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Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

CONTENTS

Page No.

1. ALIGNMENT SURVEY 2

2. PRELIMINARY SURVEY 3

3. GEOMETRIC DESIGN 10

4. DESIGN OF HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS 28

5. BIBILIOGRAPHY 34

ALIGNMENT SURVEY
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GENERAL

Administrative, developmental, strategic and other needs would determine the


obligatory points to be connected by a hill road. Control points will be governed by saddles,
passes, river crossing and other natural features like escarpments and unstable areas.

Optimum alignment will be one, which yields the least overall transportation cost,
taking into account the cost of construction and maintenance of the road as well as the
recurring cost of vehicle operation, and at the same time having least adverse impact on the
environmental and ecological balance. The route should avoid the introduction of hairpin
bends as far as possible.

PROCEDURE OF FIXING THE ALIGNMENT

The alignment of a hill road is fixed and translated onto the ground in several operations:
Reconnaissance
Preliminary survey
Determination of final center line
Final location survey

RECONAISSANCE
GENERAL

The reconnaissance survey may be conducted in the following sequence:

Study of topographical survey sheets, geological and meteorological maps, and aerial
photographs if available.
Aerial reconnaissance (where necessary and feasible),
Ground reconnaissance.
Final reconnaissance of inaccessible and difficult stretches.

Study of survey sheets, maps, etc.: Reconnaissance begins with the study of all the available
maps. In India, topographical sheets are available in scale 1:50000.

Aerial reconnaissance: Aerial reconnaissance will provide a birds eye view of the alignment
under consideration, along with the surrounding area. It will help to identify factors, which
call for rejection or modification of any of the alignments.

Ground reconnaissance: The various alternative routes found feasible as a result of map and
aerial photograph study and aerial reconnaissance are further examined in the field by

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ground reconnaissance. As such, this part of the survey is an important link in the chain of
activities leading to selection of the final route.

Final reconnaissance of inaccessible and difficult stretches: Ground reconnaissance may


disclose certain difficult stretches, which call for detailed examination. A trace cut might be
specially made in such sections for inspection.

Reconnaissance report: Based on the information collected during the reconnaissance survey
a report must be prepared. It should include all relevant information collected during the
survey

PRELIMINARY SURVEY

GENERAL

The preliminary survey consists of pegging the route previously selected on the basis
of the reconnaissance survey, cutting a trace 1.0m to 1.2m wide and running an accurate
traverse line along it for the purpose of taking longitudinal and cross sections and
establishing bench marks. The data collected at this stage forms the basis for the
determination of the final center line of the road.

PEGGING AND TRACE CUT:

The line and the grade of the selected alternative are pegged and the trace is cut
along the pegged route.

SURVEY PROCEDURE:

The survey should cover a strip of sufficient width taking into account the degree
and the extent of cut/fill, with allowance for possible shift in the center line of the alignment
at the time of final design. In the normal course, a strip width of about 30m in straight or
slightly curving reaches and 60m at sharp curves and hairpin bends should meet the
requirements.

Physical features such as buildings, monuments, burial grounds, place of worship,


pipelines, power lines, telephone lines, existing roads, etc. that are likely to affect the project
proposals should be located by means of offsets measured from the traverse line.

Levelling work includes taking ground levels along the trace cut at intervals of 10m and at
abrupt changes in slopes and also establishing benchmarks at intervals 250m exceptionally
500m by running check levels on a closed traverse basis independently. While levelling along
center line, readings of benchmarks should also be taken to have a crosscheck in regard to
accuracy of the field work. It is particularly important that a single datum GTS datum
should be used to tie up all levels.

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Cross sections should be taken at intervals of 60m and at points of appreciable


change in soil conditions. While taking cross sections, soil classification should also be
recorded. At sharp curves and difficult locations, detailed levelling may be done for the
plotting of contours.

MAP PREPARATION:

At conclusion of the preliminary survey, plans and longitudinal sections are prepared
for detailed study to determine the final centre line of bridge-crossing, etc., the plan should
show contours at 1m-3m intervals, so as to facilitate the final decision.

Scales for the maps should generally be the same as adopted for the final drawings.
Normally, the horizontal scale might be 1:1000 and the vertical scale 1:100.

DETERMINATION OF FINAL CENTER LINE:

Determination of final centre line of the road design in the office is a forerunner to
the final location survey. This involves the following operations:

Making use of plans from the preliminary survey showing the longitudinal profile,
cross-sections and contours, a few alterative alignments for the final centre line of the
road are drawn and studied and the best one satisfying the engineering, aesthetic,
economic and environmental requirements is selected.
For the selected alignment, a trial grade line is drawn taken into consideration the
controls which are established by mountain passes, intersections with other roads,
railway/river crossings, unstable areas, etc.
For the alignment finally chosen, a study of the horizontal alignment and conjunction
with the profile is carried out and adjustments made in both as necessary for
achieving proper co-ordination.
Horizontal curves including spiral transitions are designed and the final center line
marked on the map.
The vertical curves are designed and the profile shown on the longitudinal section.

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FINAL LOCATION SURVEY

GENERAL

The purpose of the final location survey is to layout the final center line of the road in
the field based on the alignment selected in the design office and to collect necessary data for
the preparation of working drawings.

TRANSIT SURVEY

The center line of the road, as determined in the design office, is translated on the
ground by means of a continuous transit survey and pegging of the center line as the survey
proceeds. All angles should be measured with a transit. It would be necessary to fix reference
marks for this purpose. These marks should be generally 20m apart in straight reaches and
10m apart in curved reaches. To fix the center line, reference pillars- control burjis should be
firmly embedded in the ground. These should be located beyond the expected edge of the
cutting on the hillside. The maximum spacing between the pillars may be 100m.

The following should be followed with reference to pillars:


Reduced distance,
Horizontal distance from the center line of the road,
Reduced level at the top of the reference pillar, and
Formation level of the road.

The reference pillars should be so located that these will not be disturbed during
construction. Description and location of the reference pillars should be noted for
reproduction on the final alignment plans.

At the road crossings, the angles that the intersecting roads make with the final center
line should be measured with the help of a transit. Similar measurements should be made at
railway level crossings.

BENCHMARKS:

To establish firm vertical control for location, design and construction, benchmarks
established during preliminary should be rechecked.

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LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS AND CROSS-SECTIONS:

Levels along the final center line should be taken at all breaks in the ground. Cross-
sections should be taken at 60m interval.

PROPER PROJECTION OF POINTS OF REFERENCE:

The final location survey is considered complete when all necessary information is
available and ready for the designer to be able to plot the final road profile and prepare the
project drawings. Among other things, field notes should give a clear description and location
of all the benchmarks and reference points. This information should be transferred to the
plan drawings, so that at the time of construction, the center line and the benchmarks could
be located in the field without any difficulty. In the last stage of alignment survey,
hydrological and soil investigations for the route should be carried out.

FIELD WORK DETAILS

The field work was started from Bench mark 11(connecting road between Melkote
Inspection bungalow to Gowrikatte circle (culvert parapet top) for fly levelling.
Highway alignment was started from TBM4 up to existing major road. The following
details were collected all along the survey route during reconnaissance survey:
Soil type along the route and observation of the geological features.
Presence of culvert along the route.
Additional data regarding the geological function type of rocks were observed all
along the route of survey.

Consideration of geometric design and other requirements of realignment preparations


of plan were done by plane table survey.

Final alignment was carried out by redesigning the geometric parameters of the road at
the point of curve suitably.

TO FIND OUT THE REDUCED LEVEL

To find out the reduced level we use the dumpy level and levelling instruments. The
dumpy level generally consists of telescope tube finely secured in two collars fixed by
adjusting screws to the stage carried by the vertical spindle. The modern form of dumpy
level has the telescope. This form is known as solid dumpy.

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The levelling staff is straight, rectangular rod having graduations; the foot of the
staff represents zero reading. The purpose of the levelling staff is to determine the amount by
which station is above or below the line of sight.

TO FIX THE ALIGNMENT AND DIRECTION OF THE TERRAIN

The instruments required for this are:


Prismatic compass,
Ranging rod,
Chain and tape

Prismatic compass is the most convenient and portable form of magnetic compass, which
can either be used as a hand instrument or can be fitted on a tripod. A magnetic needle is
attached to the circular ring or compass chord made of aluminium a non magnetic
substance. Using this instrument we measure the bearing (back bearing and fore bearing).
Chain is another important device, which is generally made of steel, and is of length 30m.
It is a very important instrument to measure the length and also during the fixing of the
alignments in the field.

Another important device in the survey project is the Tape. It is generally made of
plastic. We first measure a certain distance interval with the help of chain or tape.
After measuring the distance, using the prismatic compass and with the help of then
Ranging Rod we take bearing called fore bearing and back bearing.

USE OF PLANE TABLE


Plane tabling is a graphical method of survey in which the field observations and
plotting proceeds simultaneously. It is the means of making a manuscript map in the field
while the ground can be seen by the topographer and without intermediate steps of recording
the transcribing field notes.
The following instruments are used in plane table survey:
The plane table with levelling head having arrangements for
Levelling
Rotation about vertical axis and
Clamping in any required position
Alidade for sighting
Plumbing fork and plumb bob
Spirit level
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Compass
Drawing paper with a rain proof cover

WORKING OPERATIONS

1 Fixing: fixing the table to the tripod,


2 Setting:
Levelling the table: the table is levelled by placing the level on the board in
two positions at right angles and getting the bubble centred in both
directions.
Centring: a table should be so placed over the station on the ground that the
point plotted on the sheet corresponding to the station occupied should be
exactly over the station on the ground. This is done by using a plumbing fork.
Orientation: it is the process of putting the plane table in a fixed direction so
that the line representing a certain direction on the plane is parallel to that
direction on the ground. This is essential condition to be fulfilled when more
than one instrument station is to be used.
There are two main methods of orienting the plane table:
1 Orienting by means of trough compass, and
2 Orienting by means of back sighting.
USE OF CEYLON GHAT TRACER
It is a very useful instrument for setting out gradients. It essentially consists of a long
circular tube having a peep hole at one end and cross wires at the other end.
1 To measure a slope:
Fix the instrument onto the stand and hold it to one end of the line. Keep the
target at the other end.
Looking through the eye hole, more the sliding weight in the line of sight
passes through the cross mark of a sight vane.
The reading against the levelled edge of the weight will give the gradient of
the line.
2 To set out a gradient:
Hold the instruments at one end,
Send the assistant at the other end with the target,
Slide the weight to set it to the given gradient, say 1 in n,
Direct the assistant to move the target till it is bisected.
Drive a peg at the other end so that the top of the peg is at the same level as that of
the bottom of the target.

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REALIGNMENT:
While improving the horizontal alignment of road, improvement in sharp curves and zig
zags should be done after considering the whole alignment and not on a piece meal basis.
The improvement of transition curves would not generally be very costly and therefore the
defects should be rectified wherever necessary. The sight distance available generally gets
increased when the horizontal alignment is improved or otherwise a set back distance may
be increased at horizontal curves by removing or shifting the obstructions from the inner
side of curve upto the desired extent.
While improving the vertical alignment attempt should be made to provide over taking sight
distance at summit curve. However, if this is not possible, atleast the stopping sight distance
should be available for the design speed at all locations of the road. Now corrections of minor
undulations such as humps and dips may not involve high cost and so it is not desirable to
provide suitable vertical transition curves for shock free movements of vehicles travelling at
the design speed. Valley curves may be checked for comfort conditions and for visibility
under the head lights of the vehicle during night driving.
STEPS IN REALIGNMENT:
1. Reconnaissance of the stretch of road to be realigned, study of the deficiencies and the
possible changes in alignment.
2. Survey of existing roads recording the topographic features and all other existing features
such as drainage. The field work may be carried out using plane table and level or by
tachometry.
3. Observation of spot levels along the centre line of the road and cross section levels at
suitable intervals to note the gradient, cross slope and superelevation etc.
4. Soil surveying along the stretch of land.
5. Comparison of economics and consideration of feasibility of alternate proposals of
realignment.
6. Finalisation of design features of realigned road stretches.
7. Preparation of drawings (showing plan, longitudanal section, and cross sections for re-
alignment project)

8. Marking out the centre line of re-aligned road while trying to utilise the existing road to
the maximum extent possible.
9. Checking the geometric design elements of the newly aligned stretch of the road.

GEOMETRIC DESIGN

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GEOMETRIC DESIGN

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A uniform application of design standards is most desirable from the viewpoint of


road safety and smooth flow of traffic. The use of optimum design standards will reduce the
possibility of early obsolescence of the facilities brought about by inadequacy of the original
standards.

HIGHWAY CROSS-SECTION ELEMENTS:

The different elements under this are:


Pavement surface characteristics.
Cross slope or camber.
Width of pavement or carriageway.
Kerb
Road margins.
Right of way.
Width of roadway.

WIDTH OF ROADLAND, ROADWAY, CARRIAGEWAY AND SHOULDERS;

Desirable width of road land (also termed as right-of-way) for various categories of
roads are given in the Table.
Sl. ROAD OPEN AREAS BUILT-UP AREAS
No. CLASSIFICATION NORMAL EXCEPTIONAL NORMAL EXCEPTIONAL
1 National and state 24 18 20 18
highways
2 Major district roads 18 15 15 12
3 Other district roads 15 12 12 9
4 Village roads 9 9 9 9

Notes:
In order to ensure proper sigh distance, it may be necessary to acquire additional
right-of-way over that indicated in the table. The right-of-way should be enough to
ensure a minimum setback of 5mm for building line from the centre line of the road.
Additional land with reference to the requirements may be acquired at locations
involving deep cuts. Fills and unstable or landslide areas
If a road is expected, to be a higher classification in the foreseeable future, the land
width should correspond to the higher class of roads.

Width of carriageway, should and roadway for various categories of roads should be as
given in table.

Highway Carriageway width Shoulder width Roadway width (m)


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classification (m)
National highway &
state highway
Single lane 3.75 2x1.25 6.0
Double lane 2x0.9 8.8
7
Major district road 3.75 2x0.5 4.75
& other roads
Village roads 3.0 2x0.5 4.0

NOTES:
The roadway width given in the Table are exclusive of parapets (usual width 0.6m)
The roadway widths for village roads are on the basis of a single lane carriageway of
3m. Widths greater that 3m may however be adopted judiciously depending on the
type and intensity of traffic, cost and related factors. In that case the roadway width
should be increased correspondingly.
In hard rock stretches or unstable locations where excess cutting might lead to slope
failure, 0.8m on two-lane roads and 0.4 m in other cases may reduce the width of
roadway. However, where such stretches occur in continuous long length, reduction
in roadway width should not be effected unless requisite passing places are provided.
On horizontal curves, the roadway width should be increased corresponding to the
extra widening of carriageway for curvature.
On roads subject to heavy snowfall, where regular snow clearance is done over long
periods to keep the road open to traffic, roadway width may be increased by 1.5m for
MDRs, ODRs and VRs.

CAMBER/ CROSSFALL

The pavement on straight reaches should be provided with a crown in the middle and
surface on either side sloping towards the edge.
The camber or cross fall on straight sections of roads should be as given below. For a
given surface type, the steeper values of camber should be adopted in areas having high
intensity of rainfall and lower values where the intensity of rainfall is low.

A. Earth roads 3 to 4 percent (1 in 33 to 1 in 25)


B. Gravel or WBM surface 2.5 to 3 percent (1 in 40 to 1 in 33)
C. Thin bituminous surface 2 to 2.5 percent (1 in 50 to 1 in 40)
D. High type bituminous surface 1.7 to 2 percent (1 in 60 to 1 in 50)

The crossfall for earth shoulders should be at least 0.5% more than the pavement
camber subject to a minimum of 3%. On super elevated sections, the shoulders should
normally have the same cross fall as the pavement.

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DESIGN SPEED:

The designs speeds for various categories of hill roads should be as given in the Table.

DESIGN SPEEDS (Km/h)

Road Plain Rolling Mountainous Steep


classification
ruling min. ruling min. ruling min. ruling min.
N.H & S.H 100 80 80 65 50 40 40 30
M.D.R 80 65 65 50 40 30 30 20
O.D.R 65 50 50 40 30 25 25 20
V.R 50 40 40 35 25 20 25 20

SIGHT DISTANCE:

Stopping sight distance is the clear distance ahead needed by a driver by bring his
vehicle to a stop before meeting a stationary object in his path. And is calculated as the sum
of braking distance required at the particular speed plus the distance traveled by vehicle
during perception and brake reaction time, intermediate sight distance is defined as twice the
stopping sight distance. Design values for both these sight distances and the criteria for their
measurement are given in the table.

DESIGN VALUES OF STOPPING AND INTERMEDIATE SIGHT DISTANCES FOR


VARIOUS SPEEDS:

Speed (kmph) Design values in metres


Stopping sight Intermediate sight
distance distance
20 20 40
25 25 50
30 30 60
35 40 80
40 45 90
50 60 120

CRITERIA FOR MEASURING SIGHT DISTANCE

Sl. No. Sight Driver Height of


distance eye object
height
1. Safe 1.2 m 0.15 m
stopping
sight
distance
2. Intermediat 1.2 m 1.2 m
e sight
distance
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OVER TAKING SIGHT DISTANCE:

The minimum distance open to the vision of the driver of a vehicle intending to
overtake slow vehicle ahead with safety against traffic of opposite direction is know as the
minimum overtaking sight distance or the safe passing sight distance available.

The overtaking sight distance depends on the following factors:


1] Speed of overtaking, overtaken and oncoming vehicles.
2] Spacing between the vehicles.
. 3] Skill and reaction time of driver.
4] Rate of acceleration of overtaking vehicle.
5] Slope of the road .

HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT

GENERAL:
In general horizontal curves should consist of a circular portion flanked by spiral
transitions, at both ends. Design speed, super elevation and coefficient of side friction affect
the design of circular curves.
Minimum radius curves should be adopted only when absolutely necessary at
reverse curves, sufficient gap should be ensured between the two curves for introduction of
the requisite transition curves. Compound curve may be used only when it is impossible to fit
in a single circular curve.

SUPER ELEVATION:

Super elevation to be provided on curves is calculated from the following formula.

e= V
225R

Where: e= super elevation


v= design speed in km/h
R= radius of the curve in metres

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The change over from normal section to super elevation should be achieved gradually
over the full length of the transition curve so that the design super elevation is available at
the starting point of the circular curve.

MINIMUM CURVE RADll:

On a horizontal curve, the combined effect of super elevation and side friction balance
the centrifugal force. The basic equation for this condition of equilibrium is:

v = e+f or R= V
gR 127*(e+f)
Where
V = vehicle speed in m/s v = vehicle speed in km/h
G = acceleration due to gravity in m/s2
e = ratio of super elevation
f = co-efficient of side friction between vehicle tyres and pavement. (Taken as 0.15)

Radii for horizontal curves corresponding to ruling minimum and absolute minimum
design speeds are shown in the Table

MINIMUM RADIUS OF HORIZONTAL CURVES FOR VARIOUS CLASSES OF HILL


ROADS

Sl. Road Mountainous Steep terrain


No. classificatio terrain
n ruling min ruling min
1 National & 50 40 40 30
state
highways
2 Major 40 30 30 20
district
roads
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3 Other 30 25 25 20
district
roads
4 Village 25 20 25 20
roads

Also, if the deviation angle is less than 1 then horizontal curve is not required at such places.
TRANSITION CURVES:
Spiral curve should be used for transitions. These are necessary for smooth entry of vehicles
from a straight section into a circular curve. The transition curves also improve aesthetic
appearance of the road, besides permitting gradual application of the super elevation and
extra widening at curves.
Minimum length of transition curves for various radii is given in the table.

MINIMUM TRANSITION LENGTH FOR DIFFERENT SPEEDS AND CURVE RADll:

Curve Design speed (km/h)


radius 50 40 30 25 20
(m)
15 NA 30
20 35 20
25 NA 25 20
30 30 25 15
40 NA 25 20 15
50 40 20 15 15
55 40 20 15 15
70 NA 30 15 15 15
80 55 25 15 15 NA
90 45 25 15 15
100 45 20 15 15
125 35 15 15 NA
150 30 15 15 15
170 25 15 NA
200 20 15
300 15 NA
400 15
500 NA

The above table indicates the horizontal curves without transition curves.
In such cases, the super-elevation is provided as follows.
First, calculate the length of transition curve though it is not provided.
Let L= length of transition curve
Also, calculate the amount of super-elevation E, to be provided.
Now, 2/3E is provided at the straight portion in a length equal to 2/3L, also a
remaining 1/3E is provided in the curved portion in a length equal to 1/3E
In a similar way the calculated extra widening W e is also provided, i.e., 2/3We in the
straight portion and 1/3We in the curved portion.

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Also, the extra widening is introduced on the inner side of the curve for curves
without transition curves also in hilly roads.

WIDENING OF ROAD AT CURVES:

At sharp horizontal curves, it is necessary to widen the carriageway to facilitate safe


passage of vehicles. The widening required has two components.
Mechanical widening to compensate the extra width occupied by a vehicle on
the curve due to tracking of the rear wheels, and
Psychological widening to pem 1 it easy crossing of vehicles since vehicle in a
lane tend to wander more on a curve than on a straight reach.
Based on the above considerations, the extra width of carriageway to be provided at
horizontal curves on single and two-lane roads is given in the table.

WIDENING OF PAVEMENT AT CURVES

Radius of Up to 20 21 to 40 41 to 60 61 to 100 101 to 300 Above 300


curve (m)
Extra
width (m)
Two lane 1.5 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 Nil
Single lane 0.9 0.6 0.6 nil nil nil

SET-BACK DISTANCE AT HORIZONTAL CURVES

Requisite sight distance should be available across the inside of horizontal curves.
Lack of visibility in the lateral direction may arise due to obstructions like walls, cut slopes,
wooded areas, high crops etc.
Set-back distance from the centre line of the carriageway within which the offending
obstructions should be cleared to ensure the needed visibility can be determined.
The set-back distance is calculated from the following equation:
M=R-(R-n)*cos
Where,
= S / 2*(R-n)
m= the minimum set-back distance from the centre line of the road to sight
obstruction in meters at the middle of the road
R= centre line of the road in metres
N= distance between the centre line of the road and the inside lane in metres
S= sight distance in meters

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For applying the above relationship, sight distance is measured along the middle of
inner lane. However on single-lane roads, sight distance is measured along centre line of the
carriageway and n is taken as zero.

Radius of Set back distances in metres


circle S+20 m S+20 m S+20 m S+20 m S+20 m
curves(m) (v+20 km/h) (v+25 km/h) (v+30km/h) (v+40km/h) (v+50km/h)
14 3.4 - - - -
15 3.2 - - - -
20 2.4 3.8 - - -
23 2.1 3.3 - - -
30 1.5 2.6 3.7 - -
33 1.0 2.3 3.4 - -
50 - 1.6 2.2 5.0 -
60 - 1.3 1.9 4.2 -
80 - 1.0 1.4 3.1 5.6
100 - 0.8 1.1 2.5 4.5
120 - 0.7 0.9 2.1 3.7
150 - 0.5 0.8 1.7 2.3

VERTICAL ALIGNMENT

GENERAL:

The vertical alignment should provide for a smooth longitudinal profile consistent
with category of a road and the terrain. Grade changes should not be too frequent as to cause
kinks and visual discontinuities in the profile
GRADIENTS:
Recommended gradients for different terrain conditions except at hair-pin bends are
given in the table

RECOMMENDED GRADIENTS FOR DIFFERENT TERRAIN CONDITIONS

Classification of Mountainous terrain Steep terrain up to


gradient and steep terrain 3000m height above
having elevation not MSL
more than 3000 m
above MSL

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Ruling gradient 5% (1 in 20) 6% (1 in 16.7)


Limiting gradient 6% (1 in 16.7) 7% (1 in 14.3)
Exceptional gradient 7% (1in 14.3) 8* (1 in 12.5)

GRADE COMPENSATION AT CURVES

At horizontal curves the gradients should be eased by an amount known as the


grade compensation which is intended to offset the extra tractive effort involved at curves.
This may be calculated from the following formula;
Grade compensation (%) = (30 + EJ) /R
Subject to a minimum of 75/R , Where R is radius of the curve in meters

VERTICAL CURVES

Vertical curves are introduced for smooth transition at grade changes. Both summit
curves and valley curves should be designed as square parabolas. The two types of vertical
curves are:
Summit curves
Valley curves

The design procedure of calculation of length of vertical curves is as follows:

SUMMIT CURVES

The length of summit curves is governed by the choice of sight, distance, whether
stopping sight distance of the intermediate sight distance.
The required length may be calculated from the following formula:

a) FOR SAFE STOPPING SIGHT DISTANCE

Case (1); when the length of the curve exceeds the required sight distance, i.e.L is greater
then S.
L= NS
4.4
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Where
N = deviation angle, i.e. the algebraic difference between the two grades
L = length of the parabolic vertical curve in meters
S = sight distance in meters
Case (ii) when the length of the curve is less than the required sight distance i.e. is less than S
L= 2S- 4.4
N
b) FOR INTERMEDIATE SIGHT DISTANCE

Case (i) When the length of the curve exceeds the required sight distance, i.e. is greater then
S
L= NS /9.6

Case (ii) when the length of the curve is less than the required sight distance, i.e. is less than S
L = 2S- 9.6/N

VALLEY CURVE

The length of the valley curves should be such that for night travel the headlight
beam distance is equal to the stopping sight distance. Based on this criterion, the length of
curve may be calculated as under;
Case (i): when the length of the curve exceeds the required sight distance. i.e. is greater then
S.
L= NS
1.5+ 0.035S
Case (ii): when the length of the curve is less than the required sight distance, i.e. is less than
S
L= 2S- 1.5+0.035S/N
In both cases :
N= deviation angle, i.e. the algebraic difference between the two grades
L = length of the parabolic vertical curve in meters
S = sight distance in meters
Note: The above formula have been derived with the following Assumptions:
Headlight height = 0.75 m
Upward divergence of the light beam from the longitudinal axis of the vehicle = 1 0

ALIGNMENT COMPATIBILITY

As a general rule, changes in horizontal and vertical alignment should be phased to


coincide with each other, i.e. the vertical curve should roughly extend from 1 the
19 Extensive Survey Project Batch A2
Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

commencement to the end of the corresponding horizontal curve. More preferably, the
horizontal curve should be somewhat longer than the vertical curve. Sharp horizontal curves
should not be introduced at or near the top of the summit vertical curves or the lowest point
of valley curves.

HAIRPIN BENDS

A hairpin bend bay is designed as a circular curve with transition curves at each.
Compound circle curves may also be provided. The following design criteria should be
adopted normally for the design of hairpin bends:

a. Minimum design speed - 20 km/h


b. Minimum roadway at apex
National/state Highways - 11.5 m for double lane
9 m for single lane
Major District Roads/Other District Roads - 7.5 m
Village Roads - 6.5 m
c. Minimum radius for the inner curve - 14 m
d. minimum length of transition 15 m
e. Gradient
Maximum 1 in 40 (2.5%)
Minimum 1 in 200 (0.5%)
f. Super elevation 1 in 10 (10%)

Inner and outer edges of the roadway should be concentric with respect to the centre
line of the pavement, where a number of hairpin bends have to be introduced, a minimum
intervening length of 60m should be provided between the successive bends to enable the
driver to negotiate the alignment smoothly. At hair-pin bends, preferably the full roadway
width should be surfaced.

PASSING PLACES

Passing places or lay-byes are required on hill roads to cater to the following
requirements:
To facilitate crossing of vehicle approaching from the opposite direction; and
to tow aside a disabled vehicle so that it does not obstruct traffic.

20 Extensive Survey Project Batch A2


Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

There is no specific need of passing places on two-lane National and State


Highways. But in the case of single lane sections on National/State Highways
which have narrow roadway, provision of some passing places may be
desirable.
Normally the passing places or lay-byes should be 3.75m wide, 30m long on
the inside edge (i.e., towards the carriageway side), and 20m long on the
farther side.

LATERAL AND VERTICAL CLEARANCES AT UNDERPASSES

LATERAL CLEARANCE:
Desirably the full roadway width at the approaches should be carried through the
underpass. This implies that the minimum lateral clearance (i.e. the distance between the
extreme edge of the carriageway and the face of the nearest support) should equal the
normal shoulder width.

VERTICAL CLEARANCE:
Minimum vertical clearance of 5m should be ensured over the full width of the roadway at
all underpasses and similarly at overhanging cliffs and any semi-tunnel section etc. the
vertical clearance should be measured with respect to the highest point of the carriageway,
i.e., the crown or the super elevated edge of the carriageway.

BLOCK LEVELLING
The method is used when the area to be surveyed is small and the ground is not very
much undulating. The area to be surveyed is divided into a number of squares. The size of
the square may vary from 5 to 20m depending upon the contour and contour interval. The
elevations of the comer of the contour and contour interval. The elevations of the comers of
the square are then determined by means of a level and a staff. The contour lines may then
be drawn by interpolation. It is not necessary that the squares may be same size. Sometimes,
rectangles are also used in places of squares. When there are appreciable breaks in the
surface between corners, guide points in addition to those at comers may also be used. The
squares should be as long as practicable, yet small enough to conform 1 to the inequalities of
the ground and top the accuracy required.

DESIGN OF VERTICAL CURVES


1. VALLEY CURVE AT 360m CHAINAGE

V=50kmph
21 Extensive Survey Project Batch A2
Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

N=1+2 = 1/27 -1/570 = 0.0353rad

SSD = 0.278vt + v
254f

= 0.278*50*2.0 + 50
254(0.4)

= 53m
For speed of 50kmph the minimum recommended SSD is 60m.

1. Length of valley curve for comfort condition

L = 0.38NV kmph

= 0.380.0353*50

= 24.0m
2. Length of valley curve for SSD condition

SSD= 60.0m Assuming L>SSD

L= NS
2h1 + 2S tan

= 0.0353*(60.0)
1.5 + 0.035*60.0

= 35.0m < SSD

Assuming L<SSD

L = 2S - (1.5+0.035S)
N
= 2*60 - (1.5+0.035*60)
0.0353
L= 18m

Provide L = 24m

Chainage of T1 = 360-(24/2) = 348 m

Chainage of T2 = 360+(24/2)= 372m

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Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

R L of T1 = 966.670- ((12*0.175)/100) = 966.649m

R L of T2 = 966.670+((12*3.7)/100)= 966.226m

R L of E = ( RL of T1 + RL of T2)
= (966.649+ 966.226)/2
= 966.438m

R L of F = ( RL of E + RL of pi)
= (966.438+966.226)
= 966.332m

XF= 966.332-966.226 = 0.16m

SL NO CHAINAGE (m) RL OF TANGENT


POINT
T1 348 967.210
1 351 967.030
2 356 966.670
3 361 966.670
4 366 966.657
5 371 966.594
T2 372 966.531

SUMMIT CURVE

Assuming l > SSD , SSD = 60


L = NS ^ 2/4.4 = 0.031 (185)^2 / 4.4

= 24.5mt
N= 1 / 25 1 / 110
= 0.030 radius
Therefore length of summit curve = 24.5 m

chainage of T1 = 120 (24.5 / 2) = 107.75 mt


chainage of T2 = 120 + (24.5 / 2) = 132.25 mt
R.L of T1 = 979.306
R.L of T2 = 978.424
R.L of E = (979.306 + 950) / 2 = 964.653 mt
R.L of F = 911.375 + 913.500 / 2 = 957.327 mt

S NO. CHAINAGE(m) RL OF TANGENT POINT


T1 3 979.574
1 5 979.429

23 Extensive Survey Project Batch A2


Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

2 5 979.262
3 5 978.967
4 5 978.675
T2 1.5 978.585

DESIGN OF HORIZONTAL CURVES


Assumed V=50kmph
R= v^2/(127(e+f))
R= 89.47m

Length of the transition curve = 45m ( from table 7)


S= L^2/(24R)= 45^2/ (24X89.47) = .94m

Tangent length OT1 = (R+S)tan(/2) + L/2


= (89.47 + 0.94) tan(90/2) + (45/2)
= 121.91m

Spiral Angle = S = L(180)/ 2R = 45X 180/(2X89.47X3.14) = 14.41 = 14 24 67


Central angle for circular curve = C = - (2S) = 90-(2X14.14) = 61.48 = 611048
CIRCULAR CURVE:
Length of circular curve = RC/180 = X87.89X61.18/180 = 95.54m
Length of combined curve = RC/180+2L = X87.8X61.18/180 + 2(45) = 185.54m

Calculations : -
Chainage of point of intersection = 335+121.91 = 456.91m
Subtract tangent length OT1 = 456.91 121.91 = 335m
Add length of transition curve = 335+45m = 380mts
Chainage of beginning of circular curve = 380mts
Length of circular curve = A = 95.54m
Chainage at end of circular curve B = 380+95.54 = 475.54mts
Add length of transition curve = 475.54+45 = 520.52m
Chainage at end of transition curve T2 = 520.54m
Extra widening of curve
We = nl^2/2r+v/9.5(r)
={2(6.1)(2*89.47)}+{100(9.5*(89.47))}
=0.42+1.11
=1.53m
Total raise of outer edge above the inner edge
E= (17+1.53)*0.07= 1.29m

1. SSD = 0.278Vt+V/254(f0.01n)
= 0.278(50)(2.5)+(50)/254(0.350.01*5)
=34.75+24.61
=59.36mts

2 . OSD=0.278Vst+0.278VbT+2S+0.278VT
Vb=50-16=34kmph

24 Extensive Survey Project Batch A2


Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

T=2sec
S=0.2Vb+6=0.2(34)+6=12.8m
T=(14.45/a)=(14.4(12.8)/3.2)=7.59
OSD=d1+d2+d3
OSD=0.278(34)(2)+0.278(34)(7.59)+2(12.8)+0.278(50)(7.59)
OSD=221.74m

FIRST PART
OF THE
TRANSITION
CURVE

Point Unit chord (min) Polar angle


T1 0 00'0" 00'0"
1 5 03'33.48" 03'40"
2 6 017'13.24" 017'20"
3 6 041'7.82" 041'0"
4 6 115'17.22" 115'20"
5 6 159'41.45" 159'40"
6 6 254'20.49" 254'20"
7 6 359'14.35" 359'20"
8 4 448'11.83" 448'20"

CIRCULAR CURVE
Length of first sub chord =5m
Length of unit sub chord =6m
Length of last sub chord =.54m
Total no of chords =15
Point Unit chord

A 0 00'0" 00'0"
1 5 136'3.61" 136'3.61"
2 6 155'16.33" 331'19.94"
3 6 155'16.33" 526'36.27"
4 6 155'16.33" 721'52.6"
5 6 155'16.33" 917'41.59"
6 6 155'16.33" 1112'25.26"
7 6 155'16.33" 137'41.59"
8 6 155'16.33" 152'57.92"
9 6 155'16.33" 1658'14.25"
10 6 155'16.33" 1853'30.58"
11 6 155'16.33" 2048'46.91"
12 6 155'16.33" 2244'3.24"
13 6 155'16.33" 2439'19.57"
14 6 155'16.33" 2634'35.9"
B 0.54 155'16.33" 2644'58.37"

2nd TRANSITION CURVE:


Length of first sub chord =5m

25 Extensive Survey Project Batch A2


Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

Length of last sub chord =6m


No. of unit chords = 8

SECOND PART OF THE TRANSITION CURVE:

point lengths total


B 0 00'0" 00'0"
1 5 03'33.48" 03'40"
2 6 017'13.24" 017'20"
3 6 041'7.52" 041'0"
4 6 115'17.22" 115'20"
5 6 159'41.45" 159'40"
6 6 254'20.49" 254'20"
7 6 359'14.35" 359'20"
8 4 448'11.83" 448'20"

DESIGN OF HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS

OBJECTS AND REQUIREMENTS OF PAVEMENTS:

The surface of the roadways should be stable and non-yielding, to allow the heavy
wheel loads of road traffic to move with least possible rolling resistance. The road surface
should also be even along the longitudinal profile to enable the fast vehicles to move safely
and comfortably at the designed speed.
Based on the vertical alignment and the environmental conditions of the site, the
pavement may be constructed over the embankment, out of almost at the ground level.
It is always desirable to construct the pavement well above the maximum level of the
ground water to keep the sub-grade dry even during monsoons.

TYPES OF PAVEMENT STRUCTURES:

Based on the structural behaviour, pavements are generally classified into two
categories.

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Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

Flexible pavements.
Rigid pavements.

FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

Flexible pavements are those, which on the whole have low or negligible flexural
strength and are rather flexural in their structural under loads.
The flexible pavement layers reflect the deformation of the lower layer to the surface
of the layer. Thus if the lower layer of the pavement or soil sub-grade is undulated, the
flexible pavement surface also gets undulated. A flexible pavement consists of four
pavements:

1. Soil sub-grade
2. Sub-base course
3. Base course
4. Surface course

RIGID PAVEMENTS:

Rigid pavements are those, which possess noteworthy flexural strength or flexural
rigidity. The stresses are not transferred from grain to grain to the lower layers as in the case
of flexible pavements layers. The pavements are made of Portland cement concrete plain,
reinforced or prestressed concrete. The rigid pavements are usually designed and the stresses
are analyzed using elastic theory, assuming the pavement as an elastic plate resting over
elastic or a viscous foundation. It consists of three components:

1. Cement concrete slab


2. Base-course
3. Soil sub-grade
Traffic is estimated based on 7 day 24-hr classified counts.
In exceptional cases, 3 day count is used. The rate of growth is estimated based on past
trends. If not, 7.5% is taken for rural roads.
Design life is usually 10 to 15 years.
The design traffic is considered in terms of cumulative no. of standard axles (C.S.A).It is
done using the following equation:
Ns =365 A {(1+r)x - 1] F
r
27 Extensive Survey Project Batch A2
Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

Ns=C.S.A
A=Initial traffic * D.F.
R= rate of growth
F= vehicle damage factor

Where distribution factor (D.F)


Single lane (3.75 m) 2
Intermediate road (5.5m) 1.5
Two-lane 0.75
Four-lane 0.40

Dual carriage way: 75% of the number of vehicles in each direction.


Vehicle damage factor; is a multiplier for converting the number of commercial vehicles of
different axle loads to the number of standard axle load vehicles.

TRAFFIC TERRAIN VDF


UN- THIN THICK
SURFACED SURFACED SURFACED
<150 HILLY 0.5 0.75
ROLLING 1.5 1.75
PLAIN 2 2.25
150-1500 HILLY 1.0 1.25
ROLLING 2.0 2.25
PLAIN 2.5 2.75
>1500 HILLY 1.25 1.5
ROLLING 2.25 2.5
PLAIN 2.75 3

Sub-grade: CBR test is done strictly as per the specified procedure.


Test is done by static compaction. But if not possible, dynamic compaction may be used.
Static compaction
Vol of mould= 2209 cc,
Wt, of dry soil =2209 d gm.
Wt. of wet soil= (100+m)* 2209 d gm
100
d= dry density in gm, /cc
M= moisture content in %
Soil is broken into lumps. Any stone larger that 20mm in discarded,
Mix the soil with required amount of water,
Fill it in the mould, tamp it with steel rod,
Place a filter paper on to soil.

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Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

Place the spacer disc.


Compress it in compression testing machine.
For new roads,
a. D and m is determined by proctor compaction test. (m=omc)
b. CBR value of obtained by soaked CBR test.
In case of existing road,
a) D and m is obtained by field density (d) test, by sand replacement method.
b) Field moisture content (m)
At least 3 samples must be tested.
(In situ CBR test in not recommended because it not possible to simulate the critical
conditions of moisture content and dry density in the field)

Sub grade

With the thick bituminous surface and if rainfall is 500 mm / yr. and if
D= 1m at least.
= 1 m for sandy soil
= 3 m for sandy clay
Then, soaking is not required.
Sub- base: materials are natural sand, moorum, gravel, laterite, and brick metal and
crushed stone.
Min. CBR = 20% to 30%
(If sub grade CBR is higher than 20% to 30% value, then sub-base is not required.)
Base : consists of WBM or wet mix macadam.
Its CBR value = 100%

29 Extensive Survey Project Batch A2


Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

Min. Thickness = 15 cm.


Bituminious surface :
SD= surface dressing.

Soil test;

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST:

This is a penetration test developed by the California division of highways, as a


method of evaluating the stability of soil sub grade and other flexible pavement materials.
The test results have been correlated with flexible pavement thickness requirements for
highways and airfields. The CBR test conducted in the laboratory on a prepared specimen in
a mould or in the field.
This test causes a cylindrical plunger of 50 mm diameter to penetrate a pavement
component material at 1.25 mm/minute. The load values to cause 2.5 mm and 5 mm
penetration are recorded. These loads are expressed as percentages of standard load values
at respective deformation levels to obtain CBR value. The standard load values obtained
from the average of a large number of tests on crushed stones are 1370 kg and 2055 kg at 2.5
mm and 5mm penetration respectively.
Laboratory CBR tests:
The CBR value of a soil was considered to be an index which is related to its strength.
The value is highly dependent on the condition of the material at the time of testing. CBR
value has been correlated with the modulus of sub-grade reaction, modulus of resilience and
plastic index.
CBR definition: it is a ratio of the load taken by soil at 2.5 mm or 5mm penetration by a
plunger of 50mm diameter at the rate of 1.25mm per minute to the load taken by standard
crushed stone at the same penetration.
CBR2.5mm= load taken by soil at 2.5 m * 100
Load taken by standard aggregate at 2.5mm

Penetration load taken by aggregate


2.5mm 1370 kg
5mm 2055kg
APPARATUS:
1. Moulds with base plate:
2. Collar
3. Spacer discs
4. Metal rammer.
30 Extensive Survey Project Batch A2
Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

a. 2.5kg 31cms fall.


b. 4.89kg 45 cms fall
5. Adjustable stem with perforated plates and tripod stand.
6. Annular weights of 2.5 kgs each,
7. Loading machine with 500 kg capacity, rate of deformation is equal to 1.25
mm per minute.
8. 50 mm diameter plunger
9. Dial gauge least count=0.01mm.
10. Sieves 19, 4.75 mm sieve.
11. Measuring jar, filter paper, and oven.

Preparation of test specimen:

Undisturbed specimen; push the mould inside, remove the mould by digging away
the soil surrounding it. If the specimen is loose in the mould, the annular cavity may
be filled with paraffin wax. Find the density and the water content.

Re-moulded specimen; sieve the soil on a 19mm sieve. Take the soil that passes
through 19mm sieve, allowance for larger material is made by replacing it by an
equal amount of material which passes the 19mm sieve but is restrained on the
4.75mm sieve.

Mould by static compaction:


Volume of mould=2209 cc
Weight of dry soil =2209.d gm
D= dry density or field density by proctor test or sand replacement test
M= moisture content (filed) or OMC

Weight of wet soil= (100+m)*(2209)*(d) gm


100
Amount of water= 2209*(d)*(m) ml
100
Mix the soil with water required
Fill it in the mould and tamp it with a steel rod
Place a filter paper on top of the soil
Place the spacer disc

31 Extensive Survey Project Batch A2


Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

Compress it with a compression testing machine


Wait for 5 mines. The spacer disc should flush with the top of the mould
Before testing soak it for 4 days
[For existing roads, d and m are obtained by sand and replacement method. For new roads d
and m are obtained by proctor density test.]

Dynamic compaction

Find d and m by proctor test.


Find the weight of soil to be taken.
Weight of soil=volume* dry density.
Add the amount of water.
Amount of water= weight of soil* m/100

Fix the mould to the base plate.


Place the spacer disc.
Place a coarse filter paper over the disc.
Take 50gm of soil to find the moisture content.
Fill the soil in the mould and compact it as per compaction used in proctor test.
Remove the extension collar.
Level the soil surface by trimming and filling it if necessary.
Again take 50gm of soil to find the moisture content.
Remove the spacer disc.
Weigh the mould with the soil.
Remove the mould from the base plate.
Place a filter paper on base plate.
The compacted mould is inverted and placed on the base plate with the filter paper.
It is then soaked for 4 days.

PROCEDURE FOR SOAKING;

1. Place filter paper on the soil.


2. Place perforated plate and adjustable stem on the specimen.
3. Keep the surcharge weight of 2.5 kgs.
4. Keep the assembly in water tank.
5. Keep the gauge.
6. Fix the dial gauge.

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Bangalore Institute of Technology Highway Project

7. Note the initial readings.


8. Record the readings for every 24 hours.
After 4 days record the final reading.
Then remove the dial gauge, perforated plate, adjustable stem, tripod and
surcharge weight. Drain the water for 15 mins.
Weigh the mould with the base plate.

Swelling= final reading - initial reading *100


Height of specimen in mm

Penetration test:

1. Place the surcharge weight in soil specimen.


2. Keep the mould in the machine.
3. Apply 4kg seating load to ensure the plunger is fully in contact with the soil.
4. The load and penetration dial gauges are set to zero.
5. Load is applied such that the penetration of the plunger is 1.25 mm per minute.
6. Note down the value of load at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0, 5.07, 5.10, 0 and 12.5 mm
penetration.
7. Remove the load and take 50 gm of soil to find the moisture content.
8. The mould is reversed and the test is repeated as a check test.
[In case of undisturbed samples, the soil below the plunger is carefully examined for the
presence of any oversized particles which affect the results.]

RECORD OF OBSERVATIONS:

1. Soil identification.
2. Amount of soil fraction above 20mm that has been replaced.
3. Density.
4. Moisture content.
5. Expansion ratio.
6. Penetration test readings.
7. Surcharge wt used.
8. Plot load penetration curve.
9. Apply correction to curve if necessary.

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10. Find the CBR value.

6. BIBILIOGRAPHY

1. Highway Engineering
By Khanna S.K. & Justo C E G

2. Highway Engineering
By Kadiyali L.R.

3. Transport Engineering 1
By K.P Subramanyam.

4. Principles Of Transport Engineering


By Partha Chakra Borthy.

34 Extensive Survey Project Batch A2