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Respiratory System

NS 102

Respiration refers to the exchange of gases; process whereby oxygen is taken in, its
transportation in the body and its utilization and releasing of carbon dioxide.

Phases of respiration

1. external exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood


a. passage of oxygen from the lungs to blood
b. passage of carbon dioxide from the blood and body tissues

2. internal exchange of gases between blood and body tissues


3. cellular utilization of oxygen by cells of the body

Significance of oxygen in respiration


Oxygen is needed for the oxidation of food so that food will release energy

Anatomy of Human Respiratory System


1. nostrils opening where air enters through
2. choanae opening to the pharynx
3. pharynx short passage between the nasal cavity and the larynx; the common area for
the passageway of food and air
4. larynx (voice box; Adams apple) houses the vocal chords that vibrates when air passes through it
epiglottis - a flap of cartilage that allows air to enter the trachea during breathing
- it covers the trachea during swallowing to prevent food or water from
entering

5. trachea (windpipe) hollow tube stiffened by cartilage rings


6. bronchi branches of trachea entering the lungs
7. bronchioles smaller branches of bronchi inside the lungs
8. alveoli functional units of lungs (gas exchange portion)
9. lungs main respiratory organ

Breathing (pulmonary ventilation) process whereby air enters and leaves the lung
1. inhalation or inspiration the intake of air
2. exhalation or the expiration outflow of air

Mechanisms
Inspiration in mammals - Create negative pressure in lungs
The rib cage is elevated
The diaphragm lowers
Thoracic pressure decreases to less than atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric pressure forces air into the lungs

Expiration in mammals - Create positive pressure in lungs


The rib cage is lowered
The diaphragm rises
Thoracic pressure increases to more than atmospheric pressure
Forces air out the lungs

Pathway of air
- air normally enters and leaves this system through the nostril leading to the nasal cavity which
opens to the mouth
- from this cavity, air moves into the pharynx which is the common passage for both air and
water
- the air then enters though the glottis, a flaplike structure which is an opening at the door of the
pharynx
- the glottis leads to the larynx; then this will lead to the trachea, to the bronchi which branches
into left and right
- after each bronchus enters the lungs, it branches into smaller tubes called bronchioles
Circulatory System
NS 102

- system involved in the transport, delivery and expulsion of materials throughout the body
- would refer to a pumping structure supported by a system of tubes

Functions
1. transport of
- nutritive products from the intestine to all parts of the body
- respiratory materials like oxygen and carbon dioxide
- hormones and other secretions
- excretory products

2. fights infection
3. acts as a buffer system resists drastic change in the pH of solutions in the body

All vertebrates have a closed cardiovascular system

Blood - Homeostasis Functions


- Transports substances to and from capillaries for exchange with tissue fluid
- Guards against pathogen invasion
- Regulates body temperature
- Buffers body pH
- Maintain osmotic pressure
- Clots prevent blood/fluid loss

Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)


- Small, biconcave disks
- Lack a nucleus and contain hemoglobin
Hemoglobin contains: heme the red pigment globin the protein molecule

White Blood Cells (leukocytes)


- are scavengers that destroy microorganisms at infection sites
- remove foreign chemicals
- remove debris that result from dead or injured cells
- Contain a nucleus and lack hemoglobin
- Important in inflammatory response

2 types

Granulocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils least numerous wbc
Neutrophils the most abundant wbc

Agranulocytes
Monocytes
Lymphocytes (B cells and T cells)

Platelets (thrombocytes)
- disk shaped cell fragments that initiate blood clotting

plasma is the straw colored liquid part of the blood

Vertebrate blood vessels:


Arteries - Carry blood away from heart
Arterioles small artery; Lead to capillaries
Capillaries smallest blood vessel usually found within an organ where chemical exchange takes place
Venules small veins; Lead to veins
Veins - Return blood to heart
Heart
- the main pumping or propulsive organ of the body made up of chambers atria and ventricles
- pumps the entire blood volume every minute

Human Heart
Fist-sized
Cone-shaped
Very muscular organ (special cardiac fibers)
Lies within a fluid-filled sac (the pericardium)

Septum separates heart into left & right halves


Each half has two chambers
Upper two chambers are the atria
Thin-walled
Receive blood from circulation
Lower two chambers are the ventricles
Thick-walled
Pump blood away from heart

Atrioventricular valves (A-V valves)

tricuspid valve between the right atrium and right ventricle


bicuspid valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
semilunar valve found in the openings of the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein, aorta

heartbeat a sequence of muscular contraction and relaxation called cardiac cycle

2 phases of heartbeat
Systole contraction phase
Diastole relaxation phase

Blood pressure the pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessel
Sphygmomanometer a device used to measure blood pressure