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Globalization

Teacher Day Time/ Break Branch TA Class


Intermediate

References
• Definition: http://www.reference.com/search?q=Globalization
• Globalization Information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization
• International English: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_English

Resources needed: (attached at end of this lesson plan)


• Copies of Globalization Information sheet
• Copies of Globalization Pro/ Con Information

Stage: Presentation Aim: Students will be able to brainstorm what Globalization is


Time: 5
Method:
• Using the board and free talk ask Ss to provide as much information about
what Globalization is.
Comments

Stage: Practice Aim: Students will be able to understand the definitions of Globalization
Time: 15.
Method:
• Provide Ss with actual definition (hand out Globalization Info sheet), have a
different S read each definition & discuss each one in turn:
o Globalization in a literal sense is international integration. It can be
described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into
a single society and functioning together. This process is a combination
of economic, technological, socio-cultural and political forces.
o Globalization is very often used to refer to economic Globalization
that is integration of national economies into the international economy
through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and
spread of technology.
o Globalization is also defined as internationalism; however such usage
is typically incorrect as "global" implies "one world" as a single unit,
while "international" (between nations) recognizes that different
peoples, cultures, languages, nations, borders, economies, and
ecosystems exist.
Comments

Stage: Production Aim: Students will be able to discuss in groups The Effects Globalization handout
Time: 10.
Method:
• Break class into small groups and elect a spokesperson
• Discuss Effects of Globalization handout and make a list of examples for each.
• Spokesperson is to then present for class.
Comments

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Stage: Presentation Aim: Students will be able to discuss pro’s/ con’s of Globalization
Time: 5.
Method:
• T is to free talk idea’s with Ss
• Brainstorm on the board good & bad things about Globalization
Comments

Stage: Practice Aim: Students will be able to read articles on Pro/ Anti Globalization
Time: 15.
Method:
• In the same groups as earlier, T assigns pro-globalization & anti-globalization
teams. Each group is paired with an opposite group.
• As a group Ss read the article and discuss the points covered in the article.
• T advises Ss they are to have a debate.
• Together all Pro & Con teams must choose 3 Ss each to debate each other (the
presentation of the debate will need to be judged according to class size and
number of Ss- this idea is based on a large class of 30+ Ss).
• Once Ss have chosen and formulated their argument the Ss flip a coin to see
which side goes first and the presentation ensues.
Comments

Stage: Production Aim: Students will be able to formulate an argument for/ against globalization
Time: 20
Method:
• T is Judge based on arguments presented.
• Ss can argue sides only if it their turn to talk. Explain to Ss that if they disagree
with the opposite team they can only say so when it is their teams turn to
speak- one speaker at a time.
• Each speaker speaks for 3 minutes only.
Comments

Stage: Practice/ Aim: Students will be able to discuss learning English as a Global Language
Production
Method:
Time: 10.
• T & Ss free talk about the effects of English as a Global Language.
• Information/ Idea’s that can be used to elicit discussion:
o International English is the concept of the English language as a global
means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement
towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred to
as Global English, World English, Common English, or General
English.
o The combination of a speaker’s first language with English (Chinglish/
Pidgin) and the origins of language.
o Business & Travel affects.
o Ease of learning/ teaching English/ Ss who learn languages of other
countries.
o Reasons Ss have for learning English.

Comments

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Globalization Information
Teachers Note: Information within has been edited to streamline class information, while no information has been plagiarized, all
direct quotes/ references have been removed; full articles can be found on the websites referenced.

Definition
http://www.reference.com/search?q=Globalization
• Globalization in a literal sense is international integration. It can be described as a process by
which the people of the world are unified into a single society and functioning together. This
process is a combination of economic, technological, socio-cultural and political forces.
• Globalization, as a term, is very often used to refer to economic Globalization that is
integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct
investment, capital flows, migration, and spread of technology.
• Globalization is also defined as internationalism; however such usage is typically incorrect as
"global" implies "one world" as a single unit, while "international" (between nations)
recognizes that different peoples, cultures, languages, nations, borders, economies, and
ecosystems exist.

Effects of globalization
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization

Globalization has various aspects which affect the world in several different ways such as:

• Industrial - emergence of worldwide production markets and broader access to a range of foreign
products for consumers and companies. Particularly movement of material and goods between and
within national boundaries.

• Financial - emergence of worldwide financial markets and better access to external financing for
borrowers. Simultaneous though not necessarily purely globalist is the emergence of under or un-
regulated foreign exchange and speculative markets.

• Economic - realization of a global common market, based on the freedom of exchange of goods and
capital.

• Political - some use "globalization" to mean the creation of a world government, or cartels of
governments (e.g. WTO, World Bank, and IMF) which regulate the relationships among
governments and guarantees the rights arising from social and economic globalization. Politically,
the United States has enjoyed a position of power among the world powers; in part because of its
strong and wealthy economy. With the influence of globalization and with the help of The United
States’ own economy, the People's Republic of China has experienced some tremendous growth
within the past decade. If China continues to grow at the rate projected by the trends, then it is very
likely that in the next twenty years, there will be a major reallocation of power among the world
leaders. China will have enough wealth, industry, and technology to rival the United States for the
position of leading world power.

• Informational - increase in information flows between geographically remote locations. Arguably


this is a technological change with the advent of fibre optic communications, satellites, and increased
availability of telephony and Internet.

• Cultural - growth of cross-cultural contacts; advent of new categories of consciousness and identities
which embodies cultural diffusion, the desire to increase one's standard of living and enjoy foreign

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products and ideas, adopt new technology and practices, and participate in a "world culture". Some
bemoan the resulting consumerism and loss of languages. Also see Transformation of culture.
• Ecological- the advent of global environmental challenges that might be solved with international
cooperation, such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, over-fishing of the
ocean, and the spread of invasive species. Since many factories are built in developing countries with
less environmental regulation, globalism and free trade may increase pollution. On the other hand,
economic development historically required a "dirty" industrial stage, and it is argued that
developing countries should not, via regulation, be prohibited from increasing their standard of living.

• Social (International cultural exchange) - increased circulation by people of all nations with fewer
restrictions.
o Spreading of multiculturalism, and better individual access to cultural diversity (e.g. through
the export of Hollywood and Bollywood movies). Some consider such "imported" culture a
danger, since it may supplant the local culture, causing reduction in diversity or even
assimilation. Others consider multiculturalism to promote peace and understanding between
peoples.
o Greater international travel and tourism
o Greater immigration, including illegal immigration
o Spread of local consumer products (e.g. food) to other countries (often adapted to their
culture).
o World-wide fads and pop culture such as Pokémon, Sudoku, Numa Numa, Origami, Idol
series, YouTube, Orkut, Facebook, and MySpace. Accessible to those who have Internet or
Television, leaving out a substantial segment of the Earth's population.
o World-wide sporting events such as FIFA World Cup and the Olympic Games.

• Technical
o Development of a global telecommunications infrastructure and greater transborder data flow,
using such technologies as the Internet, communication satellites, submarine fiber optic cable,
and wireless telephones
o Increase in the number of standards applied globally; e.g. copyright laws, patents and world
trade agreements.

• Legal/Ethical
o The creation of the international criminal court and international justice movements.
o Crime importation and raising awareness of global crime-fighting efforts and cooperation.

Pro-globalization (globalism)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization

Globalization advocates point to the above average drop in poverty rates in countries, such as China, where
globalization has taken a strong foothold, compared to areas less affected by globalization, such as Sub-
Saharan Africa, where poverty rates have remained stagnant.

Generally, the ideas of free trade, capitalism, and democracy are widely believed to facilitate globalization.
Supporters of free trade claim that it increases economic prosperity as well as opportunity, especially among
developing nations, enhances civil liberties and leads to a more efficient allocation of resources. Economic
theories of comparative advantage suggest that free trade leads to a more efficient allocation of resources,
with all countries involved in the trade benefiting. In general, this leads to lower prices, more employment,
higher output and a higher standard of living for those in developing countries.

Supporters of globalization argue that the anti-globalization movement uses anecdotal evidence to support
their view, whereas worldwide statistics strongly support globalization:

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From 1981 to 2001, according to World Bank figures, the number of people living on $1 a day or less
declined from 1.5 billion to 1.1 billion in absolute terms. At the same time, the world population increased,
so in percentage terms the number of such people in developing nations declined from 40% to 20% of the
population with the greatest improvements occurring in economies rapidly reducing barriers to trade and
investment; yet, some critics argue that more detailed variables measuring poverty should be studied instead.

The percentage of people living on less than $2 a day has decreased greatly in areas affected by
globalization, whereas poverty rates in other areas have remained largely stagnant. In East-Asia, including
China, the percentage has decreased by 50.1% compared to a 2.2% increase in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Income inequality for the world as a whole is diminishing. Due to definitional issues and data availability,
there is disagreement with regards to the pace of the decline in extreme poverty. Regardless of who is right
about the past trend in income inequality, it has been argued that improving absolute poverty is more
important than relative inequality.

Life expectancy has almost doubled in the developing world since World War II and is starting to close the
gap between itself and the developed world where the improvement has been smaller. Even in Sub-Saharan
Africa, the least developed region, life expectancy increased from 30 years before World War II to about a
peak of about 50 years before the AIDS pandemic and other diseases started to force it down to the current
level of 47 years. Infant mortality has decreased in every developing region of the world.

The proportion of the world's population living in countries where per-capita food supplies are less than
2,200 calories (9,200 kilojoules) per day decreased from 56% in the mid-1960s to below 10% by the 1990s.

Between 1950 and 1999, global literacy increased from 52% to 81% of the world.

The percentage of children in the labor force has fallen from 24% in 1960 to 10% in 2000.

There are increasing trends in the use of electric power, cars, radios, and telephones per capita, as well as a
growing proportion of the population with access to clean water.

Anti-globalization
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization

“Anti-globalization” may involve the process or actions taken by a state in order to demonstrate its
sovereignty and practice democratic decision-making. Anti-globalization may occur in order to put brakes
on the international transfer of people, goods and ideology, particularly those determined by the
organizations such as the WTO in imposing the radical deregulation program of free market fundamentalism
on local governments and populations.

Participants stand in opposition to the unregulated political power of large, multi-national corporations, as
the corporations exercise power through leveraging trade agreements which damage in some instances the
democratic rights of citizens, the environment particularly air quality index and rain forests, as well as
national government's sovereignty to determine labor rights including the right to unionize for better pay,
and better working conditions, or laws as they may otherwise infringe on cultural practices and traditions of
developing countries.

Critiques of the current wave of economic globalization typically look at both the damage to the planet, in
terms of the perceived unsustainable harm done to the biosphere, as well as the perceived human costs, such
as increased poverty, inequality, miscegenation, injustice and the erosion of traditional culture which, the
critics contend, all occur as a result of the economic transformations related to globalization. They point to a
“multitude of interconnected fatal consequences--social disintegration, a breakdown of democracy, more

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rapid and extensive deterioration of the environment, the spread of new diseases, increasing poverty and
alienation,” which they claim are the unintended but very real consequences of globalization.

Critics argue that:

Poorer countries are sometimes at disadvantage: While it is true that globalization encourages free trade
among countries on an international level, there are also negative consequences because some countries try
to save their national markets. The main export of poorer countries is usually agricultural goods. It is
difficult for these countries to compete with stronger countries that subsidize their own farmers. Because the
farmers in the poorer countries cannot compete, they are forced to sell their crops at much lower price than
what the market is paying.

Exploitation of foreign impoverished workers: The deterioration of protections for weaker nations by
stronger industrialized powers has resulted in the exploitation of the people in those nations to become cheap
labor. Due to the lack of protections, companies from powerful industrialized nations are able to offer
workers enough salary to entice them to endure extremely long hours and unsafe working conditions, though
economists question if consenting workers in a competitive employers' market can be decried as
"exploitation". The abundance of cheap labor is giving the countries in power incentive not to rectify the
inequality between nations. If these nations developed into industrialized nations, the army of cheap labor
would slowly disappear alongside development. It is true that the workers are free to leave their jobs, but in
many poorer countries, this would mean starvation for the worker, and possible even his/her family if their
previous jobs were unavailable.

The shift to outsourcing: The low cost of offshore workers have enticed corporations to move production to
foreign countries. The laid off unskilled workers are forced into the service sector where wages and benefits
are low, but turnover is high. This has contributed to the widening economic gap between skilled and
unskilled workers. The loss of these jobs has also contributed greatly to the slow decline of the middle class
which is a major factor in the increasing economic inequality in the United States. Families that were once
part of the middle class are forced into lower positions by massive layoffs and outsourcing to another
country. This also means that people in the lower class have a much harder time climbing out of poverty
because of the absence of the middle class as a stepping stone.

Weak labor unions: The surplus in cheap labor coupled with an ever growing number of companies in
transition has caused a weakening of labor unions in the United States. Unions lose their effectiveness when
their membership begins to decline. As a result unions hold less power over corporations that are able to
easily replace workers, often for lower wages, and have the option to not offer unionized jobs anymore.