Associates CivilFEM / ANSYS Partner

25 years Structural,
Structural Thermal and Fluid engineering consulting
One of the original ANSYS Channel partners
The US leader in ANSYS Finite Element Training
Custom Training of ANSYS and CivilFEM

10
Sampling of CAE Consulting Services
NIST Structural Fire Response and Probable
Collapse Sequence of the World Trade Center
Towers Investigation
Steam Generator Replacement in Nuclear
C t i
Containment tB
Buildings
ildi
Pre-stressed Concrete Pipe Simulation
Concrete Dam simulation to meet
FERC /C/Corps off Engineers
E i licensing
li i

11
CAE Associates Senior Technical Staff
Nicholas M. Veikos, Ph.D., President
Peter R. Barrett, M.S.C.E., P.E., Vice President
Michael Bak, Ph.D., Project Manager
P ti kC
Patrick Cunningham,
i h M S M E Project
M.S.M.E., P j t Manager
M
Steven Hale, M.S.M.E., Project Manager
James Kosloski,, M.S.M.E.,, Project
j Manager
g
Hsin-Hua Tsuei, Ph.D., CFD Manager
Jonathan Masters, Ph.D., Project Manager
George Bauer, M.S.M.E., Project Manager
Eric Stamper, M.S.M.E., Project Manager
Michael Kuron,
Kuron M.S.M.E.,
M S M E Project Engineer
Lawrence L. Durocher, Ph.D., Director

12
ANSYS Strengths
Nonlinear Stress Analysis
Contact
Plasticity
Creep
L
Large D
Deflection
fl i P-Delta
P D l Eff
Effects
Element Birth and Death
Full Element Library (over 200)
Beams, Pi
B Pipes & Sh
Shells
ll
2D and 3D Solids
Springs, Contact, etc
Dynamic Analysis
Response Spectrum

Nonlinear Transient Dynamics

Thermal-Stress Analysis
Indirect and direct coupled field simulations

Large Model Simulations


Solvers, meshing, Postprocessing, Graphics

13
ANSYS Strengths Development 12.0

14
CivilFEM Strengths

CivilFEM Capabilities
Entire suite of ANSYS capabilities including nonlinear analysis
and dynamics
Built-in
B ilt i Section
S ti Properties,
P ti Material
M t i l Models
M d l and d Code
C d ChChecking
ki

Industry Specific CivilFEM Modules


Nonlinear Bridge Simulation

Pre-stressed Concrete

Geotechnical Applications
Nuclear Applications
15
CivilFEM
G t h i l
Geotechnical
Module
Introduction

The geotechnical module is one of 4 add-on ANSYS CivilFEM modules


Geotechnical, Nonlinear Bridge, Advanced Pre-stress, and Nuclear

The ~CFACTIV
CFACTIV command is used to activate and deactivate each module
module.

~CFACTIV,GETC,Y

17
Geotechnical Capabilities Summary

Materials library (soils and rocks)


Layered terrains
Soil foundation stiffness (ballast module)
Retaining wall design / analysis
Seepage analysis
Slope stability analysis
Tunneling -Hoek & Brown failure criteria
Earth pressures
Terrain Initial Stress
Foundation Piles

18
Geotechnical Materials

~CFMP command.
command
This command defines the soil or rock material properties in ANSYS
and CivilFEM.
It can be applied using
sing one of the follo
following
ing options
options:
From library: reads from the library the material properties for a given
material reference.

~CFMP,1,LIB,SOIL,,...

~CFMP,1,LIB,ROCK,,...

User defined: the material looses its library reference and the user can
change
h any off it
its properties.
ti
~CFMP,1, USER

Material
M t i l IInclude
l d St
Standard
d d ANSYS as wellll as unique
i Ci ilFEM Materials
CivilFEM M t i l

19
Soil Material Properties

Soil Library

~CFMP,1,LIB,SOIL,,...
Material
number

Delete materials Soil


classification
according to
Modify selected Casagrande
material

List of defined Save materials


materials

Copy materials

20
Rock Material Properties

Rocks library

~CFMP,1,LIB,ROCK,,...

Material
M t i l
number

Delete materials

Rock
Modify selected classifications
material
Copy materials

List of defined Save materials


materials

21
Geotechnical Material Wizard

22
Soil and Rock Material Properties
Soil /Rock properties are divided into 7 different groups:
General properties:
common for all the materials (number, reference, type,)
Structural analysis properties: .
Static
St ti and
dddynamic
i properties,
ti material
t i lb behavior,
h i etc.t
Specific weight properties:
specific weight, density, porosity, etc.
Properties:
test parameters, materials laws, etc.
Grain-size or Hoek & Brown properties :
grain-size parameters and Atterberg limits or Hoek & Brown & Dilatancy parameters
Correlations:
relationships between geotechnical parameters.
FLAC3D:
Flac3D properties.
Soil Menu

Rock Menu

23
Soil and Rock Material Properties

Structural Analysis
properties are divided
into:
Elasticity modulus,
modulus
Poisson ratio and
density used for the
structural analysis.
Plastic behavior
Static properties
Seismic properties

24
Soil and Rock Material Properties

Specific Weight
properties are divided
into:
Specific weights
Density
Porosity
Water content

25
Soil and Rock Material Properties

Material Properties are


divided into:
Test properties
Mohr-Coulomb parameters
Drucker-Prager parameters
Mohr-Coulomb in plain
strain models parameters
Earth pressure data
Seepage

26
Soil and Rock Material Properties

Grain-size properties are grouped into:


Grain-size parameters
Atterberg limits

These properties are


only defined for soils

27
Soil and Rock Material Properties

Hoek & Brown properties are grouped into:


Hoek & Brown parameters
Dilatancy parameters

These properties are


only defined for rocks

28
Soil and Rock Material Properties

The correlations can be selected from the CivilFEM library or from a user
defined file.
Select between CivilFEM
correlations or user defined

Relates the SPT value


with the elasticity
module applying the
correlation to the
specified propertyy
Apply

29
Correlations

User defined correlations

5- Correlation
number 6- Function
International
System
U
UNITSS

7- Comment
(Optional)
The right hand menu
assists in writing a
4- Select
4 S l t new correlation
correlation

30
Example - Cap Drucker-Prager Model

Cap Drucker
Drucker-Prager
Prager plasticity model applicable to
Simulation granular materials such as soils

Introduce cap for both tension and compression

Include
I l d cap h hardening
d i
Include shear envelope hardening

31
CivilFEM Soil Materials Example Help

32
Layered Terrain Definition

Terrain Terrain
Number of number name
layers.
(Maximum, Pitch
20))

Location Terrain
general
properties
Water
W t
Table
SurfaceLoad
Thickness
Layer
L Material
number
Layer
Horizontal Ballast p
Properties
M d l
Module

Coulomb theory
for earth
pressure
calculation

33
Layered Terrains Definition

Allows the definition of soils without having to discretize them as finite


elements in the model.

New Terrain

Modify selected Terrain

Delete
l Terrain

Copy Terrain

Properties list

34
Earth Pressures,
Pressures
Ballast Module, Soil
F
Foundation
d i S
Stiffness
iff
Automated Earth Pressures
CivilFEM Model: Earth column contribution over this point
At rest earth pressure in
Active earth pressure E0 K0 ihi K0 q
i 1

Passive earth ppressure
The soil weight on the selected elements of the model.
Dry and flooded earth 1

ELEMENT TYPES:
Beams
Shells
Solids Y

Z X Y

Z X

Surface elements:
3D BEAM ELEMENTS SHELL ELEMENTS 2
5 5

3 z
y
1
x
2 6
4
z x
y

4 1
3

36
Earth Pressures

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURES CALCULATION:


Calculated considering:
Earth column contribution over this point.
C h i
Cohesion
Surface load over the terrain.

Layer1 h1
in1 L L2 L L2
E Kh
ih i nL1 K hc c 1
2
K hq q 1
2
Layer2
h2

i1

Kh: Horizontal earth pressure Layern-1

coefficient due to the earth weight


h n-1

L1

Khc: Horizontall earth


h pressure Layern L 2+ L 2
E

coefficient due to cohesion


2
L2

Khq: Horizontal earth pressure


coefficient due to the surface load

37
Ballast Module

CivilFEM calculates an estimation value of the ballast module (soil


foundation stiffness), that allows approximating the elastic soil model
(E and ) by means of Winklers model (beam on an elastic
foundation).
foundation)
Calculation steps:
1. Model definition (materials,
elements,
l b
beam & shell
h ll
properties)
2. Terrains definition
3. Select the elements and nodes
that make up the foundation
4. Ballast module calculation
5
5. Ballast module application

38
Ballast Module

Calculates
C l l t ththe b
ballast
ll t module
d l ffor a ffoundation
d ti previously
i l ddefined
fi d bby th
the
user. The elements and nodes that make up the foundation must be
selected beforehand.

Enter foundation
and terrain
numbers
~EFSCALC, UCIM, UTER

39
Ballast Module: Results

Plot and list results Close the Element Node


window results results

Foundation
not created List
Activated results
foundation

Deactivated
foundation

Results scale

40
Retaining Walls
Retaining Wall Calculation

Non-linear Analysis
Construction Sequence
Automated Simulation changing with excavation level

It takes into account


The wall may be
the soil
soil-structure
structure
considered
id d as a
interaction using
non-linear structure
non-linear springs
and analyzed by the
with contact elements
non-linear module of
Ci ilFEM
CivilFEM

42
Retaining Wall Calculation

Calculation of Sheet Piles 2D (automatic wizard) -3D


Non-linear construction sequence analysis
One or two sheet piles can be analyzed simultaneously
Simulation of anchors
anchors, water level,
level layered soils,
soils other applied loads
loads.

The excavation or
backfilling process can
be visualized in each
calculation step.

43
Retaining Wall Calculation

Calculation of Sheet Piles 2D (automatic wizard) -3D


With any ANSYS/CivilFEM cross section
Interaction with other structures

44
Retaining Wall Calculation
The systems
y g
generated mayy consist of one or two walls that can be
integrated inside other ANSYS models like a subset.
The model is solved by means of an evolving calculation, where each
calculation stage
g represents
p a step
p in excavation or backfill.
The reinforcement of the retaining walls can be later designed by
CivilFEM.
Applicable to any ANSYS/CivilFEM cross section

45
Retaining Walls: Modeling

The retaining wall is modeled with 2D Retaining Wall Modeling


beam elements applying:
Boundary conditions PPT1 PPT2

Actions
APT2 APT1

The interaction with the terrain is


simulated by the action of two pairs of
springs (LINK1 element) linked to Terrain 1 Terrain 2

gaps (work in compression) Organic Low

W ll graduated
Well d t d gravell
Silt

Each pair of springs is in charge of


reproducing :
Passive
P i earth
th pressure Peat (Low)

Active earth pressure


(Earth Pressures described
previously) The soil is defined as layered terrain

46
Retaining Walls: Earth Pressure

Material behavior law


The introduction of the material law for each spring is carried out using a
nonlinear elastic behavior model

F
-(E0-Ea)
d
HBM
-(E
(Ep-E
E0)

47
Retaining Walls: Calculation Procedure
~WALLINI

Initializes the data in the retaining wall analysis

Generall
G
Properties

Wall 1
Properties

Wall 2
Properties

48
Retaining Walls: Calculation Procedure

~WALLGEN command
Defines the elements forming the retaining wall:
Material:
Concrete
Steel ~WALLGEN, IWALL, ISEC, LENGTH, MAT, TYPE, REAL
Type
Wall
Real constant number
Section Length

It is possible to use
any nonlinear behavior
in the Retaining Wall

49
Retaining Walls: Calculation Procedure
ANCHORAGE TYPES

Articulated Fixed
(ANCHTYPE = 1) (ANCHTYPE = 0)
The anchorage is A support will be
created as a beam placed on the wall.
with one of its ends The node will be
fixed to the soil.
soil moved to its initial
location.

Delete
Fixed with no
(ANCHTYPE = -1)
movement
All anchorages at restoring
the chosen level will (ANCHTYPE = 2)
be deleted at this
A support will be
construction step.
placed on the wall.

50
S
Seepage A
Analysis
l i
Seepage Analysis Capabilities

Calculate hydraulic heads and pore water pressures


pressures.

Calculate filtered flows through boundaries.

Obtain the water table for 2D models.

Export the obtained pore water pressure to slope stability analysis. The
finite element mesh used in both analysis can be different.

Darcys law with anisotropy of the permeability coefficient (different


permeability in x, y, z directions).

H H H
v x - K xx
, v y - K yy
, v z - K zz
x y z

52
Seepage Analysis: Boundary Conditions

Impermeable surface:
H
0
n
Upstream surface: H = H0
Seepage surface: H = geometric height
Downstream surface: H = H1

y
Saturation surface
Upstream surface H

H(x,y) = H0 n
H0 A
Seepage surface
H(x,y) = y(x)

B H1 x
Impermeable surface
H Downstream surface

n H( ) = H1
H(x,y)

53
Seepage Analysis: CivilFEM Elements (II)

Equivalence table of available element types

ANSYS Thermal Solver


CivilFEM Seepage Solver for Seepage Analogy

CivilFEM SEEPAGE ANSYS STRUCTURAL ANSYS THERMAL


Elements Elements Elements
2D PLANE 42 - SEEP PLANE 42 PLANE 55
3D SOLID 45 - SEEP SOLID 45 SOLID 70

54
Seepage Analysis: CivilFEM Elements (III)

Building a model for CivilFEM seepage solver:


The model is created using ANSYS structural elements

El
Element
t ttypes are automatically
t ti ll changed
h dbby th
the solver.
l

ANSYS/Structural Elements CivilFEM Elements


PLANE 42 PLANE 42 SEEP
SOLID 45 SOLID 45 SEEP

Available degrees of freedom:

ANSYS D.O.F. CivilFEM D.O.F.


UX H (Hydraulic head)
UY Not Used
UZ Not Used

55
Seepage Analysis: CivilFEM Elements (IV)

K
L
I
y J
4 nodes triangle option

x
I

y
Degenerated shape

x
Second grade shape function

F
Four nodes
d ttwo-dimensional
di i l element
l t

Triangular prism

Basic shape
M,N,O,P

K,L
Tetrahedron
J

Three-dimensional
Three dimensional

56
Seepage Analysis: Saturation Line

DAM EXAMPLE:
The saturation line has two end points that must comply with the following
boundary conditions:
a) Fixed: Point A in the figure
b) Sliding along a seepage surface: Point B in the figure

y
Saturation line

H0 A t
y(x) 1 Seepage
p g surface
H = 0
H0 n
( x,y)= y B
H A
y1 H1
y2 y3 y4 yB
H(x,y)=y(x) x
a H = 0 x
H(x,y)=H1
n

2D Seepage (Without drains)

57
Slope Stability
Slope Stability

Slope stability can be calculated by means of two methods


methods, conceptually
different:

1
1. CLASSICAL METHODS
Fellenius
Bishop
Simplified and Modified Janbu

2. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD


Equivalent results to the one obtained with classical methods
methods.

59
Slope Stability

Fellenius Method (Swedish or independent slice method):


Fellenius
Sliding surface: CIRCLE.
Independent slices.
Equilibrium of moments in relation to the circle center
center.
Recommended: cohesive homogeneous materials.
NON iterative process

N calculation: N W cos kW sin D x sin D y cos

Bi h M
Bishops Method:
th d
Sliding surface: CIRCLE.
Equilibrium of moments in relation to the circle center.
It ti process N d
Iterative depends
d on ththe safety
f t ffactor
t F.F

cL sin uL sin tan


W Dy
N F
i tan
sin
cos
F

60
Slope Stability

Janbus
Janbu s Simplified Method:
Sliding surface: ANY POLYGONAL.
Forces equilibrium.
Iterative process N calculation is the same as for the Bishops
Bishop s method.
method

61
Slope Stability

2
2. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD:

Safety factor F
c ( u)tg . a
n

. a
n = Normal stress on the bottom
of the slice
= Tangential stress on the
bottom of the slice
a = Slice width
-.378E+ 07
-.336E+ 07
-.294E+ 07
u = Pore water pressure
-.252E+ 07
-.210E+ 07
-.168E+ 07
-.126E+ 07
-836853
-416758
3338

62
Slope Stability

How to perform a stability analysis?

Create the model (geometry, mesh, loads)


S l
Solve O l ffor FEM Analysis
Only A l i
Capture the model for slope stability
Slope stability needed data:
Sliding surfaces definition
Pore water pressure
Solve slope stability
Postprocess results

Differences among classical methods

63
Slope Stability

Capture the model for slope stability

~SLPIN N1,
~SLPIN, N1 N2,
N2 N3 ~SLPINK K1,
~SLPINK, K1 K2,
K2 K3

Valid sliding surface

Invalid sliding surface

jobname.slp jobname.db jobname.cfdb

64
Slope Stability

Results Plott press.


Pl Plot complete
lines circles
Previous and
Sliding next Circles
direction and Centers Plot loads Sliding surf
surf.
number and
List safety factor

Min Coef. Safety Fact. map Export plot

Number of
colors
Maximum safety
factor shown

65
Tunneling

66
Wizard for Tunnel Design

Tunnel section PLOT NO. 1


-909.174
-878.511
-847.848
-817.185
-786.522
-755.859
-725.196
-694.533
-663.87
-633.207

Tensin
Verticalvertical. FrenteAdvancement
Stress. Tunnel de avance
Longitudinal
Forces and Moments on Section
Concrete
COL 3

COL 1
PLOT NO. 1
-.018494
-.014481
-.010468
-.006455
-.002443
.00157
.005583
.009596
.013609
.017621

COL 2

Forces acting on Movimiento vertical.


Vertical Movement. Frente
Tunnel de avance
Advancement
concrete tunnel Longitudinal
Section

67
Underground Structures (Tunnels)

Element Birth and Death capability (non-linear construction sequence


analysis)

11
CERROGORDO

68
Underground Structures (Tunnels)

Terrain Initial Stress


Hoek & Brown Failure Criteria (rocks)
Plastic Constitutive models: 2D/3D Drucker-Prager and Mohr-Coulomb
Element Birth and Death capability (non-linear construction sequence
analysis)

69
Wizard for Tunnel Design

70
Wizard for Tunnel Design

71
Hoek & Brown
Failure Criterion
Hoek & Brown Failure Criterion

This tool offers the possibility to work with rock foundation models,
satisfying the Hoek and Browns failure model, original (1980) or modified
(1992).
RMR Rating used to select failure model

The procedure followed by CivilFEM, is based on using, at each load step,


a Drucker-Prager material, whose properties change according to its load
level.

73
Hoek & Brown Failure Criterion
HOEK & BROWNS CRITERION VALIDITY

The Hoek and Browns criterion is valid only for low confinement
pressures.
In rock mechanics, four structural situations of the rock massifs are
generally distinguished according to the defects and discontinuities shown.

1 3
Rocky Massif State Classification
3
Group I: m s
Intact Rock
c c
Group II:
One single discontinuity

Group III: c: Compression resistance of the


Two discontinuities matrix rock.
rock
Group IV: m,s: Constants that depend on the
Several discontinuities
characteristics of the rock and on its
Groupp V: g state
cracking
Fractured Massif

74
Hoek & Brown Failure Criterion

MODEL OPERATION

For each element in the model a stress state is read (1, 3)


Using Hoek & Brown criteria, the parameters of Mohr Coulomb are
obtained, and from this values, the Drucker Prager equivalent parameters.

1, 3 Hoek-Brown c,,

Mohr-Coulomb
S l
Solve

Drucker-Prager

75
Hoek & Brown Failure Criterion

CALCULATION PROCEDURE
After creating the model, the Hoek & Brown solver should be used.

Read material
properties
p p at the
end of a Hoek &
Brown analysis, for
other calculations.
Write material
properties at the
end of the Hoek &
Brown analysis

76
Terrain Initial
St ess
Stress
Terrain Initial Stress

Develop Stress with no Strain

Gravity

Gravity

Terrain Initial Stress

78
Terrain Initial Stress

In order to simulate excavation processes and real terrain behavior


behavior, the
initial stresses (without strain) can be considered.

Terrain Initial Vertical Stress at each point is calc


calculated
lated regarding the
weight of terrain above the point.
n
V i h i
i 1

Terrain Initial Horizontal Stress at each point depends on the vertical


stress.
H k o V V

79
Terrain Initial Stress

Initial Stress is calculated


using the ~TIS command.
It will create a file
(jobname IST) with the
(jobname.IST),
stresses for each element.

Gravity direction needs to be


specified

80
Foundation Piles
Deep Foundations

Pile Cap Wizard:


Automatic generation of rectangular, polygonal or circular pile groups

82
Piles
Driven piles
Excavated/Drilled foundations
Micropiles
Load Test Reinforcement
Example Pile Cap Load Test
Design

83
Foundation Piles

Geometry of the pile cap: Y

Polygonal or circular
DIAPIL
1

R
A
DP
O
2 5

L
X
RA D
P IL

3 4

H i htE
HeightEn
HeightPil

HeightT (1)
WidPLA

LenPIL

HeightT (NumStr)

HeightT (NumStr+1)

Z
X

Poligonal pile-wailing

84
Foundation Piles
DistPilx (1...Npx-1)
Rectangular pile cap |
DIAPIL

DExt Top
Piles identified with _
two numbers (I,J): (3,4)
Horizontal and vertical Y
DExtRig

_ (I,J)

PosXCol X

DistPily (1...Npy -1)


Column
_ (2,2)

PosYCol

DExt Bot
_ (1,1) (1,2)

D
DExtLef

HeightEn
HeightPil

HeightT (1)
WidPLA

LenPIL

HeightT (NumStr)

HeightT (NumStr+1)

Rectangular wiling of Npx x Npy piles

85
Foundation Piles

Terrain definition: Cohesive Soils


Consistency qu (kPa) NSPT () c (kPa)

Very soft 30-50 2-4 15-20 0-10

Soft 50-100 4-8 20-25 10-20

Medium 100-200 8-15 25-30 20-30

Hard 200-400 15-30 30-35 30-50

Very hard >400 >30 >35 >50

Cohesionless Soils
Compacity NSPT () c (kPa)

Very low 0-4 <28 0-20

Low 4-10 28-30 0-20

Medium 10-30 30-36 0-20

High 30 50
30-50 36 41
36-41 0 20
0-20

Very high >50 >41 0-20

86
Foundation Piles

Internal Friction Angle vs


vs. Cohesion
Limit can be changed

j ( ) Cohesionless soils

45

40

35

30

25
(c , j )
L L
20

15
Cohesive soils
10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 c (kPa)

CivilFEM's soil clasification

87
Foundation Piles Force - Deflection

Load capacity: Cohesive soils


Skin friction and point resistance

LOAD Q

QT

QP

QS

wS wP SETTLEMENT, w

Load capacity vs. settlement in piles

88
Foundation Piles

Load capacity: Cohesive soils

a = fs /Cu
Skin friction
0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2
0 200 400 600 800
Undrained shear strength, Cu (kPa)

Piles adhesion factor

g (%)
fS

2.0
a Cu ~ 50 kPa
a Cu ~ 200 kPa
1.5

ws = g. Dp
1.0

0.5

a Cu ~ 100 kPa
0.0
0 200 400 600 800
Undrained shear strength, Cu (kPa)
Shaft deformability factorg (%)
Value can be changed

89
Foundation Piles

Load capacity: Cohesive soils


Point resistance

Values can be changed

90
Foundation Piles

Load capacity: Cohesionless soils

Skin friction

Point resistance
Values can be changed
g

91
Foundation Piles

Pile capacity: Depends on the piles


pile s length

z1 Q Q
zp S P

z2

z3

znL

-z -z

Ultimate static pile capacity

92
Foundation Piles Base Soil

Point effect correction

( )
(a)
_
_ La

(b) Lb
a1 .Dp Passive zone
_
Lc
_
(c)
a2 .Dp Active zone

a3 .Dp Security zone

P i t resistance
Point i t development
d l t

93
Foundation Piles Grouping Effect

Grouping effect correction

h <_1
Unit bearing capacity f

f
h >_1
w

(w, f)
f
U

(h .w, h .f)
w f
f*

w w* Settlement, w
Groupping effect

Unit bearing capacity is reduced


as settlement increases

94
Foundation Piles Stress Check
Mean Design Stress Checking Structural Capacity vs. Pile diameter

sc(MPa)
Structural Capa city

9
Canadian code (Extraordinary loads)
8
Recommended for
Extraordinary Loads (Earthquake, etc)
7

French Code
5
Recommended
for Service Loads
4
Spanish Construction code NTE
3
Recommended for
2 single pile
((Service Loads))
1
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00
D (m)
p

Recommended Structural Capacity

95
Foundation Piles FEA Model

Equivalent springs
Horizontal skin springs
Horizontal Ballast module:
Chadeysson Ski V
Skin Vertical
ti l SSpring
i

Vertical skin springs


Skin Horizontal Springs
Finite Element Node
Vertical point springs
z

Finite Element Node

Point Vertical Spring

Springs on nodes

96
Foundation Piles - Loads

Loads on Columns: Forces and Moments

Fz Z

Mz Other loads:

Pressure on slab
Mx
My
Self weight

X
Fx
Y Seismic
Fy
acceleration

Forces and Moments sign convention

97
Foundation Piles

Reinforcement Groups:

Rigid Cap Flexible Cap

Top side Top side

Secondary reinforcement A2s Punching reinforcemente A2p Secondary reinforcement A2s


Closed
stirrups
Bottom side Bottom side

Primary reinforcement A1p Secondary reinforcement A1s Punching reinforcemente A1p Secondary reinforcement A1s

Rigid wailing: Reinforcements Flexible wailing: Reinforcements

98
Foundation Piles

99
Foundation Piles

100
Foundation Piles

101
Foundation Piles

102
Foundation Piles

103
Foundation Piles

104
Foundation Piles

105
Integration with FLAC3D

106
Foundations & Dams

Footing and continuous foundations:


- 2D/3D soil-structure interaction models

Dams

107