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STRUDS V12

TUTORIAL GUIDE
The information in this tutorial Guide is subject to change without notice because of the
continuous process of software enhancement / improvement. CSCWorld is in no way
responsible for any errors that may appear in this Tutorial Guide or due to its usage.

Requests and Orders to:

CSCWorld (India) Private Limited


South Wing, 10th Floor, Sharda Chambers,
Behind EXIM Bank,
Shankerseth Road, Pune.
India.
(www.cscworld.com)

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Preface

With the feedback from the users of Struds v11 version it was reflected that to learn a
new software, a Tutorial is always more instructive than a dry informative Manual. Of course a
Tutorial cannot have so exhaustive information as a Manual. But to work on a sample example is
an easier way to understand the working of the software. We have, therefore prepared this
Tutorial Guide that deals with the step by - step solution of a building project.

You will analyse and design a sample-building project by using Struds v12 with the help
of this Tutorial Guide. You are advised to concentrate more on the general working and
sequence of using different commands than the results of analysis and design.

This sample-building project has total five floors. It has a ground floor and four upper
floors. Plinth beams are provided at the bottom most floor level. Above this four floor levels are
defined by four slabs. The framing plans of all floors and Architectural plan are as shown on the
adjoining pages. The roof slab has a cut off portion. The position of columns is as shown in the
framing plans.

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TUTORIAL GUIDE

The purpose of this Tutorial is to explain in brief the main features of Struds v12 by working on a
sample Building Project. Though all the commands of Struds v12 are not covered in this sample,
most of the commands required for model generation, analysis and design are made use of.

The user can go on exploring the other menu options and commands as he becomes more and
more conversant with the program.

The modeling, analysis and design processes presented in this example are as follows.
1. File opening and preferences setting.
2. Creation of various types of slabs with varying supporting conditions.
3. Locating Columns.
4. Specifying Boundary conditions.
5. Enter Material And Section Properties.
6. Generating walls in the floor plan.
7. Observing Entities.
8. Attaching external loads.
9. Copying the floor plans.
10. Editing the floor plans.
11. Analysing the building structure.
12. Introduction to postprocessor mode.
13. Design of structure.

SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE BUILDING ARE AS FOLLOWS:

1. In this specific structure the building is Ground + 4 storied.


2. The architectural line plan is as shown in adjoining page.
3. All the external walls are considered 230 mm thick.
4. All the internal walls are considered 100 mm thick.
5. Slab thickness is considered to be 120 mm.
6. Live load on the building is consider as 2 KN/m2
7. Floor finish load is considered as 1.0 KN/m2.
8. At ground floor level we have plinth beams.

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Architectural Line Plan for design is shown above.

Getting Started

Once you have installed Struds v12 on your computer, make sure that the Hardware lock
(Dongle) is properly secured to the parallel port or USB port (Printer Port) of your computer.

You can now run Struds v12 by using following menu options.

Click the `START' button of Windows98/ Windows XP/ Windows NT / Windows Vista menu
bar.
Click `Programe' option from the pull - up menu.
Click ` Struds v12 option from the menu.
Click `Run Struds v12 option.

The Struds Graphical Environment will be invoked and the following screen comes up.

The `Main Menu' (also called as Control Menu) of Struds v12 is displayed on the screen along
with the STARTUP dialog box.

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Struds displays a dialog box and asks you to enter the project information such as name,
location etc. Change both the maximum Building Dimension X and Y from 20 to 15.

You can fill up the relevant information in the fields available. If you do not want to write any
information, just click the `OK' button from the dialog box. Before that you have a check box in
the dialog box to select the option of new model generator for modeling of the floor plans.
Check it and click on OK button.

Now you are working with the Graphical Data Generation module of Struds. Struds displays a
screen with a menu bar at top having a number of Menu Options for Graphics generation.

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After clicking OK it will display the Skeleton window. Since we are having G +3 building enter
Floor no. as 5
Height of the floor as 3
Level of the floor as 2.1
Click on Auto generate
Then close the skeleton dialog box.

After selecting the Autogenerate option from skeleton dialog box Struds will automatically
calculate the level of all above floors from the given information of Height of floor and Level of
the initial floor. And will display the table in the Skeleton dialog box.

Drawing Floor Plan:

In Struds the input is done by using 2d plane grid method. You are required to draw the floor
plans of the building by defining slab panels.

By using different options in Main menu you will be able to generate the model for the Building
Project in 2d or 3d form with graphical input.

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Enter the floor no. for which you want to generate the drawing e.g. Floor 1 then you can change
the floor from the combo box as shown in the above picture.

Click the `Create' option from the menu bar.


Click the Building ->> Slab option from the second scroll side menu.

At the bottom of the screen, Struds displays the command to be given by the user.

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Click icon from the dialog box.
By clicking this option you allow the program to decide upon the one way or two way spanning
of slab by calculating the aspect ratio.

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Change the thickness of slab from 100 mm to 120 mm by overwriting in the field denoting
`Thickness'.

Then click on the radio button of By point, dimension for selecting the type for generation of
slab and click on Accept button for accepting the changed values for generation of slab.

Struds displays command


`Enter / select First Point of a Slab: Type 3 3 and press Enter Key.
`Enter Dimension / Click Second Point of slab: Type 4 5 press enter.

You have given the starting point of slab at X co-ordinate 3.0 meters and Y co-ordinate 3.0
meters from the bottom left corner of the screen. The slab dimensions given are X length 4
meters and Y length 5 meters.

The slab panel is displayed on the screen. Press F7 key from the keyboard. This key is the
shortcut to redraw the graphics on the screen. By pressing the key the node numbers, element
numbers and slab numbers become visible on screen. To put on / off these numbers you can use
F4, F5 and F6 keys. These are toggle keys. If you want to remove the display of element nos. you
can press F5 key. When you again press F5 key the display is again put on.

You are still in the slab create mode. You will remain in this mode till you press Esc key or click
some other option from the menu.

Struds again displays following command

`Enter First Point of a Slab': right click the mouse button.

This key is the shortcut to define a point with respect to a node. Struds displays a small menu
list fob object snap.

Click the `End Point' option from this list.


Struds displays following command

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`Enter a Point:
Click the box cursor along the element no. 2 and near the node no. 3.
This way the node no. 3 will be selected as the first point of the slab.

Struds displays command


`Enter Dimension / Click second point of Slab:
Type 2.5 6 and press enter key.

Here you may note that once you change the value in any of the field, that value is taken as
default value while defining the next slab panel.

The second slab panel is displayed on the screen.

Right click the mouse button.


Struds again displays the window list for Object Snap mode.

Click the `Node' option from this list.


Struds displays command
`Enter Node ID / Select a Node:
Select the node no. 1 by moving the box cursor on it and clicking the left button of mouse.
Struds displays command
`Enter Dimension / Click second point of the slab:

Type 4 3.5 and press enter key.

The third slab panel is displayed on screen.

Right click the mouse button.


Select `Node' option.
Click icon for slab denoting slab spanning one way vertically.
Click `Accept' button from the dialog box.

Select node no. 5 by using mouse.


STRUDS displays command
`Enter Dimension / Select second point of slab'.
Type 1.2 1.2 press enter key.
The fourth slab panel is displayed on screen.

Press F5 key to put off the element numbers.

Click icon for slab denoting slab spanning one way vertically.
Click `Accept' button from the dialog box.

Right click the mouse button.


Select `Node' option.
Select node no 6 by mouse.
Right click the mouse button, Select `Node' option.

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Select node no. 11 by mouse.

Fifth slab panel is displayed on screen.

Click icon for slab denoting slab spanning one way vertically.
Click `Accept' button from the dialog box.

Right click the mouse button.


Select `Node' option.
Select node no. 9 by mouse.
Right click the mouse button
Select `Node' option.
Select node no. 13 by cursor.

The sixth slab panel is displayed on the screen.

Select the icon displaying that is for cantilever slab the load of which is transferred on
right side beam.
Click `Accept' button from the dialog box.

Right click the mouse button.


Select `Offset' option.
Select node number 1 using mouse.
Struds will display following dialog box for offset command

`Enter X offset': Type 0


`Enter Y offset': Type 0.6
Click on Ok button.

Struds displays command


`Enter Dimension / Click second point of Slab':
Type -1.2 2.3 and press enter key.

The seventh slab is displayed on the screen.

Select icon for slab spanning one way in horizontal direction.


Click `Accept' button from the dialog box.

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Right click the mouse button
Select `Node' option.
Select node no. 7 by cursor.

`Enter Dimension / Click second point of slab':

Type 1.2 2.8 press enter key.

The eighth slab panel is displayed on the screen.

This way you have generated all the eight slab panels of the floor plan. Then close the slab
properties dialog box.

Drawing Curved Element:

To draw the curved portion slab portion,


Select `Create' from menu bar.
Click `Curved Element' from the pull down menu.
Click `Three Point' from the second pull down menu.

`Enter First point of curve':


Right click the mouse button.
Select `Node' option.
Select node number 9 by cursor.

`Enter Second Point of Curve':


Right click the mouse button.
Select `Offset' option.

Select node number 8 using mouse click.


`Enter X offset': Type 2.0
`Enter Y offset': Type 1.5

`Enter Third Point of curve':


Right click the mouse button
Select `Node' option from menu
Select node no. 8 by cursor
The curved beam is displayed on the screen.

Please note that this is a curved beam and not a circular slab. If you need to have a circular slab,
drawing a curved beam and providing the slab load on this beam as UDL can define the same.
Also the point to be noted while drawing a curved element is to select the three points (Start, mid
and end) in anti- clockwise manner.

Location of Columns:

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After drawing the floor plan, the next stage is to locate positions of columns. The columns can
be located on nodes or anywhere along the elements.

Select `Create' option from menu bar.


Select Building ->> Column ->> Auto Add option from the second level pull down menu.
By using this option the blinking cursor automatically goes at every node and a message is
displayed

`Mark column at this node'

Also available is a list of icons, which you can click by mouse. Or you can press Y, N, L, R, U, D, O,
S letters from the keyboard to specify your selection.

Y - means locate column at this node


N - means do not locate column at this node
L - means locate column to the left of this node
R - means locate column to the right of this node
U - means locate column to the upside of this node
D - means locate column to the downside of this node
O - means locate column away from node
S - means to stop locating the columns
Cursor first starts blinking at node no. 4
Press Y key
Cursor blinks at node no. 3
Press Y
Cursor blinks at node no. 7
Press N
Cursor blinks at node no. 21
Press L
X offset window will get highlighted
Enter X Offset Distance 1.2 m.
Click OK button

Cursor blinks at node no. 19


Press N
Cursor blinks at node no. 20
Press N

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Cursor blinks at node no. 1
Press N
Cursor blinks at node no. 2
Press Y
Cursor blinks at node no. 18
Press N
Cursor blinks at node no. 17
Press D
Y offset window will get highlighted
Enter Y Offset Distance 0.6 m.
Click OK button

Cursor blinks at node no. 5


Press N
Cursor blinks at node no. 12
Press N
Cursor blinks at node no. 6
Press N
Cursor blinks at node no. 10
Press N
Cursor blinks at node no. 11
Press N
Cursor blinks at node no. 13
Press N
Cursor blinks at node no. 15
Press N
Cursor blinks at node no. 16
Press U
Y offset window will get highlighted
Enter Y Offset Distance 0.6 m.
Click OK button

Cursor blinks at node no. 9


Press Y
Cursor blinks at node no. 14
Press Y
Cursor then blinks at node no. 22 along the curved element.
Press N at this node.

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This way you have located columns by using `Auto Add' option.
Now if you want to locate column away from node.

Select `Create' from menu bar


Select Building
Select `Column'
Select `Locate'

Struds displays message


`Enter point for column':
The box cursor appears on the screen.

Right click the mouse button


Select `Offset' option

`Enter Node ID / Select Node':


Type 6 press enter
You will get following dialog box.

`Enter X offset': Type 0


`Enter Y offset': Type -1.0

The column is located 1 meter down to node no. 6.


This way you have located all the columns. This is nothing but specifying the boundary
conditions at nodes. When a column is located, it means that the vertical displacement (in Z
axis) at the specified node is zero.

Specifying Boundary Conditions:

Now from the observation of the floor plan you can see that at nodes 16, 17 and 19 the
cantilever beams are projecting from main beams. The boundary condition at these nodes is by
default taken as a simple support. To provide fixity at these nodes, you should follow following
steps.

Click Create option from main menu.


Select Building ->> Constraints ->> Support ->> Plane Grid options from secondary menu.
STRUDS displays the screen showing the floor plan and right hand side menu items vertically
arranged.

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Presently the boundary group defined is BG1 only that denotes columns at (W - zero) the
specified nodes. You can specify any type of boundary group and attach it to the required node.
From the floor plan geometry it can be seen that at nodes 16 17 and 19, we need to provide
fixity about Y-axis i.e. rotation about Y-axis is restrained (Ry = 0).

Click the option `Define Group'.


Struds displays a window with different fields to click to define a group. You are defining group
no. 2 for nodes 20, 18 and 15.

Click the box of `Y - Rotation'.


Click `OK' button.
Select the boundary group BG2 by clicking on the drop down arrow button for the Boundary
Group title.
Click the `Add Node' button from the menu.
A box type cursor appears on the screen.

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Select node 15, 18 and 20 by mouse.
Click Close button by mouse.

Now you have drawn the floor plan, located the columns and specified the support conditions
wherever required.

Attaching Sections to Beams:

The next step is to provide the sections to the beams.

Select Create from main menu.


Select Building ->> Property options from secondary menu bar.
Point to Section and click the mouse.
A Window appears on the screen, which has a number of fields and buttons.
STRUDS will generate the default section Csec1 for columns.

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Click the dropdown icon at the Section Shape pull down menu.
Select Rectangular.

Struds displays two fields for width and depth of the Sec2.

Type 230 in the field in front of b.


Press Tab key from keyboard or click mouse in the next field.
Type 450 in the field.
Select Add button

Again select Rectangular from the pull down menu.


Type 150 in the field of b
Type 380 in the next field of D
Select Add

Type 230 in the field of b and 100 in the field of D.


Select Add.

This way you have defined three rectangular sections Sec2, Sec3 and Sec4, which you can
provide to any of the beams in the floor plan. Please note that Sec4 is a hidden beam section or

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dummy beam. Since it is imperative that every element must have a section for the analysis to
be performed. Some times we need to provide a nominal section to an element where a beam is
not required. For example, a cantilever slab is defined by four surrounding elements. The load of
the slab is transferred on one of the elements, which acts as a beam. The other three elements
do not act as a beam. In such case we need to provide a hidden beam or dummy beam section
at such elements.

Same dialog box will allow you to attach the defined sections to the beams.

Select Sec4 from the list of sections.


Select Apply to beam button
A box type cursor appears on the screen.
Select element numbers 22, 23 and 19 by clicking the cursor along these elements. Right click
the mouse button to attach the sections.
Select Sec2 from the list of sections.
Select Apply to beam button
Click Grid button.

Again the box type cursor appears on the screen.


When you use the option Grid and click it along any element, that element and all other
elements in line with this element will have the chosen section attached.

Select element No. 3, 4, 7 & 24 by clicking the mouse along these elements. Right click the
mouse button to attach the sections.

Select Sec3 from the pull down menu.


Select Apply to beam button
Click Rest button. Right click the mouse button to attach the sections.

All the remaining elements, which do not have any section, are attached with sec3 by this
process.

Select Close button.

This way you have specified the section sizes for all the elements in the floor plan. It should be
noted that you must specify the section for all the elements in the floor plan before proceeding
to analysis.

Generate Walls in the Floor Plan

In STRUDS you can attach the walls on beams as per your requirement. STRUDS will
automatically calculate the weight of walls on beams as UDL as per the physical attributes
provided by you. Now to generate walls follow following procedure
Select Create from menu bar.
Select Building ->> Wall option from Second pull down option.
A window with fields and buttons appears on the screen. By default one wall with 230 mm
thickness and 3 m height will always there in the list. When you define any new wall then it will
be added.

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In the field for Wall Name type W1
In the field for thickness type 230
In the field for height type 3
From the pull down menu select BRK.
BRK stands for brick masonry. The density of brick masonry, 19 kn/m3 is automatically taken
by the program. If you want to change the density, you can simply click in the field and
overwrite new value of density.

Select Modify button from the window. This will modify the already stored data for wall 1.
In the field of Name - type (w2)
In the field of thickness type 100
Select Add button from the window.

This way you have defined two walls W1 & W2 of brick masonry and thickness 230mm and 100
mm respectively.

You can use the same dialog box to attach the defined walls to the elements in the floor plan.
The flag for Consider Element section is always true by default i.e. while attaching a wall to an
element, the program will automatically, deduct the depth of the beam from the wall height
while calculating the wall load on that element. If you do not want to deduct the depth of beam
section from wall height, you can do so by clicking the box of consider element section.

Select W1 from the list of walls.


Select Apply button on the dialog box.

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Select Grid button from the window.
Select elements 3, 4, 7 & 24 by clicking the box type cursor along these elements. Right click
the mouse button to attach the walls to those elements.
Select W2 from the list of walls.
Select Grid button from the window.
Select element numbers 1, 2, 10, 11 and 13 by clicking the box type cursor along these
elements.
All the elements in line of these elements are attached with wall W2.

Select Close button from the window.

Select Display from menu bar.


Select Entities.

A window is displayed on the screen with several fields and small boxes to On/Off the flag. You
can put On/Off the display of any of the entities listed in this dialog box by clicking the small box
before these entities.

Select the box for Wall by clicking mouse


Select OK button.

The walls, which are attached to corresponding elements, are displayed by the program on
screen.

Attaching external loads:

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In case you want to provide any extra load on the elements; for example, in this plan the circular
slab is defined by a curved beam. There physically is no slab enclosed by this curved beam. Here
as we want to attach the load of the slab on curved beam, we can do the same by following
procedure.

Select Load from menu bar.


Select Elemental / Nodal Loads & click the mouse.
A Window appears on the screen with a pull down menu and few buttons.

Select Elemental radio button.


Select Full UDL from the pull down menu Type 3 in the field in front of W: (which denotes the
value of uniformly distributed load on the elements.)

Click Add button.


Select Load G1 from the list of loads.
Select Apply Load.
Select the curved element by taking box cursor anywhere along the curved element and
clicking the mouse. Right click the mouse button to attach the elemental load to curve
element.

Select Close button.


Now you have defined the complete typical floor of the sample building.
Select File.

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Select Save.

Copying the Floor Plans

In STRUDS once you define a floor plan, you can copy it for other floors. Then you can select any
floor and make changes in that floor as per your requirement.

Select Modify from the menu.


Select Building
Select Skeleton
Select copy.
A window appears on screen having a series of fields, which allows you to copy the floor plan
from one floor to other floor.
Enter the source floor that is the floor, which you want to copy. Also select the destination
floors those are where you want to copy the source floor. If you want to copy the floor plan on
all floors then select the option of select all floors to copy by clicking in the check box.

Select Floor 1 as source floor and Floor2, Floor3, Floor4 and Floor5 as destination floors.
Select OK button.
The floor plan of Floor 1 is copied at floor No.2.

This can be separately done by copying the floors as given below.


Again select Floor Plan
Select Copy option
Select OK button.
The floor plan from Floor 2 is copied at Floor 3.

Again select Floor Plan.


Select Copy option
Select OK button.
The floor plan data from floor 3 is copied at floor 4.

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Again select Floor Plan
Select Copy Option
Select OK button.
The floor plan data from floor 4 is copied at floor 5.

This way we have five floors in the Sample building.

Editing Floor Plans

We can now change the data in any particular floor by selecting and editing that floor level.

Select Floor 1 from the drop down menu on the screen of STRUDS.

The floor plan at bottom most level or level1 is displayed on the screen. Let us assume that this
Sample building has plinth beams at first level. Which means that there are no slabs in this
plan (or) the load of slabs in this plan is not transferred on the beams. In other words, the
beams are designed only for their self-weight and imposed loads like wall load. To accomplish
this, follow the below procedure.

Select Modify from menu bar.


Select Building ->> Slab ->> Delete.
A box type cursor appears on the screen.

Delete the slabs S7 and S8 by moving cursor on these slabs and clicking the right button of
mouse.

Select Modify from menu bar.


Select Building ->> Slab ->> Convert to duct option.
Select slabs S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6 using mouse. Then right click the mouse button so that the
selected slabs will be deleted and only elements will remain.

Now to delete the curved element

Select Modify from menu bar.


Select Building ->> Element ->> Delete
Select the elements in the curved beam by moving cursor along them and right click the mouse.

Select Create from main menu.


Select Building ->> Property ->> Section from secondary successive menu bars.
Select Rectangular from the pull down menu. Type 230 in the field of b
Type 380 in the field of D.
Select Add button.
You have created a new beam section

Select Sec5 from the list of sections


Select Apply To Beam button.
Select All option on top and right click the mouse button.
STRUDS gives a warning message.

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Select Yes to All button from the message box.
Now the new section Sec5 is attached to all the elements. The previously attached sections are
overwritten by the program.

Select File from menu bar.


Select Save option.
The building file is saved by using this option

Select Floor 5 from drop down menus.


The floor plan of 5th floor i.e. top floor is displayed on the screen.

Select Modify from menu bar.


Select Building ->> Column ->>Delete click the mouse.
Select column no. 1 by the cursor and clicking the mouse. Right click the mouse button and
the column will be deleted from the geometry.

Select Modify from menu bar.


Select Building ->> Slab ->> delete from secondary menu bars.
Select slab s1 by moving the cursor on this slab and clicking mouse. Right click the mouse
button to delete the slab

Select Create from menu bar.


Select Building.
Select Wall

A window is displayed on the screen

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Select W1 from the list of walls.
Select Remove button.
Select All option from top. And right click the mouse button then all walls will be detached.
Select Close.
This way you have removed the loads from all the walls on elements in this floor.

Press F7 key to refresh the screen.


This way you have created all the five floor plans for sample building.
Select File from menu bar.
Select Save option.
STRUDS displays a massage.

STRUDS displays a window where you can specify the directory in which you want to store these
analysis files.

Select Save button.

After that go to ->> Load menu and generate the EQ load and wind loads.

Analysing the Building Structure

In STRUDS, the building can be idealized as Plane Grids, Plane Frames or Space Frame. By
defining the floor plans per floor, you have specified the floor grids for each floor. You can now
analyze and design this sample building by following three methods.

1. PLANE GRID METHOD -

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In this method the beams shall be designed as continuous beams with end supports as simple
supports and the intermediate supports as continuous supports. The columns and footings will
be designed for axial load only. Slabs will be designed as panels.

This method is adopted by a number of consultants for low-rise buildings with simple grid like
floor plans.

2. PLANE FRAME METHOD

Struds automatically generates the plane frames in X and Y direction and analyses them in one
stroke. The analysis results are automatically taken to design. The stiffness of columns is also
taken into account in the analysis. Beams are designed as continuous beams with fixity at end
supports. Columns will be designed for axial load and moments in X and Y directions. Footing
shall also be designed for biaxial bending. Also in this method Struds can automatically generate
horizontal loads like Wind Load and Earthquake Loads on the frames as per the basic
parameters provided by the user.

This method is used by most of the consultants for multistoried building where analysis for
horizontal loads is desired and the floor plans are such that the plane frames are distinctly
generated. However where the plans are irregular and frames are not generated along all
primary beams, this method may prove to be erroneous. For example if a grid has only one
column, the frame cannot be generated.

3. SPACE FRAME METHOD -

Struds automatically generates and analyses the space frame. The results are then automatically
taken to design module for design. The stiffness of columns is taken into account for analysis.
Beams are designed as continuous beams with fixity at end supports. Columns will be designed
for axial load and moments in X and Y directions. Footing shall also be designed for biaxial
bending. Also in this method Struds can automatically generate horizontal loads like Wind Load
and Earthquake Loads on the frames as per the basic parameters provided by the user.

This is the most accurate and desirable method for analysis and design. This method is difficult
to adopt for manual calculations, but is most suitable for computer-aided design.

ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE.

Before going for analysis first of all generate the plane and space frames also save the file. For
that adopt following procedure.
Select View option.
Select Plane frame - >> Auto generate option from pull to side menu.
Select Space frame - >> Generate option from pull to side menu.
Select File option.
Select Save option from drop down menu.

Select `Analysis' from the menu bar.

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Select Preanalysis Inquiry from drop down menu.

Struds will display the following menu if there is not any problem. Otherwise it will display the
error like sections not attach to elements and give the element numbers. Or Material properties
not attach to elements. Or zero length elements are formed and display the list of elements.

Click OK button.
Select `Analysis' from the menu bar.
Select `Analysis Options' from drop down menu.
STRUDS displays following dialog box.

Select Planegrid and Planeframe options and click OK.


You will get the following dialog box. In which STRUDS automatically selects all files if you want

to analyse a particular file then select all files and press button

Then select the files that you want to analyse and press button.
Check whether the flag in Front Optimization is on. Click OK and STRUDS will again save all
the files.

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Struds displays a message box containing the files for analysis. Every floor has a separate file for
analysis. In Studs a floor can have more than one level (as incase of stilt floor). In such building a
floor may have more than one file.

Select `Analysis Option from main menu.


Select Perform Analysis option from drop down menu.
After completing the analysis it will display the message Analysis Completed successfully!
Select `OK' button.
Select Mode option from main menu.
Select Postpro option from drop down menu.
You will get the following screen.

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Select Results option from main menu.
Select Set Structure Type option from drop down menu.
Select Spaceframe option from side scroll menu.
You will have to proceed with the following screen.

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Press the isometric view button. Then to get the results displayed on screen adopt the
following procedure.

Select Results option from main menu.


Select Elemental Result option from drop down menu.
Select SFD option from side scroll menu.
Select Full option from side scroll menu.
You will get the Shear Force diagram of all elements of a particular floor.
You can have the details of particular element by selecting the element option and entering the
number of element or by clicking on the particular element.
Also you can select a particular grid to get the results of that grid. Click on Geometry button to
go back to geometry of the structure.

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From element results option you can select a particular option like shear force, bending
moment, axial force, torsion, free body diagram etc. of which you want the details.
Bending moments of element no 2 are shown below.

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To display the deflection of the element select the option Deflection and select the grid of
which the deflection is required.

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If you want the results in report format you can get it adopting the following procedure.
Select Results option from main menu.
Select Reports option from pull down menu.
Select Elemental option from side scroll option.
Finally select Full option.
This will give you the elemental results of all elements of particular floor. By selecting next page
option we can go through all the pages of the report.

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DESIGN OF STRUCTURE

Now after completing the analysis and observing the analysis results in postprocessor mode we
will turn to the RCC design of the structure. For that adopt the following procedure.

Select Mode option from main menu.


Select RCC Design option from pull down menu.

You will get new window on the screen as shown below.

Slab Design:
Select RCC design option from main menu.
Select Set Structure Type option from pull down menu.
Select Plane grid, Planeframe or Spaceframe option from Set Structure Type option.
Select `Space Frame option from the pull side menu bar.

Select RCC design option from main menu.


Select `Design Parameters' from the pull down menu.
Design parameters dialog box will be displayed on the screen.
Select Slab option from menu of Design parameters dialog box.
STRUDS displays a dialog box where you can specify the design parameters for slab design.

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The default parameters are as shown in the dialog box.
STRUDS displays a dialog box, which indicates the parameters like concrete cover, maximum
and minimum spacing criteria and type of bars to be used for design. You can change any of
these parameters by overwriting your value in the corresponding fields.

Select `OK' button.

Again select RCC Design option from main menu.


Select `Design All' from drop down menu bar.
STRUDS will display the message design files for already exists Design All will over-write the
existing files Do you want to continue.
Press YES.

STRUDS will display the member numbers where the design fails initially you may Ignore all
failures.
You can select any floor for which the slabs are to be designed.
Select floor no. 2 from the drop - down menu.
STRUDS displays the floor plan of second floor on the screen.
Select `RCC Design' from menu bar.
Select `Slab' from pull down menu bar.
You are now in the Slab design module.

Select New option from pull on side menu bar under slab.

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STRUDS starts designing all the slabs in this floor one by one. If any slab fails in design, STRUDS
displays a warning message As follows.

Click OK.
STRUDS will display another dialog box as follows.

When a slab fails in deflection, you can


(i) Ignore the check: in this case the program will increase the steel area to control deflection by
adjusting the base factor.
(ii) Increase the thickness of slab
(iii) Increase the grade of concrete
(iv) Increase the Steel

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Select `OK' button.
STRUDS designs all the slabs.

Select `Group' from the slab submenu bar.


Select the option Auto or Manual. STRUDS automatically puts the slabs having similar
reinforcement in one group under Auto option. In the sample floor plan the slabs S4, S5, S6 and
S8 are taken in one group.

If you select the manual option for grouping then STRUDS will display the following screen and
you will have to add or delete the slabs from the default slab groups.

Select `HTML Report' from the menu bar.


Select `Slab Schedule'
STRUDS displays the schedule for reinforcement to be provided for every slab. You can print this
schedule by using the `Print' option from the menu. You can also use the Print - Print Preview
option to see the broad layout. You can also use the Print - Write to File option to prepare an
MS Excel file of the schedule.

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Select `Close' option from the menu bar to put off the display of schedule.

Select `Design Sketch option from slab sub menu.


Select All option from 4 options.

STRUDS displays the sketch for reinforcement bars provided in all the slabs. You can get a print
of this by using `Print' option from the menu bar.

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Select `Design Sketch' from the slab submenu.
Select `Plan'
STRUDS again displays the floor plan of second floor.

Select `Design Sketch' from the slab submenu.


Select `Detail'
A box cursor appears on screen. You can select any slab of which the design details are to be
seen by moving this cursor along the slab and clicking mouse.

Select Slab S1 by cursor.

STRUDS displays a window showing the design details of this slab. You can change the diameter
of reinforcement if required. STRUDS will then automatically change the spacing of bars. This
change will automatically be reflected in schedule, design sketch and quantity reports.

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Select `Close' button if you dont want to change anything or change values and select
compute.

Select `HTML Report' from slab submenu.


Select `Slab Quantity'
STRUDS displays a report of steel and concrete required for all the slabs. You can print this
report by using the `Print' option from the menu. You can also use the PRINT - PREVIEW option
to see the broad layout of schedule.

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Select `Close'
If you want to see the support and mid-span moments of any slab, you can adopt the following
procedure.

Select `Inquire' from the slab submenu.


Select Moments All option to get the moments of all the members displayed on the screen.
Select Inquire from slab submenu.
Select `Moments One' option.
Select the slab of which moment values are to be seen by cursor.
STRUDS displays that slab and its corresponding moment values.

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Select Inquire option from slab submenu.
Select Properties option to get the properties displayed on the screen for any particular slab
that you have selected.

Select `Save' from slab submenu to store the results.


STRUDS design application menu appears on screen.

Also you can get the DXF drawings for slab plan and longitudinal sections. The commands are
given separately in other tutorial.

Beam Design:

Select `Design Parameters' from the RCC Design menu.


Select `Beams from the design parameters dialog box.

STRUDS displays a window with several fields and buttons to specify the basic parameters for
beam design. You can change any of the parameters in the field by overwriting your value.
STRUDS displays window to specify the reinforcement parameters. You can again change these
parameters as per your discretion.

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Select `OK' button.

Select `Beam' option from the RCC Design menu


Select `New' option from the Beam menu
Select floor 2 from the pull down menu.
The floor plan of second floor appears on the screen.
Select `New'

STRUDS displays a window showing the load combinations for which the design is to be done.

Select 1.5DL+1.5LL from the list shown in the window.


Select `OK' button.
STRUDS designs all the beams in this floor plan.

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STRUDS displays the message for failure of beams in design if any occur. Also displays reason of
failure. And asks for changing the properties or section of that particular section. STRUDS will
display window to change the section or properties.

If you want to change the section press Change section internally option in the dialog box.
Then give the increment value by which you want to change the section. Select the option
change to all beams in all gridlines. And click on redesign button so that STRUDS will
automatically change the depth of beam by 75 mm. And will redesign the beam.

If sections fail in stirrups detailing then you will get following dialog box.

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Select the option to increase the diameter or to increase the legs and click for internal
increment and apply to all beams. On Ok STRUDS will internally increase the shear
reinforcement for selected option and will design all beams.

Select `Marking' option from the Beam submenu.


Select `Auto'
This is an important option. In a floor plan a beam may have more than one element. In such
case STRUDS labels each element separately. For example the beam from column C3 to C6 has
two elements. So STRUDS provides two labels B24 and B25 to these elements. When you use
Marking - Auto option, STRUDS automatically finds out the beams those have more than one
element and provides a single label to that beam. The schedule and quantity reports are
changed accordingly.
In some cases if the beams have more than one element and you have attached different
sections to those elements, STRUDS cannot merge the elements to form one single beam. So
you should take care while attaching sections that a beam having more than one element
should have uniform section for all its component elements.

In some cases, the program is not able to judge from the analysis results whether the elements
should be merged together to form a single beam. In such cases, you can use your own judge-
meant and mark the beams by using `Marking' - `Manual' option from the menu.

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Select `HTML Reports' from Beam submenu.
Select ` Beam Schedule'
STRUDS displays the design schedule for all beams. You can print this schedule by using the
`Print' option from the menu.

Select `Close' from the menu.


Select `HTML Reports' from beam submenu bar.
Select `Bar Bending Schedule' option.
STRUDS displays the bar bending schedule report for all the bars in every beam. The shape of
bar types is also indicated at the end of this report.

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Select `Close' option.
Select `Report' from beam submenu.
Select `Quantity' option.
STRUDS displays a text report for the quantity of steel and concrete required for all the beams.
You can obtain the print of this report by using `Print' option from the menu. You can also
change the Units or the font sizes of text by using `Settings' option from the menu.

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Select `Close' from the menu.
Select `Plan Layout' from the menu bar.
Select `Double Line Diagram' option.
STRUDS displays the key plan of the floor showing slab nos., beam nos., column nos. and width
of beams. This is the plan most of the consultants are required to provide with the design
schedule of beams.

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Select `Plan Layout' from menu bar.
Select `Double Line + Schedule' option.
STRUDS displays the key plan along with the design schedule of beams. So you can view the
beam numbers and their corresponding design outputs on the same screen.

Now you can select any gridline (continuous beam) in the plan and see its analysis and design
results.

Select `Select-Grid' from menu.


A box type cursor appears on the screen.

Select B1 by cursor.
The entire continuous beam comprising B1, B2 and B3 appears on the screen. A menu is
displayed at the top.

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Select `Analysis Results' from menu bar.
Select `SF Diagram' option.
STRUDS displays the Shear Force Diagram of the continuous beam. The shear values are shown
at the right hand side in a small window. STRUDS displays the SF values the first beam from left
end. You can see the SF values of other beams by using the up and down arrows of the beam
labels field.
Select `Analysis Results'.
Select `BM Diagram'.
STRUDS displays the Bending Moment Diagram of the continuous beam. The bending moment
values are shown at the right hand side in a small window. STRUDS displays the BM values the
first beam from left end. You can see the BM values of other beams by using the up and down
arrows of the beam labels field.

Select `Analysis Results' from the menu.


Select `Common' option.
This option allows you to visualise both BMD and SFD together STRUDS displays a window with
check boxes.

Select the check boxes of Gridline, Shear Force and Bending Moment by cursor.

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Select `OK' button.
STRUDS displays the gridline and its SFD & BMD on the screen.

Select `Close'
Similarly you can use options `Def Diagram' and `Tor Diagram' to see the deflection diagram -
values and torsion diagram - values of the selected gridline.

Select `Analysis Results'


Select `Redist.' option.

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STRUDS displays a window with fields. This option is useful to distribute the moments in a
beam. You can specify the percentage moment to be redistributed and STRUDS recalculate the
moments. The design of this beam shall be done according to these revised moments.

Type 30 at the field for Left Node.


Type 25 at the field for right node.
Select `Redistribute' button from the window box.
STRUDS displays the revised moments after redistribution. Similarly you can redistribute the
moments for other beam spans.
Select `Close' button.

Select `Design Results' from menu.


Select `Section Graphics' option.
STRUDS displays the longitudinal section of the continuous beam. The cross section of beams is
also displayed at the bottom half of the screen. STRUDS first displays the c/s of first beam from
the left end at its support and mid-span. If you want to see the c/s of next beam -

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Select `Cross Section' from menu.
Select `Next' option.
STRUDS displays the c/s of next beam span in the continuous beam. Similarly you can see the
c/s of successive beams in a gridline.
Select `Close' from menu.

Select `Design Results' from menu.


Select `Properties' option.
By using this option, you can change the properties of all or any beam in the selected gridline.
STRUDS displays a window box with several fields and buttons.

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Select `Ast Bot' button.
STRUDS displays the areas of steel required at eleven points in the beam. You can note down
the maximum area of steel required.

Select `Close' button from the Design Values window.


Now suppose you want to change the section of B1.

Select `Section Geometry' button.


Overwrite the depth of section as 0.38 in place of 0.45 in the field provided for depth.

Select `OK' button.


Select `Save' button.
Select `Close' button.
STRUDS now automatically redesigns the beam for the revised section. This change is
automatically carried out in Schedule, Quantity, Bar Bending report and Section Graphics.

Select `Design Results'.


Select `Section Graphics'.
You can see the change in beam depth and corresponding change in reinforcement. Please note
that here the analysis results remain same. The effect of change in analysis due to change in
beam section is not considered. Only the beam is redesigned for revised section. If you want to
take into account the effect on analysis due to change in section, you can change the section of
that beam in preprocessor, reanalyse and redesign the beam.

You can get the HTML reports of beam design regarding the detail design, schedule or quantity
as per the requirement.

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Select `Close' from menu.
Select `Close' from menu.
STRUDS gives a warning message:
`Save Changes to design?'
Select `No' button.

This way you have designed the beams of second floor level. Similarly you can design beams for
other floors.

Column Design:

Now you can design columns for the Plane Grid Analysis results.

Select Column from RCC Design main menu.


Select Space Frame option from Set Structure Type menu of RCC Design.

The Main menu of Column design Module is displayed on screen.

Select Design Parameters' option.

A window appears on the screen with several fields and buttons. You can set the basic
parameters like grade of concrete, grade of steel, minimum eccentricity, concrete cover etc. by
using the options in this window. You can also set the reinforcement parameters of the
columns. You can change the parameters by overwriting the values in the field of this window.

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Select `Biaxial' option.

STRUDS designs all the columns for axial load and moments due to slenderness and minimum
eccentricity. In case of Grid Analysis, the moments on columns due to beam connectivity are not
taken into account.

Select `OK' button.

In this sample building, we have not specified the column sizes; so for Grid design STRUDS will
automatically compute the column sizes taking one side as 230 mm. The other dimension of the
column is computed by the program from the axial load coming on the columns and axial load
capacity of column section with one dimension as 230mm. You can however specify the column
sizes by using option `Column' - `Orientation' from control menu of STRUDS or `Column' -
`Orientation' option from main menu of Design module.

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Select Column option from RCC Design menu.

For changing the default numbering pattern select the numbering option from column submenu
and select the pattern using which you want to number all the columns.

Select the Close option after choosing the appropriate numbering pattern.

For grouping the columns again you have two options Manual and Auto Select proper if you
select manual option then STRUDS will display a window in which you will have to add the
column numbers under particular column group name, which you want to class under that
group.

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Select Close option to come out of this window.

Select All option form RCC Design ->> Column option for designing all columns.
STRUDS will design all the columns and will display the message of failure if there is any
problem.

Select Change Y dim internally for one group option.


Select Redesign button.
STRUDS will redesign the column by changing the size of column.

Select `View Design' option.


Select the Column no. 5 by cursor.

STRUDS displays a window showing the floor-wise design results of column no.5. The floor no,
axial load on column, the moments on column in X and Y direction, grade of concrete, grade of
steel, dimensions of columns, reinforcement provided, area of steel required, percentage of
steel etc. are shown in the tabular form. You can also change the section and redesign the
column.

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Select the field of depth for floor-1 by cursor.
Overwrite the previous depth 375 by new depth value 600.
Select 'save' button.
Select 'Redesign' button.

STRUDS automatically redesigns the column for revised section and provides the steel
accordingly. Similarly you can change the bar diameters and STRUDS will automatically
recalculate the no. of bars required.
Select 'close' button.

Select 'view loads' from column submenu bar.


Select 'cumulative loads'.
Select 'Floor 2' from the pull down menu.

STRUDS displays the total loads coming on each column at the bottom-most floor level. The
loads are shown in KNS.

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Select 'Center Line' from menu.
STRUDS computes the centerline distance of all the columns in both X and Y directions, from the
origin.

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Select 'Cross Section' from the column submenu.
Select any column by cursor.
The cross section of that column at bottom most floors are shown on screen. STRUDS also
displays the reinforcement provided in the column. You can change the floor no. in the pull
down menu to see the corresponding cross section of the column.

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Select 'Cross Section' from column submenu bar to end the command.

Select 'Report' from menu.


Select 'Column Schedule' option.
STRUDS displays the column design schedule for all the columns. Floorwise sizes, reinforcement
of main bars, stirrup steel and grade of concrete is shown in the schedule. You can obtain a
hard copy of this schedule by using 'Print' option from the menu.

64
Select 'Close'.
Select 'Report' from menu.
Select 'Column Quantity' option.
STRUDS displays the concrete and steel quantity required for all floors and all columns.

65
Select 'Close'
Select 'Report' from the menu.
Select 'Quantity Summary' from the menu.

STRUDS displays the summary of overall quantities of concrete, diameter wise steel and
shuttering area required per floor of the building for every column.

66
Select 'Close' from the menu.
Select 'Report' from the menu.
Select 'Column Load' option.

STRUDS displays a report of loads coming on the column at every floor.

Select 'Close'.
Select 'Report'.
Select 'Column Design' option

STRUDS displays a text report of column design details. All the basic parameters for designing
are displayed in this report.

Select 'Close' option.


Also we can get the HTML Reports of Column

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Footing Design:

Select 'Footing' from the RCC Design main menu bar.


Select New option.
Select 'Space Frame' option from Set Structure Type option.
STRUDS displays the floor plan of the bottom most floor.
Select 'Design Parameters' option from RCC Design menu bar.
Select Footing option from dialog box.

STRUDS displays a window having several fields and buttons. You can specify by the basic
parameters for footing design by exercising different options provided in this menu.

69
Select Soil Parameters option.
STRUDS displays a small window where you can specify the properties of soil.

70
Change the bearing capacity of soil from 250 Kn/m2 (default value) to 350.
Select 'OK' button.
Select 'OK' button from the Design Parameters window.

Select the Grouping option from footing side scroll menu.


Add the columns as per your requirement in Individual footing, Combined Footing or Piles
option. And close the window.

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Select 'New' option from footing submenu bar.

STRUDS designs all the footings in one stroke. If any footing fails for any of the design checks,
STRUDS displays a warning message box. In this case the bond check for footing bars fails.

Select the 'For All Group' option


Select 'Ignore' button.

STRUDS completes the design for all the footings.

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Select `View Design' from menu.
Select any of the footings by cursor. STRUDS displays the design results of that footing on the
screen. The X and Y dimension of the footing, edge depth, main depth and steel provided are
shown in the window box. You can also change one of the dimensions of footing. STRUDS will
then automatically redesign the footing and calculate the steel required for the revised size.

Select `Close' button.


Select `View Plan + Elev.' from the menu.
A box type cursor appears on screen. You can select any of the footings by moving cursor and
clicking the left button of the mouse.
STRUDS displays the reinforcement plan and cross sections about both axes of the selected
footing. At the top, below menu bar, three icons are displayed. You can click these icons to see
the plan and cross sections simultaneously or separately.

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Select `Close' option from menu bar.
Select `Report' from menu.
Select `Schedule' option.
STRUDS displays the footing design schedule for all the footings.

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You can get a print out of this schedule by using the `Print' option from menu. You can also see
the print preview of this report by using options `Print' - `Preview' from the menu.

Select `Close' from the menu bar.


Select `Report' from the menu.
Select `Quantity' option.
STRUDS displays the quantity report for all the footings.

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Select `Close'
Select `Centerline' from menu
Select `Draw Centerline' option.
STRUDS displays the foundation plan of all the footings showing centers of footings, pit sizes,
footing sizes and reinforcement provided in every footing.

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You can put on/off the display in this graphics screen as -

Select `Centerline' from the menu.


Select `Display Settings' option.
All the display settings by default are put on. You can put off say footing bars in X direction by
clicking on that option. When you again click on the same option, the display is put on.
Similarly you can use the options `Centerline' - `Font Settings' to change the font sizes and font
types of the text shown on the screen.

Select `Close' to come out of the footing design module.


This way you have designed slabs, beams, columns and footings of the sample building by Space
Frame method.

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