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521000


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2000
159.938
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, 2000. 136 .
ISBN 5-93692-015-1

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Stadia SPSS.
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ISBN 5-93692-015-1

, 2000.
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1.1.

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4889 + 6006 + 4694
2
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3
:

(770 750)2 + (725 750)2 + (755 750)2


sX2 = = 525 ,
3 1
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= s X2 n = 525 10 = 5250 .
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17
1

: H0

1, 2, 3,
630 690 760
780 810 760
830 740 860
730 790 810
680 690 660
780 740 810
830 690 660
830 840 810
780 690 710
830 570 710
n 10 10 10 N total = 30

Xi 770 725 755 X total = 750


2
s12 4889 6006 4694 s total = 5200

: H0

1, 2, 3,
630 640 760
780 760 760
830 690 860
730 740 810
680 640 660
780 690 810
830 640 660
830 790 810
780 640 710
830 520 710
n 10 10 10 Ntotal = 30
Xi 770 675 755 X total = 733
2
s2 4889 6006 4694 stotal = 6637
i

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2 4889 + 6006 + 4694
sWG = = 5196 .
3
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18

(770 733)2 + (675 733)2 + (755 733)2


sX2 = = 2608.5 ,
3 1
2
sBG = s X2 n = 2608.5 10 = 26085 .

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2
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N (N 1).
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3

1 2 3
n 10 10 10 Ntotal = 30

Xi 770 725 755 X total = 750


2
s 4889 6006 4694 2
i stotal = 5200

d 2
total =150800 , dftotal = 29 s 2BG = 5250
d 2
BG =10500 , dfBG = 2 2
sWG = 5389
d 2
WG =140300 , dfWG = 27 F = 1.01

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:

d 2
total = ( N total 1) stotal
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= 29 5200 = 150800.
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n , j -
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d BG2 =10 (7702 + 7252 + 7552 ) 30
=

= 16885500 16875000 = 10500.


21

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1:

d 2
WG = d total
2
d BG
2
= 150800 10500 = 140300.
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27 -
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d 2
s 2 F P
27 10500 5250 1.01 >0.05
2 140300 5196
29 150800

F- 2
(. . 5). 2 F -
(F. = 3.32), -
p < 0.05.
24
5
2
1 2 3
n 10 10 10 Ntotal = 30

Xi 770 675 755 X total =733

si2 4889 6006 4694


2
stotal = 6637

d 2
total =192467 , dftotal = 29 2
sBG = 26083
d 2
BG =52167 , dfBG = 2
sWG = 5196
2

d
2
WG =140300 , dfWG = 27 F = 5.02

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26

2,
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X1 X 2 95
tF = = = 2.95.
1 2 2
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1 2:
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1 2; 1 2; 2)
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1 3.

1 3. 1 3.

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Xi X j
t= .
2 2
sWG sWG (18)
+
ni nj
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F-:
t Sh , . = F (k 1), (19)
k .
1 2 tSh -
2.95. -
F. = 3.32, t Sh , . = 3.32 (3 1) = 2.58.
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1998) .
28

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k

d 2
BG
j =1 N
(20)

2.4.

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2 ( ):

2
=
d 2
BG
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d 2
total

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D2 0, -
1.
1, ,
: 1. = 10500/150800 = 0.07. ,
2

0 7%
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2

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27% -
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M2 ( ):
30

2 =
d (k 1) s
2
BG
2
WG
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d + s 2
total
2
WG

k .
:
10500 (3 1) 5196 108
12. = = = 0.0074,
150800 5196 145604

52167 (3 1) 5196 41775


22. = = = 0.23.
192467 5196 187271
, M2 , D2.
-
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:

s2BG sWG
2

h = 2
2
, (23)
s BG + (n 1) sWG
2

n .
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:

n=
1
N
ni2
, (24)
k 1 N

k , N -
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h2 :
5250 5389 139
h 2 1n . = = = 0.0026 ,
5250 + (10 1) 5389 53751

26083 5196 20887


h 2 2n . = = = 0.287.
26083 + (10 1) 5196 72847
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2.6.
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Stadia
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2 = 9.5, ..=81.9
3 = -22, ..=81.9


. H1
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1-3 34.5 27.5 0.0167
2-3 31.5 27.5 0.0266
36

2.7.
SPSS 8.0.11
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10



95%



. .
N
4 100.50 10.88 5.44 83.19 117.81 89 115
4 97.50 16.42 8.21 72.37 123.63 80 112
4 66.00 12.19 6.10 46.60 85.40 49 77
12 88.00 20.30 5.86 75.10 100.90 49 115

-
(1.413; = 0.293) ,
(. . 11).
39
11



..1 ..2 .
1.413 2 9 .293

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p = 0.009). , -
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.. F .
2922.000 2 1461.000 8.167 .009
1610.000 9 178.889
4532.000 11
40
13
(
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95%

(I) (J) .
(I-J) .
3.00 9.458 1.000 -24.74 30.74
34.50* 9.458 .016 6.76 62.24
-3.00 9.458 1.000 -30.74 24.74
31.50* 9.458 .026 3.76 59.24
-34.50*
-34.50* 9.458 .016 -62.24 -6.76
-31.50* 9.458 .026 -59.24 -3.76
- 3.00 9.458 .951 -28.60 34.60
34.50* 9.458 .013 9.34 59.66
-3.00
-3.50 9.458 .951 -34.60 28.60
31.50
31.50 9.458 .054 -.65 63.65
-34.50* 9.458 .013 -59.66 -9.34
-31.50 9.458 .054 -63.65 .65
*. .05 .
41


1. -
2 2
( sBG ) ( sWG ) -
:


2 2
sBG sWG
(), k , n
1 3 10 ? ?
2 4 20 ? ?
3 2 30 ? ?

2. . -
, F- -
:

1 2 3
n= 10 10 10
d 2
total
= 382 2
sBG =?

d sWG = ?
2
2
BG = 79
F=?

3. . -
, F- -
:

1 2 3
9 8 10
n=

d 2
total
= 192 2
sBG =?
d =?
2
2
BG = 84 sWG
F=?

4. -
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42

( --
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3.13 1.39 5.47
3.25 5.38 5.6
3.64 4.07 6.88
3.4 3.87 6.4
2.59 4.37 3.02
1.97 3.79 6.18
3.16 3.33 5.52
4.22 5.39 4.15
1.36 3.37 2.07
3.47 4.74 4.68

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232. -
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two-way, three-way ..
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45

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3.2.
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( ):
X ijg = . + j + g + as jg + ijg . (26)
, -
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46

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3.3.

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40

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48


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60
-

50

40

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2
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49

3.4.

-

1.
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5 . -
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8
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3
1 2 3
3 5 7

. 6.
:
X ; Y
1
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) .
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- .
50

14


3 5 7


-
1 4.8 7.5 5.3 6.0 7.2 3.8
2 3.2 7.8 4.1 4.2 6.8 3.2
3 3.1 9.2 3.9 3.8 5.4 4.8
4 3.9 7.3 4.7 4.8 5.9 3.7
5 3.8 5.8 5.0 5.2 6.3 3.3
6 n1 = 5 n2 = 5 n3 = 5 n4 = 5 n5 = 5 n6 = 5
(j)
1 = 18.8 2 = 37.6 3 = 23.0 4 = 24.0 5 = 31.6 6 = 18.8

7 nA = 10 nA = 10 nA = 10
A1 = 56.4 A2 = 47.0 A3 = 50.4
8 nB = 15 nB = 15
B B1 = 73.4 B2 = 80.4
9 2
2
Ntotal = 30, total =153.8, sstotal
total
= 2.49.

10 15:
.
n16 .
16 .
A13, 13 ,
.
2
Ntotal, total, stotal ,
, ,
.

,
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, .. -
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51

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:
1. :
H0:
, .. X 3 , X 5 X 7 .
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.
2. :
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H1:
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.
3. :
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,
.
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:

d 2
total = (N 1) stotal
2
= 29 2.49 = 72.21.
( ) -
:

N
( X i ) 2
( X i )
2
k

d 2
BG =
j =1 n
i =1

N
=

18.82 + 37.62 + 23.0 2 + 24.02 + 31.62 + 18.82


=
5 (27)
(153.8) 2
= 844.84 788.48 = 56.36,
30
52

n , j -
k , i -
.
, -
(-
!) . -
.
( ) -
-
:

d 2
WG = d total
2
d BG
2
= 72.21 56.36 = 15.85. (28)
-
.
d A2
, d 2
B .
N
( X i ) 2
a
(X ) 2

d A2 = 1 nb
A
i =1

N
=

(56.42 + 47.02 + 50.42 ) (29)


788.48 =
5 2
= 793.01 788.48 = 4.53,
b B, X A , -

.
N
( X i )2
(X
2
b )
d B2 = 1 na
B
i =1
N
=

(73.42 + 80.42 ) (30)


= 788.48 =
5 3
= 790.11 788.48 = 1.63,
a , X B , -
B
A.
53

-
(-
) -
, :

d 2
AB = d BG
2
( d A2 + d B2 ) =
(31)
= 56.36 (4.53 + 1.63) = 50.20.
-
:
1. : df total = N 1 = 30 1 = 29.
2. : df A = a 1 = 3 1 = 2.
3. : df B = b 1 = 2 1 = 1.
4. : dfAB = dfA dfB = 21= 2.
5. : dfWG = Nab =
= 3032 = 306 = 24.
6. , ( -
): df BG = ab1 = 321 = 5.
, F--
, -
:

1. sA2 = 4.53 = 2.27.


2

2. sB2 = 1.63 = 1.63.


1
50.20
3.
2
sAB = = 25.1.
2
15.85
4.
2
sWG = = 0.66.
24

2 56.36
5. sBG = = 11.27.
5
54

, F- -
, 1:
2.27
1. FA = = 3.44. FA > F. = 3.40, ,
0.66
p < 0.05
. -
,
2, ..
, -
.
1.63
2. FB = = 1.97. FA < F. = 4.26, , -
0.66
p = 0.05 -
-
.
.
25.1
3. FAB = = 38.03. FA > F. = 3.40, ,
0.66
p < 0.05
-
.
11.27
4. FBG = = 17.08.
0.66

1
F- ,
-
. , -
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,
,
(repeated-measures designs).
2
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.
55

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72.12
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15


,
df
@ 2
s 2 F P

2 4.53 2.27 3.44 <0.05


1 1.63 1.63 1.97 >0.05
2 50.20 2.51 38.03 <0.01
() 5 56.36 11.27 17.08 <0.01
24 15.85 0.66 - -
29 72.21 2.49 - -

3.5.


, -
, -
56

, , -
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-
( ni ) (ai
bi ).

3.6.

,
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) :

A2 , B , AB A, B , AB
2
= 2 = 2
total A + 2B + 2AB + e2 , (32)
A, B , AB

.. -
-
.

:

( a 1 )( sA2 sWG
2
)
A2 = , (33)
n a b

(b 1 )( sB2 sWG
2
)
B2 = , (34)
n a b
57

( a 1)(b 1)( sAB


2
sWG
2
)
AB
2
= , (35)
n a b
e2 = sWG
2
. (36)
:
2A 0.107
1. = 2 = = 0.12.
2

total 0.922
A

B2 0.032

2. B
2
= = = 0.03.
total 0.922
2

2AB 0.123
3. = 2 = = 0.13.
2

total 0.922
AB

, 12%,
3%,
13%.
-
( -
, / )

(., ., , 1998).

3.7.

-
, -
.

-
, -
, -
.

, ,
.
-
.
58

, -
( ) ( )
(. . 16).
16

,
. 14.

- 3 5 7
(1) (2) (3)
(1) 18.8 23.0 31.6 73.4
(2) 37.6 24.0 18.8 80.4
-
5 5 5 152=30
()


:
(18.82 + 23.02 + 31.62 ) 73.42
d 2
A B1 =
5

15
= 375.2 359.17 = 17.03.

-
:

(37.62 + 24.02 + 18.82 ) 80.42


d A2 B2 = 5

15
=

= 468.64 430.94 = 37.70



(. . 17).
17




, df d 2
s 2 F P
1 2 17.03 8.52 12.91 <0.01
2 2 37.70 18.85 28.56 <0.01
24 15.85 0.66 - -
59

, 17,

, ..
, .
-
(. . 18).
18

,
B . 14


(1) (2)
-
3 (1) 18.8 37.6 56.4
5 (2) 23.0 24.0 47.0
7 (3) 31.6 18.8 50.4
-
5 5 103=30
()


:
(18.82 + 37.62 ) 56.42
d B2 A1 = 5

10
= 353.44 318.1 = 35.44 .


:
(23.02 + 24.02 ) 47.02
d B2 A2 = 5

10
= 221.0 220.9 = 0.1 .


:
(31.62 + 18.82 ) 50.42
d B2 A3 = 5

15
= 270.4 254.02 = 16.38 .


(. . 19).
, 19, -

, .. -
60
19




, df d 2
s 2 F P
1 1 35.44 35.44 53.7 <0.01
2 1 0.1 0.1 0.15 >0.05
3 1 16.38 16.38 24.82 <0.01
24 15.85 0.66 - -

-
. , -
(5 ),
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2 2 2
A B1 (37)
2

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1
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61

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(1998), -
.

3.8.


(n1 = n2 = n3 = ... = ni),
:
..
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,
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3.9.

,
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62

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1 ; 2 ; 1, 2, 1 2

64


1. ,
?
2. ?
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3.
332?
4. , two-
way 23 factorial analysis of variance.
5. -
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6. (H0 H1)
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65

3.10.
STADIA 6.0
STADIA -

. (.. -
) -
-. -
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( n, )1.

nm, -
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/ - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5
1 60 90 60 20 60
2 40 70 80 30 50
3 90 30 100 70 40
4 80 40 140 40 100
5 120 110 130 90 140

1
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(45).
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66

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5 ( ,
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(. . 21). , STADIA -

.
: -
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( 11 ... 15, 21 ...
25), -
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: F = 2.99,
F.= 3.01 ( = 0.0502) -
.
1.
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: -
1
(Repeated-Measures ANOVA) -
. Stadia -
.
67

,
..
21


STADIA 6.1/prof

2- . : educ55
:

. . .
.1 7.1E3 4 1.78E3 -0.282
.2 1.34E4 4 3.36E3 0.333
. 9.5E3 16 594
3E4 24 1.25E3

F(1)=2.99, =0.0502, . = 4,16


0: < >
F(2)=5.65, =0.0051, . = 4,16
1: < >

:
= 75.2, ..=13
1-1 = 2.8, ..=34.4
1-2 = -7.2, ..=34.4
1-3 = 26.8, ..=34.4
1-4 = -25.2, ..=34.4
1-5 = 2.8, ..=34.4
2-1 = -17.2, ..=34.4
2-2 = -21.2, ..=34.4
2-3 = -9.2, ..=34.4
2-4 = 4.8, ..=34.4
2-5 = 42.8, ..=34.4

-

(. , 1998). 33.
,
68

( , 3 : 1 ,
2 3 , 3 ).
3 (
, 3 : 1 , 2
, 3 ).
22 -
STADIA.
22

11 12 13 21 22 23 31 32 33
1 9 27 15 12 48 7 8 34 3
2 8 34 2 7 29 0 8 65 2
3 12 19 2 14 34 6 9 55 0
4 10 20 14 4 6 0 1 33 0
5 7 56 5 8 18 12 9 42 6
6 10 35 0 11 63 17 7 54 2
7 9 23 16 16 9 1 16 21 0
8 11 37 14 17 54 11 19 44 6
9 8 4 9 5 28 4 1 61 4
10 10 30 17 6 71 4 1 38 1
11 8 4 15 9 60 3 22 75 0
12 10 42 9 6 54 5 12 61 0
13 8 34 3 6 51 16 18 51 6
14 11 19 15 7 25 5 8 32 2
15 10 49 13 16 49 11 10 47 3


-
. -
(F9)
,
2 /, 4
.
-
(
). STADIA
(,
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-
69

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. ( 4
)
, STADIA -
.

/ .
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(F8), 1 -
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(. . 23) , -
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70

.
. -
,
-.
23

c
STADIA 6.1/prof

2- . : smoke
: ,

. . .
.1 2.87E4 2 1.43E4 0.0422
.2 355 2 177 0.666
. 2.733 4 682 -0.0615
. 1.36E4 126 108
4.53E4 134 338

F(1)=133, =0.0, . = 2,126


1: < >
F(2)=1.64, =0.195, . = 2,126
0: < >
F(.)=6.33, =0.0002, . = 4,126
1: < >

:
= 569, ..=61,4
1-1 = -552, ..=159
1-1 = -550, ..= 159
1-1 = -549, ..= 159
2-1 = -559, ..= 159
2-2 = -530, ..= 159
2-3 = -562, ..= 159

STADIA -
-
71

. ,
,
,
. , ,
, ..
-
(
2). -
,
-
(p 0.05).

3.11.
SPSS 8.0.1
-
(SPSS Data Editor)
() : -
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N , -
( a 1 k),
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( b
1 m). ,
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X ; Y

-
(Statistics)
(General Linear Model),
... (General Factorial). -
(-
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()
(Dependent Variable).
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,
(Fixed Factors) -
(Random Factors). 2 -
.
--
, (Covariates)
.
(WLS Weight) ,
, -
74
24

,
SPSS


1 3.13 1.00 1.00
2 3.64 1.00 1.00
3 2.59 1.00 1.00
4 4.22 1.00 1.00
5 1.36 1.00 1.00
6 3.25 1.00 2.00
7 3.14 1.00 2.00
8 1.97 1.00 2.00
9 3.16 1.00 2.00
10 3.47 1.00 2.00
11 1.39 2.00 1.00
12 3.87 2.00 1.00
13 4.37 2.00 1.00
14 3.79 2.00 1.00
15 3.33 2.00 1.00
16 5.38 2.00 2.00
17 4.07 2.00 2.00
18 5.39 2.00 2.00
19 3.37 2.00 2.00
20 4.74 2.00 2.00
21 5.60 3.00 1.00
22 3.02 3.00 1.00
23 6.18 3.00 1.00
24 5.22 3.00 1.00
25 4.15 3.00 1.00
26 5.47 3.00 2.00
27 6.88 3.00 2.00
28 6.40 3.00 2.00
29 2.07 3.00 2.00
30 4.68 3.00 2.00

.
,
-
: WLS Weight (Weighted
Least-Squares).
,
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75

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.

(Options)
, -
.
, 25.

77

( 1, Bet-
ween-Subject Factors). -
( , Descri ptive Statistics).

(Levenes Test of Equality of Variances) F = 1.143, p = 0.365
(, -
). -
(-
, Tests of Between-Subjects
Effects). -
. ( -
), -
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,
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(. ,
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(FGROUP = 6.79 6.64 FSEX = 1.33
1.30). , -
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1
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.
78
25


c SPSS 8.0.1


Between-Subjects Factors
N
1 - 10
2 - 10
3 10
1 15
2 15

:
.
N
- 2.9880 1.0922 5
2.9980 .5894 5
2.9930 .8274 10
- 3.3500 1.1561 5
4.5900 .8726 5
3.9700 1.1660 10
4.8340 1.2556 5
5.1000 1.8942 5
4.9670 1.5215 10
3.7240 1.3626 15
4.2293 1.4835 15
3.9767 1.4229 30

:
F ..1 ..2 .
1.143 5 24 .365


Tests
of Between-Subjects Effects
:


III .. F .
a
23.505 5 4.701 3.204 .023 .400

Intercept 474.416 1 474.416 323.358 .000 .931
19.484 2 9.742 6.640 .005 .356
1.915 1 1.915 1.305 .265 .052
* 2.106 2 1.053 .718 .498 .056
35.212 24 1.467
533.133 30
58.717 29
a. R = .400 ( R = .275)
25 ( )

:
, (Total) .
. (Residual)

2. (Corrected Model)
().
1. (, ), SPSS

95%
(I-J)-
.
(I) (J) .
- - -.9770 .542 .218 -2.3901 .4361
-1.9740* .542 .005 -3.3871 -.5609
- - .9770 .542 .218 -.4361 2.3901
-.9970 .542 .205 -2.4101 .4161
- 1.9740* .542 .005 .5609 3.3871
- .9970 .542 .205 -.4161 2.4101
.
*. .05.


:


III .. F .

21.399 3 7.133 4.970 .007
474.416 1 474.416 330.536 .000
19.484 2 9.742 6.787
6.787 .004
1.334
1.915 1 1.915 1.334 .259
37.318 26 1.435
533.133 30
58.717 29

79
80


1. 914
, -
32. , -

, .
2.
F-
.



, df d 2
s 2 F
4 64.26 ? ?
5 46.85 ? ?
? ? ? ?
120 1136.53 ?
149 ? ?

3. -
52 -
. -
, -
. ( : 2 ),
-
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10
.
26

2
1 2 3 4 5
. . . . . . . . . .
9 8 7 10 11 14 12 20 10 21
8 6 9 7 13 11 11 16 19 19
6 4 6 8 8 18 16 16 14 17
8 6 6 10 6 14 11 15 5 15
10 7 6 44 14 13 9 18 10 22
4 6 11 7 11 22 23 16 11 16
6 5 6 10 13 17 12 20 14 22
5 7 3 6 13 16 10 22 15 22
7 9 8 7 10 12 19 14 11 18
7 7 7 7 11 11 11 19 11 21
81

4 4

3 3

1 1
2 2 2 2

1 1
1 2 3 1 2 3
. 9 . 10

4 4

3
3
3

2
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1 1
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1 1
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:
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82

4.
23 (. . 27)
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27 , -
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27


, 1 2 3 1 2 3
4 23 16 21 25 32
18 15 27 14 33 42
8 21 23 19 30 46
10 13 14 26 20 40
6 2 20 11 23 17
4 6 15 7 14 16
13 8 8 6 13 25
7 12 17 16 12 12

5. 4,
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28



( )

1 2 3
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2 106 120 128 356
3 232 292 305 832
4 305 312 338 956

664 767 842 2280

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Xij = m. + tj +pi + tpji +eij (38)
m. ,
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4.3. ,

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88
29

A1 A2 A3
A1 cov11 cov12 cov13
A2 cov21 cov22 cov23
A3 cov31 cov32 cov33



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30



1 2 3 4 5


1 21 22 8 6 6 63
2 20 19 10 4 4 57
3 17 15 5 4 5 46
4 25 30 13 12 17 97
5 30 27 13 8 6 84
6 19 27 8 7 4 65
7 26 16 5 2 5 54
8 17 18 8 1 5 49
9 26 24 14 8 9 81

201 198 84 52 61


Ntotal = 45, total = 596, 2
s total = 71.96

d 2
total =(N total 1) stotal
2
= 44 71.96 = 3166.24. (39)
:

N
( X i ) 2
( X i )
2
n

d IWG
2
=
j =1 k
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N
=

632 + 572 + ... + 812 (596) 2 (40)


= =
5 45
= 8380.40 788.48 = 486.71,

n , k
(), j
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. IWG individual
differences within group,
.
91

( )
:

N
( X i ) 2
( X i )
2
k

d 2
BG =
m =1 n
i =1
N
=

2012 + 1982 + ... + 612 (596)2 (41)


= =
9 45
= 10342,89 788.48 = 2449.20,
n , m -
k .
, ( )
,
:

d 2
WG = d total
2
d IWG
2
d BG
2
=
. (42)
= 3166.24 486.71 2449.20 = 230.33
, -
-
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SPSS.
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92
31




d2 s 2 F P
8 486.71

4 2449.20 612.30 85.04 <0.01
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32 230.40 7.20
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44 3166.24

31,
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93

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, , -
,
, , -
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.

-
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11.5 28.5,
7.3316.38 (. . 32).

32

1 2 3 4 5
1 21.00 11.75 9.25 7.83 7.33
2 11.75 28.50 13.38 16.38 13.38
3 9.25 13.75 11.50 8.58 8.21
4 7.83 16.38 8.58 11.69 10.82
5 7.33 13.38 8.21 10.82 16.95

4.5.

-
. -
-
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94

1: , -
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95

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96

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:

d 2
total = d BS
2
+ dWS
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, (43)

d 2
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2
+ d IWG , ,
2
(44)

d 2
IWG = d
2
B + d AB + d B IWG .
2 2
(45)
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1

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6 . 12 . 6 . 12 .
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: m. , ai ,
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Fz Cz Pz Oz Fz Cz Pz Oz Fz Cz Pz Oz
S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1
1 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2
S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3
S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1
2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2
S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3
S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1
3 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2
S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3

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101


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1.
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2. ,
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5.
() ?
6.

d 2
BS ?
7. -
-
.
8.
?
9. Within-Subjects Factor
Between-Subjects Factor?
10.
?
102

4.6.

STADIA 6.0
Stadia
. -

Stadia .. . .
.
(1982). ,
(.266),
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. Stadia -

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103

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104

4.7.
SPSS 8.01
, -

Repeated-Measures ( ). SPSS
. Stadia,
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105

Editor) ,
SPSS, .. -
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week1 week2 week3 week4 week5


1 21 22 8 6 6
2 20 19 10 4 4
3 17 15 5 4 5
4 25 30 13 12 17
5 30 27 13 8 6
6 19 27 8 7 4
7 26 16 5 2 5
8 17 18 8 1 5
9 26 24 14 8 9
10 . . . . .
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(Statistics)
(General Linear Model),

(GLM Repeated-Measures). ,
(Within-Subject)
, -
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: (Within-
Subjects Factor Name): .
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(Number of Levels) 5. (Add)
-
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106

1), -
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>> (Measure>>),
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(Measure Name:), -
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(Define).
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. 5
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(Between-Subjects Factors), -
(Covariates),
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(Within-Subjects) ,

.
(Sum of Squares:) -
(Type III)
.
1
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, (Doubly
Multivariate Repeated Measures Designs).
107

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6
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(Post Hoc Tests) -
, .
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, -
(Save...). -
-
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OK.

,
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(. . 36): -
(. 36, ) -
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(. 36, ), (. 36, ).

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108
36

SPSS 8.01

Within-Subject Factors
Descriptive Statistics
:
.
N
1 1 1 22.33 4.58 9
2 2 2 22.00 5.34 9
3 3 3 9.33 3.39 9
4 4 4 5.78 3.42 9
5 5 5 6.78 4.12 9

Multivariate Tests
. . ..
F .
.986 86.391 4.000 5.000 .000 .986
.014 86.391 4.000 5.000 .000 .986
69.113 86.391 4.000 5.000 .000 .986

69.113 86.391 4.000 5.000 .000 .986

Mauchly`s Test of Sphericity


:


.
W - .. . - -
.282 8.114 9 .537 .684 1.000 .250
,
.

Tests of Within-Subject Effect

:


III .. F .

2449.200 4 612.300 85.042 .000 .914
- 2449.200 2.738 894.577 85.042 .000 .914
- 2449.200 4.000 612.300 85.042 .000 .914
2449.200 1.000 2449.200 85.042 .000 .914
()
230.400 32 7.200
- 230.400 21.903 10.519
- 230.400 32.00 0 7.200
230.400 8.000 28.800

(. . 36, -
), , -

. ,
,
(. . 36, ),
109

-
( = 0.537).
, SPSS
Between-
Subjects Factor Within-Subjects Factor ,
, -
(). ,
-

, -
. -
SPSS
, -
, .
SPSS
,
()
-
(. .96). ,
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,
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,
Time (-
).
4 , 4
(pretest, posttest, fu6, fu12) -
. - -
40 : (10 + 10 ) 2 -
. (gender) -
: 1 , 2 .
(training) , -
: 1 , 2 -
.

(Statistics),
110

training

. 16. SPSS

General Linear Model ( ),


Repeated-Measures (
). (Within-
Subject) ,
time () : Number of
Levels: 4. Add ()
. -
-
, , Measure>>(, -
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) ,
Add.
Define. ,
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pretest, posttest, fu6, fu12
.

(Between-Subjects Factors), ,
: gender trening,
111
37


SPSS 8.0

General Linear Model

Within-Subjects Factors Box's Test of Equality


of Covariance
Measure: FREQ Matrices
Between-Subjects Factors
Dependent
TIME Variable Box's M 45.811
1 PRETEST N F 1.210
2 GENDER 1.00 20 df1 30
POSTTEST
2.00 20
3
df2 3563
FU6 TRENING 1.00 20
4 FU12 2.00 20 Sig. .200

Tests of Within-Subjects Effects

Measure: FREQ
Sphericity Assumed
Type III
Sum of Mean Noncent. Observed
a
Source Squares df Square F Sig. Parameter Power
TIME 293.819 3 97.940 .936 .426 2.807 .250
TIME *
832.419 3 277.473 2.651 .052 7.953 .634
GENDER
TIME *
1465.319 3 488.440 4.667 .004 14.000 .884
TRENING
TIME *
GENDER *
528.669 3 176.223 1.684 .175 5.051 .430
TRENING

Error(TIME) 11304.025 108 104.667


a. Computed using alpha = .05

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Measure: FREQ
Transformed Variable: Average
Type III
Sum of Mean Noncent. Observed
a
Source Squares df Square F Sig. Parameter Power
Intercept 33785.156 1 33785.156 68.781 .000 68.781 1.000
GENDER 3267.056 1 3267.056 6.651 .014 6.651 .709
TRENING 124.256 1 124.256 .253 .618 .253 .078
GENDER
* 77.006 1 77.006 .157 .694 .157 .067
TRENING
Error 17683.275 36 491.202
a. Computed using alpha = .05
112

Between-Subjects Factor(s).
(Model...)
Full Factorial ( ), -
( -
, ) -
. (Sum of Squares:)
3 (Type III).
(Contrasts...) (Plots...)
.
-
(Post Hoc Tests) ,
SPSS ,
2.
(Save...)
.
(Options...) -
Gomogeneity
Tests.
,
Continue.

OK.

(. . 37).

.
( = 0.2).
Time.
(F = 0.936; = 0.426),

Training (F = 4.667; = 0.004)

Gender (F = 2.651; = 0.052).
-
(F = 1.684; = 0.175).
. -
Gender (F = 6.651;
= 0.014), Training, -
113
.


1.
, SPSS.
2. 8 , -
, 3 -

( ). , -
, ,

1 2 3
1 55 57 58
2 44 44 47
3 61 63 61
4 65 67 67
5 40 46 45
6 70 68 71
7 49 51 51
8 58 55 59

100 :
. -
. -
.
3. -
,
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).

( ) ( -



1 8 9 3 5
2 5 7 5 5
3 3 2 8 10
4 5 7 2 5
5 2 9 5 3
6 6 7 6 10
7 5 8 6 9
8 6 5 4 5
9 4 7 3 7
10 4 9 5 6
114

):
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7 6 6 4
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1
. (1998).
115

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7 5 2
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10- :
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. .
5

MANOVA

5.1.
,
(Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance) -
-
.
-
,
, -
-
.

. -
MANOVA
(Multivariate Analysis of Variance).
. -
,

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117

35 ,
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5.3.


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119

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V= ; (47)
i =  + i
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S

W= ; (48)
i =  + i
3. (Hotelling trace):
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4. (Roys largest root):
MAX
R=
 + MAX ; (50)

li i- , lMAX -
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120


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5.4.
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(BMDP, SAS, SPSS)
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(1986). -
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122
38

..


.1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5
150 71 59 132 74
335 156 160 117 230
149 91 115 43 154
159 127 212 71 224

159 35 75 71 34
292 184 246 225 170
297 66 96 209 74
170 42 66 114 81
346 177 192 239 140
426 236 76 102 232
359 183 123 183 30
272 82 85 101 98
200 263 216 241 227
366 263 164 220 180
371 270 308 219 267
447 294 216 284 225
282 225 134 189 169
317 85 120 131 205
362 144 114 115 127
338 91 77 108 169
263 141 142 120 195
138 16 95 39 55
329 62 6 93 67
292 104 184 193 122

, -
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1, 2 ... 6. (-
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123

. 17. .. SPSS

, 3 . -
, 247.

(Statistics)
(General Linear Model),

(Multivariate...). -
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(Dependent Variables). ,
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(Fixed
Factors), .. . -
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124

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: (Options...)
,
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126

-
, -
. -
(. . 39) .
(. . 39, )
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(F = 0.929, p = 0.603), -
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SPSS
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-
Comand Syntax,
(Help)
Syntax Guide, -
Advanced Statistics.
127
39
SPSS 8.01

Box's Test of Equality Bartlett's Test of


of Covariance Sphericity
B etw een -S u b jects F acto r Matrices
Likelihood
.000
Box's M 69.121 Ratio
N F .929 Approx.
73.873
1 .0 0 8 df1 42 Chi-Square
2 .0 0 8 df2 1309 df 20
3.0 0 8 Sig. .603 Sig. .000

M ultiv a ria te Te s ts
. . . .
F .
In te rc e p t .9 6 0 6 4 .1 0 5 6 .0 0 0 1 6 .0 0 0 .0 0 0
.0 4 0 6 4 .1 0 5 6 .0 0 0 1 6 .0 0 0 .0 0 0
2 4 .0 3 9 6 4 .1 0 5 6 .0 0 0 1 6 .0 0 0 .0 0 0

2 4 .0 3 9 6 4 .1 0 5 6 .0 0 0 1 6 .0 0 0 .0 0 0
.8 4 1 2 .0 5 7 1 2 .0 0 0 3 4 .0 0 0 .0 4 9
.3 0 8 2 .1 4 0 1 2 .0 0 0 3 2 .0 0 0 .0 4 3
1 .7 6 5 2 .2 0 7 1 2 .0 0 0 3 0 .0 0 0 .0 3 9

1 .4 2 5 4 .0 3 8 6 .0 0 0 1 7 .0 0 0 .0 1 1

Te sts of Be tw een -S ub jects E ffe cts




III . . F .
.007
1 72 7 93.00 0 2 36 396 .50 0 6.26 0 .0 07
.001
2 152 42 5.333 2 76 2 12 .66 7 9.71 9 .0 01
.001
3 75468 .00 0 2 37 7 34.00 0 9.645 .0 01
.182
4 16 913.08 3 2 8456.542 1.851 .1 82
.032
5 30 403.58 3 2 152 01 .792 4.08 9 .0 32
.424
6 90 37.0 00 2 451 8.500 .8 95 .424
.000
In te rc ept 1 1937448 .4 1 1937448 .4 333.21 8 .0 00
.000
2 55510 4.1 67 1 55510 4.1 67 70 .7 92 .0 00
.000
3 48 3936.0 00 1 48 3936.0 00 12 3.693 .0 00
.000
4 448 540.0 42 1 448 540.0 42 98 .1 82 .0 00
.000
5 52 7 77 0.0 42 1 52 7 77 0.0 42 141 .955 .0 00
.000
6 52 480 8.375 1 52 480 8.375 10 3.98 6 .0 00
.007
1 72 7 93.00 0 2 36 396 .50 0 6.26 0 .0 07
.001
2 152 42 5.333 2 76 2 12 .66 7 9.71 9 .0 01
.001
3 75468 .00 0 2 37 7 34.00 0 9.645 .0 01
.182
4 16 913.08 3 2 8456.542 1.851 .1 82
.032
5 30 403.58 3 2 152 01 .792 4.08 9 .0 32
.424
6 90 37.0 00 2 451 8.500 .8 95 .424
1 12 2 10 1.6 25 21 58 1 4.363
2 16 466 8.500 21 78 41.357
3 82 1 60 .00 0 21 391 2.381
4 95937 .87 5 21 456 8.470
5 78 0 75.37 5 21 37 1 7.8 75
6 10 598 5.6 25 21 50 46.935
1 21 32343.0 24
2 87 2 198.0 00 24
3 641 56 4.0 00 24
4 56 1 391.0 00 24
5 636 249.0 00 24
6 639831.0 00 24
1 194894.6 25 23
2 31 7 093.8 33 23
3 157 62 8.0 00 23
4 11 2 850.9 58 23
5 10 8 47 8.958 23
6 11 502 2.6 25 23
128

39 ()

95%
(I-J)-
.

(I)
(J)

.
1 1.00 2.00 -134.50* 38.126 .012 -238.53 -30.47
3.00 -76.25 38.126 .138 -173.85 21.35
2.00 1.00 134.50* 38.126 .012 30.47 238.53
3.00 58.25 38.126 .296 -39.76 156.26
3.00 1.00 76.25 38.126 .138 -21.35 173.85
2.00 -58.25 38.126 .296 -156.26 39.76
2 1.00 2.00 -171.50* 44.276 .012 -304.90 -38.10
3.00 -5.00 44.276 .991 -107.46 97.46
2.00 1.00 171.50* 44.276 .012 38.10 304.90
3.00 166.50* 44.276 .008 48.81 284.19
3.00 1.00 5.00 44.276 .991 -97.46 107.46
2.00 -166.50* 44.276 .008 -284.19 -48.81
3 1.00 2.00 -124.50* 31.275 .004 -206.87 -42.13
3.00 -12.00 31.275 .912 -88.79 64.79
2.00 1.00 124.50* 31.275 .004 42.13 206.87
3.00 112.50* 31.275 .012 25.53 199.47
3.00 1.00 12.00 31.275 .912 -64.79 88.79
2.00 -112.50* 31.275 .012 -199.47 -25.53
4 1.00 2.00 -43.88 33.795 .480 -140.79 53.04
3.00 19.63 33.795 .805 -62.34 101.59
2.00 1.00 43.88 33.795 .480 -53.04 140.79
3.00 63.50 33.795 .175 -24.49 151.49
3.00 1.00 -19.63 33.795 .805 -101.59 62.34
2.00 -63.50 33.795 .175 -151.49 24.49
5 1.00 2.00 -75.88 30.487 .088 -161.91 10.16
3.00 -.75 30.487 1.000 -77.46 75.96
2.00 1.00 75.88 30.487 .088 -10.16 161.91
3.00 75.13 30.487 .058 -2.37 152.62
3.00 1.00 .75 30.487 1.000 -75.96 77.46
2.00 -75.13 30.487 .058 -152.62 2.37
6 1.00 2.00 -44.75 35.521 .498 -146.19 56.69
3.00 -8.50 35.521 .964 -95.55 78.55
2.00 1.00 44.75 35.521 .498 -56.69 146.19
3.00 36.25 35.521 .562 -55.58 128.08
3.00 1.00 8.50 35.521 .964 -78.55 95.55
2.00 -36.25 35.521 .562 -128.08 55.58
.
*. .05.
129


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-
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-
( ) -
( ) .
-
() -
, .
-
-
.



1 3.4 2.2 2 3.3 2.8
1 3.4 2.2 2 3.2 2.6
1 3.3 2.3 2 3.2 2.7
1 3.4 2.3 2 3.2 2.6
1 3.3 2.2 2 3.2 2.7
1 3.3 2.0 2 3.3 2.6

2. .. .. (-
, 1994)
( 1: 2 -
) (-
2: 2
) -
-
.
4- ().
-
-

: -
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(FA), -
130

BH (Hit ) -
BH (FA ) . -
-
.

,
(, MANOVA) F- (,
ANOVA)?

- (Hit) (FA) BH (Hit ) BH (FA )


1 285 345 97 143 2 1
2 257 268 36 103 2 1
3 289 324 38 40 1 2
4 266 238 93 95 2 2
5 264 258 30 38 2 2
6 370 378 77 107 1 2
7 269 252 50 45 2 1
8 331 298 88 64 1 1
9 356 300 124 68 1 1
10 416 355 71 51 1 2
11 352 331 75 77 2 2
12 283 232 51 41 2 1
13 373 324 81 74 1 1
14 305 252 49 36 1 1
15 298 356 29 49 1 2
16 361 359 70 88 2 2
17 367 314 35 41 1 2
18 368 266 111 48 2 2
19 347 354 72 85 1 2
20 325 285 73 53 2 2
21 285 287 34 31 1 2

3. .. .. (-
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131

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-
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- 1 2 3 4 1 2
1 42 43 54 38 7 10 1
2 52 48 49 35 12 9 1
3 41 45 45 31 11 6 2
4 40 45 40 48 14 7 1
5 48 46 51 42 6 15 2
6 44 42 45 21 17 9 1
7 35 45 43 38 7 12 2
8 51 50 53 28 10 10 1
9 39 47 54 36 7 8 2
10 40 44 49 36 12 7 1
11 44 41 49 35 33 12 2
12 47 49 50 34 9 10 1
13 43 48 48 37 11 7 1
14 49 47 51 38 17 8 2
15 44 47 53 39 9 8 2
16 48 41 46 26 9 7 2

1


(. .., 19931998).
132


F- p = 0.05



. .
-

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 161.4 199.5 215.8 224.8 230.0 233.8 236.5 238.6 240.1 242.1
2 18.51 19.00 19.16 19.25 19.30 19.33 19.35 19.37 19.38 19.40
3 10.13 9.55 9.28 9.12 9.01 8.94 8.89 8.85 8.81 8.79
4 7.71 6.94 6.59 6.39 6.26 6.16 6.09 6.04 6.00 5.96
5 6.61 5.79 5.41 5.19 5.05 4.95 4.88 4.82 4.77 4.74
6 5.99 5.14 4.76 4.53 4.39 4.28 4.21 4.15 4.10 4.06
7 5.59 4.74 4.35 4.12 3.97 3.87 3.79 3.73 3.68 3.64
8 5.32 4.46 4.07 3.84 3.69 3.58 3.50 3.44 3.39 3.35
9 5.12 4.26 3.86 3.63 3.48 3.37 3.29 3.23 3.18 3.14
10 4.96 4.10 3.71 3.48 3.33 3.22 3.14 3.07 3.02 2.98
11 4.84 3.98 3.59 3.36 3.20 3.09 3.01 2.95 2.90 2.85
12 4.75 3.89 3.49 3.26 3.11 3.00 2.91 2.85 2.80 2.75
13 4.67 3.81 3.41 3.18 3.03 2.92 2.83 2.77 2.71 2.67
14 4.60 3.74 3.34 3.11 2.96 2.85 2.76 2.70 2.65 2.60
15 4.54 3.68 3.29 3.06 2.90 2.79 2.71 2.64 2.59 2.54
16 4.49 3.63 3.24 3.01 2.85 2.74 2.66 2.59 2.54 2.49
17 4.45 3.59 3.20 2.96 2.81 2.70 2.61 2.55 2.49 2.45
18 4.41 3.55 3.16 2.93 2.77 2.66 2.58 2.51 2.46 2.41
19 4.38 3.52 3.13 2.90 2.74 2.63 2.54 2.48 2.42 2.38
20 4.35 3.49 3.10 2.87 2.71 2.60 2.51 2.45 2.39 2.35
22 4.30 3.44 3.05 2.82 2.66 2.55 2.46 2.40 2.34 2.30
24 4.26 3.40 3.01 2.78 2.62 2.51 2.42 2.36 2.30 2.25
26 4.23 3.37 2.98 2.74 2.59 2.47 2.39 2.32 2.27 2.22
28 4.20 3.34 2.95 2.71 2.56 2.45 2.36 2.29 2.24 2.19
30 4.17 3.32 2.92 2.69 2.53 2.42 2.33 2.27 2.21 2.16
40 4.08 3.23 2.84 2.61 2.45 2.34 2.25 2.18 2.12 2.08
50 4.03 3.18 2.79 2.56 2.40 2.22 2.20 2.13 2.07 2.03
60 4.00 3.15 2.76 2.53 2.37 2.25 2.17 2.10 2.04 1.99
120 3.92 3.07 2.68 2.45 2.29 2.18 2.09 2.02 1.96 1.91
200 3.89 3.04 2.65 2.42 2.26 2.14 2.06 1.98 1.93 1.88
500 3.86 3.01 2.62 2.39 2.23 2.12 2.03 1.96 1.90 1.85
1000 3.85 3.01 2.61 2.38 2.22 2.11 2.02 1.95 1.89 1.84
133


., . . -
. .: , 1982.
., .
. .: , 1976.
. . .: -
. -, 1982.
. . .: -
, 1982.
.. . .:
- . -; , 1997.
.. Windows.
Stadia 6.0. .: , 1998.
.. . .: , 1980.
.. . .: , 1971.
. SPSS Base 8.0. .: , 1998.
. SPSS Base 8.0. .: , 1998.
.. -
. .: - , 1996.
.. -
. 2- . .: - . -, 1998.
.., ..
. .: -, 1998.
.. .
.: , 1997.
. . .: , 1980.
Dancey C., Reidy J. Statistics Without Maths for Psychology. Usung
SPSS for Windows. Prentice Hall, 1999.
Howell D. Fundamental Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences (3rd
ed.). Belmont, CA: Duxbury Press, 1995.
Howell D. Statistical Methods for Psychology (4th ed.). Belmont,
CA: Duxbury Press, 1998.
Levine G. A Guide to SPSS for Analisis of Variance. Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates, Publishers. Hillsdale, 1991.
Kirk R. Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences.
(3rd ed.) Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1995.
Norusis M. SPSS Inc. SPSS for Windows: Advanced Statistics, Release
6.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc, 1993.
SPSS Advanced Statistics 7.5. Chicago: SPSS Inc, 1997.
134


............................................................................ 3
1

1.1. .................................................................... 7
1.2. ................................... 9
1.3. ............................................................ 10
1.4. ................................................. 11
1.5. ..................................... 12
1.6. ............................. 13
1.7. ................................................................... 13
2

2.1. .- ............................................... 19
2.2. ................... 24
2.3. .......................................... 28
2.4. ............................................. 29
2.5. ................................... 31
.......................................................... 31
2.6.
STADIA 6.0 ................................... 32
2.7.
SPSS 8.0.1 .................................... 36
............................................................................. 41
3

3.1. .............................................. 43
3.2. ........................................ 45
3.3. ......................................... 46
3.4. ........................ 49
3.5.
............................................................. 55
3.6. ....................................... 56
3.7. ........................................................ 57
3.8. ................... 61
3.9. ...................... 61
........................................................... 64
135
3.10.
STADIA 6.0 ................................... 65
3.11.
SPSS 8.0.1 .................................... 71
.............................................................................. 80
4

4.1. ............................ 84
4.2. ................... 86
4.3. ,
.......................................... 87
4.4.
................................................... 89
4.5.
................................................. 93
......................................................... 101
4.6.
STADIA 6.0 ................................. 102
4.7.
SPSS 8.01 ................................... 104
............................................................................ 113
5
MANOVA
5.1. ................................................ 116
5.2. ................................................. 118
5.3. ............ 118
......................................................... 120
5.4. ............................. 120
............................................................................ 129
.......................................................................... 132
....................................................... 133

..
..

-
00451 15 1999 .

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