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5, J UNE 2013

Using Vibration Analysis

1

Asad Said Juma Al Zadjali and 2G.R. Rameshkumar

1,2

Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Caledonian College of Engineering,

P.O. Box 2322, CPO 111 Seeb, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

1

az-asad@hotmail.com, 2grrameshkumar@yahoo.com

Abstract Condition monitoring is the process used to analyze misalignment problems, first one is Parallel misalignment and

the operating condition of rotating machines. Vibration analysis is the second one is Angular misalignment. Usually in rotating

the most commonly used technique. In this paper vibration

machines misalignment may occurs either only in parallel or

analysis is used to analyze the operating condition of Centrifugal

Blower under various misalignment conditions. The experiments only in angular direction or sometimes both combined. Parallel

were carried out for various parallel misalignment and angular misalignment as shown in Figure 1 is the case when two shafts

misalignment conditions between blower shaft and motor shaft. centerlines are parallel, but not lies on the same centerline.

Different levels of misalignments conditions were introduced to This type of misalignment may arise either in horizontal

study the effect on rotating machinery. Vibration signatures were direction, or in vertical direction or in both the directions [2].

acquired for normal and faulty conditions at different cut-off

speeds of 1250 rpm, 1450 rpm and 1650 rpm in horizontal, in

vertical and in axial direction. The acquired vibration signatures

were presented and analyzed for these fault conditions. It was

observed in the vibration spectrum that the vibration amplitude

component at 2X is predominant in both the cases also it was

observed that the slight increase in 1X and 3X vibration

amplitude component at higher speed with higher level of

misalignment. Also the comparison of 1X, 2X and 3X vibration Figure 1: Parallel Misalignment

amplitude components for all the three measurement direction for

both type of misalignment were made. Angular misalignment as shown in Figure 2 is the case when

two shafts centerlines are not parallel to each other but

Keywords Condition Monitoring, Vibration Analysis and Shaft

Misalignment inclined. This type of misalignment takes place either at driver

shaft end or at driven shaft end.

I. INTRODUCTION

commonly used to identify where improvements in

machinery availability and reductions in maintenance costs can

be achieved through the integration of condition monitoring

techniques [1]. The main common causes of mechanical

Figure 2: Angular Misalignment

vibration with rotating shafts are misalignment between driver

shaft and driven shaft. Ultimately it causes failures in bearing

and shaft couplings. It is practically difficult to make two shaft II. VIBRATION MONITORING - CONDITION MONITORING

perfectly aligned each other in other words always a small TOOL

amount of misalignment is present. There are two types of

Vibration analysis is a useful tool for evaluating machines

general running conditions. In this work vibration analysis is

used to analyze the machine running condition. Guang Zhao

Asad Said Juma Al Zadjali is with the Caledonian College of Engineering, [3] studied the meshing forces of misaligned spline coupling

Muscat, Oman. Phone: +968-95194391; fax: +968-24535675, (Email: az- and its influence on rotor system, they mentioned in the

asad@hotmail.com)

concluding remarks 2X rotating speed appears when

G.R. Rameshkumar is with the Caledonian College of Engineering,

Muscat, Oman. Phone: +968-95194391; fax: +968-24535675, (Email: misalignment is present. Estupiflan et al. [4] analyze the

grraneshkumar@yahoo.com)

INTERNATIONAL J OURNAL OF M ULTIDISCIPLINARY S CIENCES AND ENGINEERING , VOL . 4, NO. 5, J UNE 2013

establishing a correlation between vibration levels, energy

consumptions and different degrees of misalignment. They

have adopted statistical model based on the Response Surface

Methodology (RSM) for data analysis in industrial case

studies. Kirankumar et al. [5] studied vibrations analysis to

study unbalance and misalignments and imperfect bearings on

rotating systems. Dabiri et al. [6] uses vibration analysis to

analyze the unbalance effect on blower. Amarnath et al. [7]

used different vibration monitoring and analysis techniques

such as time domain analysis, frequency domain analysis and

spike energy analysis for suitability in identifying different

defects in bearings. Monitoring of vibration provides an early Figure 3: Centrifugal Blower Experimental Test Setup

warning of impending failures [8].

In this paper an experimental investigation is carried out to The Figure 4 to Figure 6 represents the vibration spectrums

investigate the effect of shaft misalignment both in parallel and

under healthy condition, 0.40 mm, 0.60 mm and 0.80 mm of

in angular direction on rotating systems.

parallel misalignment conditions at shaft speed of 1250 rpm in

horizontal, in vertical and in axial direction. The Figure 7 to

III. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

Figure 9 represents the vibration spectrums under healthy

The Centrifugal Blower experimental setup [9] is used for condition, 0.40 mm, 0.60 mm and 0.80 mm of parallel

this work to study the effect of shaft misalignment. The Figure misalignment conditions at shaft speed of 1450 rpm in

3 represents the photographic view of Centrifugal Blower horizontal, in vertical and in axial direction. The Figure 10 to

Experimental Test Setup. The blower shaft is connected to Figure 12 represents the vibration spectrums under healthy

motor shaft of same diameter through an electromagnetic condition, 0.40 mm, 0.60 mm and 0.80 mm of parallel

coupling. The variable speed DC motor is used to vary the misalignment conditions at shaft speed of 1650 rpm in

speeds. To introduce the horizontal movement of the steel horizontal, in vertical and in axial direction.

plate, a lead screw is attached at the bottom of the steel plate. Here for discussions higher speed is considered since the

The LAB VIEW 7 (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Electronic effect of parallel misalignment is high at higher speeds. As

Workbench NI-National Instrument) software is used to observed from these spectrums, at healthy condition the

acquire vibration signals with Data Acquisition unit (DAQ) vibration amplitude is within the specified limits and no

through accelerometer (Model 621B40, IMI sensors, predominant frequencies are observed. As parallel

sensitivity is 1.02 mV/m/s2 and frequency range up to 16 kHz) misalignment increase to 0.40 mm, 0.60 mm and 0.80 mm, the

in horizontal, vertical and axial directions. The software change in vibration spectrum is observed. In the vibration

displays vibration spectrum both in time domain and frequency spectrum it is observed that the 2X vibration amplitude

domain and stores data in a data file. component is predominant in all the spectrum. The 2X

vibration amplitude component in horizontal direction is

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 0.02097 m/s2 at 0.4 mm offset, is 0.035484 m/s2 at 0.6 mm

offset and is 0.05322 m/s2 at 0.8 mm. The 2X vibration

The experimental works for various parallel misalignment amplitude component in vertical direction is 0.018326 m/s2 at

and angular misalignment were conducted and the 0.4 mm offset, is 0.032219 m/s2 at 0.6 mm offset and is

corresponding vibration signatures for each test run were 0.052819 m/s2 at 0.8 mm. The 2X vibration amplitude

recorded. component in axial direction is 0.064107 m/s2 at 0.4 mm

offset, is 0.099744 m/s2 at 0.6 mm offset and is 0.126189 m/s2

A. Parallel Misalignment Condition

at 0.8 mm. It is also observed that higher vibration amplitude

Parallel misalignment in vertical direction is created by at higher parallel misalignment. The 2X vibration amplitude

inserting shims below the steel plate at all four corners on components in vertical direction for different parallel

which blower is mounted. Required amount of parallel misalignment conditions are smaller compared to same values

misalignment were created by increasing the equal number of in horizontal direction. It is also observed that the 2X vibration

shims in all four corners. Experiments were conducted for amplitude components in axial direction for different parallel

healthy, and parallel misalignment of 0.40 mm, 0.60 mm and misalignment conditions are greater values compared to same

0.80 mm at shaft speeds of 1250 rpm, 1450 rpm and 1650 rpm values in both horizontal and vertical directions. These 2X

respectively. The vibration signals were acquired in horizontal, vibration amplitude components are more that 50% in axial

in vertical and in axial direction for each case of experiments direction. This increase in 2X component clearly indicated the

conducted. presence of misalignment [10].

INTERNATIONAL J OURNAL OF M ULTIDISCIPLINARY S CIENCES AND ENGINEERING , VOL . 4, NO. 5, J UNE 2013

1X 2X

1X 2X 2X

1X

Figure 4: Vibration spectrums in horizontal direction for various parallel misalignment at 1250 rpm

1X 2X

1X

1X 2X

2X

Figure 5: Vibration spectrums in vertical direction for various parallel misalignment at 1250 rpm

2X

1X

2X

2X

1X

1X

Figure 6: Vibration spectrums in axial direction for various parallel misalignment at 1250 rpm

INTERNATIONAL J OURNAL OF M ULTIDISCIPLINARY S CIENCES AND ENGINEERING , VOL . 4, NO. 5, J UNE 2013

1X

2X

1X 1X 2X

2X

Figure 7: Vibration spectrums in horizontal direction for various parallel misalignment at 1450 rpm

1X 2X

2X 1X 2X

1X

Figure 8: Vibration spectrums in vertical direction for various parallel misalignment at 1450 rpm

2X

1X

2X

2X

1X

1X

Figure 9: Vibration spectrums in axial direction for various parallel misalignment at 1450 rpm

INTERNATIONAL J OURNAL OF M ULTIDISCIPLINARY S CIENCES AND ENGINEERING , VOL . 4, NO. 5, J UNE 2013

1X

2X

2X

1X 1X

2X

Figure 10: Vibration spectrums in horizontal direction for various parallel misalignment at 1650 rpm

1X 2X

2X 2X

1X

1X

Figure 11: Vibration spectrums in vertical direction for various parallel misalignment at 1650 rpm

2X

1X

2X

2X

1X 1X

Figure 12: Vibration spectrums in axial direction for various parallel misalignment at 1650 rpm

INTERNATIONAL J OURNAL OF M ULTIDISCIPLINARY S CIENCES AND ENGINEERING , VOL . 4, NO. 5, J UNE 2013

spectrums under healthy condition, 0.07880, 0.13140 and

Angular misalignment between blower shaft and motor shaft

0.18390 angular misalignment conditions at shaft speed of

were created by inserting shims below the steel plate at two

1250 rpm in horizontal, in vertical and in axial direction. The

corners on which blower is mounted. Required amount of

Figure 16 to Figure 18 represents the vibration spectrums

angular misalignment were created by increasing the equal

under healthy condition, 0.07880, 0.13140 and 0.18390 angular

number of shims in only two corners and respective angles

misalignment conditions at shaft speed of 1450 rpm in

were calculated. Experiments were conducted for healthy, and

horizontal, in vertical and in axial direction. The Figure 19 to

angular misalignment of 0.07880, 0.13140 and 0.18390 at shaft

Figure 21 represents the vibration spectrums under healthy

speeds of 1250 rpm, 1450 rpm and 1650 rpm respectively. The

condition, 0.07880, 0.13140 and 0.18390 angular misalignment

vibration signals were acquired in horizontal, in vertical and in

conditions at shaft speed of 1250 rpm in horizontal, in vertical

axial direction for each case of experiments conducted.

and in axial direction.

2X

1X

2X

2X

1X 1X

Figure 13: Vibration spectrums in horizontal direction for various angular misalignment at 1250 rpm

2X

1X

2X

2X

1X 1X

Figure 14: Vibration spectrums in vertical direction for various angular misalignment at 1250 rpm

INTERNATIONAL J OURNAL OF M ULTIDISCIPLINARY S CIENCES AND ENGINEERING , VOL . 4, NO. 5, J UNE 2013

2X

1X

2X

2X

1X 1X

Figure 15: Vibration spectrums in axial direction for various angular misalignment at 1250 rpm

2X

1X

2X

1X 2X

1X

Figure 16: Vibration spectrums in horizontal direction for various angular misalignment at 1450 rpm

2X

1X

2X 2X

1X 1X

Figure 17: Vibration spectrums in vertical direction for various angular misalignment at 1450 rpm

INTERNATIONAL J OURNAL OF M ULTIDISCIPLINARY S CIENCES AND ENGINEERING , VOL . 4, NO. 5, J UNE 2013

2X

1X

2X 2X

1X

1X

Figure 18: Vibration spectrums in axial direction for various angular misalignment at 1450 rpm

2X

1X

2X 2X

1X 1X

Figure 19: Vibration spectrums in horizontal direction for various angular misalignment at 1650 rpm

2X

1X

2X

2X

1X 1X

Figure 20: Vibration spectrums in vertical direction for various angular misalignment at 1650 rpm

INTERNATIONAL J OURNAL OF M ULTIDISCIPLINARY S CIENCES AND ENGINEERING , VOL . 4, NO. 5, J UNE 2013

2X

1X

2X

2X

1X 1X

Figure 21: Vibration spectrums in axial direction for various angular misalignment at 1650 rpm

effect of angular misalignment is high at higher speeds. As

observed from these spectrums, at healthy condition the

vibration amplitude is within the specified limits and no

predominant frequencies are observed. As angular

misalignment increase to 0.07880, 0.13140 and 0.18390, the

change in vibration spectrum is observed. In the vibration

spectrum it is observed that the 2X vibration amplitude

component is predominant in all the spectrum.

The 2X vibration amplitude component in horizontal

direction is 0.035716 m/s2 at 0.07880 offset, is 0.053245 m/s2

at 0.13140 offset and is 0.069885 m/s2 at 0.18390 . The 2X

vibration amplitude component in vertical direction is

0.031762 m/s2 at 0.07880 offset, is 0.050239 m/s2 at 0.13140

offset and is 0.066579 m/s2 at 0.18390. The 2X vibration

amplitude component in axial direction is 0.097739 m/s2 at

0.07880 offset, is 0.126875 m/s2 at 0.13140 offset and is

0.159635 m/s2 at 0.18390. It is also observed that higher

vibration amplitude at higher angular misalignment. It is also

observed that the 2X vibration amplitude components in axial

direction for different parallel misalignment conditions are

greater values compared to same values in both horizontal and

vertical directions. These 2X vibration amplitude components

are more that 50% in axial direction. This increase in 2X

component clearly indicated the presence of misalignment

[10]. Figure 22: Comparison of 1X, 2X and 3X for various parallel misalignments

at different speeds in axial direction

C. Comparison of 1X, 2X and 3X vibration amplitude

components for Parallel and Angular Misalignment The Figure 23 represents the comparison of 1X, 2X and 3X

The comparison of 1X, 2X and 3X vibration amplitude vibration amplitude components for healthy, 0.07880 , 0.13140

components for parallel and angular misalignment conditions and 0.18390 of angular misalignment at 1250 rpm, 1450 rpm

were made. To show the difference the results of misalignment and 1650 rpm speed respectively in axial direction.

effect in axial direction for both parallel and angular It is observed from these comparison graphs for parallel

misalignment conditions are presented. The Figure 22 misalignment in axial direction at different speeds, the 2X

represents the comparison of 1X, 2X and 3X vibration vibration amplitude is the predominant and found increases

amplitude components for healthy, 0.40 mm, 0.60 mm and with speed at higher level of fault. Where as for angular

0.80 mm of parallel misalignment at 1250 rpm, 1450 rpm and misalignment

1650 rpm speed respectively in axial direction.

INTERNATIONAL J OURNAL OF M ULTIDISCIPLINARY S CIENCES AND ENGINEERING , VOL . 4, NO. 5, J UNE 2013

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

great support during his study, also to his supervisor Dr. G.R.

Rameshkumar to give him the opportunity to do this project

and give him the opportunity to gain his knowledge.

REFERENCES

[1] Norton, M.P. and Denis Karczub, Fundamentals of noise and

vibration analysis for engineers, 2nd edition, Cambridge University

Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK. 2003.

[2] Piotrowski John, Shaft alignment handbook, 3rd edition, CRC

Press, Taylor & Francis Group LLC, New York, NY, 2007.

[3] Guang Zhao, Zhansheng Liu and Feng Chen, Meshing force of

misaligned spline coupling and the influence on rotor system,

International Journal of Rotating Machinery, vol 2008, article ID

321308, 8 pages, doc:10.1155/2008/321308.

[4] Estupiflan, E., D. Espinoza and A. Fuentes, Energy losses caused

by misalignment in rotating machinery: A theoretical, experimental

and industrial approach, International Journal of COMADEM, vol.

11, no. 2, pp. 12-18, 2008.

[5] Kirankumar, B., Diwakar, G. and Satynarayana, M. R.S,

Determination of Unbalance in Rotating Machine Using Vibration

Signature Analysis, International Journal of Modern Engineering

Research (IJMER), vol. 2. no.5, pp. 3415-3421, 2012.

Figure 23: Comparison of 1X, 2X and 3X for various angular misalignments [6] Dabiri H., Houshmandan, P, A Mousavi and K. Abbasi, Overhung

at different speeds in axial direction blower fault diagnosis by vibration analysis and using of field

balancing method for correction in shahid tondgooyan

petrochemical company 22nd International Congress, COMADEM

V. CONCLUSION 2009, San Sebastian, Spain, pp. 101-104, 2009.

[7] Amarnath, M., R. Srinidhi, A. Ramachandra and S.B. Kanadagal,

Vibration analysis is the best and powerful techniques Prediction of defects in antifriction bearing using vibration signal

adopted in condition monitoring process. As noted in the analysis, Institution of engineers (India) Mechanical Journal, vol.

industries which are using rotating machinery most common 85, pp. 88-92, 2004.

problem is misalignment. In this project vibration analysis is [8] Dileep, N., Anusha, K., Satyaprathik, C., Kartheek, B., and K.

Ravikumar, Condition Monitoring of FD-FAN Using Vibration

used to study various misalignments fault conditions such as in

Analysis, International Journal of Emerging Technology and

parallel and in angular direction. Many experiments were Advanced Engineering, vol. 3, no.1, pp. 170-176, 2013.

carried out with different level of parallel misalignment and [9] Rameshkumar, G.R., Rao, B.V.A. and K.P. Ramachandran, Coast

angular misalignment at different selected speeds. In this study down time analysis to analyze the effect of misalignment in rotating

it is noticed that the effect of misalignment is very small at machinery, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced

lower speed. Whereas the speed increases the effect of Technology (IJEAT), vol. 1, no.1, pp. 149-156, 2012.

[10] Bently, D.E,. Fundamentals of Rotating Machinery Diagnostics,

misalignment is high on rotating machinery causing more

Bently Pressurized Bearing Press, Minden, La, USA, 2002.

vibrations. As noticed from vibration spectrums for parallel

misalignment and angular misalignment, the vibration

amplitude at 2X running speed is predominant. This 2X Mr. Asad Said Juma ALZadjali is pursuing his

vibration amplitude component is increase with increase in Bachelor degree in Mechatronics engineering at

Caledonian College of Engineering, Muscat, Oman.

level of misalignment. This increase in 2X component clearly His research interest is vibration analysis and

indicated the presence of misalignment. Also at higher speed condition monitoring.

this components values are more. In addition to this a small

increase in 1X and 2X vibration amplitude component are

observed at higher speed with higher level of misalignment.

Comparison of these 1X, 2X and 3X vibration amplitude

component for various misalignment conditions in all the three

Dr. G. R. Rameshkumar is presently working as

measurement directions were also made to show the clear Senior lecturer at Caledonian College of

difference between these observed values. Monitoring rotating Engineering, Muscat. He received his B.E

machinery using vibration analysis provides early warning on (Mechanical) and M.Tech (PEST) degrees from

these faults with dominant frequency in the vibration spectrum Mysore University (India) in 1984 and 1995

respectively. He received his PhD degree from VIT

at 2X component. With this indication a corrective action can University, Vellore, India. His research interests are

be initiated to avoid further development of these faults and in the field of Vibration Monitoring, Condition

ultimately to reduce machine breakdown. Hence it is suggested Monitoring, Mechatronics and Computer Aided

based on the experimental studies the vibration analysis is the Design & Manufacturing.

best method to detect mechanical faults in rotating machinery.

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