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AIRCRAFT
LOVERS
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A ll the
A K Interactive s ta ff and my-
iM f? self are proud to introduce this new F.A.Q. |
Rw book, the d efin itive g u id e for all aircraft scale m odelers.
Here you w ill fin d all the references needed to paint alm ost any
aircraft of all eras; building, techniques, m aterials, etc.
Dani Zam arbide, w e ll-kn o w n m odeller th ro u gh o u t the w h ole w orld for his am az
in g scale m odels drives us th ro u gh the process of m astering aircraft m odelling. Th is book
is m eant fo r all of us w h o enjoy and love this great hobby.

Fernando Vallejo
AK Interactive President
O riginal Idea and Concept T H A N K S TO
F e r n a n d o V a lle jo T h is F A Q b o o k w o u ld n o t h a v e b e e n p o s s ib le w it h th e c o lla b o r a tio n o f se ve ra l
A K In te ra ctiv e frie n d s w h o m I th a n k th e ir tim e , s u p p o r t a n d w o r k f o r th e r e a liz a tio n o f th is
p ro je c t a n d a re :
C hief Editor
D a n ie l Z a m a rb id e A itor A zk u e
Juan V illegas Castro
A rt D irection A nd rs M ontiel
A K In te ra ctiv e "Chem a" M artinez Fernndez
A nton io Morant
Graphie D esign A ndrs M artinez Rom ero
B M S D e s ig n s A n g el Blasco
A K In te ra ctiv e Jim Hatch
Tom ek W ajnkaim
Legal Deposit
L R - 2 1 9 -2 0 1 5 A n d a b o v e a ll, I w a n t to t h a n k a ll th e ir s u p p o r t , t r u s t , tip s a n d id e a s fo r
d e v e lo p m e n t o f th is b o o k to:

Maciej Goralczyk
Fernando Vallejo

T o all o f th e m T H A N K S .

(c) 2 0 1 5 A K In te ra ctiv e .
A ll r ig h t re se rv e d . N o p a r t o f th is p u b lic a tio n m a y b e re p ro d u c e d o r tra n sm it
te d in a n y fo rm o r b y a n y m e a n s, e le c tr o n ic o r m e c h a n ic a l, a c t u a l o r fu tu re ,
in c lu d in g p h o to c o p y , re c o r d in g o r a n y in fo rm a tio n s t o r a g e o r re trie va l syste m ,
w it h o u t p e r m issio n in w r it in g fro m th e p u b lish e rs.

F o llo w u s in
I w o uld like to sta rt by than king you for b u yin g this book, w hose w rite a book like all the other books available on the m arket. I b e
aim is to provide you w ith a guide , as w ell as help in g you out dur lieve that this w ay of e xplain ing how to w ork on a m odel, is actually
in g a po ssible creative crisis". It also attem pts to m otivate us to far better, or at least, it is w h at I like to fin d if I w as lo oking for a
continue w o rkin g on our m odel, as w ell as to do it in a reasonable g u id e book m yself.
am ount of tim e. It w ill especially help us to face the ch allen ge of
im proving the techniques that each of us used on our m odels. T h e m o st co m p lica te d te ch n iq u e s in som e o f th o se a fo re m e n
tio n e d b o o k s o fte n d a z z le th e m o d e lle r w ith th e ir s p e cta cu la r
A ll the techniques that I present to y ou th ro u gh o u t this book are re su lts, d r iv in g him /he r to u se th em . H o w ev er, w h e n th e y at
characterized by their sim plicity. D urin g my 25 years in the m odel te m p t th em , th e re is a re a liza tio n th a t som e v ita l ste p s a re m iss
ling w orld, I have tried to use and create techniques and solutions in g , o r th a t a m ore d e ta ile d e x p la n a tio n is re q u ire d . T h is fin d s
that can be used and im proved upon, re g ard le ss o f the ty p e of th e m o d e lle r h a lf w a y in to a te ch n iq u e , an d u n ab le to o b ta in
aircraft m odel. th a t a m a z in g fin is h . T h is is e x a ctly w h a t I h a ve trie d to av o id
in t h is b o o k .
T h ro u gh o u t these last years, m any o f us have bo ugh t books and
specialized m agazin es in this area, bu t in m y case, these did not T h e m o d e lle r, in m y h u m b le o p in io n , m u st be so m e o n e w h o
really help me, as they had too m any 'in text' explanatio ns, and is e n te rp ris in g , cu rio u s a n d re stle ss, s o m e o n e w h o e n jo y s re
not en ou gh graph ic illustration. This w a s w h at I actually needed. s e a rc h in g n e w p ro d u c ts , to o ls a s w e ll as te ch n iq u e s th a t w ill
This book has been de signe d so that you m ay easily find that sam e o ffe r m ore realism to h is/h er co m p le te d m o d els. A g o o d m o d e l
inform ation that I w as lo oking for in those books. By that, I mean ler m u st like to t ry n e w t h in g s a n d u sin g th o se e x p e rie n c e s fo r
help and sup po rt for those techniques and essential skills that w e fu rth e r p ro je cts also. A m o d e lle r h a s to be w illin g to in tro d u ce
m ust deal w ith w hen w o rking on an aircraft m odel, regardless of n e w te ch n iq u e s fro m o th e r m o d e llin g area s, su ch as m ilitary,
its typ e or scale. I have tried to be as visual and as straightforw ard n a va l, civil w o rk s an d eve n fig u re s . M an y o f th o se te ch n iq u e s
as I can, allo w in g the ph otograp hs to explain 75% of the process, are p e rfe ctly v alid fo r th e airc ra ft m o d e llin g w o rld , so, it is g o o d
and the text only 25% . to try a n d in co rp o ra te th em in to w h a t y o u w ill le arn w ith th e
te ch n iq u e s y o u w ill learn in t h is g u id e .
A ll the techniques explain ed and developed th ro u gh o u t this book
should serve as a basis to be im proved upon by you, and not as a M o reo ver, t h is b o o k h a s b e e n cre a te d w ith m y g re a te s t e ffo rt.
rigid 'how -to'. Learn how to unfold the secrets o f this a m azin g h o b It re p re se n ts th e m o st im p o rta n t w o rk o f m y m o d e llin g life . I
by, and pass that kno w le dge onto the ne xt generation o f modeller. h o p e it can fu lfil its o b je ctiv e s a n d m atch y o u r e x p e c ta tio n s .

Th ro u g h the exam p le s show n in th is m anual, w e d e velo p tech Daniel Zamarbide Surez


niques that can be used on any typ e of m odel. My aim w a sn 't to
Presentation

1 1N TR O D U C TIO N . 6 E X TER IO R D E T A ILS ................................................... 153


6.1 P r o p e l le r s a n d s p i n n e r s
6.1.1 W o r ld W a r O n e ..................................................................................1 5 4
6.1.1.1 G e r m a n p r o p e lle r .........................................................................155
6 .1 .1 .2 B ritish p ro p e lle r .............................................................................157
2 ASEMBI.Y, PREPARATION AND M A T E R IA LS ....11 6 .1 .2 W o r ld W a r T w o .................................................................................1 5 8
2.3 C utting and sa n d in g ................................................................12 6 .1 .2 .1 G e r m a n p r o p e lle r ....................................................................... 1 58
2.1 G lue and its a p p lica tio n s ....................................................... 14 6 .1 .2 .2 B ritish p r o p e lle r ........................................................................... 1 6 0
2.2 Putties........................................................................................ 16 6 1 .2 .3 U .S . p r o p e lle r ............................................................................... 162
2.4 Scribed rivets............................................................................ 18 6.1 2 .4 Ja p a n e s e p ro p e lle r ......................................................................1 64
2.5 R escribing panel lin e s ............................................................ 20 6 .2 W h e e l s a n d l a n d i n g g e a r
2.6 Stressed skin e ffe ct.................................................................22 6 .2 .1 W h e e l s w i t h m e t a l l i c r i m s ...............................................................1 6 6
2.7 Sep arating flig h t control su rfa ce s.......................................24 6 .2 .2 W h e e ls w i t h b la c k r i m s ...............................................................167
2.8 P hoto-etcned p a rts .................................................................26 6 .2 .3 W h e e l s w i t h w h i t e r i m s ............................................................. 1 6 8
2.9 Resins and m etal p a r t s .......................................................... 28 6 .2 .4 L a n d i n g g e a r w i t h f i t t e d w h e e ls .......................................... 1 70
2.10 W ire s ........................................................................................ 30 6 .2 .5 M e t a llic L a n d i n g g e a r .................................................................. 172
2.11 W orking w ith vacuum -form ed can o p ie s.......................... 31 6 .3 L a n d i n g G e a r D o o r s
2.12 Position lig h t s ........................................................................40 6 .3 .1 W h it e l a n d i n g g e a r d o o r s ..........................................................174
2.13 A n ten n ae................................................................................. 42 6 .3 .2 G r e e n l a n d i n g g e a r d o o r s ..........................................................175
2.14 Control cables and stru ts .....................................................44 6 .3 .3 B lu e a n d m e t a l l i c d o o r s a n d w h e e l b a y s .........................176
2.15 Scratch m aterials and to o ls.................................................48 6 .4 W e a p o n s a n d f u e l t a n k s
6 .4 .1 B o m b s ..................................................................................................... 1 78
6 .4 1.1 C o ld W a r e ra U .S . b o m b s ........................................................ 178
6 .4 1.2 W W 2 U .S . b o m b s ....................................................................... 1 80
3 P A IN TIN G G U ID E. .51 6 .4 .2 M is s ile s ....................................................................................................1 84
6 .4 .3 F u e l t a n k s .............................................................................................1 8 8
3.1 Prim ers........................................................................................52
3.2 P aints..........................................................................................53 6 .4 .4 G u n s ........................................................................................................1 9 0
3.3 V arnishes...................................................................................58 6 .4 .5 P y l o n s .......................................................................................................192
3.4 Th in ners and a u xiliary pro d u cts.......................................... 59 6 .4 .5 .1 W h it e p y lo n s ................................................................................. 192
3.5 A irb ru sh .....................................................................................60 6 .4 .5 .1 G re y p y lo n s ................................................................ 193
3.6 Brush es......................................................................................62 6 .5 E x h a u s t s a n d n o z z l e s
6 .5 .1 I n lin e e n g i n e e x h a u s t s ................................................................. 1 9 4
6 .5 .2 R a d ia l e n g i n e e x h a u s t s ...............................................................1 95
6 .5 .3 N o z z l e w i t h a d j u s t a b l e p e t a l s ................................................1 9 6
6 .5 .4 N o z z l e w i t h o u t p e t a l s ................................................................. 1 97
4 T E C H N IC S ............................................................................65 6 .6 W a l k w a y s ...................................................................................................... 1 9 8
4.1 Prim ing ...................................................................................66 6 .6 .1 W a lk w a y . E x a m p l e 1 ......................................................................1 9 8
4.2 Paneling ...................................................................................67 6 .6 .2 W a lk w a y . E x a m p le 2 ..................................................................... 2 0 0
4.2.1 Panel p re s h a d e ................................................................ 68 6 .7 M a k i n g a n d u s i n g p a i n t m a s k s
4.2.2 Line p re sh a d e ...................................................................70 6.7.1 T r a n s p a r a n c i e s ...................................................................................2 0 2
4.2.3 Paneling w ith ta p e .......................................................... 71 6 .7 .2 L e t t e r s a n d n u m b e r s ....................................................................2 0 3
4.3 C am o u flage w ith a irb ru sh ....................................................72 6 .7 .3 R o u n d e l s a n d l i n e s ......................................................................... 2 0 4
4.4 Panel lig h t in g .......................................................................... 76 6 .7 .4 G e r m a n c r o s s e s ................................................................................. 2 0 6
4.5 D ecals......................................................................................... 78 6 .8 E n g i n e s
4.6 D em arcating p a n e ls................................................................80 6 .8 .1 W o r ld W a r O n e ................................................................................ 2 0 8
4.7 W ashes.......................................................................................82 6 .8 .1 .1 In lin e e n g in e ................................................................................2 0 8
4.8 Filters..........................................................................................84 6 .8 .1 .2 R a d ia l e n g i n e ............................................................................... 2 12
4.9 Fluid s.......................................................................................... 85 6 .8 .2 W o r ld W a r T w o
4.10 Rust........................................................................................... 88 6 .8 .2 .1 Ja p a n e s e r a d ia l e n g i n e ..................... 214
4.11 C hip p in g and scratch e s........................................................ 90 6 .8 2 2 Ja p a n e s e ra d ia l e n g in e a n d h o o d ................................2 1 8
4.12 Sm oxe s ta in s .......................................................................... 98 6 .8 .2 .3 U .S . ra d ia l e n g in e ...................................................................... 2 2 2
4.13 D irt and s tr e a k s ................................................................... 102

5 IN TER IO R . .10 7 7 CAMOUFLAGE. PAINTING AND WEATHERING .2 2 5


7.1 W o r ld W a r O n e
5.1 Seats 7.1.1 F a b r ic - c o v e r e d s u r f a c e s ............................................................... 2 2 6
5.1.1 W o r ld W a r T w o
7 .1 .2 P a i n t in g w o o d g r a i n e f f e c t u s i n g o i l s ................................2 2 8
5 .1 .1.1 B ritish S e a t ..................................................................... . 1 08
7 .1 .3 P a i n t in g w o o d g r a i n e f f e c t u s i n g a c r y l i c s ........................2 2 9
5 .1 .1 .2 Ja p a n e s e S e a t .............................................................. .110 7 .1 .4 U s in g w o o d g r a i n d e c a l s .............................................................2 3 0
5 .1 .1 .3 G e r m a n S e t a t .............................................................. .111 7 .1 .5 P a i n t in g w o o d g r a i n e f f e c t u s i n g m a s k s ......................... 231
5 .1 .2 T h e J e t A g e
7 .1 .6 L o z e n g e c a m o u f l a g e .....................................................................2 3 2
5.1.2 .1 U .S . e je c tio n se a t ( g r a y ) ......................................... 112
7 .2 W o r ld W a r T w o
5 .1 .2 .2 U .S . e je c tio n se a t ( b l a c k ) ....................................... 114
7.2.1 B r it is h S c h e m e s ................................................................................. 2 3 4
5.2 Instrum ent Panels
7.2.1.1 T e m p e ra te L a n d s c h e m e ........................................................ 2 3 4
5 .2 .1 W o r ld W a r T w o
7 .2 .1 .2 D a y F ig h te r s c h e m e .................................................................. 2 3 8
5.2.1 .1 S c ra tc h b u ilt in s tru m e n t p a n e l ............................................. 116
7 .2 .2 U .S . S c h e m e s .......................................................................................2 4 2
5 .2 .1 .2 G e r m a n in s tru m e n t p a n e l....................................................... 117
7 .2 .2 .1 O liv e d ra b /N e u tra l g r a y ............................................................2 4 2
5 .2 .1 .3 B ritish in s tr u m e n t p a n e l........................................................... 118
7 .2 .2 .2 U .S . N a v y s c h e m e ...................................................................... 2 4 6
5 .2 .1 .4 U .S . in s tru m e n t p a n e l........................... 119
7 .2 .3 J a p a n e s e S c h e m e s .......................................................................... 2 5 0
5 .2 .1 .5 Ja p a n e s e in s tru m e n t p a n e l....................................................1 20
7 .2 .3 .1 G re e n s c h e m e ............................................................................. 2 5 0
5 .2 .2 T h e J e t A g e
7 .2 .3 .2 N a tu ra l m e ta l f in is h .................................................................. 2 5 4
5 .2 .2 .1 Je t a ir c r a ft in s tru m e n t p a n e l................................................. 121
7 .2 .4 G e r m a n S c h e m e s ............................................................................. 2 5 7
5 .2 .2 .2 Je t a ircra ft instrum e n t p an e l
7 .2 .4 .1 D e s e r t s c h e m e ............................................................................. 2 5 7
im p ro ve d w ith p h o to -e tch e d a n d scratch b uilt d eta ils 122
7 .2 .4 .2 W in te r s c h e m e ............................................................................2 6 0
5.3 Cockpits
7 .2 .4 .3 M o ttle a n d w a v e s ...................................................................... 2 6 4
5 .3 .1 W o r ld W a r T w o
7 .3 T h e J e t A g e ................................................................................................... 2 6 7
5.3.1 -1 U .S , c o c k p i t ....................................................................................124
7.3.1 U .S . j e t a i r c r a f t ...................................................................................2 6 7
5 .3 .1 .2 B ritish c o c k p it ................................................................................126
7.3.1.1 S E A . s c h e m e ...............................................................................2 6 7
5 .3 .1 .3 Ja p a n e s e c o c k p i t ........................................................................ 1 28
7 .3 .1 .2 U .S . N a v y s c h e m e .......................................................................2 7 0
5 .3 .1 .4 G e r m a n c o c k p it ........................................................................... 1 30
7 .3 .2 N a t u r a l m e t a l f i n i s h ....................................................................... 2 7 4
5 .3 .2 T h e J e t A g e
7 .3 .3 S o v i e t j e t a i r c r a f t ............................................................................2 7 8
5 .3 .2 .1 U .S . C o c k p i t .................................................................................. 131
7 .3 .3 .1 D e s e r t sc h e m e . E x a m p le 1 .....................................................2 7 8
5 .3 .2 .2 S o v ie t C o c k p it .............................................................................. 135
7 .3 .3 .2 D e s e r t sc h e m e . E x a m p le 2 ................................................... 2 8 2
5.4 Pilots
5 .4 .1 W o r ld W a r T w o p ilo t s
5.4.1 1 B ritish p il o t ............................................................................... 136
5 .4 .1 .2 G e r m a n p ilo t .................................................................................1 38
5 .4 .1 .3 Ja p a n e s e p ilo t............................................................................... 1 40 8 S P EC IA L FIN ISH ES A N D M A R K IN G S ..... 287
5 .4 .1 .4 U .S . p il o t ... .142 8.1 Burnt a re a s ............................................................................. 288
5 .4 .2 J e t a i r c r a f t p il o t i m p r o v e m e n t .............................................. 1 4 4 8.2 Black p a in t ............................................................................. 290
5 .4 .3 M o d i f i e d a i r c r a f t c r e w ................................................................ 1 48 8.3 C h e ckb o a rd ............................................................................ 291
5.5 Stru ctu re s............................................................................... 150 8.4 Invasion s tr ip e s .....................................................................293
8.5 M etal w e ath erin g ...................... . 294
8.6 Flight control surfaces shading. 296
8.7 Shark mouth
8.7.1 Shark m outh P 3 9 ....................... 297
8 .7 .2 Shark m outh P 4 0 ....................... 300

9 S C EN ES .............................. 303
9.1 A ircraft carrier deck section ....304
9.2 D esert T e rra in ........................ ....308
9.3 Cem ent T ra c k ......................... ....310
9.4 Vehicles ................................ ....312

10 G A LLER Y
Sprue cutters will be good for
separating the pieces from the sprues
without damaging them.

/ 'A i p c r^ A i
rrn rn
woo
*200

Wet/Dry sandpaper sheets of different grits are The flexibility of the sanding sticks makes them perfect for
perfect for sanding plastic. Always remember to small spaces.
dampen them first.

When sanding, we always


need to follow the shapes of the plane to avoid other details we don't wish to
sand. These kinds of sanding sticks will allow us to adapt to those surfaces. Este tipo de herramientas nos permiten limpiar piezas con dificil acceso.

12 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
Side cutters are the best tool for cutting parts off
sprues. The flat side of the cutter should normally be
put against the part to be removed. I don t cut right
up against the part, as this way I could inadvertently
damage the edge or surface of it. I always leave a
small amount of sprue attached to the part, which
then requires further clean up

Next, I carefully remove the sprue remnants using a sharp


craft knife or fine sanding stick, and then further smooth the
connection area with sandpaper of different grits, to get an
even and neat surface. During this process, I progressively
switch to higher grade grits, beginning with 800 and finishing
with 1500 I don't recommend the use of abrasives of a lower
grade than 600-800, as the latter may cause scratches or scars
on the sanded surface.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 13
2. ASEMRLY PREPARATION AND MATERIALS
2.2 CLUES AND THEIR
APPLICATIONS
T h e re are g lu e s o n th e m a rk e t w ith d iffe re n t c h a ra c te ris tic s th a t w ill
m a k e th e m su ita b le fo r d iffe re n t u ses. In stru c tio n s m u st b e re a d a lw a y s
b e fo re o p e n in g th e p a c k a g in g D u r in g th e a sse m b ly w e w ill u se o n e o r
se ve ra l g lu e s. T h e y a re in d isp e n sa b le p ro d u c ts w h e n a s s e m b lin g o u r
w y o d e l s . W e w ill try to e x p la in th e c h a ra c te ris tic s o f th e m o s t c o m m o n
o nes.
1 J

Liquid glues
Liquid glues for plastic actually melt the plastic. A s a result, the joining between different
pieces is perfect. Usually, they come with a brush in the cap to facilitate their application.
They evaporate very fast. They glue by capillarity, which allows us to join the piece and
apply the glue just where we wish. It is the best glue for assembling our models.

Gel Glues
Other glues for plastic are the gel glues. They usually come in a tube. We have to apply
them on the piece before placing it, because they do not act by capillarity as the ones
before. We must not apply too much glue to avoid dampening the pieces and damaging
the plastic.

Cyanoacrylate
We also have cyano glues, otherwise known as "Super Glue". These are fast, but, unlike
the liquid glues, they do not melt and blend the plastic, so the union is more fragile.
These glues are good for gluing photo-etched or metal pieces. There are also products to
speed up this process, such as liquid or spray catalysts as well as products to remove the
adhesive. They come in various thicknesses. Take care with your fingers!

Resin glues
Other kinds of adhesives, such as the resin ones, are ready to be mixed with any kind
of pigments as well as to create textures. But, if we use them with a small brush, we
can glue small photo etched pieces and manipulate them comfortably before they
completely dry.

White glue and drivtes


"i/ U . FO-
Finally, acrylic-based white glues (or its improved byproducts, like Gatorglue, Micro, D H E S IV f
etc...) allow us a much more flexible fix. They are perfect for gluing transparent pieces
because their unions are invisible and they avoid some of those vapours that can damage
the pieces. They do not dry quickly, but this allows us to rectify the position of the piece
before they completely dry.

14 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
Tamiya Extra Thin Cement is a glue which is extremely easy to use. With this very thin
glue, we first put the plastic parts together, and then run the cement brush along the
join. The cement is so thin that it is drawn into the joint using capillary action. We then
leave the parts, secured with a little tape or clamps and allow to dry for a few hours

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 15
Dealing with ejector pin marks

Ejector pins are part of the kit's mold, which


spring outwards, ejecting the cooled parts from
the tooling. A s these pins come into contact
with the plastic, they invariably leave a small
circular mark on our parts, and this is one of
the issues with which we have to deal with
when building model such as these. Raised
pin marks should be cut down with a sharp
craft knife, and the area then smoothed with
sandpaper. In the case of recessed marks, I fill Once the compound fully cures,
these with a thick liquid compound, namely I sand it with a piece of fine
Mr.Surfacer from Mr.Hobby. I apply this into sandpaper, held with tweezers,
each cavity, using a brush. in order to get an even surface.

When the injected plastic does not fully fill the mold, To deal with them, I also use Mr.Surfacer Once the compound fully cures, I sand the surface in a circular
small, localized depressions are created. Such molding 500. With a small brush, I 'overpaint' the motion, using sanding sticks of increasingly fine grit. During this
flaws are called sink marks. sink marks with the liquid compound. process, I start with a fine grade abrasive and progressively switch
to higher grade grits which polish the surface. Done correctly, you
should see no surface irregularities.

Taking advantage of the short


curing time, I can quickly apply
a few layers of glue. After 10
to 12 minutes. I can start to
sand the seam
The first thing to do whenever you are going to start with this type of effect, is By pressing the riveter into the surface of the plastic, we end up with a slightly raised
to get some good blueprints of the aircrafts rivet patterns. Then with a pencil, area around each rivet. These need to be removed with a piece of fine sandpaper, to
I mark these rivet lines, and roll over them with the riveting tool which will leave the surface uniformly smooth.
create the small dimple impressions into the plastic surface.

Another example: this time we will make some deeper rivets on surface of the wing.

With a metal straight Here you can see the lines


edge, and following the which are added with an HB
reference blueprints for hardness pencil.
the plane. I mark the lines
where the rivets rows will
be added.

This is the section of the model


onto which I will add rivet detail

Now. with the riveter. I start


pressing by rolling the tool A
over the pencil lines I have m
just marked. We must
ensure that, at the start of I
each row, that we always 1
begin with the same tooth t
of the riveting tool, starting
from the same point on
each line. This will make
the rivet pattern as parallel
as possible to the adjacent
With a micro drill bit, inserted into a pin vise. I hand
row. Rivet lines marked with a
drill each rivet in a size which is representative of the
pencil, from the previous step.
scale of the model.

Pushing the rivet tool


into the plastic will
inevitably cause some
plastic around each
rivet to appear raised.
This raised plastic now
needs to be removed...

...with a piece of
very fine sandpaper,
leaving the surface
completely smooth.
2. ASEMliLY IMEPIATION AND MATERIALS
2.5 RESCINDING PANEL LINES
M an y m o de ls, e spe cially if their m o uld s a re o ld, n ee d to b e u pd ate d a cco rd in g If w e o v e rp a ss a n in te rse c tio n o f lin e s, w e c a n fill it in w it h p u t ty o r
to m o d e m sta n d ard s in w h ich th e p an e l lines are e n gra ve d in th e fu se la ge w ith p ro d u c ts s u c h a s M r. S u r fa c e r to le a ve t h e u n io n o r in te rse c tio n
o f th e m o de ls. To d o this, w e have to e n gra ve th e p an e l lines w ith a scriber in p e r fe c t c o n d itio n
u sin g th e m o d e ls lines a s a gu id e . T h e scrib e r is a sh a rp p u n ch m o re o r less F in a lly, w e u se liq u id g lu e (T a m iy a c e m e n t ty p e ) to s m o o t h th e
so p h istica te d u sed to e n g ra ve th o se lines in plastic. e n g ra v e d p a n e l lin e s. U s in g its f in e b ru sh w e p ro c e e d to p a in t th o se '
S o m e tim e s, th e relief o f th e se p a n e l lin e s is m inim al, b u t w e h a v e to p la ce line s. T h is b ru sh w ill a ls o b e u se fu l to e lim in a te th e d u s t a n d s h a v in g s
th icker a d h e sive ta p e w h e re th e p a n e l line g o e s to g iv e u s a g o o d e d g e to th a t a re g e n e r a te d d u r in g th e p ro c e ss
run th e scrib e r a g a in st U sin g so m e tap e a s a g u id e , w e m a rk all th e p an e ls. S o m e o f th e p a n e l lin e s in o ld m o d e ls a re ra ise d . In th is ca se , w h a t
D y m o ta p e is p e rfe c t fo r th is task w e d o is s a n d th e m d o w n s o w e c a n la te r a p p ly th e e n g r a v in g lin e s
p ro c e ss o n th e m

Different types of materials that we can use for engraving lines Jeweler saws used with photo-etched are perfect for cutting very delicate pieces, or for
re-marking the lines in the panels and adding depth to them.

Sharp punch used for an engraving line tool

Different plastic tapes

When engraving lines, we can use a guide that will work as a


guide and support for
engraving lines.

It is convenient that those tools are


well sharpened
2. ASEMliLY P EPA AT ON AM MATERIALS
2.li STIlESSEI) SHIN EFFECT
T o re p re se n t d e n ts w e c a n u se a r o ta r y to o l w ith a d rill h e a d . T h is te c h n iq u e ca n b e o f h elp .
e sp e c ia lly in b ig g e r sca le s.
To c re a te d e n ts a n d h its in th e su rfa c e o f th e p la n e , w e w ill u se a d rill in th e m id d le a re a s b e tw e e n
th e rive ts, ta k in g c a re o f n o t m e ltin g th e p la s tic, w h ic h c a n h a p p e n d u e to th e sp e e d o f th e m in i
drill a n d th e h e a t p ro d u c e d b y th e fric tio n

T h is w o u ld b e a n e x a m p le o f th e re q u ire d ste p s

A n electric mini drill with a


bit for levelling and another one for polishing
is used to apply the following steps. Marks of the drill bit of the micro drill for dent effects.

:lc c o o t i n g
Pt200

l smooth the area where I have used the mini


nil using sandpaper. Firstly, I use thicker grit
but I finish with some finer ones

I apply the Mr. Surfacer with a I remove the excess Mr. S u r f a c e r ,^


fine brush,... ... and I spread it over the area where the dents are. once it is dry, with very fine sandpaper.

Finally, I start carefully


polishing the area with a
Doiishing cloth placed in
the head of the
mini drill.

Completely finished process

AFT
A ir c r a ft ca n h ave m a n y ro w s o f rivets, d e p e n d in g e n tire ly o n th e in te rn a l s tru ctu re s o ve r w h ic h th e a lu m in iu m sk in is fitte d . M a k in g im p ro ve
m e n ts o f th is ty p e ca n ta k e tim e a n d p ro v e to b e a ve ry la b o rio u s p ro ce ss. T h is ca n b e im p ro ve d e ve n fu rth e r b y a d d in g a stre sse d s k in e ffe ct
th at w ill g iv e m o re re alism to th e m o d e l. For th is e x a m p le I w ill u se th e fu s e la g e o f a 1/32 K i- 4 4 , fro m H a s e g a w a

To create the look of stressed skin I use a knife with a curved blade, gently scraping
y
To add more realism to these areas, I press harder on some points, and less hard on
the plastic between each row of rivets. others, creating dimples of varying depths

Appearance of the fuselage with the


stressed skin ' effect applied

Difference between both


fuselages. The upper is without
rivets, and the lower has been
riveted and had the "stressed
skin effect applied

3rocess
finished

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 23
2. ASEMRLY PREPARATION AND MATERIALS
2.7 SEPARATING FLIK IT CONTROL SURFACES
C u t t in g a n d m o v in g th e fly in g s u rfa c e s a lw a y s a d d a lo t o f d y n a m ism to th e
p la n e . T h e h a rd e r it is, th e m o re s p e c ta c u la r th e fin a l re su lt w ill b e. B e fo re
- w e s t a rt c u tt in g , w e s h o u ld t r y se ve ra l tim e s o v e r th e p la c e w h e r e th e fla p
* and*aiTeron T h a t w e w a'nt "to m o v e W m u s t p a y atte ntion * to*th p o sitio n
o f th e fly in g su r fa c e to a v o id m a k in g a n y m ista k e s w h e n sy n c h r o n iz in g a n d
a s s e m b lin g th e p ie c e s
O n c e w e h a v e cu t th e p ie c e s, w e w ill u se t w o -c o m p o n e n t p u t ty to se a l th e
g a p th a t re m a in s b e tw e e n th e u p p e r a n d lo w e r p a rts o f th e w in g . O n c e it is
J c/ry. w e w ill s h a p e it w it h a se m ic irc u la r s e c tio n , w h ic h w ill a llo w u s to c h a n g e
. its p o sitio n w h e n w e p la c e it.

W h ile th e p u t t y is still fre s h , I re c o m m e n d in t r o d u c in g s o m e c o p p e r w ire


sp o k e s o f a c e r ta in th ic k n e s s in th e p ie c e th a t w e w a n t to m o v e fo r a b e tte r
fix. T h is e x a m p le w ill h e lp u s to s h o w y o u th is p a r t o f th e a sse m b ly .

For this example, I will use the w ings of a B-25 Mitchell. Surface of the direction rudders Surface of the deep rudders.

Using a cutter, I will slowly mark the plastic by its panel line. To finish it up, I
will cut the pieces with a very fine handsaw. Allready cut pieces.

Surfaces cut from the direction rudders Surface cut from the deep rudders.
I detail the pushers hinges of the flying surfaces and
then, fill in the gaps of the upper and lower part with a The gaps between the upper and lower surfaces are also filled in. Once the putty is dry,
two-component putty. I sand it to shape i t I finish the pushers with pieces of copper w ire .

I repeat the process in the direction rudders


surface with the same procedure as the one in
the previous picture Wing s flying surfaces

The combination of the flying surfaces already


finished and ready to be placed in the model

AIRCRAFT FAQ 25
2. ASEMDLY 'PREPARATION AND MATERIALS
2.D PHOTO ETCHED PARTS i ....
" T h e r e a re t h o u s a n d s o f p h o to -e t c h e d s e ts o n th e m a rk e t, e ve n m o re m e ta llic s a n d p a p e r o r a sm a ll h a n d y f ile s a lo n g w it h a v e ry fin e * -
th a n m o d e ls. T h e s e p ie c e s a re v e ry in te re stin g b e c a u s e th e y a llo w us sa n d p a p e r. W e s a n d th e a re a w h e r e th e p h o to -e t c h e d w ill b e g lu e d
to im p ro v e th e m o d e ls, a lth o u g h s o m e o f th e ir p ie c e s, d u e to th e ir in o r d e r to o b ta in a b e tte r g rip .
th in n e s s a n d th e s c a le , a re u se le ss. W e w ill u se c y a n o ty p e g lu e (n o rm a l o r g e l) o r th e re s in -b a s e d g lu e s ,
- T h r o u g h o u t tim e , th e se p h o to -e t c h e d se ts h a v e e v o lv e d T h e first w h ic h a llo w u s to p la y a little b it w ith th e p h o to -e t c h e d , to p la c e it
" lin e s w e re m a d e o f co p p e r. T h e n , th e y w e r e c o lo u r e d , a c tu a lly in ve ry in th e rig h t p la ce .
g o o d d e ta il. N o w a d a y s , w e c a n e v e n fin d s e lf a d h e siv e etch . O n c e th e p h o to e tc h e d p ie c e s a re in p la c e a n d ju s t b e fo re w e sta rt
T o u se th e se p ie c e s it is c o n v e n ie n t to h a v e g o o d to o ls, su c h a s g o o d p a in tin g , it is r e c o m m e n d a b le to a p p ly a la ye r o f p rim e r o v e r th e
c u tt in g p lie rs, m e ta l file s, a n d v e ry th in tw e e z e rs . O n c e th e se p ie c e s w h o le m o d e l. T h is w a y , th e b a s e la ye r o f p a in t w ill h o ld b ette r.
a re c u t fro m th e fre ts, w e e lim in a te th e fla s h fro m th e u n io n w ith

Nowadays, photo-etched sets cover all the parts of a model, from the cockpit Using very fine pliers, I cut the places where the
and engine up to the exteriors. In some cases, they are coloured and self- piece joins the general photo-etched sprue,
adhesive.
5$Cfc RES/W

We can use cyano glue, either normal or gel, or, as in Glued piece in place
this case, resin-based glue

I ' h .N 0

There also are specific liquids to treat these pieces. Using this kind of liquid, we will be able to remove the varnish from the
brass and the piece will be ready and with a better grip getting it ready
to be painted.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 27
2. ASEMILY I llEIAltATION AND MATERIALS
2.9 HE8IN AND METAL PARTS
N o w a d a y s , th e q u a lity o f th e re sin s e ts is im p re ssiv e . T h e y a d a p t fo u n d fo r fin is h e d c o c k p it s , fin e ly re p ro d u c e d e n g in e s , fly in g
b e t te r a n d b e t te r to th e m o d e l th e y h a v e b e e n d e s ig n e d f o r s u rfa ce s, w h e e ls o r a r m a m e n t. W e r e c o m m e n d y o u to w a s h
S o m e m o d e ls a re e v e n c o m p le te ly m a d e o f re sin th e m f ir s t w it h s o a p a n d w a te r, a n d th e n to c o v e r th e m w it h a
W e m u s t a lw a y s b e v e ry c a re fu l w h e n m a n ip u la t in g th e se k in d s laye r o f g r e y p rim e r to d e te c t a n y sm a ll fa ilu re s o n th e su rfa c e
o f p ie c e s, e sp e c ia lly w h e n c u tt in g th e m fro m th e ir s u p p o r t w it h a a fte r th e y h a v e b e e n p la c e d a n d g lu e d

cu tte r, a v e ry fin e sa w , o r a s h a rp kn ife . Im p ro v e m e n t se ts c a n b e

nient to wash

all the resm pans v.ith
rm water and soap in order
3090 HiJilTiin.i'e any mould
rel. ase grease from
thn mould
the as well as
n avoid any problems
uring the next steps of
the painting process

use cyano type glues to glue the different resm pieces


Some catalysts such as accelerator can be used to speed
Resm model and materials up this gluing process.

We must have the right tools to work with


resin. In this case, saws are essential

Several sets of
different kinds
SP-ZUO '
models and brands SP-ZUO ' ,
SP-ZU O ''
SP-ZUO*

Several sets of different kinds.


models and brands

28 KCRAFT FAQ
An exam ple o f how
to manipulate a resin
wheel

Piece straight I start to separate the wheel


from the bag. using a handsaw with very fine teeth.

Resin wheel separated from its support

Using low-grit sandpaper, I eliminate the


cutting marks

I remove the excess with a sharp knife.

Then, I polish the area with fine sandpaper

Wheel ready to use

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 29
<r

2. A8EMDLY P E A AT ON AND MATEDIALS


2 .0 W DES
M a n y d if f e r e n t w ir e s m a d e o f s e v e r a l m a te r ia ls a n d w it h d if f e r e n t C o p p e r is a n o t h e r m a lle a b le m a te ria l w h ic h a d a p t s v e r y w e ll. Its
th ic k n e s s e s are u se d to d e ta il m a n y p a r t s o f th e m o d e ls. T h e y a re p e r f e c t a d v a n t a g e s a re th a t, o n c e in p la c e , it is m o re r e s is ta n t to h its , it
* to r th e c o c k p it s , e n g in e s , a n d g u n b ay s. is n o t e a sily d e fo rm e d a n d it c a n b e g lu e d w it h a n y ty p e o f c y a n o .
O n th e m a rk e t, w e c a n o b ta in th e m in d iffe r e n t k in d s a n d th ic k n e s s e s . T in In e v e ry ca se , w e w ill c h o o s e th e ir th ic k n e s s in re la tio n to th e sca le .
w ir e s a re ve ry m a lle a b le a n d th e y a d a p t to a n y p ie c e g lu e d w it h c y a n o . m o d e l a n d k in d o f d e ta il, n o t th e ir n atu re

*9

Tin wires

Copper Wires

Many brands sell different


thickness wires for wiring any
part of the plane, and wires with
different scales to avoid oversizing
the wires

Example of a wire plane engine

30 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
I apply polish over the whole piece and Using a doth I slowly polish it
then, let it dry for 10 minutes. until the piece is completely
glossy. .

rt is good to use a specific plastic polish for the


transparent pieces in the box.

When gluing these pieces we must


remember to use the right glue,
as well as to manipulate them
with clean hands as any glue stain
would ruin their transparency.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 31
M a n y o f th e tra n sp a re n t p ie c e s th a t c o m e w ith th e m o d e l u su a lly
h ave a n a n n o y in g jo in t, w h ic h c re a te s a kin d o f ra ise d line in th e
m id d le o f th e p ie ce. T h is line w ill d im m ish th e re a lism o f th e m o d e l
o n c e th is is fin ish e d . Its co m p le te e ra su re re q u ire s a lo t o f w o rk .

To eliminate the line, we sand it with 1200 grit sandpaper or higher. Gently, we remove the line drawn with the marker by making small circles
along the line.
I finish the process with super fine sandpaper, about 2000-3000 g r it , which is almost I use a plastic polish (in this case, Tamiya Compound) to apply a thick coat of the
imperceptible to the human eye or touch. product over all the sanded areas. Then, I let it dry for 5 minutes.
2.11.1 VACUUM CANOPIES
If th e tra n sp a re n t p ie ce d o e s n o t e xist o n th e m a rke t, w e ca n cre a te it u sin g a m o u ld a n d a v a c u u m m a ch in e . W e ca n a lso u se a h e a t so u rc e su ch a s a lighter,
a h air d ry e r o r a c a n d le to so fte n th e a ce ta te a n d a d ju st it to th e p ie c e itse lf o r to a h o m e m a d e m o u ld .

Example 1. Scratch-built sliding hood


T h e re a re m a n y a ircra ft th a t h ave e lo n g a te d co c k p its, w h o s e h o o d s slid e b a c k a n d fo rth , b u t th e th ic k n e ss o f th e in je cte d p la stic p a rt ca n so m e tim e s m a ke
it im p o ssib le to a ccu ra te ly re p re se n t th is. If w e w is h to p o se th e c a n o p y in a n o p e n p o sitio n , it re q u ire s u s to v a c u u m -fo rm th e h o o d w ith a th in n e r th ick n e ss
p la stic. A s a n e xa m p le , I w ill u se th e h o o d fo r a 1/32 Ju 8 7 G S tu k a , fro m H a se g a w a .

l remove the ekcess acetate, and gently sand the edges to remove the
With a piece of acetate, and using the kit part as its own mold, I plunge the hood into the soft acetate. sharpness of them. I now apply narrow pieces of very thin plastic card, to
This perfectly takes on the exact shape of the kit part. create the raised framework.

Contrast between a newly vacuum-


The finished part. formed piece, and my finished work.

34 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
'

I apply heat to the acetate


using either a candle or a cigarette
I then cut two pieces of acetate, with a lighter, and when the acetate starts to
thickness which works in accordance to get very soft, I immediately place it over
h e s o le I If e mode the epoxy putty mold I have made.

mold keeping it for


h I ! then
inor to mark the

I carefully cut out


the piece

I place it on the
model, and once
secured. I add the
narrow framework
around its edge, using
thin strips of plastic

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 35
Example 3. Working with vacuum-formed canopies
O fte n , w h e n w e b u y a m o d e l, w e m a y se e th a t so m e p a rts are
o ve rsize d in th ic k n e ss, a n d w h e n lo o k in g a t th e tra n sp a re n t p ie ces.
th is ca n fu rth e r c o m p lic a te th e issu e. T h e e x a m p le th a t I w ill u se
here, is th e c a n o p y o f a 1 /48 F 7 U C u tla s s fro m H o b b y c ra ft. I w ill
e x p la in h o w , in se ve ra l w a y s, th a t yo u w ill b e a b le t o so lv e th e
p ro b le m o f a th ic k c a n o p y C R Y S T A L CLEAR
C A N O P IE S
1 /4 8 s c a le va c -u -fo rm

C h a n c e Vought
F 7 U - 3 C u tla s s

Due to the thickness of the kit canopy, I decided to buy a vacuum-formed part, from
the Squadron brand. This replacement is both very thin, and transparent

The difference between


each of the canopies is very
obvious when you place them With a marker or fountain pen, I
side by side outline the contour of the parts

carefully cut around the


contours, and remove the excess
acetate from the vacuum-formed For the inner, rear structure of the canopy. I
Drawing around the contours is
canopy parts trace around the rear contour, whilst holding it
now complete.
flat onto a piece of white plastic card.

After several attempts, it became obvious


that not even the vacuum-formed canopy w as particularly well-suited to the
The profile is now ready to be cut and fastened to
model. I now had to make the canopy part myself. The canopy on the left is the one made by myself. The
the vacuum-formed canopy
center canopy is the kit part, and on the right you can see the Squadron part.

36 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
I finish the
process by painting
the glass of the position
light transparent red (...or
blue/green, depending
on its location).

the position light ready to


be painted

38 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
POSITION LIGHTS (BULBS)
In some models, position lights are big. In these
models it is not the glass that is tinted, as it usually
is, in red, green or blue, but the bulb itself. This is ) ^
how it is done:
> >

Using a lighter we heat up and


stretch the transparent plastic.
POSITION LIGHTS
(ENGRAVED IN PLASTIC)

Sometimes, the position lights are so small that they come engraved in the
model's plastic. We could eliminate this part and make it ourselves, as we
have seen before, or paint it, as we will see in this example.
POSITION LIGHTS
(HEADLAMP)
Sometimes, the hole of the landing headlamps is
poorly designed and the parts do not fit, or simply
the piece is too thick. We will see some examples
of how to correct the problem.

The hole of the landing headlamp on I paint the walls and the bottom of the hole matte
the finished and glued wing. black and the landing headlamp silver.

Many pieces of the glass which


protects the landing headlamp
are too rough, so we have to
consider polishing them. Example of a transparent
plastic piece in place.

If the piece is thick, we can also use


adhesive tape.

I cut a piece of tape to the size of the wing. The definition that we obtain with the
Then, I trim off the excess tape. tape is greater than what we get with
the plastic piece.
41
2. ASEMRLY PREPARAT OK AND MATERIALS
2.13 ANTENNAS
T h e a n te n n a c a b le s o f th e p la n e m u s t b e th e la st ste p in o u r p la n e 's c o n stru ctio n M a n y a n te n n a c a b le s c a r r y c o u n t e r w e ig h t to ta u te n th e m e ven
a n d d e v e lo p m e n t, b e c a u se th e y a re th e m o st fra g ile p a rt o f th e co m b in a tio n m o re . W e sim u la te th o se w ith a d ro p o f w h ite g lu e . A s th e g lu e is
W e ca n b uild in m any d iffe re n t w ays: u sin g ve ry fin e w ire s o r e la stic w ire s, w h ich liq u id , w e p la c e a d ro p o f g lu e o n a p ie c e o f p a p e r a n d let it d ry fo r
just re ce ntly ca m e o u t. T h e b e st w ire fo r this task is n ylon w ire , w h ich is v e ry resist a b o u t 15 o r 2 0 m in u te s until it h a s h a rd e n e d a little b it. T h e n , w e
a nt a n d h a s a ce rta in e xtru sio n cap acity. For th e a n te n n a s, w e ca n u se stretch ed w ill p la c e a d ro p o n th e c a b le u sin g a v e ry fin e b ru sh . W h e n p la c in g
p lastic H o w ever, so m etim e s, th e le n g th s o f this p lastic ca n h ave d iffere n t thick it, b y c ap illarity, th e d ro p w ill g e t a n elliptical sh a p e . O n c e th is ellipsis
nesses a lo n g the se ctio n a n d ca n a lso be m o re fra gile is dry, w e w ill p a in t it in w h ite o r silver

l i l t u . It

There are many types of materials for the antennas


such as nylon wire, very fine copper wire or very fine
tin wire

We can use stretched plastic from


any part of the
sprues of the
model

We apply heat from a Instantly, we pull in opposite


safe distance to avoid directions, thus, stretching
melting the plastic. It the plastic...
must be softened, but
.until it reaches the
not melted
adequate thickness for the
scale of the model

My favourite option is to use


Preliminary presentation of
nylon wire. For this, firstly,
the wire built in plastic.
I use a punch to mark the
antenna anchoring point.
We insert the nylon
through the hole
and then, we fix
with a drop of
cyano glue.
I perforate
the anchoring
point using a
-land drill.

Many antennas carry a small conical basket on their


Once the plastic is cold. cable. We will use for this a piece
mark the edge of the of very fine plastic that
Once the plastic
conical basket we will carefully
is cold, we cut it and
We insert an heat
reduce its outline
old airbrush
needle when
the plastic
is still soft
because of the
tieat

We tense the wire and I use very fine pliers to cut the
glue it to the antenna excess of wire
support with n ana

We insert the
conical basket by
putting the nylon wire
through its hole, gluing the
other end of the wire to the antenna
stick and tensing it as much as we
can with a drop of cyano.

I paint the wire with black


or dark metallic paint.

nal result of the wire


completely tensed.
*

What I do to build the


After about 10 minutes, once that
counterweights of the antenna
the glue has thickened slightly, I use
cables is to place a bit of white glue
a brush to apply a drop on the wire.
on a bit of plastic
By capillarity it will become round or
elliptical, the perfect shape for this
task

Finished antenna.
Once the glue is dry (it will
be almost transparent), the
counterweights are painted in
silver or clear grey
2. ASEM LY EPA AT ON AND MATERIALS
2.14 CONTROL CARLES AND RACES
T h e b ra c e s a n d c a b le s n e e d sp e c ia l a tte n tio n . O n m a n y p la n e s, th e y b e c o m e , d u e to th e ir co m p le xity , a real p ro b le m fo r th e
m o d e lle r. In th is ch a p te r, w e w ill tr y to p re se n t th e m in a v e ry d e ta ile d a n d visu a l w a y

M a k in g b ra c e s ca n b e a te d io u s ta sk. H o w e ve r, a w e ll b ra c e d p la n e is ce rta in ly ve ry a ttra ctiv e . S te p b y step , w e w ill e xp la in


h o w to b u ild th e a n c h o rs, rin g s, a n d te n so rs b e fo re th e a ctu a l b ra c in g

2.14.1 RINGS
They are common on all the types of braces and we will use them for the tensors as well

We will use a 0.2mm I braid


wire, which we can get O.Smm tube with which
from computer cables or will be one end ring
ir-V-"

2.14.2 TENSORS
i m i i m m carve a
cross on a piece of wood.
This cross will work as
our guide when
marking the
length of the
tensors body.

I glue every end of the tube to the ring.


I roll the blade on the tube
Now, the tensor is ready.
all the tubes always
following the

2.14.3 CONTROL WIRES


I cut a 0.6 x 0.4mm I insert the wire through the tube again I tense and fix the end
tube shell. I insert 0.16 with a drop of cyano
fishing wire through the I cut the excess wire
shell and then through with sdssors
the ring. The thickness
of the rings and wires will
depend on the scale

44
2.14.4 BRACES
2.14.4.1 German braces

start fixing a ring on each end of the brace On the bottom area, I add a tensor to every ring Depending on the kind of plane, we will decorate the
as every cable carries a tensor tensor by rolling it around a 0.2mm cable

For the braces I use 0.16mm fishing wire. I insert a 0.5 x I apply a drop of cyano almost at the end and moving I do the same for the other end
0.3mm tube shell in the wire. Then I pass it through one the shell around the drop, I cut the excess wire using but tensing the cable
of the ends of the tensor and through the tube again riv.:>i'.

Once the cable has been tensed, I apply a drop of cyano


almost at the end and I move the shell around it. Using
scissors again, I cut the excess. The brace is now ready

.AIRCRAFT FAQ 45

2.14.4 BRACES
2.14.4.2 British braces

Using the tow that we have


For the British brace I will use fishing wire with a
made before, we cut two
0.1x0.3mm plain spoke
0.5x0.3mm tube pieces

We glue each piece to one of the ends of the plain I get all the lengths of the brace ready.
wire, and we insert half of it

I glue 0.16mm
fishing wire to both
ends of the brace.
I insert a tube shell
of 0.5x0.3mm in
the thread, first
through the ring
and again through I do the same for I use the same process for
the thread. the other end. the other end

I tense the brace and


use cyano to fix the
shell almost I trim off excess wire I paint the shell and the wire in
on the end. with scissors. black. Now, the brace is ready.

46
2. A8EMBLY PREPARATION AND MATERIALS
2.15 SCRATCH MATERIALS AND TOOLS
In o rd e r to w o r k w ith sc ra tc h -b u ilt tra n sfo rm a tio n s w e h a v e to s ta rt w ith a b asic
m a te ria l, w h ic h m u s t b e v e ry e a s y to w o r k w ith a n d , e sp e cia lly , c h e a p a n d v e ry
e a sy to fin d . T h is m a te ria l w ill a llo w u s to b u ild o u r p ie c e s w it h o u t a n y p ro b le m s.
T h is kin d o f m ate ria l c a n b e fo u n d in th e m o st u n e x p e c te d p la c e s. S o m e y e a rs a go ,
so m e m a te ria ls w e re n o t e a sy t o fin d W e u sed to u se p la s tics fro m d iffe re n t k in d s o f
d e te rg e n t b o x e s a s w e ll a s w in e b o ttle se a ls. T h e tru th is th a t w e h ave a lw a y s h ad
p le n ty o f id e a s to g e t p ie c e s fo r o u r b o x o f sc r a tc h -b u ild in g su p p lie s

Regarding the variety of materials, tin


Among our scratch-building
sheets and aluminium covers are very
materials, we must have
useful due to their malleability and
plasticard of different sections
adaptability. They are especially good for
shapes and thicknesses, that
simulating cloths or the seat belts.
will adapt to our model and
the scale

Tin wires can also be used. Because


of their malleability, they perfectly
represent the wires in cockpits and
engines

Copper wires are also


necessary to simulate the
tubes and conducts in some
parts of the planes, such as
the landing gear bays or the
engines

For bigger pieces we can also use plastic


sheets with different thicknesses, which
are very handy. Acetate pieces are also
crucial when it comes to carrying on several
transformations on the planes

48 RCRAFT FAQ
The essential tools for scratch-building are;
a sharp knife for cutting different pieces,
an escalated ruler, a caliper for obtaining
difficult lengths, glues of different kinds,
and a contour caliper, which is good for
obtaining sections.

To obtain sections with Next, we press the


the caliper, first we align metallic bars with our
the table surface until it is fingers until they adjust to
straight. the interior contour of the
fuselage.
*
There are primers in different colours,
but the most common ones are grey and
Many resins sets come with white
white. The neutral primer is the most
metal pieces. They should be primed
recommendable for our project because
before being painted to improve the
it will allow us to see any minor defects
paint adhesion on these pieces.
and imperfections that can appear. This
will be the time to correct them. Also,
these neutral colours do not interfere
with the base paint.

Primers

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

Better Control. The airbrush needs to be


cleaned very well because
Rooms do not need to be aired that often. the polyurethane is very
resistant.
More economical due to its better
performance.
3. PAINTING GUIDE!
1 2 PAINTS
T h e y are e sse n tia l w h e n it c o m e s to d e fin in g fin a l re su lt a n d a s p e c t o f
th e m o d e l. It is im p o rta n t to k n o w h o w to u se th e m co rre ctly a s w e ll
a s th e ir c h a ra c te ristic s. C h o o s in g o n e kin d o f p a in t d o e s n o t d isca rd th e
u se o f th e o th e rs. A ctu a lly , th e co m b in a tio n o f several o n e s w ill o ffe r us
a w id e r r a n g e o f fin ish e s

A s in a n y p ro je ct, th e c h o ic e w ill u ltim a te ly d e p e n d o n th e ta ste s a n d


n e e d s o f th e m o d e le r

Paints can be split into two categories: acrylic-based and solvent-based. The acrylic paints When we airbrush the paint, the paint should be very fluid. But, we must be careful, if it
are more flexible whereas the enamels are finer and more durable. is too fluid, it will not cover the model properly.

Each one has its corresponding thinner. Although it is not necessary to use the same brand A s a general rule the proportion is:
for both, thinner and paint, it is often recommended.
75% paint + 25% Thinner
Many paints are gloss or matte and sometimes satin, depending on the manufacturer. It
The performance of the lacquers or enamels is similar, but their complete drying will take
is up to us to choose what finish we will use in our model. In general, this paint is usu
about a day. whereas the acrylic dries in just a few minutes.
ally airbrushed at about 0.8 and 1.2 ATM, depending on the scale and type of model.

Different enamel or oil paints.

Different acrylic paints.

Boxes with the latest generation colours, identical to those of uuum A


every Air Force. These paints have a new ideal formulation for
better resistance, gloss and coverage.

AIRCRAFT FAQ I 53
3.2.1 ACRYLICS
This option is dean and comfortable, and with very good results;
Vallejo. Lifecolor and AK-Interactive are the most popular brands on
the market at present.
Due to their advantages, fast dry and non-toxic, these paints are
highly appreciated.
These paints can present different density, depending on their
application, brush or airbrush,. We must remember that a 25%
dilution will be the correct proportion to apply with an airbrush,
but it will depend on the paint's brand because not all the
manufacturers use the same density. The paints that are specifically
designed for airbrushes can be used directly from the jar.

3.2.2 LACQUER BASE


The most popular options are Tamiya and Gunze. Although their
labels say 'acrylic', they will need a thinner to work properly. A s a
general rule, we can airbrush them diluted at 2 5% (75% paint +
25% thinner).

3.2.3 ENAMEL
We use them to obtain effects selectively. Due to their
characteristics and drying time, these paints can be easily blurred
on a surface to obtain transparencies and effects that will bring
more realism to our model. When we use these paints it is useful
to place them in a drying paper or cardboard first. This paper will
absorb the oil excess and therefore, it will speed up the drying
time, which will roughly be 4 8 hours.

3.2.4 OILS
We use them to achieve effects selectively. Due to its characteristics
and drying time, these paints can be used on a surface to create
glazes and effects, providing more realism to the model. When
using these paintis should first deposit on paper or paperboard, to
absorb the excess of oil and to accelerate the drying process, which,
even so. will last about 4 8 hours.

54 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
3.2.5 METALLIC COLOURS
There are several types of metallic paints with different tones and finishes on the market.
These paints can also be split into two groups: acrylic-based and oil-based. The oil-based metallic paints
usually have a better finish because their pigment is finer than the acrylic-based paint's pigment.
Many of these paints can be polished once they are dry, thus, increasing their brightness and fineness,
which will provide our model with great realism.
When we apply them, the compressor's pressure should not be higher than 0.8 ATMS. Also, the airbrush
has to be perfectly clean.
Every paint has to be diluted, except those that are already prepared for their immediate application with
the airbrush. We must use the appropriate thinner, according to their composition and brand, as they are
very delicate.

3.2.6 WATERCOLOUR PENCILS


Watercolour pencils can have several uses. They can be used for chips and metallic or
non-metallic scratches, mud and combustible splashes as well as different lines of dirt
and grime, which appear as a result of the weather and engine fluids.
They can be easily corrected with an eraser or softened with a diffuser or a silicone
brush. The best way to use them is to work on a matte base so the pigment from the
pen will adhere well. If we pass a brush dipped in water over this stroke it will intensify
it considerably, making it more difficult to correct.

3.2.7 TRANSPARENT INKS


We will use inks to obtain transparency effects and to shadow multiple
surfaces. In air modelling they are usually used to tinge the nozzle and turbines.
They are airbrushed very diluted. A s they are enamel paints, they need their 'T |-ifJ
specific thinner.

An example of how different inks change their


tonality on a metallic surface.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 55
Nowadays, these products are considered very valuable for weathering as well as to obtain
all kind of realistic effects in our planes. Usually, these products are enamels, but we can
also find them in an acrylic version.
In this section we may also mention pigments: the prime
materials from which the paints are made.

Smoke or Steel tones are essential when


representing effects on our planes.
Another product for enamel-based effect is the "panel
liners . The panel liners have an optimal dilution which allows
them to run through the recessed lines of the panels, thus, adding
a great depth to the painting phase and making a difference in the
finishes of the model.
Using washes will allow us to highlight an area or demarcate a piece to bring out all its
detail. We can use them on cabins, landing gear, engines or any other piece.

The advantage of these products is that the specific tone that we would like to use comes
ready to use straight away. We will not have to make difficult mixes. The proportion of the
dilution is correct, but it is sometimes a little more concentrated. We can thin it if w e need
to.
3.2.9 WAXES
One of the newest products on the market is the waxes with metallic tones packed in
tubes. Their texture and aspect is similar to toothpaste but we don t recommend you brush
your teeth with them. This is a very versatile product with great coverage power and work
best on a primed surface. Range of colours and metallic tones of waxes

We will explain briefly and visually their characteristics and properties

This paint perfectly covers any surface.


In this example, I use a brush to It also offers an ultra-realistic finish to
extend the colour of a Gloster any model
Gladiator s hood ring

This product can be


applied with a brush over A- -I thei II polish
the whole surface. with cloth : ioer

They can also be


applied with an
airbrush.

AIRCRAF
1 PAINTING (WIDE
3.3 VARNISHES
W h e n d e a lin g w ith o u r m o d e l's p a in t, th e s e p r o d u c t s a re e s s e n tia l to on wFncfTfinish. we wa'nt Tor our pTane, we will finish with'a matter
p ro t e c t th e m o d e l, to in te g ra te t h e d e c a ls o r to se a l s o m e e ff e c t s b e fo re sa tin o r g lo s s y va rn is h
other painting stages. W e m u s t ta k e in to a c c o u n t th e c o m p o s it io n o f th e v a r n is h e s b e fo re
V a rn ish e s a re e sse n tia l to o b ta in a g o o d fin ish . B u t, th e ir d ry in g tim e s, a c t u a lly u s in g th e m . If w e u se o il-b a s e d v a r n is h e s a n d th e n a p p ly o ils
c h a ra c te ris tic s a n d a s p e c t m a y v a r y fro m o n e b ra n d to a n o th e r. C h o o s in g o r w a s h e s th a t are m a d e o f th e sa m e b a s e th e y w ill d ilu te th e v a rn ish
b e t w e e n d iffe r e n t v a r n is h e s d e p e n d s e n tire ly o n th e m o d e lle r a n d h is a n d rum th e o u r p re v io u s w o r k . W e m u s t a lw a y s u se p ro d u c ts w it h a
taste. d iffe re n t b a s e to a v o id th is k in d o f c a t a s tr o p h e s . If w e d o n o t w is h to
A c r y lic v a rn is h e s a re id e a l to w o r k o n o ils, w a s h e s a n d filte rs. T h e y a lso d o th a t, w e m u s t th e n le t th e v a rn is h d ry fo r a lo n g tim e

d r y fa s t H o w e v e r, w h e n w e a p p ly w o r n o u t a n d d ir t in e s s e ff e c t s w e V a rn ish is th e p ro d u c t th a t g iv e s th e fin a l a p p e a ra n c e to th e m o d e l
m u st u se th e m o ve r a c r y lic v a rn is h e s. O n c e w e fin is h a d d in g e ff e c ts , w e (g lo s s y , s a tin o r m a tte ) r e g a rd le s s o f th e b a s e p a in t w e h a v e u se d
w ill h a v e to se a l a ll th e p ro c e s s e s w it h a la ye r o f v a rn is h . T h e n , d e p e n d in g a lth o u g h w e m u s t a p p ly th e p a in t c o r r e c tly b e fo re u s in g th e v a rn ish

- - - -
:
:

o a r n iz
^pU U RETAN O
y u re lh a j1 ^ LV U R E T H A N E
V ;irn > : P O L Y l/ R E T H A N f
^ o l y u r e l ' 1'" V A R N IS H
' a t i n V a r " 1' 6 65Q__ *-fc- r in ___ te . V a rn ish
a e -' M ate

Varnishes are produced in different


formats with different capacities
depending on the manufacturer. We
also have special varnishes like A K Ultra
matte, or spray varnishes.

This wooden floor shine


liquid became very popular
as a kind of varnish.
Although it was not better
than other varnishes, it
ML m pr>" J
was indeed better to fix ' L O S S C i'T f l
transparent pieces and to
give them transparency.

58 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
1 PAINTINGmm
3.4 TIIINNEMS ANI)A X L A P 0 UCTS
In o rd e r to u se so m e p ro d u c ts a n d p a in ts w e m u s t u se th in n e rs, e ith er T h in n e rs c a n in flu e n ce th e p a in t's d ry in g tim e , its flu id ity o r its co ve ra g e
to im p ro ve th eir p ro p e rtie s o r ju s t to w o r k w ith th e m . T h e y ca n a lso be p ow er. S o m e tim e s, th e se v a ria tio n s a re ve ry sm all o r sim p ly w e c a n n o t
q u ite u sefu l w h e n c le a n in g o u r to o ls o n c e w e h ave fin ish e d a p p re cia te th e m ju s t b e c a u se w e d o n o t h ave a n o th e r th in n e r to co m p a re
W e re co m m e n d yo u to u se th in n e rs care fu lly, a lw a y s p a y in g a tte n tio n th e m w ith . In a n y ca se , it is re co m m e n d a b le to u se th e o n e th a t is in d ica te d
to th o se p ro d u c ts w h e re w e w ill u se th e m o n by th e m a n u fa c tu re r, ju s t to a vo id a n y su rp rise s

W e n e e d to k n o w th e p ro d u c t 's b ase, w h e th e r it is oil. e n a m e l o r acrylic, W e a lso in c lu d e in th is s e c t io n th e a irb ru sh c le a n e r s T h e y a re th e b e st

to c h o o se its s p e c ific th in n e r U n like va rn ish e s, th in n e rs w o rk o n p ain ts in s tr u m e n ts f o r th e c a r e o f th e s e to o ls . T h in n e r s a re t o o a g g r e s s iv e


th a t h ave th e sa m e kin d b ase. B u t n o t all o f th e m w ill p ro vid e th e p ain t a n d if w e u s e th e m fre q u e n tly th e y m a y d a m a g e th e p a r t s a n d o r se a ls

w ith th e sa m e ch a ra c te n stic s , s o w e m u s t b e a le rt to a n y va ria tio n o f th e a irb ru sh

The thinners used in modelling are more refined and less aggressive than
the bulk thinners sold in hardware stores. Their refinement prevents us
from ruining our job if they react badly

isa

The performance of modelling thinners is excellent, which allows us to use


them on our models. They are high quality products.

X20A
Pu -
Thinner or acr**
pour
Rato gun )8

(tetp ' -

1. o c v ^ l.

When we use enamel thinners or lacquers, either


using a brush or an airbrush, we must bear in mind
that we need to work in a very well ventilated place
to avoid inhaling the vapors. Please, always read
their instructions.

Paints and thinners slowly damage our tools. However, we can find on the market other
products for the maintenance of airbrushes and brushes or any other tool. Some have
oil, which facilitates the movement of the airbrush's internal pieces.
Taking good care of our tools and brushes will allow us to use them for a long time.

AIRCRAFT FAQ 59
draw some thinner
with another, clean
straw, and add it to
the paint tray.

With a straw. I draw an appropriate amount of paint. I mix the paint with the thinner. The resulting mixture

<aa should have the consistency of unskimmed milk

The air pressure


should not exceed
15 PSI. This should
be enough, if the
mixture is well
prepared.

I pour the mixture into the airbrush cup, and check the consistency by spraying a few
passes over a piece of cardboard

During painting, keep in mind that the airbrush is not a camera,


and it should always be moving. If you keep it in one spot for too
long, it will result in paint runs, which are difficult to remove. Try to
apply thin coats of paint. It is better to paint the surface in two or
three sessions, than to apply one thick layer at once
3. PAINTING GUIDE
3.6 IIUISIIES
B ru sh e s a re o n e s o f th e m o st im p o r ta n t to o ls u se d in m o d e llin g . T h e re a re m a n y d iffe r e n t k in d s a n d e v e ry
s in g le o n e h a s a s p e c ific a p p lic a t io n . T h e re is a c o m m o n m is c o n c e p tio n th a t th e s a m e b ru sh c a n b e u se d
fo r m a n y u ses, b u t th a t is w r o n g . It w o u ld b e a s if w e u se d a g o lf b all fo r fo o tb a ll
B ru sh e s, a p a rt fro m th e n u m b e r th a t in d ic a te s th e ir d ia m e te r (th e n u m b e r is n o t th e sa m e fo r a ll th e b ra n d s),
c a n a lso b e d iffe re n tia te d b y th e ir e n d s.

B e a r in m in d th a t it is b e tte r to p a in t so m e p ie c e s a n d sm a ll d e ta ils w it h a b ru sh a n d a lso th a t so m e e ff e c ts


c a n o n ly b e d o n e u s in g a b ru sh .

Good maintenance is essential. They must


be kept with their bristles upwards. They
must be cleaned with water and soap, or
a specific cleaner. We recommend you to
invest in a good brush.

Acrylic paint tends to accumulate and dry in the joint between


the ferrule and the bristles. If this happens the hairs will spread
apart and wind up frayed. Therefore, it is really important to
dean this area very carefully.

62 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
PAINT
V W W W V W W W V W W W W W

TECHNIQUES
In th is c h a p te r w e w ill d e sc rib e th e a ctu a l te c h n iq u e s u se d a t th e tim e
o f th is w r it in g to p a in t a n d fin ish o u r m o d e ls

T he re are o th e r te c h n iq u e s th a t w e h a v e n o t in c lu d e d b e c a u se th e y are
w e ll k n o w n o r th e y h ave b e e n re p la ce d b y n e w o n e s

T h e m o d e le r ca n e ith e r a d a p t o r e vo lve th e se te c h n iq u e s to w h a t
su its th e m b est T h e se te c h n iq u e s ca n tra n sfe r o ve r in to o th e r a re a s o f
m o d e lin g b e sid e s p la n e s.

w *

^ _______ i _ ^ ____
4. TECHNIQUES
4.1 l IIMEIt
D u r in g th e c o n s tr u c tio n p ro ce ss, w e u se a lo t o f m a te ria ls o f a d iffe re n t can . P rim e r is a ve ry re sista n t p o ly u re th a n e c o m p o s itio n w h ic h
n atu re , su c h a s p h o to -e t c h e d p a rts, p u ttie s, o r o th e r k in d s o f p la s tic s a n d a d d s g r ip to th e p a in t a n d it is p e r fe c t to a v o id su rp rise s later
m e ta l. It is r e c o m m e n d e d to a p p ly a c o a t o f p rim e r to g e t th e c o m p le te on w h e n w e w ill u se a g g r e s s iv e w e a th e r in g te c h n iq u e s . A c r y lic
e n se m b le h o m o g e n iz e d . If w e w o r k w ith lig h t c o lo u r s a n d th e p la s tic is p rim e r fo r a irb ru sh , a s w e ve se e n b e fo re , is th e a lte rn a tiv e to
d a rk , it is a lso co n v e n ie n t to p rim e th e m o d e l s o w e c a n o b ta in b e tte r the e n a m e l a n d sp ra y p rim e r a n d h a s o v e rta k e n th o se p ro d u c ts
co v e ra g e o f th e b a se p a in t F o r d o in g th is, th e re a re d iffe re n t p ro d u c ts in p e rfo rm a n c e
th a t a llo w th e m o d e le r to a p p ly p rim e r c o a ts b y b ru sh , a irb ru sh , o r sp ra y

When priming a plane with spray, it is


convenient to start and finish spraying
outside the area of the model, and
trying to cover it in fine coats at a
distance of around 20cm
Although we waste some primer we
will avoid specks that we will have to
sand later.

Before starting the primer spraying process, shake the can well and gently heat it in In many cases, when we improve
your hands. This will both thoroughly mix the contents and also create an optimal the model; we use pieces made of
spraying pressure. Ensure your work area has appropriate ventilation. When painting tin, copper, plastic, or resin. Having
always wear an appropriate respirator different components makes it harder
for the paint to grip the surfaces as
1. Do not start to spray directly
easily as on plastic, especially on the
onto the kit surface. Sweep the
metallic pieces
can horizontally and vertically
past the surface as you spray. If
you're moving left to right, you
begin spraying to the left of the
kit surface.

To solve this, we apply a coat of


2. Move the can over the kit surface
primer that will evenly cover the
in a long, sweeping stroke, as
surface with the same density
fast as you would brush out
of primer deposited on all areas
a stroke. Maintain a constant
suitable enough to have the paint
distance from the surface.
applied on.

3. End each pass to the right of


the painted surface. During the A s a recommendation, in some
process, avoid tilting the spray cases we have to mark the panel
can downwards or upwards, and rivet lines because if they are
as this causes spitting and will marked softly, after we prime the
result in an uneven application

66 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
/ 7 * model, they can get lost under it
especially if the primer coat is too
thick.
A. TECHNIQUES
4.2 PANELING
P a n e ls o n real p la n e s d o u se to h a v e th e s a m e c o lo u r u n le ss th e y are P e rh a p s th is is th e m o s t c o m m o n ly u se d te c h n iq u e b y th e a irp la n e
re p la ce d b y th e fa c to ry . M e c h a n ic s u se d to d is m a n tle a n d su b stitu te m o d e le rs . It c o n s is ts o f p a in tin g d iffe r e n t p a n e ls in slig h tly d iffe re n t
th e p a n e ls fre q u e n tly s o e a c h o f th e m s h o w s a d iffe r e n t g r a d e o f u se c o lo r s a s w e ll a s d e m a r c a t in g th e m to a d d m o re c h r o m a tic ric h n e ss
a n d d iffe r e n t c o lo u r s . P a n e ls c a n b e p a in te d se le c tiv e ly if w e w a n t w h ile g iv in g th e m o d e l m o re v o lu m e to th e p la n e s s u rfa c e . T o a c h ie v e
to re p re se n t p a n e ls th a t h a v e b e e n s w itc h e d o u t b y th e m a in te n a n c e th is e ffe c t w e c a n u se se v e ra l t e c h n iq u e s th a t w e w ill d e s c rib e n e x t
cre w .

We can see the difference in


the panels and the effect after
masking them with adhesive
tape and then airbrushing
them.
When the pre-shading is done
on a metallic colour, the control
on the paint and coverage
capability will allow us to get
some metallic and glossy tones
that are very realistic.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 67
4.2.1 PANEL PRE-SHADING
A m o n g th e m a n y te c h n iq u e s a va ila b le fo r p re -sh a d in g , I fe lt I h a d to p e rh a p s
ta k e th in g s to th e n e x t level, a n d th a t w a s to a c tu a lly s h a d e th e p a n e ls in
d iffe re n t c o lo u rs th e m se lv e s, b re a k in g u p a m o n o to n e su rfa ce , a n d in je ct
in g life a n d in te re st in to su ch a s ch e m e . T h is w a s b ro u g h t to g e th e r u sin g a
d ilu te d b a s e c o lo u r f o r th e fin a l c o a t. F o r th is te c h n iq u e . I w ill s h o w yo u h o w
to ta c k le a 1 /48 D o 3 3 5 Pfeil fro m T am iya.

I apply the base colour over the whole aircraft.


In this case, I use a sand color.

With the base color, I mix a little black, and apply the Again with the base colour, I mix some yellow, and apply the
resulting colour over some random panels, but the same ones on resulting colour over other random paneb.
each side of the model.

68 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
With a heavily diluted base colour, I apply several thin layers until all I apply a layer of gloss varnish and To the base colour, I mix a little yellow or sand-yellow
the previous shades are realistically integrated. You will notice how add the decals. paint, and add chips to the areas where the paint
the various panels perhaps seem to have faded at different rates. would be naturally be worn away.

Finally. I apply some shadows, using black paint to the control


surfaces. Everything is now sealed with matte varnish.
4.2.2 PRE-SHADING BY LINES
P r e s h a d in g b y lin e s is d o n e b y m a r k in g th e m w it h a
d a r k e r to n e th a n th e b a s e p a in t o n th e p a n e l lin e s
a n d riv e ts o f th e p la n e . A f t e r w a r d s , w it h a d ilu te d
b a s e p a in t, w e w ill a p p ly se ve ra l la ye rs to th e m o d e l,
a c h ie v in g d a r k e r s h a d o w s w h e r e w e h a v e a lr e a d y
a p p lie d th e m a r k s . It is im p o r ta n t th a t t h e b a s e p a in t
is d ilu te d a n d th a t it d o e s n o t co v e r in ju s t o n e p a s s so
w e c a n h a v e c o n tro l o n th e in te n sity o f th e sh a d o w s .

In this example,
we can see how I have pre-shaded
the lines with a template that serves
as guide, and later, as the paint does
not cover totally, this kind of shadow
can be seen

T h e sim p le st p re sh a d e is th e o n e a p p lie d b y fre e h a n d , o ve r all p a n e l a n d rivet lin e s. F o r th is ta s k , I h ave


c h o s e n a 1/32 F -4 J P h a n to m fro m Ta m iy a .

And over this brown pre-shade. I


apply matte white, obtaining this
result. The white needs to be applied
in thin coats, allowing for just a hint
of the pre-shade to show through the
A final colour.
A s I have already prepared the model for
painting, I apply a brown colour paint to
all panel and rivet lines on the underside.

I repeat the same process


on the upper sides, but this
time I use navy blue for all
rivet and panel lines.

Here is the model after applying thin light gray


coats over the previous navy blue pre-shaded
surface. Again, you can see only subtle hints of
the pre-shade. It is important that the effect isn't
too contrasting. It should look very natural and
under-stated.

70 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
4.2.3 PANELING WITH TAPE
T h e p a n e lin g w ith ta p e te c h n iq u e is v e ry sim p le , it c o n s is ts o f d e m a r c a tin g ta p e o r p o s t -it s h e e ts to d e m a rc a te th e a re a to b e p a in te d . P a n e lin g w ith
an a re a w ith d ilu te d p a in t. It c a n b e d o n e b y b ru sh o r a irb ru sh to m a ke th e a irb ru sh g iv e s m u c h v o lu m e to th e p a in t. T h e p a in t h a s to b e v e ry fe w
o n e p a n e l d iffe r e n t fro m a n o th e r. T h e te c h n iq u e w it h th e a irb ru sh is v e ry d ilu te d a n d th e m a r k in g h a s to b e w e a k a n d su b tle . T o a c c e n tu a te th is e ffe c t
easy, a s yo u o n ly h a v e to u se th e b a s e c o lo u r m ixe d w it h a c o lo u r o f th e e v e n m o re , w e c a n m a s k t h e o p p o s in g s id e a n d a p p ly a lig h te r c o lo u r to
sa m e to n e , b u t a b it d a rk e r, fo r e a c h o f th e lin e s o f th e m o d e l in e v e ry o b ta in a la rg e r co n tra st.
d ire ctio n , m a k in g a s h a d o w e ffe c t. W e w ill d o th is w it h th e h e lp o f m a s k in g

The same paneling with


tape technique can be
done with masking tape
and a brush.

We demarcate the area


on which we want to work

We dampen the brush in paint


which we will remove almost
completely with a cloth.

As it is a dry-brushing, we
emphasize the demarcated areas
with the tape

The secret is to use the brush After removing the tape we can see how the panel has been demarcated
almost without paint and to
emphasize enough in every area.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 71
------------------
4.3.2 AERIAL AIRBRUSHING

j Following the painting


I instructions on the model
/ blueprints, using paper
y we cut the ou 'me of the
/ camouflage d r a w n previously
/ marked with a pencil. If yob scale
the drawings instructions to the actual With pieces of masking tape,
size of the model the process is much easier making an "0", I place them on the contour
and e ffe cth d fl where i will put the paper templates.

By placing the template do not push, just rest it on the When applying the second color is essential that the With the paint dry. remove carefully the paper m asks
surface, leaving few millimeters between the paper airbrush angle related to the meodel surface keeps 90 . and the result of a cam ouflage design finely blur
and the model surface. Just lean a little to get a subtle and fine blur. between the two colors is appreciated.

4.3.3 HARD EDGE AIRBRUSHING


To make a hard edge camouflage, the use of very
wide masking tape is needed to cover the most area
possible. We will cut the tape with a very sharp knife
following the contour of the pattern and will stick it
to the models surface

en the mask
>the mode !
surface there is no problem
of the paint bleeding into the other
colour

I remove the mask, the hard edge


contour between the two colours can
be seen perfectly.

Final result of the


three camouflage
types, starting
by the free hand,
going by the ones
with air masks
and finishing with
the hard edge.
4.3.4 MOTTLE

It is necessary to clean I apply the base layer of


the surface of the the camouflage, in this I apply the first colour
model well. case German RLM76. of the camouflage, RLM75...

sS^

To start the mottled


scheme, I dilute the paint at 5 0% with A K
paint thinner and using a pressure between
1.5 and 2 Atm, I draw the first mottles
adjusted to the model and scale. We will
have to place the airbrush close to the
and next the second model, around 4 cm, and to work very fast
: 'H/ RLM /4 and not flood the area.

Once the first colour is finished I repeat the


process with the other colours. I recommend
to practice before-hand on a piece of p a p e r1 Depending on the type of the
or old plastic until we get used to the correct mottled scheme, it can be done
shapes and the steady hand needed. even more dense and smaller.

74 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
4.3.5 MEANDERING CAMOUFLAGE

The key of the fine lines is to make a


perfect dilution of the paint too. for which
I recommend a proportion of 6 0 % thinner
and 4 0 % of paint and a pressure close to 1.3
I clean the surfaces that are going I apply a layer of the base Atm. The closer we paint to the model, the
to be painted colour. German RLM76 finer the lines we can achieve

It is convenient to practice
first on a piece of paper or plastic
to warm up your hand. We have to
realize that the fine lines do not have
to always be the same thickness so I We have to realize that this
change the distance of the airbrush to achieve kind of camouflage can be
those effects (in the image they are overdone for them more or less dense
to be seen better)

End result of the two kinds of


I paint the second camouflage, mottled in the
layer of fine lines in a fuselage and meandering lines
Lighter Grey colour in the wing.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 75
4. TECHNIQUES
4.4 PANEL LIGHTING LIGHTS SHADOWS
j* . A fte r a p p ly in g b a s ic c a m o u fla g e p ain t co m e s th e p ro ce ss o f g iv in g life a n d vo lu m e to w ith o ils to in c re a se th e fe e lin g o f lig h t a n d sh a d o w , w ith th is w in g w e w ill e xp lain
w v th e m o d e l su rfa ce s. T h e te ch n iq u e o f lig h tin g p an e ls w ith a irb ru sh is to app ly a clearer in a g ra p h ica l w a y th e p ro ce ss w ith a so m e w h at e xa g g e ra te d e ffe c ts to se e the
- p ain t to th e b as e in th e ce n te r o f the p a n e ls o r in the center o f a c a m o u fla g e color, b e st o f e ach o f th e te c h n iq u e s u se d . T h is te c h n iq u e o f lig h t a n d sh a d o w ca n also
- u sin g th is w e g e t a gre a te r vo lu m e e ffe ct. T h is te ch n iq u e ca n a lso be su p p lem e n te d be u se d in sm a ll p arts in sid e the ca b in , w e a p o n s, etc.

W e sta rt b y ligh te nin g the green co lo ur w ith very


dilu ted p ain t w ith an ade q uate thinner to pain t ratio
A fte r a b asic p ro ce ss o f p an e lin g a n d p ee lin g , I hav e the o f arou n d 6 0 % thinner and 4 0 % o f p aint. A lw a y s
B asic ca m o u fla g e finished. piece ready fo r th e h ig h lig h t e ffe cts. d e p e n d in g to the type o f pain t th at w e are u sing.
mm

Fo r the gre en co lo urs I u se S a n d C o lo u r ( 7 0 % green/


3 0 % sa n d ) to ligh te n them . b u t w ith w h ite . W e ca n a lso use lighter
W e ca n also lighten the green w ith a ligh te r green. H ig h lig h ts app lie d and fin ish ed in th e G reen colour. to n e s o f L ig h t Sa n d .

W e se a l all the ste p s w ith a layer o f g lo ssy varnish to N o w w ith a p an e l liner liqu id, I m ark the p anel W ith o ils app lie d by brush in ligh t to n e s (yellow , w hite,
g e t the piece ready fo r the fo llo w in g step s. lines a s w e w ill se e later. e tc...) I e m p h a size the are as m ore e xp ose d to the light.

76 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
I let the oil dry for around 20 minutes and afterwards The result after diffusing the Yellow Ocher on the
with a brush with synthetic hair I start diffusing the oil................ to integrate the oil on the surface. green regions of the camouflage.

To create shadows we will use cold colours such as green


I repeat the same process, but now with White oil in blue, brown, black We emphasize the perimeters of the that I diffuse again. In this case
the Sand colour regions of the camouflage. relieves with a very dark Grey-Brown what we obtain is volume and depth

But if we want to add a "touch" of dirt and worn effects, simply damping the brush in the thinner for oils, and as if we were making chips, we can create effects that once they are
dry will give off a worn and dirty look.

I apply a coat of matte varnish and this is the final result. In the picture, you can see the difference Finished
between the applied effects (left) and the area where they have a basic camouflage (right). process.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 77
'VllCRfl
M IC * 0 SET
SOL

Indispensable products for placing the decals A container with warn


are products like Micro Set and Micro Sol. water and the decal individually I sink the decal in the
There are many of different brands and they cut from the sheet water around 4 0-6 0 seconds.
are all similar but some products do react
differently with the type of finishing products
usee Coloco sobre la superficie
impregnada en Micro Set la calca

With tweezers. I take the decal out and I get the surface ready with Micro Set.
dry the excess of water on a paper towel

With a cloth, I pass over the decal With a flat brush. I gently pass it on
with care to remove the excess of the decal to eliminate possible air
Micro Set and water. bubbles.

Decal placed.

After an hour. I apply the Micro Sol liquid that will


soften the decal and makes it settle perfectly over With a fine pencil, I mark
the surface of the models panel lines and rivets the lines of panels and Decal completely applied
11vet1 and adapted
4 TECIINIOIIES
4.0 DEMARCATING PANELS
T o a ch ie v e a n d e n h a n c e th e sc o re m a rk s w e w ill u se th e p a n le liners, w h ic h m id d le g ra y o f a G e r m a n W W II a ircra ft, a lig h t g r a y o f a m o d e rn U .S.
g iv e u s co n tra st a n d d e p th . It is u su a lly u se d e n a m e l o r o il p ro d u c ts to g e t je t o r a silve r P51. T h e re e xist o th e r to n e s like th e s a n d c a m o u fla g e s
i h e p ro p e r e ffe c t, th is is b e c a u se th e se p ro d u c ts f lo w p ro p e rly o v e r any w h ic h w ill re q u ie re a d a rk b ro w n p a n e llin g , th e b la c k s c h e m e s w h ic h
p a in te d su rfa ce a n d a llo w to re m o ve th e e xce ss w ith W h ite Spirit. It c a n also w ill n e e d lig h t g ra y s, T h e g re e n sc h e m e s w h ic h w ill re qu ire d a rk s h a d e s
b e u se d so m e p ro d u c ts sp e c ia lly d e sig n e d to a ch ie v e th is e ffe ct. T h e co lo r o r th e w in te r c a m o u fla g e s d e m a rc a te d w ith d a r k b o rw n .
to u se w ill d e p e n d o n th e co lo r o n w h ic h it is g o in g to d em a rca te . It is n ot
n e c e ss a ry to co m p lic a te to o m u c h , o n e sh a d e c a n w o r k p ro p e rly o v e r m a n y
c o lo rs o f sim ila r to n e . F o r e x a m p le a se p ia to n e w ill w o r k e q u a lly w e ll o n a

4.6.1 PANEL LINERS


One of the most visual effects on a plane is marking the lines of rivets and panels of the
aircraft. There many specific products on the market for this purpose that are always
applied on a glossy surface. Be careful with the compositions of the products are made
as many times if the product base is the same as the paint, it may dissolve. To demarcate
panels properly is always wise to choose the appropriate color that fits at least 8 0 % of
the base color.

To apply these products must be done with a fine brush and place the product on the
lines of nvets and panels. Once dry (10 to 15 minutes) with a dry cloth or a brush soaked
in white spirit to remove the excess, always in the direction of airflow in the wings and
from top to bottom on the surfaces of the fuselage.

When removing the product, a slight patina of grime is left which gives much mo
to the model.

With a fine brush, I am marking the lines of the panelsI After demarcating all rivet lines, leave to dry for 10-15 minutes

I dry the product, remove the excess carefully and slowly with a cloth. Final result after the whole process with panel lines and rivets marked.

80 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
We can see in those examples as after this process, the panels are demarcated and the result is very
realistic and convincing. This technique is used in combination with others that we will see in other
chapters, but is one of the basic techniques in the painting process.

4.6.2 DEMARCATING PANELS WITH PATINA


O th e r v a r ia n t o f th is te c h n iq u e is to a p p ly th e a c ry lic c o lo u r a s a p a tin a o n th e p la n e o n a g lo s s y su r fa c e to
re m o v e th e e x c e s s w it h a d r y c lo th a n d o n ly let th e p a in t in th e s u n k e n lines.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 81
4. TECHNIQUES
4.7 WASHES
W a s h e s te c h n iq u e is to a p p ly a v e ry d ilu te d d a r k p a in t a r o u n d a d e ta il o r
- ^ a n a re a , to e m p h a size it a n d to sta n d o u t its v o lu m e . T h e fu n c tio n o f the
-
- - co m m e rc ia l p ro d u c ts re a d y to u se a s th e m ixtu re s th a t w e ca n m a ke , is to
-I . - d a rk e n a n d d e m a rca te th e d eta ils. W ith a n u n ifo rm p a in t a n d w ith o u t w a sh e s
*
th e d e ta ils w ill b e in te g ra te d in th e b a s e co lo u r a n d th e y w ill b e a lm o s t n o t be
* I se e n . W h a t w e w a n t w ith th is te c h n iq u e is to s ta n d o u t th o se d e ta ils in th e
p a in tin g p h a se . T h e y c a n b e g e n e ra l, fo r a b ig are a o r iso la te d to d e m a rca te
a n d sta n d o u t a ce rta in d eta il.
" '

A bit wide brush it is ideal for this technique. Washes are for emphasizing the screws, an area of
the engines or the landing gear in a selective way. The paint will accumulate around the detail to
be emphasized.

Using the in a general way on a wide surface we will stand out a complete area, an engine, the wood
streaks in a plane or any piece of a big size that will need of a general darkening.
It is convenient that the surface is satin or gloss so the product will slide and we can remove the
excess easily. The matte paint absorbs this product and produces a general darkening of the base
paint. Once applied it is convenient to let them dry, and once they are dry we can remove the excess
preferably with a brush, as with a doth we can leave traces of it.

The wash has to be as much diluted as less contrast we wan to achieve. Depending on the base
it is going to be used we will select the colour to apply so the contrast will be subtle and will
have a real effect.

The washes are dark and depending on the surface colour where we
want to apply them we will choose one tone or other to achieve contrast
in the details and harmony in the colours.
We can see a general wash on an engine to darken the ensemble and to add an used look (Up). With A K Engine Wash applied by brush in successive layers we stand out and
emphasize all the slots in this engine, so the relieves are better seen, and giving an operative look (Down).

iWWSHi
4. TECHNIQUES
4.8 FILTERS
T h e filte rs, in d iffe r e n c e w it h th e w a s h e s a re n o t d a rk , re a lly th e y c a n b e o f a n y c o lo u r T h e
B lu e a n d G re e n c o lo u r s a d d d a rk . T h e W h ite , Y e llo w , o r O r a n g e a d d lig h t. T h e y c a n b e a p p lie d
e ve n w ith P u rp le o r a n y o th e r c o lo u r. W e h a v e to a p p ly th e m p re fe ra b ly o n a m a tte s u r fa c e so
it w ill a b s o r b b e s t a n d w ill c h a n g e th e to n e . P a n e l lin e rs a n d w a s h e s h a v e th e ir o w n sp e c ific
p ro d u c ts , a n d th e filte rs c o u ld n o t b e le ss. In a ir p la n e m o d e lin g it is v e ry r e c o m m e n d a b le to
a p p ly th o se filte rs to c h a n g e th e to n a lity o f a p a n e l o r o f th e c o m p le te p la n e It is a p ro d u c t
ve ry e a s y to a p p ly a s w e c a n d o it ju s t w it h a b ru sh w ith th e a d e q u a t e th ic k n e s s

For a filter the ideal is the surface to be matte. We will apply it with a thick brush like very diluted product which is elaborated with enamel paint and its main component is
a very diluted layer, dampening the brush a bit and extending it a lot. We will w ait it is White Spirit so this last component has to be of a very good quality so it w ill not dam
dry to check the end result, once it is dry we can apply it again if we need to intensify age the base paint. A n adequate proportion can be 9 0 % White spirit and 10% Enamel.
the effect. We can make this technique as a home made solution. But the filter is a

We can elaborate a The approximate dilution is


home filter with White 9 0 % White Spirit and 10% Oil.
Spirit and Oil.

I demarcate the area where to


apply the filter. In those cases
we will apply it to the complete
model.

With a filter after a


layer of varnish, for
not dam aging the
decals we will get The change of tonal
to integrate them in ity by the application
the model. of the filter can be
seen in the left wing.

Filters can be almost of


any colour, from Brown
or Green to Orange.

84 / AIRCRAFT
A. TECHNIQUES
4.9 FLUIDS
T h e lo st o f flu id s a re e v id e n t in m a n y p la n e s, e sp e c ia lly in th e a re a o f a d e q u a t e c o n s is te n c y a n d c o m p o s it io n s o o n c e th e y a re d r y w ill h a v e
th e lo w e r p a rt o f th e e n g in e w h e r e th e e n g in e s s u m p is p la c e d o r th e rig h t lo o k . A h o m e m a d e s o lu tio n o f r e p lic a tin g th o s e e ff e c t s is to
s o m e h y d ra u lic m e c h a n ism s. G re a se , o il, fu e l, w a t e r a n y liq u id is d u e d ilu te O il in T u rp e n tin e a n d w it h a v e ry fin e b ru sh , a lw a y s in t h e a ir f lo w
to b e re p re se n te d in a p la n e d ire c tio n , r e p lica te th e flu id s lo st w it h o u t o v e r d o in g th e m a n d a c c o r d in g
In th e m a r k e t th e re a re se v e ra l p r o d u c t s th a t a re d e s ig n e d a n d to th e s c a le o f th e m o d e l It h e lp s a lo t to h a v e re a l p ic tu r e s th a t w ill
w ill se rve to r e p lica te th o s e ty p e o f e ffe c ts , a n d th e y a ls o h a v e th e g u id e a s re fe re n ce


Not all fluids behave the same way.

Depending on the substance that originates the fluid this will be more or less dense and With a fine brush we draw in the wind flow some fine fluids lines in the joint of the panels,
it can accumulate in a way or another. A s example, kerosene does not accumulate due register covers or where the liquid escapes. Emphasizing in the lines we will get variety
to its flow and will leave and will leave a very fine and subtle trace, while the oil can ac in the intensity of the flow. Spilled fuel and oil it is convenient to replicate them with a
cumulate in an area and will leave more defined stains, as many layers can accumulate lineal shape as it is not more that liquid of the grease, or the oil stains that accumulate
as the old ones get dry. in a more concentrated way.

With the already done products


we do not have to worry about
the look or exact colour of the
rr*ect

86 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
It is important to look some pictures, if it is possible,
to inspire us in this kind of effects, they are aleatory
but they follow a patron. Oil allows to be diffused
before its complete dryness with a flat brush dragging
it in the wind flow direction

Using a panel or a cover as starting point we will make


Z 1 ,
the effect in the wind flow direction.

VN

Applying matte varnish those effects we will get a


more older or dryer fuel or oil stain, while if we apply
them directly from the jar its appearance will be more
fluid and fresh. They both can combined for obtain
ing more realistic results.

With a watercolour pencil we


also can replicate some of
those effects.
4. TECHNIQUES
4.10 IVIIST
R u st th e m e in a irp la n e m o d e lin g is a b it su b je c t iv e a s th o s e e ff e c t s ca n w e d o n o t h a v e to a b u s e o f th o se e ff e c ts b e c a u s e a s g e n e r a l ru le th e
o n ly b e e n re p lic a te d in a b a n d o n e d fo r lo n g tim e p la n e s , b u t th e y c a n b e p la n e s u se to b e in g o o d m a in te n a n c e c o n d it io n s a n d re a d y to fly
a p p lie d in th e e x h a u s t s o r la n d in g g e a r, e n g in e o r p ie c e s in th e in te rio r o f T h e u se o f p ro d u c ts d e p e n d in g o n th e ru s t le ve l, w ill b e th e c h o o s e
m a n y W W II p la n e s, a n d fo r d o in g th is th e b e st is to a p p ly w a s h e s , stra in s o f th e m o d e le r, b e c a u s e a v e r y a g g r e s s iv e ru st in a f ly in g c o n d itio n
o r p ig m e n ts in ru st c o lo u r w h ic h a re sp e c ia lly d e s ig n e d fo r th is. A s I say, w ill b e s o m e t h in g u n re a l.
When we make a rust strain we do it in a very controlled
way. Rust only appears in an metallic area which can
be rusted, when the paint is scratched. A very common
mistake is to scratch and rust areas that do not allow
this effect. The rust ones can vary from Light Red to Dark
3 '::w n

Although it is not easy to find examples of rust in planes, in this Zero's tail
we can see how to make rust effects to settle it in the jungle after being
hit by enemy fire.

rocess finished with the tail ready


for a coming project

IRCRAFT FA 89
*4 . TECHNIQUES
4.11 CHIPS AND SCRATCHES
C h ip s a re ve ry im p o rta n t in a irp la n e m o d e llin g. A s first rule, w e h ave to avoid W e h ave to realize th a t n o t all th e ch ip s are e qu al a n d it w ill d ep e n d
fillin g th e p la n e w ith ch ip s in a n u n ifo rm w ay, o r th a t th o se o n c e th e y have a p on th e sh a p e a n d intensity o f w h a t p ro d u ces it. S o th e ch ip s d u e to the
p lie d are ve ry sym m e tric in b oth sid es o f th e plan e. N o t th e co m p le te p la n e is vib ratio n a nd th e b ad q u a lity o f th e p ain t w ill have th e lo o k o f jum p e d
fille d w ith ch ip s, th o se are co n ce n tra te d in the a re as o f a b ig g e r u se a n d w h e re p ain t in b ig are as, th e c h ip s d o n e by ston es in th e w in g s a re as a n d clo se
- - *he p la n e is m o re fa tig u e d b y th e frictio n fo r th e air, a s ca n b e th e e d g e s o f the to th e p ro p eller w ill b e sm all a n d co n ce ntrate d in o n e area, th e o n e s
. ' w in g s, o r b y th e m a in te n a n ce c re w o r the p ilo t. In m o st o f th e p la n e s th e a cce ss m ade by th e co n ta ct w ith so m e elem ent o r an area w ith m a n y w ill leave
to th e ca b in is d o n e fro m o n e side, a n d th e o th e r has a lo w u sa g e , so w e have the interior m etal at sig h t w ill b ig ch ip p e d areas.
to w o rn m o re o n th e sid e w h e re th e p ilo t w a lk s by. R e m o va b le p an e ls in the
e n g in e h o o d , o r th e co ve rs o f th e g u n s b ays as a lso th e a m m u n itio n o n e s are
ve ry se nsitive to th o se e ffe cts.

Scratches have to be aleatory, its shape will depend of what has hit it or the worn suf- A s not all are the same we can combine several techniques when we replicate them,
fered. It is recommendable to base on pictures at the time of making them.

90 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
4.11.1 WATER COLOUR PENCILS
Water colour pencils are a very helpful tool at the time of making small chips and scratches. According
to our acquired costume of using paints for writing, most of us have more practice at the time of using
a pencil than a brush, and they are very comfortable and easy to use. and their effects are very easy to
control. The pencils have to be very sharpened so w e can make very fine and irregular chips.

They are applied best They allow to apply effects in


on a matte surface an easy and comfortable way,
as chips with a very effective
result,

Different types and colours of water colour pencils

On colours of the same tone as the paint we will achieve to replicate small paint worn effects as chips. If we want to make
chtps we can use Silver colour (if they are chips on a metallic piece) or the colour, as by example, its under the piece that
has been painted on. In those examples we can see a clear way of using them and the achieved effects.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 91
4.11.2 SCRATCHES AND CHIPS BY BRUSH
T h e e n a m e l o r a c r y lic p a in t is th e b e st a t th e tim e o f m a k in g a sc ra tc h o r O n a re a w ith c h ip s w ill b e m o re s p e c ta c u la r a s m o st d iffe r e n t is to a n o th e r.
a c h ip , b u t it a ls o is a te c h n iq u e h a rd to d o . T h e se c re t is to u se a v e ry fin e W ith th is p re m is e w e w ill r u n a w a y a lw a y s fro m r e g u la r c h ip s o n th e
b ru sh , sp e c ia lly th e s m a lle r th e s c a le is. a n d th e ju s t a m o u n t o f p a in t s o in its c o m p le te su rfa c e , a n d w e w ill h a v e to s t u d y f ir s t w h e r e w e a re g o in g to
u n d e r co n tro l, b u t w it h o u t b e in g v e ry liq u id .T h e s h a p e o f th e c h ip s a lw a y s m a k e th e c h ip s b e fo re p la c in g th e b ru sh in th e m o d e l.If a c h ip is d o n e in
h a s to b e irre g u la r a n d w ith e d g e s , n e v e r w it h r o u n d s h a p e . a m e ta llic a re a , w it h t h e tim e , a fte r th e n a tu re a g e n t s h a v e a c t e d it w ill
a p p e a r a ru s t e ffe c t.

S c r a tc h e s c a n b e d o n e in th e p a in t w ith a v e ry e a sy te c h n iq u e . It is to a p p ly w it h a v e ry fin e b ru sh d iffe re n t p o in ts a n d lin e s w ith th e b a s e c o lo u r p a in t o f


th e a irp la n e s c h e m e lig h te n e d . Ju s t w it h th e filte rs, w a s h e s a n d c h ip s , it w ill g iv e th e m o d e l a v e ry re a l a n d c o n v in c in g w o r n . A n e a sy w a y o f e m p h a s iz in g
th o se s c r a tc h e s (it w ill a lso se rv e fo r th e ch ip s) is to u se a fin e lin e o f m o re lig h t p a in t b e t w e e n th e ch ip / sc ra tc h a n d th e b a s e p a in t. U su a lly th e y a re sm all
lo n g it u d in a l line s.

In th is se q u e n c e w e ca n se e h o w to m a ke a c h ip w ith a b ru sh in a ve ry g ra p h ic w a y , step b y step.


First w e w ill m a ke the ch ip s, irre g u la rs w ith a fin e b ru sh a n d a D ark C o lo u r (711 C h ip p in g C o lo u r), a fte r w e w ill a p p ly a co lo u r lig h te r th a n th e b ase co lo u r in th e
lo w e r area o f th e ch ip , a n d last w e h ave d o n e so m e sta in s o f rust th a t is th e co n se q u e n ce o f th e a c tio n o f th e m t o ro lo gie a g e n ts.
4.11.3 CHIPS WITH A SHARP KNIFE
For making the effect of chips with a sharp knife, previously we have to apply a layer
of Aluminum colour, best if it is of and Enamel kind, on that areas that later will have
the chips on the Aluminum color or Silver we will apply a layer of acrylic paint. The
adherence of the acrylic paint on the Enamel is not satisfactory so it will help
later. With a very sharp knife and a lot of care we will scratch the acrylic
paint leaving the lower metalized paint at sigh t

4.11.4 CHIPS WITH A MASK


Chips with mask will be make applying a liquid
mask in the are where we want to replicate them
and on the paint that we want o appear the chips.
Maskol type mask can be applied with a toothpick
with shape of small drops or in a bigger area. Fol
lowing the colour to be chipped is painted and
once it is dry we remove the mask leaving the base
colour at sight. This technique produces chips with
a round shape so it is convenient to retouch them
with a brush.

' ari

In this sequence we can check


how we have applied this
technique on a piece of wing
and the irregular shape of the
Chips

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 93
4.11.5 SPONGE CHIPPING
Other technique easy to use is with a piece of sponge wet with the
paint colour we want to replicate the chips. For this a small piece of
sponge with an adequate grid to the scale model, it gets wet in the
paint and the excess is removed as in the dry brush technique. Several
tests are done on a paper and when it has the adequate consistency it
is applied with a lot of care in the area to be treated. The paint does
not have to be very liquid

With this technique we will achieve groups of chips with dot shape,
we can combine them with other techniques to enrich the results. It
is very useful at the time of wearing away winter cam ouflage in the Several types of sponges
planes. We can use the sponge technique can also represent the rust of different densities to
in the engine exhaust. replicate chips depending
on the scale and the kind
of worn

We can see this technique on a panel With a piece of sponge wet with paint, in a piece of absorbent paper, I
start removing the paint excess until leaving just a bit. The paint has to be
thick

'

With tweezers, I get the piece of sponge damped in paint and make dots in the surface Look once the tape mask is removed

94 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
4.11.6 CHIPPING PRODUCTS AND HAIR SPRAY
T h e h a ir s p ra y te c h n iq u e is v e ry e a sy b u t a b it te d io u s. F o r d o in g it w h a t
w e h a v e to d o is to p a in t th e m o d e l in a n A lu m in u m c o lo u r (or th e o n e w e
w a n t to a p p e a r u n d e r th e c o lo u r to b e c h ip p e d ). O n c e th e p a in t is d ry w e
w ill im p r e g n a te th o s e a re a s w h e r e w e w a n t to m a k e th e c h ip s, w it h th e
h air sp ray. O n th e la ye r o f h a ir s p r a y th e s e c o n d la ye r o f p a in t is a p p lie d , th e
b a s e c o lo u r o r th e c a m o u f la g e c o lo u r a n d o n c e it is d ry. w it h a n o ld b ru sh
w h ic h h a ir is h a rd b u t th e y still ke e p so m e fle x ib ility in th e ir e n d s , d a m p e d
in w a te r, w e s ta rt to sc r u b a n d re m o v e th e u p p e r p a in t, le a v in g th e in fe rio r
la ye r o f p a in t a t se e a n d a c h ie v in g a w o r n o r c h ip e ffe c t v e ry irre g u la r.

In th e m a rk e t th e re a re s p e c ific a n d m o re c o m fo r t a b le a n d c le a n p ro d u c ts
fo r th is e ffe c t w it h o u t h a v in g to u s e th e h a ir sp ra y a n d th e y a c h ie v e th e
s a m e o r a b e tte r re su lt.

It is a v e ry in te re stin g te c h n iq u e if w e w a n t to re p re se n t a p a in t o ve r o th e r
th a t h a s b e e n c h ip p e d a n d le ts th e o n e u n d e r it to b e se e n .

Hair spray
(center) and
products
w ith sam e
charadei si q

l a c a

I 'l l l H P I ' '


'Z X S S i'

W e w ill s h o w an e xa m p le o f h o w to u se th e co m m e rcia l p ro d u c ts fo r m a kin g th e m a n d th e co n tro l o f th e result. T h e y ca n b e a p p lie d by b ru sh o r airbru sh


this techn iqu e. A K -In tera ctive w a s th e first b rand so m e years a g o in se lling them . b etw e e n a layer a n d ano ther, a lw a ys th a t th e se co n d o n e is acrylic. O n c e it is
T h e a d v a n ta g e o f th o se p ro d u c ts is th e co n ve n ie n ce a t th e tim e o f a p p lyin g d ry to th e to u ch w e ca n sta rt m a k in g ch ip s w ith a b ru sh w e t w ith w ater.

I apply the product on the surface. Complete surface damped surface with the product. I apply the lighter colour.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 95
With a wet brush, with hard hair, With a fine brush I keep retouching
I start scratching the upper paint the bigger chips. (Depending the
making the wear. We will insist more grade of wear that we want to do).
in some areas than in others.

This example, we will use the hair spray I apply the lighter colour.
to see the difference.

With a fine brush, with a bit rigid hair. I start to strip the area. General look after the process. We can see how the chips are bigger.

9 6 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
Applying these techniques over the surface of a wing.

(1) With a doth,


scrubbing, I remove
the Maskoi leaving
the metal in the
lower area a
at sight.

I apply the base


colour to the
complete wing.

(2) With the point of a sharp


knife, I scratch the upper paint
letting the lower metal at sight.

(3) With a water colour (5) Now with a Grey colour

pencil I make the chips. (4) With Silver colour paint, I make the I make the same process that has be
scratches with a very fine brush. done in the previous step.

(6) With a Medium Blue, I make the chips that


simulate to be scratches, without leaving the
inferior colour to be seen.

(7) With a piece of


sponge damped
in Metal colour, I
make the chips.
p n lig h t b a s e s w e w ill u se S e p ia sm o k e co lo u rs, w h ile in d a r k b a s e s w e w ill u se G re y to o b ta in
J . th e co n tra st a n d th e sm o k e e ffe c t. T h e sm o k e sta in s u se to b e m o re c le a r in th e ce n te r a n d th e y
g o d iffu s in g in th e ir b o rd e rs, a n d in th e e x h a u sts it is u su a l th a t sm a ll o il sta in s w ill d e ta c h fro m
th e e n g in e , th a t w ill a cc u m u la te a n d th a t w ill d irty th e a re a a ffe c te d by th e s m o k e a n d th e y w ill
- <c
a d d a b ig g e r to n a l variety.
4.12.1 SMOKE WITH AIRBRUSH
T h e ke y to m a k e th o se e ffe c ts is to d ilu te th e p a in t a lot.

90% Thinner or 96 alcohol + 10% paint.


In th e sm o k e e xit in th e e xh a u st, m a n y tim e s, th e p la n e p a in t g e t s a S e p ia o r S a n d c o lo u r To re p re se n t th is
w e w ill a p p ly th is m ixtu re o f p a in t b y th e a re a o f th e sm o k e trail. A t it is ve ry d ilu te d w e h a v e to a p p ly m a n y
la ye rs s o th e tra ce w ill g e t o p a city.

T h e s in g u la rity o f th o se g a s trails is th a t e ve ry p la n e fo llo w s a ch a ra c te ristic te m p la te , it is v e ry u se fu l to h ave


d o c u m e n ta tio n to re p re se n t th is e ffe c t co rre ctly.

T h e c o lo u rs va ry a lot, fro m G re y to B la c k. In th e ce n te r o f th e trail a n d a s m u c h clo se r to th e e x h a u st it is, Here we can see the effect in a Skyrider, is
d u e to th e b ig g e r a c c u m u la tio n o f g a s , th e e ffe c t is m o re in te n se , so in th is a re a o f th e trail it w ill g o d if a plane in which their exhausts produced a
fu s in g to th e sid e s. characteristic trail of smoke and also in other
sequence on a Dark Blue tone using Grey colour
It is v e ry u se fu l to u se sm o k e co lo u rs, ve ry D a rk B ro w n s, o r tra n sp a re n t, th a t w ill a p p ly in th e sa m e w ay.
to emphasize the effect.
On this Hellcat, Dark blue, it is interesting to see the variation of the tones in the smoke trails to
emphasize on the base colour of the plane. In this case we make the effect with Grey colours.

In the following example we will see step by step how to make the smoke trail with airbrush and what colours to use

The first layer is a mixture of matte black and Dark The second colour is a Sand Brown or Sepia that I apply Again, with the first colour I make a series of vertical
Brown very diluted in 96 Alcohol in a proportion on the central area of the trail of the previous colour traces that will be supported in the panel and rivet lines
of 9 0 % Alcohol and 1 0% of the paint mixture. where the dirtiness accumulates

If we want to give a look of having a lot of flight hours, the paint used to be burned and
using some sand tones apply them again with the previous dilution darkening the rivet
and panel lines again,

100 AIRCRAFT FAQ


4.12.2 SMOKE WITH CHALK/PIGMENTS
T h e s m o k e c a n a ls o b e d o n e in a n e a sy w a y w it h c h a lk o r p ig m e n ts , fo r it w e o n ly
n e e d so m e p ig m e n ts a n d a c o u p le o f b ru sh e s. T h e p ig m e n t is a d u s t m a te ria l th a t
im ita te s p e r fe c tly th e sm o k e 's c o a l d u s t, so it is v e ry a d e q u a t e fo r th is e ff e c t. In th e
n e x t e x a m p le w e w ill s e e h o w to d o it ste p b y step .

Already finished model With a very Light Brown pigment With a brush with flat end and
and ready to apply I apply the pigment with a brush wide enough to cover the trail
smoke s trail from the giving the trail the shape of the exhaust, I diffuse the pigment
exhausts. exhausts.

With a pigment a bit more dark, with a Earth tone Again, with the wide flat To mark the dirtiness of the
too, I make profile the trail of the exhausts brush, I diffuse this tone exhausts, with a Dark and
with the one applied Red pigment, I mark the
previously panel lines (... and rivets if
they have it) and I diffuse
them as in the previous steps.

With a pencil, I mark


the panel lines again
(..and the rivets if
they are).

Last, to give a small sensation of volume, in the front


lower corner of the side panels I apply a Clear Brown
again and diffuse it as we make with the "lights" effect

Fina look of the


exhausts.
4. TECHNIQUES :
4.13 DIRT AND STREAKS
T h is c h a p te r d e se rv e s s p e c ia l a tte n tio n b e c a u s e th e c o n tro l o f th e d ir t in a m o d e l m a k e s a
h u g e d iffe re n c e in its re a lism . a lth o u g h it h a s to b e a p p lie d c a re fu lly o r it w ill d e s tr o y all th e
w o r k d o n e . It is a p ro c e s s th a t w e c a n e n jo y a lo t o f e ff e c t s a n d in te g r a te t h e a ir c r a ft in its
p a r tic u la r c o n te x t. F o r e x a m p le it v e ry c o m p e llin g to v ie w a n a ir c r a ft o p e r a tin g o n g ra v e l d u sty
o r a h e lic o p te r r a is in g d u s t w it h its b la d e s . It is im p o r ta n t to d o c u m e n t o u r s e lv e s a n d g e t
in s p ira tio n fro m real p h o to s.

DANGER
fiV T O W * /
To make this kind of effects the
base colour has to be satin or
gloss acrylic or has to have
a layer of satin or glossy
acrylic varnish. The flu
ids or dirt effects can
be painted as they
are lines with a fine
brush and after a few
minutes I diffuse with
other brush, this time
with a flat brush wet
with White Spirit. It is
very important to be pa
tience in this process and
let the paint dry during those
minutes so it will be removed
more difficult and we can get the
desired effect

When it is time to represent the streaks, we have to take note of the gravity effect and in most of the cases those effects are perpendicular to the floor.

In a plane, the angle to the floor when it is in land or in flight can vary regarding its shape and w e have to use those to represent this kind of effects, as usually they are produced
when the plane is in land.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 103


Nowwe will see howto apply dirt with and earth effect in this wheel

On the p in t between the wheel and the rim a medium earth colour is
applied that is softened with a brush wet with clean thinner

We continue making the same with a colour lighter every time, letting some minutes to dry between one and other and working almost with fresh paint

Now an Earth colour pigment is applied and it is wet with thinner that will accumulate in the Finally some stains will me
joint mostly. When it is dry it will soft a lot made with a Dark Brown

In th is o th e r e x a m p le w e c a n se e h o w to re p re se n t a c c u m u la t e d d u s t w it h o ils in th e ta il o f a W W II p la n e
A fte r d e p o s it th e m se le c tiv e ly w e d if f u s e th e m w ith th e h e lp o f a b ru sh a n d w h ite sp irit.

Co**'
w ax r r / A j,

l Srn;

W Z

104 IRCRAFT FAQ


The same effect is done with the same brush but this time placing an air flow with the R e su lt o f th is te c h n iq u e m ix e d o f o th e r to m a ke
airbrush with a pressure of 2 kg close to the model, we can see both results and the d u s t d irt m ix e d w it h sp la s h e s o f th e e n g in e in
effects that are done with one and other way a W W II p la n e .

A I R B R U i ft
With a very ^ The remaining
After attaching the armour plate dark brown colour surfaces of the seat
and harness, I apply a base coat of {almost black), I paint are painted with a
RAF interior gray-green. the seat back. red-brown colour.

Next, I reproduce some small


scratches on the seat with an
orange-brown colour.

The seat harnesses are


painted with a light beige
colour, whilst the buckles are
detailed with silver p aint

I then add highlights


to the top of the seat
The seat harnesses receive a similar
back, using a slightly
treatment. The highlights are applied
lighter shade of brown
with a lighter shade of the base colour,
than previously.
in order to give more volume to the
protruding parts.
108 IRCRAFT FAQ
Using a propelling
pencil with a 0.5 mm
HB hardness lead, I
recreate some small
chips and scratches on
the gray-green armor
plate and headrest.

General
W I seal everything appearance after
with a layer of gloss all processes so
varnish. Once it is dry, I far applied.
apply a dark wash to
emphasize all recesses and
bring out the details.

The whole
paintwork is sealed
with a layer of
matte varnish.

The finished seat.

AIRCRAFT FAO 109


5. INTEItlOH
5. SEATS
r>.. WO L WA TWO
5.1.1.2 Japanese seat
In th is ca se , I w ill s h o w h o w to p a in t a h e a v ily c h ip p e d se a t, fo c u s in g o n th e d iffe re n c e in th e
a p p ro a c h to th e p a in tw o rk . P lea se n o te th a t m o st o f th e p ro c e sse s a p p lie d to th is se a t w e re
th e sa m e a s d e sc rib e d in th e p re v io u s se ctio n

% z

use a resin seat from Aires,


with photo-etched seat belts
and some small improvements
made from pieces of copper

I apply a base coat of Tamiya


X-11 Chrome Silver enamel
colour.

When the paint is dry, I mask off the large


chipped areas with Humbrol Maskol. This is
applied with a fine brush. After airbrushing the
Japanese interior green colour, I remove the
Maskol, revealing the metallic colour below
the green paint. After this, it s time to improve
the overall effect by adding small chips with a
metallic watercolor pencil. The seat belts are
then detailed in a similar way as described in the
previous section.

110 RCRAFT FAQ


H i m 6 6

With a medium gray, I add the paint


chips and small scratches. I focus on
Injected plastic seat with the Firstly, I apply a base coat of I use various brown, sand and leather the upper part of the seat, as this
harnesses moulded into it. RLM 66 from AK-Interactive. tones for painting and shading the area is most vulnerable to damage in
cushion. the real seat.

Next, I paint the harnesses with a light khaki With a silver colour, I then outline the edges of the upper harnesses The paintwork is sealed with a
brown colour. I detail the buckles. with heavily diluted black paint. layer of gloss varnish.

Once the varnish is


dry, I apply a little
light grey oil onto
the upper area of the
seat, and blend this
to fade the colours.

The finished seat.

The final touch is to


seal the seat with
a coat of matte
varnish.
5. INTE 1111)11
5.1 SEATS
5.1.2 T E JET ACE
5.1.2.1 U.S. ejection seat (gray)
T h e e je c tio n se a ts o f U S m ilita ry a ircra ft fro m th e 1 9 6 0 s, 1 97 0 s, 1 9 8 0 s w ill u se a re sin e je c tio n se a t fro m A v io m x , fo r th e 1/32 F -1 0 0 S u p e r
a n d e a rly 1 9 9 0 s, w e re u su a lly p a in te d in a g ra y co lo r. T h is w a s d u e th e Sa bre , fro m T rum peter.
a ircra ft m a n u fa c tu re rs th e m se lv e s m a k in g th e seats. For o u r e xa m p le ,

Ji

W hen ch o o sin g a se at, it is a lw a y s better to see


exactly w h a t is available , and co m pare them . In this
case, the o ne on the left is from the k it. The center
is an A ire s release, and the o ne o n the right is from W ith a d ark coloured oil, heavily dilu ted w ith
A v io n . A ll are se a ts d e sig n e d for the 1/32 F-1 0 0 w hite spirit, I enh ance all the n o o ks and
H u n ', fro m Trum peter. cran nies o f the ejectio n seat.

I start by ap p lyin g X F-1 9 G ray from Tam iya, a s


a prim er coat

! "3 X F-1 9
h (
U sing the b ase colour, Takin g ad v a n tag e of
m ixed w ith a touch of the w hite pain t, I apply
w hite from V allejo, I it to the arm rests and
create a lighter g ra y that I h eadrests. O n ce dry,
apply to the raised details I app ly red pain t. This
of the seat, a s w ell as w hite b ase co at allo w s
those e d g e s w h ich are the red co o ur to have
the m o st easily seen m ore vib ran cy

O ther sm all details, W ith a pencil o f HB I n ow proceed


such a s w irin g hardness, I a d d sm all ch ips to paint the
first aid p ouch and and scratches to the fram e cushions,
connectors, are and seat shell and also the
n ow painted. p arach u te on
the b ack of the
seat.
Harnesses are
painted in a
greenish gray,
and I outline them
with a lighter tone
around the edges.
which creates a
further impression

These are then


I now add the shadows by using black paint for the various For the entire set to look balanced, is important that also outlined in
recesses, and then mixing the green with a little yellow, I both the highlights and shadows of the seat and the black for greater
highlight the raised detail around them upholstery are not too contrasting vsual '."1

I paint the ejection handles in yellow, and with a black


fountain pen. I add some scratches onto them
Matte varnish now seals all the completed work,

The finished seat.


Then using the dry brushing With a fine brush,
technique, but this time using and based on photo
graphite powder instead of paint, I references. I add stencils
enhance the relief detail. For your to the seats.
graphite powder, simply sharpen
a pencil and use the dust which
accumulates.

Here, the seats are finished. Each


colour used has a small highlight
applied, mixing the gray with white,
green, and yellow.

114 / AIRCRAFT FAQ


r>. INTERIOR
5.2 INSTRUMENT PANELS
3.2. WORLD WAR TWO
5.2.1.1 Scratch built instrument panel
O c c a s io n a lly , th e m o d e lle r w ill w is h to b u ild a n a ir c r a ft w h ic h d o e s n 't sc r a tc h b u ild a n in s tr u m e n t p a n e l fo r th e H A .1 1 1 2 B u c h d n . T h is
yet e x ist o n th e m a rk e t, o r h e /sh e w ill w a n t to c o n v e r t a n e x is t in g k it to S p a n ish ve rsio n o f th e fa m o u s M e s s e rs c h m itt Bf 1 0 9 G , h ad a s lig h tly
a n o th e r v e rsio n w h ic h fe a tu re d a d iffe r e n t in s tru m e n t p a n e l T h e o n ly d iffe re n t in s tru m e n t p a n e l th a n its L u ft w a ff e c o u n t e r p a r t
c h o ic e is th e n to m a k e th is p a r t y o u rs e lf. In th is c a s e . I'll s h o w h o w I

To ensure that the new panel will fit the model, I use the kit's panel as the
basis, and draw its shape onto a thin styrene sheet, using a penal. Next,
I carefully cut out the marked shape. I repeat this process to make other
raised parts of the instrument panel, and then I glue them to the base p a rt

with a pencil, I draw the shape of l apply a black base coat, and enhance the
dials, and then make the recesses raised detail with a dark gray colour. I then
using a punch and die set outline the dials with a neutral gray

I detail the stencils


with a very fine
brush, and attach the The finished
gunsignt glass instrument panel

116
> /r,
5. INTE { Oil
- V

5.2 INSTRUMENT PANELS


5.2.1 WOULD Wall TWO
5.2.1.2 German instrument panel
G e rm a n in stru m e n t p a n e ls a re ve ry sim p le to b o th cre a te a n d p ain t. T h e ir sim p lic ity a n d lo w c o lo u r co n tra st
o f th e v a rio u s e le m e n ts m e a n s th a t w e n e e d to u se a fe w p a in tin g tric ks to m a ke th e m lo o k m o re a p p e a lin g
For th is ta sk, I h ave c h o se n to p ain t a 1/32 in stru m e n t p a n e l fro m a T ru m p e te r Bf 1 09 G - 6

Instrument panel prepared for the I apply a base coat of German dark gray, in this Using a very fine brush, I detail each of Now, I paint some details in black, and
painting phase. case, XF-6 3 German Gray from Tamiya. The the dials with white paint. enhance the raised detail with a gray
dials are primed with matte black colour that is lighter than the base coat

Guided by the reference pictures, I paint a few of the With a light gray, I detail each of the I then apply a layer of gloss
instrument bezels with different colours screws. Yarn sf

I seal everything with a layer of matte


With a heavily diluted black oil pamt. I add a The areas between the dials and
varnish.
pin wash to the edges of the raised detail. buttons are gently highlighted with white oil paint,
giving the instrument panel more visual volume I

I attach the Revi gunsight.


Finally, I detail the gunsight with various
Tne ' r si'od
acrylic colours, and add the glass elements
instrument panel
The latter are made from pieces of a thin
acetate sheet
AIRCRAFT FAC 117
5. INTERIORS
5.2 INSTRUMENT PANELS
5.2. WORD WAR TWO
5.2.1.3 British instrument panel
T h e in stru m e n t p a n e ls in all B ritish a ircra ft te n d e d to b e b la c k , a n d lo o k e d q u ite strik in g a g a in s t a n interior
w h ic h w a s p a in te d in R A F inte rior g ra y -g re e n . F o r th is e xa m p le , I w ill u se a resin in stru m e n t p a n e l fo r a 1/48
S p itfire M k .lX , fro m E d u a rd

Parts of the instrument panel ready to paint. I attach A s the parts are made from resin, it is a good idea to start with Next, I apply a black base coat, and paint the raised areas
them to a piece of adhesive tape for easier handling. a gray priming coat. with a dark gray.

Using a very fine brush, I detail the This is how things look so far. With a slightly lighter gray colour, I emphasize the
instrument dials. relief on the bezels. I also add some stencils

All the small screws are Finally, I create the


detailed with a lighter gray instrument glass lenses
Some of the buttons are with a few drops of gloss
etouched with different varnish.
gray shades.

The finished instrument panel

118 iRCRAFT FAQ


5. INTERIORS
5.2 INSTRUMENT PANELS
5.2. WO L WA TWO
5.2.1.4 U.S. instrument panel
M o st in stru m e n t p a n e ls o f U .S . fig h te rs d u r in g W o rld W a r II, w o re a b la c k fin ish . A s a n e xa m p le , I w ill u se
th e in stru m e n t p a n e l o f a 1/32 P -4 0 N , fro m H a se g a w a

} ;

W i'r Wtl tt saint d fine brush


apply b ase :oa; W ith pa n- raised sections of the panel
instrument faces

0 -0

With a gray colour that is slightly lighter than the I paint the buttons, screws and stencils in their appropriate I finish the whole process by attaching the instrument
previously used gray, I paint those areas whose relief co lours. panel to the cockpit section which includes the rudder
stands out the furthest from the panel. pedals. These are painted with U.S. interior green.

The finished
instrument
sane
I apply the base layer of Tamiya XF-71 Cockpit Green. The panel dials are painted in matte black. With white paint, I detail the instrument faces. This requires the
use a very fine brush.

Based on photo references, I further detail the instrument All the bezel screws are highlighted with a very light gray paint,
faces with several colours, keeping things as authentic as and never silver. I add small stencils onto the panel using a fine
possible. I also enhance the relief on the bezels, using a brush and white paint.
neutral gray colour.

After applying a layer of gloss varnish, I simulate


dashboard wear with ochre yellow and white oil
paints.

The finished instrument panel.

I seal everything with a layer of matte varnish. Once


dry, I reproduce the instrument glass with tiny drops
of gloss varnish.

120 / AIRCRAFT FAQ


5:INTERIM :
15.2 IKStliMNT PANELS
5.2.2 THE JET ACE
5.2.2.1 Jet aircraft instrument panel
T h e in stru m e n t p a n e ls o f th e m o d e rn je t fig h te rs are u su a lly p a in te d in e ith e r b la c k o r gra y. In b o th
ca se s, th e p a in tin g p ro ce ss is e x a c tly th e sa m e . A s a n e xa m p le , I have c h o s e n th e in stru m e n t p a n e l
o f T ru m p e te r's M iG -2 1 F -13 , in 1/32 sca le .

After airbrushing the instrument panel with a matte I use photos of the real instrument panels as a To create more volume, I detail the raised bezel
black base coat, I take a very fine brush and detail the guide, in order to reproduce such small details relief with a medium or neutral gray.
dials with different colours. as the attitude indicator, which will certainly add
realism to the finished piece.

The finished dials add a lot variety and I use a lighter gray colour to emphasize the screws Next, I recreate the stencils and simulate the glass
richness to the plain black instrument panel. and small buttons. of the instrument dials by applying tiny drops of
gloss varnish.
This is the back of the panel that will be seen when installed. I now sand the Using either round sprue sections, or commercially available plastic rod. I
entire area to prepare it for the next step. attach the instilment bodies to the rear of the panel, cutting them to roughly
the same height, and attaching them in an even looking manner.

With a circular punch & die set, I create several plasticard discs from
Then with sandpaper, I level all of the instrument bodies so Evergreen sheet. These simulate the rear cover on each of the instrument
that they are the same height. bodies.

With a mini drill, I make holes in the center of each of the


instruments.

Using tin wire of a representative diameter, in this case, from Plusmodel,


I add all of the wiring to the instruments, leaving the wires in an upright
position for better handling.

122 AIRCRAFT FAQ


The wires are now formed into a wiring loom, so far.

Now I attach the colour


To add even more volume
photo-etch parts. This consists of a lower plate
to the piece, the raised edges of the dials are
which contains just the instrument paces, followed by the actual
enhanced with a lighter gray, and I add some small buttons.
instrument fascia. This creates a beautifully 3D appearance
which looks very realistic.

Finished instrument panel from the front.

At the rear, I enhance *


all the instrument bodies with a
dark gray, and their rear cover plates with a light gray.
Using a medium gray, I paint the wires. Other small stencil detail is also Fully finished instrument panel.
applied.

AIRCRAFT FAQ 123


I apply a green
base coat, in this
case with XF-58
Olive Green from
Tamiya, and I mix
this with a little sand
yellow, very diluted,
and apply with an
Cabin primed and ready airbrush into the
to paint. Notice that I have added center of each panel,
some wiring, using pieces of tin wire that to create highlights.
mold perfectly around the surface detail.

With black and


brown paint, I
detail the flight
instruments and
the map pocket.
Moreover, with the
green base, mixed With a light
with a little white, gray, I enhance the
I can enhance the cockpit wiring.
interior equipment
further, creating
more visual volume.

With a dark gray,


I outline all flight With a fine brush. I

instruments which I add small stencils to


painted in black the cockpit.

124 RCRAFT FAQ


Again with the green base colour, now mixed with a apply a layer of gloss varnish to seal everything.
higher proportion of white, I add chipping to the areas I apply o ik of different ochre and browns shades..
which would see the most wear from the pilot.

... to several areas within


the cockpit. At the top, I
use ochre tones, and at the
bottom the brown tones.

I blur and merge the oils


together, recreating an
appearance of use and dirt,
and I then seal everything
with a layer of matte varnish.

Final appearance
of the fully finished
cockpit.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 125


I apply a layer of British interior green, i With an HB hardness pencil, I outline the interior
this case, XF-76 from Tamiya. framework contours.

With the pencil at hand, I add Mixing the green base colour with a little white from
some chips and scratches in Vallejo. I use a brush to enhance the most distinct
areas of greater usage. details within the cockpit.

After applying a layer of


With different colours, applied with gloss varnish, I apply a dark
a brush, I detail the cockpit flight instruments. brown wash to create more volume.

126
I seal everything with a layer of matte varnish.

Appearance of the finished cockpit sides.

Overview of the finished cockpit.


eady for final assembly.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 127


r>. in t e r io r s
5.3 COCKPITS
5.3. WOULD WAR TWO
5.3.1.3 Japanese cockpit
D u rin g th e S e c o n d W o rld W ar. Ja p a n e se c o c k p its w e re u su a lly p a in te d g re e n , b u t e a ch m a n u fa c tu re r h a d its
o w n to n e , a n d in so m e ca se s, a s w ith th e K i-6 1 H ie n , th e c o c k p it w a s a c t u a lly p a in te d in a s a n d b ro w n . F o r th is
e x a m p le I w ill p a in t a c o c k p it fro m a 1/32 K i- 4 4 S h o k i, fro m H a se g a w a .

Cockpit
prepared for
the painting
ohase.

3ddIv

With the green base


colour applied, I mix it
with some white paint
from Vallejo, and apply
to the raised relief
areas, using a brush

With a light gray, I


enhance the various
wires on the cockpit
sidewalls

With Vallejo acrylics


applied with a fine
brush, I detail the
various cockpit flight
controls

I apply a layer I
of gloss varnish I
to seal all I
everything. I

128 AIRCRAFT FAQ


Finally, I detail the rest of the cockpit with a dark brown wash to I seal the entire work with a layer of matte varnish
further enhance the raised detail, as well as add ochre and brown oils
to the center of the panels, to emphasize the effects of weathering

v\
AIRCRAFT FAQ / 129
n e u t r a l

With a neutral
gray. I add some
paint chips and
scratches within With black paint. I detail Some instruments are
the cockpit. the flight instruments on additionally treated
the cockpit consoles. ^ with white paint.

FIELD 0>

With a beige
colour. I paint the
With silver enamel I seal the
harnesses and
paint. I detail the paintwork with
seat cushion.
buckles. a coat of gloss
varnish.

Finally,
I bring out
the details The finished
with a dark brown cockpit.
wash. Once the excess
wash is removed, I
apply a layer of matte
varnish.
130 IRCRAFT FAQ
5. NTE 0 s
5.3 COCK ' TS
5.3.2 T E J E T A E
5.3.2.1 U.S. cockpit
T h e c o c k p its o f U S. je t a ircra ft a re u su a lly a lw a y s o f th e sa m e style , m a k e h e a v y u se o f ve ry lig h t g r a y s fo r th e
co n so le s, a n d b la c k fo r th e in stru m e n t p a n e ls. Fo r th is e x a m p le I w ill u se a B la c k B o x resin c o c k p it fro m o n e of
th e m o st p o p u la r U S a ircra ft; a 1/32 F - 4 C P h a n to m II.

As the cockpit is made from resin, I have


to ensure that the paint reaches fully into
all of the various crevices

I apply a coat of U.S. interior


light gray for cockpits

With an HB hardness pencil


outline all of the contours
within the cockpit.

Mow. with black


acrylic from
Vallejo, I paint the
instrument consoles
and the upper rear
cockpit deck, using
a paintbrush

With a flat brush. I add Mixing the base


graphite powder from the colour with a little
pencil, creating extra shadow. white from Vallejo,
I lighten the various
raised detail within
the cockpit, including
the padding on the
rear bulkhead.
Appearance of the cabin at this With black paint which has been heavily diluted ... creating a cockpit with more volume and depth,
stage. with water, I highlight raised wiring d eta il...

With other colours, such as this metallic tone


for example, I detail the remaining elements
of the cockpit.

With black, again applied with With the same base gray colour as w as used
a fine brush. I outline the raised inside the cockpit, diluted heavily, I mark the
wiring detail. tines between the consoles.
General appearance of the
cockpit with its two crew
positions.

Detail of the sidewall panels applying the above steps.

Parts of the cockpit ready for final assembly. Forward view of the instrument
panel, completed using the previous
techniques

Small cockpit details, now completed and


ready for final assembly.

133

*
>
' 3 Parts cleaned and A medium bluish-gray base coat is I m ix the base colour with a little white, and apply the
[ ready for the painting applied to all parts of the cockpit. resulting colour onto the raised detail, and also on the
H r process. central areas of the flat surfaces.

I use Vallejo black, applied with a brush, and paint


the side consoles. With a little lighter gray, I paint the cockpit Using actual reference photos, I apply paint to
wiring, enhancing its volume. the various buttons and controls.

With the gray base colour


used in the cabin, mixed
with a little white from
Vallejo. I add small chips
and scratches to the
cockpit, using a fine brush.

Parts of the finished cockpit.

Finally, I apply gloss varnish to the cockpit, and using a dark brown
wash. I outline all of the raised detail on the various parts. Once dry,
the excess is removed and I apply a layer of matte varnish.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 135


f>. INTEnlOhS
5.4 PILOTS
5.4.1 WOULD WAD TWO
5.4.1.1 British pilot
British p ilo ts w e re ce rta in ly the m o st co lo u rfu l o f th e S e c o n d W o rld W ar, d u e to th e ir b lu e o ffice r's fly in g u n ifo rm , a n d
its co n tra st w ith the y e llo w life ja ck e t Inse rte d into a co ck p it w h ich is p ain te d in British interior g re e n , th e result p ro vid e s
m uch visu al interest. For th is article. I w ill u se a fig u re fro m th e W in g s C o c k p it F igu re s range , in 1/32, a n d sat in the
c o c k p it o f a H a w ke r T em p e st, fro m P a cific C o a s t M odels.^

I apply a base layer of


place the figure As this ensemble is made of different British interior green to
on the seat, and materials, such as resin, photo the whole assembly. ^
add the harnesses etch, and plastic. I apply a layer
that attach it to of gray primer. This will
the seat. enable the paint to
gain a good grip
on each area.

70.951*
070 9 9 *
j .1 r I the consoles
m black
950

IP

I now paint
various buttons
and levers on the
control consoles
in white.

With a dark gray, I outline the comers of the


consoles and paint the raised detail

I finish the consoles


by applying different colours
With an HB hardness pencil. I
according to the reference
add small scratches and chips.
I have of the real
CO':-p :

\ \ R V O r With a light beige


paint, I detail the shin

3oots
Now I begin to paint the pilot's vu |
u u
06V
uniform. In this case. I use blue
Mixing that same blue with a little
black. I add the shadows into the
various creases. Adding white
to the base colour, I now add
highlights to the raised fabric areas.

136 IRCRAFT FAQ


A tr dark flesh colour
detail life jacket

whose relief
Now with black, the boots them selves... ... and gloves.
I highlight using a matte yellow paint.

Using brown, I paint the With several flesh I return to black paint for
seat harnesses colour tones, I paint the face oxygen mask
the face of the pilot.

I apply a coat of
gloss varnish to seal
Finally, I detail the flight helmet
my work.

With a dark brown


3 wash, I outline the
tp 9 raised and recessed
detail

and I finish the


figure by applying a layer
of matte varnish
AIRCRAFT FAQ 137
1

Figure fitted and I apply a gray


sitting in the primer.
cockpit.

I now give the whole


ensemble a base coat of
XF-63 "German Gray , from
Tamiya.

With a slightly lighter gray, I


enhance all the raised detail
within the cockpit, creating
more volume.

Mixing some white with the


base colour, using a fine
brush, I add small scuffs and
scratches within the cockpit.

138 IRCRAFT FAQ


I start the figure by painting the
head, detailing the flight helmet,
the face and flight mask.

I apply black to the


flight suit

With the dry-brush technique, I enhance the


uniform wrinkles, using a brown leather paint

With an ochre or buff colour, I paint the seat harnesses and the
pedals straps. I use silver for the buckles. Now, the final details,
such as the patch on the uniform sleeve, are painted.

The finished figure.

AIRCRAFT FAQ 139


5. INTERIORS
5.4 PILOTS
5.4. W OHL) WA TWO
5.4.1.3 Japanese pilot
T h e Ja p a n e se W W 2 p ilo ts h a v e a s tro n g c h ro m a tic rich n e ss in th e ir a p p e a ra n c e , w ith v a rio u s sh a d e s o f b ro w n a n d
se p ia co lo r. T h is p ro v id e s a ve ry in te re stin g co n tra st w ith th e lig h t g re e n in te rio rs o f W W 2 Ja p a n e se co c k p its. A s
an e xa m p le , I w ill u se a p la stic fig u r e in c lu d e d in 1/32 J2 M 3 R a id e n kit, fro m H a s e g a w a

:
-

The pilot figure is of excellent quality, but improved with


A base coat of interior cockpit Now I begin painting the figure
a harness made from tin foil and photo-etched buckles
colour is airbrushed. In this case. I by applying Tamiya XF-52 Flat
A piece of tin foil is also used to reproduce the pocket on
use Tamiya XF-71. Earth as the uniform base colour.
the sleeve.

With a mixture of the uniform


With a dark green, I paint the
add shadows with base colour and Tamiya XF-59 Desert
life jacket.
a darker brown colour. Yellow, I add some highlights
to the flight suit

Now I mix the red brown with


With a silver colour, I detail I use Tamiya XF-64 Red Brown for a little beige, and I apply some highlights
the buckles of the life jacket. the gloves and boots. to the boots and gloves. I also add shadows with a
very dark olive green.

140 IRCRAFT FAQ


With a medium brown, I detail With a light beige, I paint the edges of the seat
the tube of the oxygen mask. harnesses. At this stage, I also apply a flesh coloured
base layer to the face of the pilot

Next. I focus on the


flight cap. Once the I then paint the headrest with a
brown base layer is dry, leather brown colour...
I enhance the seams
and creases with a very
dark olive green, and
detail the glasses with a
metallic colour.

A coat of gloss varnish


is applied to p ro tea the
paintwork. Next, I bring out
the details with AK045 Dark
Brown Wash, and add a decal
with the pilot's rank to his
uniform sleeve.
and apply highlights to its highest areas
to create greater visual volume.

The finished
^ figure.

I finish the whole process'


with a layer of matte
varnish.

JRCRAFT FAQ 141


I place the figure I apply a layer With X F-5 8
on the seat, and of gray primer. Olive Green from
using acetate strips Tamiya, I apply a
with photo-etched base coat to the
buckles, I create the whole ensemble.
seat harness.

I now paint the


face of the pilot.
For me, this is
probably the
hardest task
\ of all.

The pilot's face in


detail.

Mixing a little XF-4


Green Yellow with the
XF-5 8 Olive Green base,
and applied with an With a khaki colour,
airbrush, I start adding I paint the uniform, and with brown,
highlights to the cockpit. the flight hat. I now use a yellow-orange colour for the
lifejacket.

Mixing the khaki colour with a little


With a pencil, in the
brown, I outline the shadows within
Using light gray, center of each of
the folds of the flying suit, and
I paint the seat the harness straps, I
then mixing the khaki with a % harnesses, and then outline the seams.
touch of white, I add the
apply brown paint
highlights to the raised Jg * to the gloves and A
folds of the uniform's
boots. m
fabric.

142 AIRCRAFT FAQ


For the cabin floor, I mix the base green A
I then apply I finish by outlining the with a little white, and a very fine
black to the seams of the flight cap brush, I add scratches and chips,
mask and with dark olive green, in the vicinity of the pilots feet Jm }
oxygen tube. and do the same and seat. These will be
with the the ones most
goggles. weathered m
during use.

With a gray colour, With several earth


I detail the raised tone pigments, I
detail on the floor, add "dirt" to the
and also the wiring. cockpit floor...

... and this is how it


looks once the
pigments
are dry. ^

I seal the entire assembly with a coat of


gloss varnish and leave it to thoroughly
dry before outlining the detail with a dark
brown wash.

With several ochre and brown oils, I Figure completely


add highlights to the upper areas of the finished with a layer of
cockpit floor. matte varnish.

AIRCRAFT FAQ 143


Once I place the head inside the helmet, I improve
it a little with some two-part epoxy putty, and add
a mustache. I also add a chin strap to the helmet.

I fit the pilot's head Before painting the figure, and after
to the body, and play finding its correct sitting position,
with the position and you should attach it to the seat
inclination of the head. with its harnesses. I make these
with strips of tin metal foil, as this is
perfect for this task. Photo-etched
buckles enhance things further.
Starting
figure painting
phase. I apply a base coat of With a slightly lighter green
With an ochre or buff colour
XF-58 Olive Green, from Tamiya. I highlight the seat s raised details I add small scratches to the seat

M l With a medium gray.


I outline the wiring of
the seat

Mow with a matte silver


colour, I enhance the The headrest has a
metal parts, such as base of matte black
armrests with some
highlights
in dark gray.

I mix the gray-green base colour with a


I start painting the In all the folds of the
little white, and apply the
pilot, and use a flying suit, I apply a
colour to raised details, such
gray-green colour as slightly darker greenish
its base gray to create shadows 9 as the folds and creases of
the clothes, enhancing the
figure and giving
greater visual
volume

tee4

With white, outline With the same white, I With a dark yellow, I
some detail on the outline the maps in the outline and paint the
shoulder pads.This will trouser pocket lifejacket
serve as a base colour
for subsequent
painting.

AIRCRAFT FAQ 145


With matt black, I paint apply beige for the seat With a lighter beige, I apply highlights to the
the oxygen mask. harnesses. highest areas of the seat harnesses.

With silver, I detail the seat With a very dark gray, I add Now with a slightly
buckles. highlights to the oxygen tube. lighter gray, I enhance the raised
details on the oxygen mask.

Now back to the head, onto which I apply a coat of


matte white paint, and once dry, use an HB pencil with With the same pen
a thickness between 0.3mm and 0.5mm, to outline the I fill in the drawing
relief details. //

On the back of the


helmet, I use a pencil
draw the decoration
and with a 0.2mm
fountain pen, I then
outline the drawing

A view of the helmet


with the finished
motif. Be careful with
pen ink. because if
With the visor
it's not completely
frame outlined in
dry. it can easily be The helmet visor is
silver, I draw and
smudged, and this painted with a very
paint the face of
will ruin your work. dark brown p ain t
the pilot.

146 / AIRCRAFT FAQ


return to the body, and give it a coat of gloss
tram sh

I outline the raised detail on the s e ^ ^


With an ochre oil, I add the with a very fine brush and very diluted black oil paint.
highlights to the seat. These are
then blended in.

I apply a layer of matte varnish The last thing is to apply


over both the figure and seat several layers of clear brown
onto the visor, or as in my case,
X-19 Smoke from Tamiya, to
create a crystalline appearance
to the lens

The finished pilot.

AIRCRAFT FAQ 147


r> intehiohs
5.4 PILOTS
5.4.3 MODIFIED AIRCRAFT CHEW
- T h e re a re m a n y tim e s th a t w e m ig h t b u ild a n a ircra ft m o d e l fo r w h ic h th e re are n o s p e c ific fig u re s
th a t w ill p e rfe c tly fit th e c o c k p it o r in te rio r o f th e m o d e l. T h is m e a n s th a t w e w ill n e e d to m a k e so m e
p ro fo u n d c h a n g e to th e p o sitio n o f a c r e w fig u re , to a llo w u s to a d a p t th e m p e rfe c tly to o u r sp e c ific
m o d e l. A s a n e x a m p le o f a n U S N a ir cre w , w e w ill lo o k at th e 1/48 set fro m V e rlin d e n , a n d m a k e it
fit in s id e a T B M A v e n g e r fro m A c c u ra te M in ia tu re s

V iu tu iV n i \ Vv v

A
General view of figure parts supplied in
this Verlinden set With a permanent pen, I mark the joints of both arms and legs

I carefully
cut these apart at
those marked joints
As copper is a
malleable material
I can adjust the
position of each
limb until I find the
one that is suitable.

I number each of the parts so as not


to confuse their orientation, ready to reassemble I drill small holes in each of the sections, and insert a
them as a figure piece of copper wire. The figure can now be reassembled

Once I achieve the final pose, I need to set it so


that it won t move.

M *-

To do this, I apply instant


cyanoacrylate adhesive to all of With tw o-parrepoxy putty, I fill all
the joints. the gaps

148 IRCRAFT FAQ


milliput.
S TA N D A R D Y E L L O W -G R E Y
\

............. ............... . - ... . ---- --------.

I apply a primer c o a t...

With the putty still fresh, I can manipulate the putty so With the putty now dry, all joints can
that it blends into the rest of the figure, simulating folds be sanded
and creases etc. Dental tools are perfect for this.

and paint the figures, leaving them Figure 1 Figure 2


ready to install within the cockpit completed. completed

Figures placed inside


the model

AIRCRAFT FAQ 149


The general dimension of the seat I follow the same procedure for all the seats. Once the parts are finished, it is very important to check
should be determined on the basis of the their alignment, as well as to ensure that they can be
reference material. Once this is done. mounted within the fuselage without problems.
I scratch build the seat from pieces
of Evergreen plastic, and create the
upholstery using Milliput two-part epoxy
putty. In this case, the scratch built seat
(on the right) is a big improvement over
the part from the kit (on the left).

To "spice up" the kit, we may add some


rarely seen features, ie. install the inner door
in an open position. In the case of a passenger
transport model, we may even replicate a toilet.

150 / AIRCRAFT FAQ


Different views of all the parts placed within the fuselage after their alignment has beer

sa # Even the smallest details


require our full attention
during the painting process,

\ \ K3 because they will bring life


to the interior once the work
is finished.

Parts of the interior ready for final assembly.

The whole interior finished and ready


for closing the fuselage

151
3-.fi. EXTERIORDETAILS
6. B0 ELLERSANDSPINNERS
K.1.1 FIRST WOULD WAN
- T h e p ro p e lle rs o f th e First W o r ld W a r w e re a s c h a r m in g a s th e m a c h in e s th e m se lv e s.
b u t th e p ro p e lle rs w e re p a rticu la r a ttra ctiv e b e c a u se th e y w e re m a d e o f v isib le w o o d e n
la m in a tio n s. T h is fe a tu re p ro v id e s a h ig h e r d e g re e o f b e a u ty o v e r th e c o m p le te d m o d e l,
th a n a n a ircra ft fro m W W 2 T h e e x a m p le I u se to illu stra te th is, is a G e rm a n p ro p elle r
fro m W in g n u ts W in g s , in 1/32 sca le

Propeller is already prepared for the painting process.

The propellers were composed of two types of wood, laid alternately, so we


have to use two timber colours as a base for our work. I start with the lightest
colour, which is beige.

To simulate different wood laminates. I mask the propeller


with various strips of tape, in a width appropriate to the scale
model

I now apply the darker colour. In this case, dark brown.

Appearance of the propeller after removing the tape m asks

Paint is removed from the tips of the propeller, which will be painted to simulate brass plate
With a brown watercolor
pencil, I add small speckles
to the surface, with a
density which simulates
e nd /idual
graining of the
.\OOd The appearance of the propeller, after the aforementioned stages are complete

Withii a mix ofi udear


i mia u c a i yellow,
ycn u vv, and
a u u just
a few
ic w drops
u iu p a of
jum u i clear
u c a i orange,
u ia u I apply several passes
irh varnish
with my airbrush, simulating the rich uamich appearance
annoaunro 0f these earty propellers

I finally apply the final details, such as the silver colour to the central hub
of the propeller, and gilt brass tips.

Our completed propeller after applying a dark brown wash to various raised details. Decals are added, and then sealed into
place with glossy varnish. That concludes my tutorial on how to produce a realistic looking antique propeller.

154 IRCRAFT FAQ


6. EXTER 01 DETAILS
6.1 V0ELLERSANDSPINNERS
G.l. F ST WORLD WAR
6.1.1.1 German propellers
P ro p e lle rs u se d to b e d is tin g u is h e d b y th e w o o d u se d a n d th e w a y
o f w o r k in g it. N o w w e w ill se e h o w to re p re se n t th e ty p ic a l G e r m a n
p ro p e lle rs in tw o c o lo u r s in v a r io u s e x a m p le s.

* w* 5 wo - j

Masking in curve shape for part of the propeller.

Acrylic base with Tamiya XF-19.

Second colour with Tamiya XF-9.

Over those two colours we will apply the wooden


technique we have already described.

Final result and propeller m place


in a LVG C.VI in 1/32.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 155


Another way, which is
slightly simpler: base
colour XF-59 and straight
masking on a propeller I apply a coat of Tamiya
without reinforcements X-26 varnish and make
on its ends. shadows on the edges
with medium grey to
simulate its wearing

We apply the second


colour X F-9 and
remove the masks.

We finish the worn out effects by giving the spanner The same process applied to a four-blade propeller. In this case, the centers of the bolts and propeller tips
some touches with fine grit sand paper in order to are painted in silver.
imitate scratches
6. EXTERIORDETAILS
6.1 PROPELLERSANDSPINNERS
( i l l F 1ST WOULD WAII
6.1.1.2 British propeller
Basically the wood can be painted in the same way, or similar. Here, we will see another variant of
oil paint on propellers of a different shape and fabrication process to the German ones

Ne>! We make some streak


Over a Desert Yellow base
brush or a piece of sponge more clear with a very
some portions of different shades
I extend these colours, following fine brush.
of oil brown are applied
the direction of the streak

We define the details of the


spinner and make some strains in
the frontal part of the propeller, with a
We paint the spinner wash of A K084 Engine Oil
in Aluminum colour.

Another example of the British propeller with small


wood streaks done with a fine brush. After the
varnish, the result is very realistic.

Example of British propeller in one plain


colour, painted with the same technique as the
wood was done

Same process as in the previous picture, but now, the


ends of the propellers are painted in a Light Grey and we
imitate scratches with fine sandpaper.
Spinner prepared and ready for the I first apply a layer of matte white paint. It is advisable A very characteristic style of many Bf 109 spinners
various painting processes. to always start with the lightest colour. was to have them painted with a third of it in another
colour. To do this, I mask the white third using tape.

I apply successive, thin coats of blackened green to the Appearance after removing the masks, exposing the two With a very fine pencil. I add chipping and scratches to the
remainder of the spinner, applying a little extra black colours of the hub. white third. For the green areas, I do the same, but with a
to the top of the spinner, creating richness in tonal lighter green paint, applied with a very fine brush.
contrast and a more pleasing 3D appearance.
To further accentuate the weathering, I use earth tone
pigments, and always draw these backwards, in the
direction o f airflow. I make small strokes to simulate the
loss of fluid from within, and finally stump the pigment
with a brush so that it doesn't look too prescribed.

I seal the various processes with a layer of gloss


The result, after sealing the spinner and the
varnish and accentuate the panel line and rivets/
various processes, with a matte varnish layer.
fasteners of the spinner, with a dark brown wash.

158 / AIRCRAFT FAQ


Our complete spinner.

The propeller blades are ready for the


painting process.

With a cutter knife,


I very carefully
scrape the green-
black paint away,
revealing the silver
enamel underneath

I apply a base layer of X-11 Chrome Silver I use a green-black mixture to paint each of the
enamel, from Tamiya. propeller blades, and when dry, I lighten the tips
with an airbrush. These areas are where the blades
will exhibit most wear.

Propeller, hub and spinner parts before their Our assembled propeller
final assembly. and hub.

Propeller and spinner completely finished.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 159


I apply the typical RAF greenish With an HB hardness pencil, I mark the Using the same pencil, I add small chips and
gray, as the base colour. dividing panel line between the forward scratches to the spinner, and always try to add
and rear main spinner parts. them in the direction of airflow.

To give more colour richness to the work. I mask the


forward cone of the spinner with tape, and then, with
a little pastel which is applied at the junction of the Remove the mask and observe the difference in the I now apply a layer of gloss varnish.
two halves of the spinner, I drag the pastel rearwards, subtle shades of the RAF greenish gray.
in the direction of airflow. This is then stumped with a
brush so as to give a more naturally dirty appearance.

Spinner completely
finished.

Once the varnish is dry, I add a pin I seal the various


wash in dark brown, highlighting processes with
the separation line between both a layer of matt
halve. Once dry, I stump the wash . J'MISh
with a flat brush in order to break
up the uniform effect it had
160 -RCRAFT FAQ
I now paint the propeller in matte black. The tips of the blades are painted With the airbrush loaded with some dark gray paint, heavily diluted
in yellow. with alcohol of 96, I degrade the solid black colour on each of the
propeller blades, always working from the leading edge.

This propeller is made of wood, therefore, so I use a dark gray watercolor pencil to create the specific type
should not be chipped as metal one would. of weathering we would see here.

The assembled and finished propeller and spinner.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 161


^ rw T v
The propeller blades are painted using the techniques explained before

Advantage is taken of To increase the


the glossy varnish, as weathering effect, I apply
decals and stencils are medium or neutral gray oil
now applied. paint to the leading edge
of each of the blades.

The process is repeated again,


but now with a little brown oil to
simulate dust and dirt.

I apply the oil in small dots, using a


fine brush.

Using a synthetic, flat brush, the oils are


dragged backwards with the direction of
airflow, and blended together.

Appearance of
the propeller
after all applied

Final result (left)


compared to
the original and
unpainted parts
(right).

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 163


' *_

(>. EXTEMIOh DETAILS


(>.1lilOIELLEItSANDSPINNENS
<>. .2 WOHLD VA TWO
6.1.2.4 Japanese propeller
Ja p a n e se p ro p e lle rs, w h a te v e r ty p e , a n d b e lo n g in g to w h ic h e v e r a ircra ft, a re m o stly b ro w n in co lo ur,
a n d th is m o stly a p p lie s to th e sp in n e r too. In th e c a se o f th e e x a m p le th a t I s h o w h ere. I w ill u se th e
p ro p elle r o f a J2 M 3 R a id e n fro m a 1/32 H a s e g a w a kit F o r va rie ty, th e sp in n e r o n th is a ircra ft w a s
p a in te d g re e n

put the propeller blade apply a layer of silver arr-i. yellow


clamp make enamel which will form the propeller
M ri d basis of the first stage of Dlade
weathering,

With a piece of tape, I I then apply the


mask the yellow stripe typical reddish brown
on the propeller blade. colour to each of the
four propeller blades

With ruler ITl.lf I


extent of the yellow
equally - ich blade

I mix the base colour, With the same mixture, I now


reddish brown, with a light add a little more beige, and this
beige, and the resulting is quickly airbrushed from the
mixture is then diluted in the leading edge of the propeller
alcohol to slightly lighten blades backwards towards the
the tip of each propeller trailing edge. The effect spreads
b ade. where most wear out towards the trailing edge, 0 ///r>
to the paint, would be and is narrower at the leading '^
experienced edge. Using a cutter in these
same areas, I scrape the paint
away until the silver colour is
exposed.
For more subtle
peeling, I add chips
with a watercolor pencil,
to the tip of each blade of
the propeller.

164 AIRCR
I carefully remove The yellow band also
the masking tape needs to be weathered
from the yellow Using a pencil, I add small chips
I md to that area

seal everything with a and add the propeller I end the process
layer of gloss varnish ... brand decal. with a layer of matte
yarn sti

The finished propeller and


spinner.

AIRCRAFT FAQ 165


Wheels and rims in plastic and I remove the excess resin from the wheel. I fit the rims to the wheels and I mask the rim with a disc of
resin. Some minor modification will apply a layer of silver enamel paint masking tape.
be required to enable these to fit over the hub.
together.

A s a base layer, I apply With a dark gray, I paint the raised tread detail in To reduce the contrast, I apply several layers I apply various pigments to the
matte black. order to create volume, and also the appearance of matte black paint, heavily diluted with spaces between the raised tread.
of being well-used. alcohol of 96, in a ratio of 9 0 % alcohol and
10% paint. I add as many coats as necessary
in order to attain the tone I want.
The pigments are
barely noticeable
whilst they are wet,
so you have to let
them dry well to
check their final
appearance.

With a light sand


colour paint, highly
diluted with alcohol,
the outer zone of
the tire is airbrushed
to create the effect
of dust that is
integrated with the
The finished wheels.
earth effects we
have just applied.

166 AIRCRAFT FAQ


Comparison between the resin wheel and the kit parts. I apply matte black as base, or NATO Black,
which is a little more authentic.

With a heavily diluted earth Now, with a sand colour paint,


With a dark gray paint, I highlight I enhance the bolts with a lighter gray
colour paint, almost transparent also very dilute, apply in thin
the relief under the rim, creating paint.
in appearance, several layers are coats to the circumference face
more volume.
airbrushed onto the tread. of the tire. This creates the dust
effects to the tire, whilst leaving
the tread mostly as black.

To add an original touch, I Finally I apply a several earth tone


think it looks good when pigments.
a number is painted onto
the rim.

The finished
wheels.
*PW base
c: r Ti.ive ,V iiV

With a very sharp pencil,


I add some relief around
and within the hub area,
and then I add some
scratches with the same
pencil. It is important to
ensure you keep the pencil
sharp for this.

Where I have marked the pencil relief


around the inner edge of the hub, I
add graphite into this area, and brush
inwards, blending it into the white area.
This creates the effect of shadows. You
can see the difference here between
the un-shaded wheel on the left, and
the shaded wheel on the right.

Again with white paint


relief to detail such as screws
etc. This is applied to the top of
this detail, creating volume on
the piece.

168 'RCRAFT FAQ


Many wheels don t
have any scribed tread on the
tire area, and therefore with very thin strips
of tape, we can mask the tire tread.

I carefully remove
the masks,
revealing the
tire tread.

I apply a dark gray to


the wheel tread if the |
aircraft operates from
an aircraft carrier, or
earth tones if operating
from a land-based
airfield.

The finished wheels.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 169


Landing gear, hubs and wheels ready for painting. I have also Due to the use of metallic paint, it is convenient to coat
added tin wire for hydraulic lines. everything in gray primer.

With light gray, I paint the I outline these


landing gear and let this dry. raised areas with a
Again, I use this gray mixed with graphite pencil of HB
a little white, and apply this to hardness. This will
the raised detail on the legs of create more volume
the landing gear, giving greater by accentuating the
visual volume. areas we have just
painted.

Now. with a fine brush, I apply a dark brown


wash to the areas I had previously marked
with a pencil. What this does is to leave a
As graphite is patina to this area, complementing the pencil
very dirty, I seal demarcation.
this process with
a layer of gloss
varnish

170 iRCRAFT FAQ


With the landing gear now finished, I focus on the wheels. The rims I mix the green with some white in order to lighten
are painted with medium green paint, as the base colour. it, and then I enhance the raised detail, giving more
volume to the parts.

I apply silver enamel to the shock actuators,


finishing the landing gear and wheels.

With a very diluted black paint,


I outline raised relief, and again
with the green base colour,
mixed with white, I add minor
scratches and chipping to the
hubs.

For white landing gear, we will


follow the same steps, though
using different colours. Here
we can see the result on a A-4E
Skyhawk front landing gear.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 171


6. EXTEN DI ETA LS
0.2 WHEELS AN) LAN Nl EA
(>.2.5 M ETALLIC LANDING CEAII
' M a n y W o rld W a r II la n d in g g e a rs, a n d a lso th o se fro m m a n y p o stw a r/m o d e rn fig h te r a ircra ft, w e re /
a re g iv e n a m e ta llic fin ish . A s an e x a m p le o f h o w to a p p ly su ch a fin ish , I'll illustra te th e la n d in g ge a r
fro m a 1/32 P -4 0 , fro m H a se g a w a

C C w

Landing gear, I apply a layer of silver enamel,


finished with and when dry, I paint the brake
detailing wire cable in black.
and ready for the
painting phase

This is the
undercarriage after
applying the dark
With a dark brown wash, I enhance the areas brown wash.
of the undercarriage which are stepped and
contain detail.

With a fine
brush, I apply
small amounts
of AK-Interactive
'Shafts &
Bearings Grease
wash to .sr mis
detail areas of the
landing gear

With a little reddish brown


wash, I accentuate the
detail on the flexible joints
of the undercarriage.

AIRCRAFT F A ?
The finished landing gear.

To finish gray landing gear, we will


follow the same steps, though we
will have to mask off the silver areas
before applying the gray paint. These
landing gear struts came from a 1/32
3 M 0 9 G -6

AIRCRAFT FAQ 173


lr
1 Jf i
\rei j1fer
It...i
I 1
Ip"*: 1
tE ffl jd J
I apply a layer
of matt white as the base colour.

With a very thin pencil, I


outline the edges of the
raised detail, and add
scratches and scuffs. I
then seal the parts with
a layer of gloss varnish.

Finally, with a dark


brown wash, I
highlight the edges of
the raised detail again.
I then remove the
excess fluid, leaving a
patina of dirt which is
typical of these parts.

It is very typical of USN aircraft to have


the gear doors trimmed in red.

The finished parts.


(>. EXTE HONDETAILS
0.3 LANDINGDEANDOORS
6.3.2 CHEEK LAKDIKC EA 1)00118
M a n y a ircra ft m a n u fa c tu re rs, d u rin g W o rld W a r II, p a in te d th e in sid e o f th e co v e rs
o f la n d in g ge a r, in a g r a y -g r e e n co lo u r. A n e x a m p le o f th is a re th e a ircra ft u se d b y
th e G e rm a n Lu ftw a ffe , u sin g R LM 0 2 . T h e British co m m o n ly u se d th e ir interior g re en
p a in t in th is are a. F o r o u r e xa m p le , I w ill u se th e g e a r d o o rs fro m a 1/32 H a w ke r
T e m p e st, a lso a d d in g d u st e ffe c ts in th e a re a s clo se st to th e g r o u n d

I apply a layer of interior green as the base colour With the interior green, mixed with a little white, I enhance After applying a coat of gloss varnish, I highlight the
the volume of the interior raised structures ridges of the raised detail, using a dark brown wash
This creates a dirty appearance

Finally, with a very diluted earth colour. (8 0 % 96 alcohol for 2 0% paint), I airbrush
along the lower edges of the gear doors, simulating dust and dirt

The finished
oar.s

AIRCRAFT FAQ 175


Here, I have prepared the parts ready for paint, including some tin wire for detailing. With a sky blue colour, I apply the base layer.

I mix the sky blue with a little white paint, and Using my reference photos, I detail paint the wiring looms
enhance all raised relief, creating more visual volume. within the wells, using several different colour paints.
l seal the entire work with a layer of matte varnish and
the pieces are now finished. 0000

The left-hand part was treated with the p enal and dark brown
wash, whilst the one on the right is untreated, showing the
r a r

GOOC

For a metal finish, follow the same steps as with the light blue paint

The finished metallic parts.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 177


1

I take a piece of sponge or foam, dipped in olive Here is the resulting


drab paint, and with a paper towel, I remove appearance when the mottle
most of the paint. This sponge is then used is dry. You can see the first
to apply a mottled effect to the bomb body, effects I applied, which create
simulating the deterioration of the bomb's paint the initial volume.
finish which is caused by
being stored outside.

| mix the olive drab


with a little yellow, and then
airbrush the mixture in the center of
the bomb's body, in order to create
more volume.

178 IRCRAFT FAQ


With a senes of earth tone With watercolor pencils, I add finer dots,
pigments which add dust effects, I further mottle and various scratches to the bomb
emphasize the effect of bomb wear and tear. casing. Such damage to the finish would
occur when the bomb is manhandled by
armourers.

Appearance after applying the With an HB hardness pencil I add


techniques discussed above. chipping and scratches to the yellow
oands.

Here we see the completed I detail the wiring I finish the process
weathenng of the main of the percussion rods with by applying Tamiya X - il Chrome
body of the bombs Tamiya X -l 1 Chrome Silver enamel Silver enamel to the fuses, and matte
black paint on the extended
percussion rod

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 179


*(>. EXTERIOR DETAILS i .
m WEAPONS AND FUEL TANKS
6.4.1IIOMIIS
6.4.1.2 WW2 U.S. bombs
. B o m b s ca rrie d by a ircra ft d u r in g th e S e c o n d W o rld W ar, a lw a y s a d d so m u ch life a n d in te re st to th e
fin ish e d su b je ct, a n d re q u ire m u c h m o re w o rk to fin ish th a n yo u m ig h t im a g in e . A s a n e xa m p le , I
h a v e c h o s e n a n A m e ric a n b o m b in 1/32 sca le , a n d w ill s h o w yo u to im p ro ve th e kit p arts, p a in t it,
a n d a lso a d d w e a th e rin g

Once I had cut out


the new fins, they were
fitted to the bomb, just above
the mark left by the cut on the injected
plastic, just in case w e had any error creep in with I apply a base coat of olive
traced parts. Of course, you need to make sure that the fin green over the whole bomb.
installation is equal, and all fins are perpendicular to each other.

Its very common for kits to provide Wider strips of tape are
stripes and bands for bombs, in applied to the outside area
decal form. I recommend painting of the stripes, to prevent any
them as follows, masking the overspray from ruining the
base coat in preparation for base coat
the next colour

180
Now with an old, stiff bristled brush, Again with tape, I mask the bomb body and with a
slightly moistened in water, I remove the heavily diluted black (9 0 % alcohol of 9 6 and 10%
paint that I have just applied leaving a paint), I airbrush the tail section, the lower body of
kind of chipping effect which gives the the bomb, and the base of each of the fins, creating a
appearance of wear/scuffing shadow/volume effect.
on the bomb.

With a sand or beige colour, I add


small chips or scratches with a fine
brush, in the area where the lower
Appearance of the
body secured to
bombs after the
the main body
previous
s lic e ;

AIRCRAFT FAO 181


I apply black paint to the
bomb fuse wiring, and
then a dark silver to the
fuse itself.
er airbrushinq gloss varnish onto the bomb, I apply numerous, random dots
to its surface, using various oil paints with earth-related tones

Here we see the


result of that oil
blending.
With a flat, synthetic
brush, I blur and blend
the different oil colours
together.

this time with an


ocher colour oil
paint.

182 IRCRAFT FAQ


Here you see the result. apply a layer of matte
varnish to seal all the
processes so far undertaken

I finish the bombs by


adding silver paint
along the wiring and
bomb fuses, adding
another volume
effect

The finished bombs

AIRCRAFT FAQ 183


I remove the
masks carefully.

...and apply a dark


green colour
After applying matte white, I now apply matte yellow. A s this is sprayed over a
white base colour, the resulting finish is a more vibrant yellow colour. Time to
mask again

The m asks are removed, revealing the results of the previous Now with tape, I mask the heads of the missiles,
masking and painting stages.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 185


I apply matte black to the rest of the missile body. Now I carefully mask the bodies leaving only the missile fins exposed.

I apply a layer of matt white which will act as a such as orange on the large fins
basecoat for the more vivid colours I will now useI

I carefully remove the masks, avoiding any


dam aging to the missile fins.

Finished missiles, ready to be installed on the plane.


These are sealed with a layer of gloss varnish.

186 IRCRAFT FAQ


M is sile s a re c o m m o n ly p a in te d in e ith e r w h ite o r g r a y c o lo u rs. A s a n e x a m p le fo r th is k in d o f fin ish , I w ill u se a c o u p le o f
1/48 A IM -7 S p a r r o w s , ty p ic a lly u se d o n A m e ric a n n a v a l fig h te rs.

area with a strip of tape of the same width as


the yellow band will be.
(>. EXTE 0 DETAILS
6.4 WEAPONS AND FUEL TANKS
6 .4 .1 F U E L TANKS
Fu e l ta n k s are th o se p a rts o f a m o d e l, w h ic h a lth o u g h sm all, ca n co n trib u te m u c h to th e o verall
a p p e a ra n c e o f a m o d e l, b y th e d e g r e e a n d style o f w e a th e r in g e ffe c ts th a t ca n b e a p p lie d T h e re
fore. I u se a s e x a m p le fo r th is se ctio n , th e fu e l ta n k o f a 1/32 P -4 0 N , fro m H a s e g a w a

With the fuel tank assembled, I apply a With an HB or B' hardness pencil, I add chipping and I apply a layer of gloss varnish.
base coat of neutral gray. scratching, especially at the front, and in the area
around the fuel filler cap.

?n ;
After a few minutes, when the wash
has dried a little but not completely,
Over the gloss varnish I apply a dark brown with a flat-tipped synthetic brush, I
wash to the edges of raised detail, creating blur and blend the wash away from
more volume. the area, creating a shadow effect.

Now with an AK-Interactive weathering


set for engines, I will add wear to the fuel
tank, giving it the appearance of having
been used countless times.

Notice the difference between


the lines of both fluids, oil more
dense downwards, and the kerosen
lost while flying backwards in the
Firstly, I apply the oil effects... ... I then supplement this opossite direction of the plane,
with the kerosene effect because it is something more liquid.
w a sh ...

188 IRCRAFT FAQ


I must also now add wear to the rest of the fuel tank, then a darker gray on the underside. With brown oil paint, I add small detail
so I start with oil paints; lighter for the top of the fuel spots of rust and dirt.
tank ....

On the underside, I apply several earthy I use red to paint


Next, I use very diluted black coloured oils, creating the appearance of the filler cap of the fuel tank,
oil to create a pin wash around dirt and dust. This is important due to the and then seal everything with a
raised detail. proximity of this area to the ground. coat of gloss varnish.

The finished fuel tank, sealed with a


layer of matte varnish.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 189


(>. EXTEHIOHDETAILS
6.4 WEAPONSANDFUELTANKS
.4.4 INS
. G u n s are u su a lly h id d e n w ith in a ircra ft fu se la g e s a n d w in g s , w ith th e
o n ly visib le a re a s b e in g a p artia l b arre l o r m u z zle . S o m e tim e s , w e d o n 't
e ven se e th a t. For th is e xa m p le , I w ill u se a c o u p le o f 1/32 G e rm a n
a n tita n k g u n s w h ic h are m o u n te d o n to th e u n d e rsid e o f a Ju 8 7 S tu k a
w in g s

" c O

Here, the weapons finished and ready for the painting process. Whenever
possible, I recommend using cannon and machine guns made of metal I apply a gun metal paint to the
These generally offer better detail and fine, open muzzles barrels and muzzles, acting as a primer.

To create the hot metal effect


on the cannon barrel I use Now, with transparent blue at
transparent orange, applied both sides of the orange, I apply
in several thin coats, to the several thin coats, again giving
center area of the barrel the appearance of hot metal.

apply a layer of gloss varnish


to seal the effects, and create
a shiny surface on the gun
barrel

Finally, with matte black (highly


diluted in 96 alcohol, in a ratio of 9 0 %
alcohol and 10% paint), I darken the muzzle area
190
(>. EXTE 0 DETAILS
i.4 WEAPONS AND FUEL TANKS
(i.4.5 YLOfiS
6.4.5.1 White pylons
T h e re a re m a n y a cce sso rie s th a t fit to a ircra ft p ylo n s, su ch a s b o m b ra ck s th a t in c re a se th e ca p a c ity o f b o m b s th a t c a n b e lo a d e d to
e a ch p ylo n . In th is e x a m p le I w ill u se an A m e ric a n M .E .R , w ith a c a p a c ity to c a rry u p to six b o m b s o n a s in g le p ylo n . T h is p a rticu la r
o n e b e lo n g s to a n A - 4 E S k y h a w k in 1/32 sca le

The M.E.R. are very basic and can be


improved with extra wiring detail, and
addition of missing screws. Here we
have prepared the pylon,
ready for the painting
phase

I apply a primer coat, in this


case, matte white.

Using an HB hardness pencil, I


draw around the edges of raised
detail, and add some scratches
and chips to the M.E.R..

Fully outlined parts

With a dark brown wash, I outline again all edges I marked with
a pencil, especially screws and bomb retaining clips. Once dry, I
remove the excess, blending the wash into the paint, leaving a

Li
trail of realistic wear. Finished parts with a layer of matte
varnish, and ready to place on the model
as soon as fitted with its
bomb load

192
>. EXTE 110 DETAILS
6.4 WEAPONS AND FUEL TANKS
(>.4.5 PYLONS
6.4.5.2 Grey pylons
P ylo n s are o n e o f th e fo rg o tte n p ie c e s o f a ircra ft h a rd w a re th a t o n c e p la c e d , a d d rich n e ss to a m o d e l. It is o n e o f th e m o st u sed
p a rts o n a p la n e , a n d b e c a u se its g r o u n d h a n d lin g a n d co m b a t u se, sh o u ld w e w e a th e re d in a m o re su ita b le w a y . A s a n e x a m p le
I w ill u se a p ylo n fro m a 1/32 F -1 0 0 S u p e r S a b re

With an HB hardness
pencil. I mark the pane
lines and rivets. Using a flat
I apply a base brush with short bristles, I
layer of camouflage gray blend the graphite into the With the same pencil, I mark around the
same as used on the underside surrounding area, around screws for the guns, also adding chipping and
of the plane the pylon screws scratches caused by armourer handling and tools

m w ifm -7t
Finally. I paint the stencils with
their appropriate colours

'

u&v

. -

, fuffyfinnhpdpylarr^Thescrew
\ - ! _: heads were detailed with silver

m
With an
orange-brown paint.
Exhausts ready for painting. I apply a reddish-brown base coat colour. I add small chips to the exhausts.

ap.
diluted id
.
ya'Hi --
whole surface
exhausts I cut a piece of paper

... and I place manifold


opening of each of
the exhaust stubs
directly over the paper,
protecting the other
stubs, and airbrush a
very diluted matte black
(9 0 % alcohol + 10%
paint).

The final result


of this simple
technique.
I apply a base layer of AK048
Pigment Fixer over the whole
surface of the exhaust.

Base layer colour of


Tamiya XF-8 4 Dark Iron. Exhaust Stains Weathering Set from AK-Interactive.

With A K2042 Dark Rust


pigment, I add highlights
and weathering, creating
a burnt metal effect.

The finished
pieces with a layer
of AK183 Ultra
Matt Varnish.
(>. EXTE 0 DETAILS
8.5 EXHAUSTS AND NOZZLES
(>.5.3 N O Z Z L E V T A ).l 8TA L E E T A LS
N o z zle s w h ic h e m p lo y a d ju sta b le p eta ls, a re ty p ic a l o f a ircra ft w ith su p e rso n ic c a p a city . T h e re a re e n d le ss e ffe c ts
th a t m o d e lle rs ca n cre a te fo r th e se ke y a re as. A s e x a m p le s. I w ill first s h o w th e n o z zle s fo r a 1/32 F - 4 C fro m
T am iya. F o r th is, I u se d th e resin n o z z le s fro m A ire s. In a d d itio n to th is, I w ill a p p ly th e sa m e te c h n iq u e s to th e *
n o z zle s o f a 1/48 M iG -2 9 fro m G re a t W a ll H o b b y

*
The Aires resin nozzle for a 1/32 A s a base coat, I apply a dark silver colour With an enamel "smoke" colour, such as X-19 from I apply a transparent orange over
Tamiya F-4C/D, ready for the over the whole piece. Tamiya, I darken the petals of the nozzle. I later apply the rear ring of the nozzle. This is
painting phase. a much diluted black from Vallejo to highlight all edges the type of colour used for painting
around raised detail. I use water for this dilution. vehicle headlamps, but here it helps
to create the appearance of metal
which has been heated to a high
temperature.

Now. I repeat the same procedure ... but if we want to give the look of
with transparent blue, over the orange much usage, we can airbrush the whole
applied previously, and only in the piece with a few thin coats of heavily
area closest to the petals, and if we diluted matte black.
wish to portray a nozzle which hasn't
seen too much use, then we leave
things here...
The finished nozzle.

Another example using the same


techniques, re the nozzles of a 1/48 MiG-
29 from Great Wall Hobby.

196 IRCRAFT FAQ


Then with smoke colour enamel, in this case Tamiya I remove the tape strips. With the smoke colour again, I apply more
X-19,1 apply a few strokes in order to darken the silver passes as I need, until I find the contrast
between the internal elements and burned
metal effect of the nozzle.

On the nozzle extremity only, I apply


a few thin coats of smoke, darkening
this specific area a little more than
the rest of the nozzle.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 197


-
- 6.6.1 WALKWAY. EX A M P LE 1
* * W a lk w a y s a re u su a lly c o ve re d w ith n o n -s lip sa fe ty p a in ts . A s
th e y are a re a s w ith h e a v y f o o t tra ffic , w e n e e d to re p ro d u ce all
* ' "w e ff e c ts c a u se d b y th is b y a p p ro p ria te p a in tin g a n d w e a th e rin g
p ro ce ss. F o r th is e xa m p le , I w ill u se a 1/32 A - 4 E S k y h a w k , fro m
J* H a se g a w a .

I mask around the area where I will create


the walkway protecting the surrounding
paintwork as much as possible from
overspray accidents.

To avoid dam aging any decals due to overspray, I put a piece of paper in front of
them first. This will protect the work when it comes to the next phase. I spray the entire w alkway area with matte black.

198 IRCRAFT FAQ


With a neutral gray, to the center funffy the overall effect b y airbrushlna avery dilute earthy-brown colour
of each of the panels of the walkway area over the walkway. This also helps to create the illusion

I carefully remove the masking tape to reveal the end result Finally, with a fine brush I apply small chips using the gray
of the technique that has been applied. camouflage scheme colour. This gives an even greater
effect of wear in this area. You could also use watercolor
pencils for this purpose.

c .)

AIRCRAFT FAQ 199


C hm ncm V a u g h t F 7 U C u tla s s
ra rt 2

Before I begin, I cut out the


walkway decal from the decal sheet. so that it doesn't move.

20 0 AIRCRAFT FAQ
With matte black highly diluted in 96 alcohol
(9 0 % ALCOHOL + 10% PAINT) I unify all the gray that I have just applied.
and then with a medium or neutral gray I lighten the
panels centres of the walkway area.

With a toothpick, I scratch the black paint, producing small chips which Final view of the whole process. How much you wish to
would result from aircrew and ground crew w alking over this area. You weather this depends on the modeler s own taste and whether
can also use a fine brush and silver paint, or a watercolor pencil of the the aircraft was well-used or relatively new to service.
same tone

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 201


With a piece of masking tape placed
over one side of the canopy, I press the
tape into the recess using my fingers,
and once in position, I outline with a
fine, sharp pencil.

Parts already assembled and ready for the


painting phase.

I trace along the pencil marks


with a fresh knife blade, and
remove the excess tape.

I apply the
camouflage paint
pattern.

I finish the canopy using the same


painting processes as employed on the
rest of the plane. The masks are then
carefully removed, obtaining this result.

202 AIRCRAFT FAQ


The first thing to do is source the low-tack A s reference. I mark the slope of the leading edge of When drawing the letter, I have to do this as if I was
adhesive film which is used to cover books. the tail fin, marking it on the paper. This will guide looking in a mirror, creating a reverse image. Once
This has a backing paper which is divided into me when I create the sloping letters which share the drawn, I shade them with a pencil so as not to make
squares. I secure this to my work top using tape. same angle as the leading edge. any mistakes while cutting them out.

Letters cut out on the templates When the paper backing is removed from the I place the mask onto the surface of the model and
film, and the film orientated for application to the apply the colour for the letters, which in this case is the
model, the letters will be the correct way round black. A s a note here, you will achieve better results
and not reversed if the masks are applied to a gloss surface, as this will
minimize the risk of paint bleeding under the mask

I remove the masks Here you see the letters perfectly


carefully positioned and finished
(>. EXTEUIOUS
6.7 MAKINGANDUSINGPAINTMASKS
i).iJ IUHINDELS AND UNES
- M a s k s fo r circu la r m a r k in g s are e a s y to m a ke a n d use, b u t th e d iffic u lt y is to a p p ly th e circle s in e x a c tly th e p o sitio n re q u ire d . For
this, I c u t th re e p e rfe c tly s q u a re p ie c e s o f ta p e , d ra w a "X * th a t g o e s fro m c o rn e r to co rn e r, fo rm in g a cro ss o f S t A n d re w , a n d th e n
cu t o u t th e circle u s in g th e 'X ' a s th e cen ter. F o r th is, I u se a c o m p a ss cu tte r. T h is is re p e a te d fo r e a ch o f th e circle d ia m e te rs th a t
w ill m a k e u p o u r ro u n d e l N o w , th e trick is to p u t e a ch o f th e th re e m a sk s o n to p o f o n e a n o th e r so th a t th e co rn e rs e x a c tly m a tch
e a ch oth er. T h is w a y , th e circle s a lw a y s c o m e o u t ce n te red

I place the first of the masks I apply the first colour


in the correct position. in tms case. red.

Now I place the second


mask on top of the first,
matching the corners as I
nave m entioned

I apply the second


colour. In this case
yellow

Now I put the third mask on


top of the second, again Now apply the
matching the four corners at third colour, which t
the perimeter again, red.

204
CE>

Finally, and very carefully, The next step is for the Cross of St. Andrew. This
I remove the masks, revealing the technique can of course be used for other markings
roundels which are perfectly centered. which contain lines. First, I apply the base colour, in
and with concentric rings. this case, black.

O/

I apply the second colour over the


I mask with strips of tape of the proper scale width remainder of the rudder. In this case, white.

The process is concluded by removing the masks


revealing the result

205
6. EXTEIilOllS
6.7 MAKINGANDUSINGIAINT MASKS
<>.7.4 GERMAN GROSSES
- T h e re are tim e s w h e n w e c o m e to u se kit d e c a ls, th a t w e re a lize th e y are d a m a g e d , to o th ic k o r h ave c o lo u rs th a t a re n 't in register.
A lth o u g h th e re are m a sk s w h ic h a re a v a ila b le o n th e m a rke t, w h ic h w ill so lv e th is p ro b le m , w ith a little p a tie n ce , y o u c a n m a k e th e m
y o u rse lf In th is ca se , 1*11 m a k e G e rm a n L u ft w a ffe c ro sse s fo r a 1/48 Bf 1 09 E -4 , fro m T am iya

The first thing I do is use a sheet of adhesive film of Once I have the crosses marked on the paper, with a With a very sharp cutter, I carefully cut out
the type used to cover books. This is divided into equal pencil. I shade the area that I have to cut out. This helps each and every one of the crosses.
squares which helps with producing the shapes we need. reduce mistakes when having to cut so many lines.
I mark the outline of the crosses, using the squares as
reference, and of course the size and proportions of the
kit decals.

Some Germ r
crosses wore a black
edging. To mask for this,
I now
I use two strips of tape of
place the m asks in I apply the first colour, in this case
equal width, and mask off the center of
the correct positions, and white. It is always a good idea to start
the cross, leaving an equal band exposed
protect the surroundings areas with with the lightest colour
around the edge.
pieces of masking tape

3 ^
> i<
Now, I apply matte
black to the cross.

now remove all


masking material, leaving with a ruler, I mark the center
the white crosses edged in black of each leg of the cross, and mask out

206 IRCRAFT FAQ


Engine block already
assembled and ready to be
painted. I will apply a base
coat of steel colour.
I replicate the
Spark plugs already piping of the wires
fitted to the engine with a length
and painted in black. of 0.8mm tube,
The engine itself was painted in red
given an aluminium brown.
colour.

A wire goes out from I cover the supply


every spark plug to tubes with Tamiya
the conduction tube. masking tape.

I add the cooler I reproduce the wires running I place the springs and the lifters
tube painted with from the spark plug to the from the Taurus improvement set
A ldad Copper. distributors.

To simulate the Engine ready to


front sensor I use be fixed n tt n
copper wire me airfran e

209
Once the engine is mounted
within the airframe. I
add the oil tank painted with
A ldad Copper
use Sienna Earth Oil to apply a general wash over the whole engine. I also recreate
streaks with the same oil, i.e. on the oil deposit cover

210 AIRCRAFT FAQ


I add the Spandau guns painted
with Tamiya Gun Metal.

I place the cooler tube, painted with steel


colour. This goes to the radiator placed in the
middle part of the upper wing. The exhaust
tube is painted with Tamiya X F-9 Red Brown
I airbrush orange onto the gas exit of the
exhaust tube and finish this with a bit of black
also applied with an airbrush. Next, I slightly
highlight the welds with graphite

211
* % 6.8.1.2 Radial engine
A s w ith th e in lin e e n g in e s, th e ra d ia l e n g in e s a re a lso ve ry v isib le e le m e n ts o f th e a ircra ftu se d
d u r in g W o r ld W a r O n e . F o r th is e xa m p le , I w ill u se a 1/32 in je cte d p la s tic G n o m e M o n o s o u
p a p e e n g in e , fro m W in g n u t W in g s A M C D H -2 .

Parts of the
engine. I assemble the central part and cylinders. I replace some pushrods with

Aluminium Base. Tamiya X-23 Clear Blue Both center and upper cylinder .and washed with sienna I attach the pushrods, now painted
is airbrushed around the base of each areas are painted with X-24 Clear earth oil. aluminum and gold, and then apply
cylinder. Yellow from Tam iya... the same wash as to the rest of the
engine.

I recreate the spark plug wires I fix the ignition wires with a drop of C. A.
with 0.2mm aluminium wire. adhesive, and paint the ignition cable
insulators in red.

Several views of the


engine before the
final weathering
process.

212 / AIRCRAFT FAQ


>
s

The first task is


to assemble the
various rings which
comprise this
engine.

Then I drill a hole


into the front
of each of the
cylinders...

... and also at the top of each of the


cylinder heads.

With tin wire of the appropriate scale, I start to add the


engine wiring.

Each cylinder is double wired,


so I recommend adding the first
row of cables, and then the next
row, securing them into their final
positions. I

I add the second row of cables,


repeating the same procedure as
before...

214 / AIRCRAFT FAQ


.then the third series of cables. I finish the wiring with the fourth Engine completely wired.
and final series of cables.

Several component
of this radial engine.

I apply a dark brown


wash to the engine.

Here, the gearbox and other engine parts With the dry-brushing technique, I apply silver
finished with a silver base layer, and a wash in paint, enhancing the raised detail on the engine.
dark brown.

We will shortly look at creating an exhaust


First stage of painting and
Overview of the engine after all system with multiple pipework sections,
engine assembly are complete.
processes are applied. displaying a burnt metal effect.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 215


K -

ta
v*HeJo

P71 L f

Now with dark brown, I paint each of the With an orange-brown, I apply a highlight to the upper
wires from the cylinders edge of each cable, creating a more 3D, voluminous
appearance

All wiring is now


completed
Now we look at the second
and final phase of engine
assembly and painting

s i i f i h
Only the exhausts now remain to be completed. For this task, I apply a
layer of dark aluminum paint, such as XF-56 Metallic Grey from Tamiya. Around all of the relief detail, I apply Tamiya X-19 Smoke.

216 IRCRAFT FAQ


In the center of each of the I complete the process with a very
exhaust pipes, I apply several dilute matte black application over
smooth layers of very diluted the gas exit of the exhaust pipes
Tamiya X-26 Clear Orange

The third and final phase of


engine assembly and painting

The finished
engine

AIRCRAFT FAQ 217


Before assembly, I apply a coat of Japanese Interior With black acrylic paint from Vallejo, I brush paint
Gray onto the crankcase and cylinders of the all the cylinders.
engne

With the dry-brushing technique, I highlight the cooling fins of each cylinder, using a
medium gray paint. It is important that very little paint remains on your brush before The result after the dry-brushing process. The
you undertake this. Also, never use silver paint, as it simply isn t suitable or correct. cylinder cooling fins can now be seen clearly

218 AIRCRAFT FAQ


I now assemble the engine, applying wear to the front ... and then connect them into their correct
reduction gear housing, using the same techniques as position at the point where the spark p lu j^ I attach the second batch of cables
we use on the exterior of the aircraft The process of is fitted. To do this, I use of tin wire o fa
engine wiring now begins, with each cylinder diameter suitable for the scale of the engine,
being fitted with a single wire. (front ring)
I place the first cable...

With narrow, thin


strips of tin metal foil, I
... and again insert make the clamps that hold
them into the spark the wires in pairs; one
plug (rear ring) wire to the front ring, and
another to the rear.

For each cable, I apply light gray paint, and for each I continue detailing the e ^ in e , this time adding a few I finish the whole process by adding the little stiffeners
damp, an even lighter gray, outlining the contours in strips of copper wire. Always use photographs of the between the heads of the cylinders. I make these from
black, to enhance the effect of volume. real engine for reference. plastic strips of a corresponding scale.

With a brush, I paint Engine interior finished


all the details added and placed within its
so far frame
I add the parts of the engine cowl. I mask the cowl opening and the rear face.

Many Japanese cowls were black, but never completely black. I use Now with a very dilute matte black I shade
a slightly lighter black, XF-6 9 NATO Black, from Tamiya. all the cowl panel lines.

On Japanese engine cowls, paint tended to flake off quite badly. To ... with which I add all both chipping and
recreate this, I use a silver, watercolor pencil... also superficial scratches.

I apply a layer of gloss


varnish over the whole
cowl.

With oils, I apply small quantities onto the various panels and blend them into the cowl, concentrating
on ensuring that the lighter areas are along the top edge and forward edge of each panel
220 IRCRAFT FAQ
For this engine, I have used a resin upgrade for the The rear of the engine, already fully wired. You I apply a base coat of silver to
reduction dear housing, and this is of a far higher can see the complex exhaust system fitted to each the whole engine.
quality than the injected plastic kit part. engine cylinder.

Then I apply a general wash in a very dark brown, with Rear of the engine after the dark brown wash. I apply neutral black and gray to the front
the dual purpose of both highlighting all the relief, whilst gear box.
also producing a grimy and used appearance.

Using the same base colour, but this time mixed with a With a pencil of HB hardness, I add chips and scratches to I apply a dark brown wash to all engine wiring, and
little white, I hand-brush various raised details. the gray gear box, and seal the entire engine with a coat in the recesses into where those wires are bent,
of gloss varnish. enhancing things with an orange-brown paint, creating
a greater visual volume.
222 / AIRCRAFT FAQ
I apply again a
With an even lighter
wash to the gear box,
gray than before, I paint
highlighting all relief, and then I place
the heads of gearbox screws
the decals.

The finished engine.

1CRAFT FAQ 223


V W W W V W W W V W W W W W

CAMOUFLAGE
PAINTINGAi!l)
WEATME N w w w w w v % . k
In this ch a p te r, w e w ill se e in m o re d eta il th e p a in tin g p ro ce sse s for th e m o st im p o rta n t a re a s o f a n a ircra ft, a s w e ll a s th e n e c e ss a ry ste p s ^
a n d te c h n iq u e s to re cre ate a n y ty p e o f c a m o u fla g e sch e m e . O f co u rse , w e ca n 't fo rg e t a b o u t th e w e a th e rin g s t a g e s th a t w ill b rin g o u r
m o d e l to life. F o r th is, a n d in a c c o rd a n c e w ith th e style o f th is m a n u a l, w e w ill u se e x a m p le s in w h ic h w e w ill s h o w yo u . ste p b y step , h o w
to a p p ly th e se te c h n iq u e s , a s w e ll a s so m e o f th e tr ic k s a n d re so u rce s re q u ired -

T h e m o st a ttra ctiv e a irc ra ft a re th e o n e s w h ic h h a v e th e m o st re m a rk a b le d e sig n


lines, b u t a lso th e o n e s th a t w e a r th e m o st sp e c ta c u la r c a m o u fla g e sc h e m e s a n d
m a rk in g s. In m o d e l-m a k in g , w e a th e r in g is a re lative ly n e w te c h n iq u e It is stra n g e
to th in k a b o u t an a ircra ft w h ic h is a sse m b le d o u t o f th e b o x a n d p a in te d in a b asic
w ay. w ith o u t a n y e xtra e ffe c ts th a t w ill m a k e it u n iq u e H a v in g c o n tro l o ve r th e se
te c h n iq u e s w ill a llo w us to c o n sid e ra b ly e n jo y th e p a in tin g a n d w e a th e rin g p ro ce sse s v

-s_______ i ___5=___ i ^
colour to blend a l effects, and
shade a little with an earthy ith the pencil, but this
colour, in the region of the root time on the underside
of the wing and leading edge of the of the wing. These minor
wing. This gives the appearance of dirt. scratches will be barely
Finally, with a light yellow pencil, I add visible, but will add subtlety to
minor scratches to the wings. the fabric texture.

fit

For fabric surfaces finished in different


colours, the painting technique is
essentially the same, though you need
to adjust the range of used colours to
the chosen paint scheme.
7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATHERING
7. VO L VA ONE
7.1.2 PAINTING WOO U A N E F F E C T USING (I LS
D u r in g W o rld W a r I, w o o d a n d va rn is h e d fa b ric w e re th e t w o m a in m a te ria ls u se d fo r a ircra ft
c o n stru c tio n . In m a n y c a se s, th e se m a te ria ls w e re le ft u n p a in te d . In th e fo llo w in g se c tio n s w e w ill
lo o k a t s o m e te c h n iq u e s o f cre a tin g re a listic w o o d g ra in e ffe c t th a t m a y b e u se d in a n y m o d e l

We apply yellow ochre oil generally and directly from the jar
We can imitate wood, obtaining a very realistic effect, in just four easy steps Then, we use Toasted Earth Sienna oil

We softly remove To finish this


the oil with a process, we apply
sponge until we Tamiya X-26 Clear
Dbta ' the de red orange
streak. We can
repeat this process
as many times as we
.van!

The previous process is the base of the technique. From Wood finished with
this base, we can obtain other kinds of wood tones. We Tamiya Clear Red
just need to change the base colour, the oils imitating cherry tree
and the final varnish. KWMd

228 IRCRAFT FAQ


* - j* In th is o th e r e x a m p le w e w ill s h o w yo u a n e w te c h n iq u e to re p lica te w o o d .

^ I"
7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATHE NG
7.1 WOULD WAD ONE
7.1.' iis in c woo ii; me dc a l s
n
- N o w a d a y s, th e re a re se ve ra l b ra n d s in th e m a rk e t th a t o ffe r u s th e w o o d stre a k a s tra n sp a re n t d e c a ls.
T h e se d e c a ls re p re se n t th e cle a re st a n d m o st ch a ra c te ristic w o o d stre a k s. If w e c o m b in e th e m w ith
p re v io u s a irb ru sh in g a n d p o ste rio r o il p a in tin g w e w ill o b ta in a ve ry re a listic fin ish . In th is ca se , w e
u se th e e x ce lle n t d e c a ls fro m U sch i V a n d e r R o ste n

I c o

% -'

This case is very special


because the fuselage is
built based on overlapping
wooden slats instead of flat
sheets of plywood

The work begins with the airbrush


using Desert Bellow with slight
I place the decal I varnish it And I apply a first ocher oil colour
variations in each slat.

I wait until it dries completely and Finally I apply a burnt umber color
varnish it

1*550
7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATIIEIIING
liWOilLI) WAII O N E..................................................
7.1.5 FAINTING WOODCItAIN E F F E C T USING MASKS
- J* A n e w e r w a y to im ita te th e w o o d is th r o u g h sm a ll p h o to e tc h e d p la te s a c t in g a s m a sk s sim u la tin g th e veins.
* It is a ve ry co m fo rta b le a re u sa b le m e th o d .

When lifting the


template we see that
the veins are marked
very clearly, later
they are
softened.

Plates from the brand "RB" which simulate I paint a base I stick the plate to the surface
the wood veins and Tamiya tape are the layer over the surface with tape. And airbrush the
material needed. with a light colour. brown colour of the veins.

With the base


colours adding another I mask all the
sandy colour subtly diluted, Detail of the veins r I Varnish with wood areas and paint
airbrush to partially blur the streaks. already blended AK183 Ultra Matte Varnish. in dark silver the metallic zones.

With the sponge technique, I Mam elements


apply light silver on the surface. of the wing painted.

With pigments I start to dirt the wooden surfaces and with a


brush enhance th nail lines. We have to keep in mind that wood
gets dirty when handled and the resulting finsh is matte. Later
it w ill depend on the kind of wood
to give it its exact tone
7. CAMOUFLAGE FAINTING AND WEATHERING
7.1 WOULD WAI1 ONE
7.1.G LO ZEN G E CAM OUFLAGE
- D u r in g W o rld W a r I, th e G e r m a n s d e v e lo p e d th e lo z e n g e c a m o u fla g e . n o v e r C l.II, fro m W in g n u t W in g s . T h is p a r t ic u la r a ir c r a ft fe a tu re d th e
m a d e u p o f r e p e a tin g p a t te r n s o f ir re g u la rly s h a p e d fo u r-, f iv e - o r six- lo z e n g e p a tte rn , n o t o n ly o n th e p re -p a m te d fa b ric -c o v e re d w in g s ,
sid e d p o ly g o n s . F ro m la te 1 91 6 , m a n y a ir c r a ft o f th e C e n tra l P o w e rs w e re b u t a lso o n th e fu s e la g e . A s th e k it d o e s n 't in c lu d e lo z e n g e d e c a ls
p a in te d in th is p a tte rn , o r co v e re d w it h fa b ric th a t h a d th e p a tte rn p rin te d fo r th e la tte r. T o m e k w ill s h o w h o w to c o m p le te th e s c h e m e u sin g
o n F o r th is e x a m p le , T o m e k W a jn k a im w ill u se th e e x ce lle n t 1/32 H a n - h o m e m a d e m a sk s

To avoid any mistake while painting the lozenge pattern Next, I airbrush the undersides with the brightest I then take a part of a clear plastic CD
on the fuselage adjust the kit's paint scheme, from colour, Tamiya X F-4 Yellow Green case, and temporarily glue a piece of clear
the instruction manual, to 1/32 scale, and print it Oramask foil sheet onto it

Now I can place the case on the printed paint The polygon-shaped pieces of foil are carefully cut Once the Yellow Green polygons are masked. I
scheme and draw the pattern on the masking out from the sheet with a scalpel blade. spray XF-21 Sky onto the areas where the blotches
foil sheet with a marker pen. of this colour have to appear

.V

The gray colour is a mixture of XF-76 X17 Pink and XF-23 Light Blue are Modellers w ho are used to the dull camouflage schemes of World War 2
Gray-Green with a little X F-8 Flat Blue mixed in the ratio of 1:1 to get a aircraft may be surprised with the vividness of lozenge colours. In this case.
subtle violet pink is composed of 6 parts of X-17 Pink and 1 of X F-9 Hull Red

The underside is The painted areas are masked off Now it is time for painting the upper and side
almost complete with Tamiya masking tape surfaces of the fuselage, wing root and the centre
part of the upper wing s top surface. I begin by
airbrushing a layer of X F -6 0 Dark Yellow
A dark violet is composed of 2 parts of XF- Hour by hour, the pattern gradually builds up. Dark The last colour to apply is X F -8 Flat Blue.
52 Flat Earth and 1 part of X-16 Purple. green blotches are painted with XF-70 UN Green 2.

The paintwork is secured with a To apply the lozenge decals, I also The decals nicely conform to the kit's surface,
layer of Mr.Color clear gloss coat. have to varnish the unpainted
surfaces of the wings.

Decals are secured with a water-based clear The next stage features some I then mask the ribs with thin stripes of AIZU tape, and subtly
matt varnish, because a lacquer-based liquid careful brush painting. spray the w ings with almost transparent layer of a heavily
may turn out to be too aggressive. diluted mixture of XF-10 Flat Brown and XF-1 Flat Black.

Weathering is mainly focused on the undersurfaces, undercarriage and fuselage area near the cockpit sides. Working little
by little on small areas, I apply tiny amounts of AK-Interactive's AK081 Dark Earth and AK042 European Earth pigments,
and squeeze out a few drops of A K04 8 Pigment Fixer onto them, using a dropper. When the fixer spreads, it partially
dissolves the pigments. The resulting effect is convincing, and usually doesn't require any retouching. I also add some very
fine paint scratches with watercolor pencils. Now I only have to attach the upper wing and add the riggin g ...

I mount some of the various subassemblies which have


been safely left off the model for the painting stage,
and apply an oil wash.
The final appearance
of the basic, finished
camouflage. We must
ensure that we have a
fairly strong definition
between the colours when
airbrushing freehand,
without masks. The edge
shouldnt be too soft/
feathered. I mix the green with
a darker green, and shade
the panel lines within the areas of
green camouflage.

I repeat the same operation Now, I highlight


in the areas where I applied each of the green panels by
the earth brown, mixing it mixing the green with a little
with a slightly darker brown. yellow or white and applying
it from the center of the
panel, outwards.

-a*
Mixtures of
colours in their Appearance of the model once
I repeat the same process, but this time with a mix of
proportions, using all previous stages have been
earth brown and a desert yellow colour.
Tamiya acrylics. completed.

vV f silver waterco du the wing


pencil pa r \ I where
ch ps accesses
cockp'
and also
'.'id .
engine cowl
and I apply a
medium sea
gray colour

I make the masks Once all the paint is


for fuselage code letters thoroughly dry, I remove
using book covering film of low adhesiveness. the masks to reveal the fuselage codes

Mixing a little
yellow with the
green camouflage
colour, and using a very
fine brush, I add small chips
and scratches. I do exactly
the same with the
brown colour, mixed
with sand yellow I seal the processes with a layer of gloss
paint
varnish, and once dry,I apply the decals with markings
and stencils to the model

I add shading using oils With a very dark


on various areas of the brown wash, I flood
aircraft, such as on the the panel lines and
wing roots. I use earth riveting
tone colours, lightly
applied as a glaze

...and once dry, I carefully I seal the entire work


remove any wash excess, with a layer of matt
leaving well-defined panel tarnish
lines and rivets.

236 IRCRAFT FAQ


...and with a darker
earth paint, I deepen
the colour at the
centre of the streak.

For adding the exhaust stains,


I first airbrush a very light colour
sand paint in a streak, backwards from
the exhaust, in a taper...

I finish the exhaust stain


with pigments; applying
the darker colour to the
outside, and the lighter
pigment towards
the center.
Detail of the exhaust stain,
once completed.

On the lower surfaces the dirt and


smoke effects are created by using
various brown and gray colours,
Now its the time always airbrushed in the direction
to completely of airflow, and with a ratio of 9 0 %
remove all alcohol to 10% paint
masking.

AIRCRAFT) 237
7. CAMOUFLAGEPAINTINGANDWEATHERING
7.2 WORLDWADTWO
7.2. T S I$ EM ES
7.2.1.2 Day Fighter scheme
T h e m o st c o m m o n B ritish c a m o u f la g e u se d d u r in g W o r ld W a r II, w a s th e g r e e n a n d g ra y ty p e . T h is
re m a in e d in u se a lm o s t th r o u g h o u t th e w a r, a n d c o n tin u e d to b e e m p lo y e d w e ll in to th e 1 9 8 0 s. For
th is e xa m p le , I u se a T a m iy a 1/48 S p itfire M k .V b . T h is is th e p e rfe c t su b je ct fo r s h o w in g th is p a rticu la r
c a m o u fla g e

mask the clear parts I always start by applying


and model s canopy the lighter camouflage
colour: in this case, the
lower surface "medium
sea gray

To create more colour


richness, I now mix the
base colour with some
white, and highlight
panels and access ports.

After applying black


to the canopy framework.
I also apply a layer of silver
to the wing root area
With Humbrol Maskol I mask out the portion of the
plane on which III recreate a chipped area.

Once the Maskol


is dry, I apply
the first of the
upper camouflage
colours: in this case
ocean gray
I mix the ocean gray with
Then I apply a darker gray, to increase its
the green colour intensity, and I shade the panel
lines in areas that are within the
gray camouflage.

Now with a little darker


green, mixed with the green With a sponge
camouflage color, I shade the panel lines in General view of the I very carefully remove the Maskol
the areas of green camouflage. Remember to model at the end of the that I previously applied, revealing
keep to these areas, and not stray from them first stages of painting the meta ic colour underneath

\.

The Maskol chipping is very large and prescribed Appearance after all begin to start the masking process.
looking, so I add extra small chips and scratches in processes so far In this case, with the yellow bands
that area, using a watercolor pencil. along the leading edge of the wings.

I apply the matte yellow paint, taking I mask the machine guns ports and I remove all the masking tape
care not to cause any overspray. apply a matte red paint revealing the result.

AIRCRAFT FA: 23
...and apply the sky
Then again, I mask the
colour band, being
fuselage band with and then
careful not to overspray
masking tape... carefully remove
the rest of the model.
the tape, revealing
the fuselage band

..so that I can arc. when


apply the colour for the paint is fully dry
the letters of the remove the mask
fuselage code.., revealing the result

When you have no decals for a specific aircraft that you


wish to model, you can use homemade masks. In this
case, using low tack gripdear film for book covering.
Being dear, it allows us to place the mask onto the
exaa area

With the basic camouflage gray, mixed I apply a coat of gloss varnish
with a little white, I add small chips and to the whole moael. and when
scratches to the gray camouflaged area. I do dry, I apply the decals and
the same with the green area, but mixing the gray stencils.
with a little yellow paint

v u g

After another coat of gloss Once the wash


varnish has been applied, and is dry, I remove
dried, I apply a very dark brown the excess,
wash into the the panel lines revealing all
over the entire model s surface the rivets and
panel lines

240 IRCRAFT FAQ


With various oils of earthy tones, I
wear the wing root areas, giving them
a dusty and faded appearance

I seal the entire work with


a coat of matt varnish.

v o

With a very light sand colour, heavily with a darker earth colour, mixed in the same
diluted in a ratio of 8 0 % of alcohol and 2 0% of proportions as before, I apply a new exhaust stain
paint, I add the contours for the exhaust stains over the central portion of the the trail I have
previously painted

With various
pigments, I apply the
finishing touches to the
engine s exhaust stains
using the darker pigments
on the outside of the trail,
and the lighter in the
central area, Here we can
see fuel leakage etc
I now seal all the work with a new c o a tw
matte varnish

I mask the
transparent areas of
the cockpit.

I apply interior green over the outside of the


clear canopy. This colour is the one that will be
seen from the inside, and should represent the
colour of that area.

Now, with the olive green, heavily diluted in a


At the wing root, I apply a layer apply the first of the camouflage proportion of 8 5% alcohol (or the proprietory
of silver enamel, in this case colours. In this case, neutral gray solvent for your paint), plus 15% paint, I apply light
TamiyaX-11 on the lower surfaces coats to the metallized area

The result
of applying the
differing depths
while over the rest of
of paint.
the plane, I apply the
olive green in a more
opaque manner

242 IRCRAFT FAQ


NowI start toapply some highlights onto specific ...along with a very dark green, mixed with the olive green ...and then I apply more olive green in places
panels, using olive green mixed with desert yellow base colour. Here, I darken numerous panels, especially on where I feel the highlighting effects are perhaps a
the wings... little heavy...

Our model's
appearance after the
first weathering effects
.ending the process by are applied.
applying an even darker
green, to simulate staining
This is especially applied
on panel lines areas, and in
a random manner to avoid
overall symmetry

Now I jump to lower surfaces; I apply a


mix of base colour plus a little white, and
begin to highlight panel areas, starting from the
center and working outwards
...and I end with a slightly darker gray in the panel line areas

With a watercolour
pencil, I make
small chipping and
scratches.

View of the model after

a all weathering sequences,


so far applied

AIRCRAFT FAQ /
I apply a coat of gloss varnish
to seal the various processes.

With a fine brush and khaki paint, I add chips and scratches in a random
manner. For the sake of realism, keep these small.

...and with a khaki paint, I


add chipping to the decals
which are applied in the olive
green areas.

With a fine brush and a light gray paint, I add


chipping to the national markings...

Now with oils, I simulate


the weathering on the engine cowls
and wingroot areas. These are areas
which are the places where these
aircraft appeared to be I apply a dark brown wash to the
most worn.I panel lines and rivet areas all over
the aircraft, including the decals. This
helps to integrate them with the same
finish as the remainder of the aircraft.

I apply a coat of gloss varnish to seal the work so far.

244 IRCRAFT FAQ


I add the oil leak streaks to the fuselage, and General appearance of the model.
apply a coat o f matt varnish.

Detail of the nose Detail of the aircraft


Wing detail.
of the aircraft. fuselage.

I apply a dark
brown wash to the
undersides, in the ...and after about 20 minutes, I remove
same manner as I the excess in the direction of airflow.
did for the upper
surfaces...

The finished model.

With a desert yellow paint, heavily


diluted with alcohol, I airbrush the
dust trails behind the landing gear

AIRCRAFT
I lighten every panel from I start making panel lines in the
the centre to the external part. Intermediate Blue with Dark Blue.

Then, I work on the


panel lines throughout I repeat the same process on the wings,
the rest of the fuselage. starting first by o ne...

I use the airbrush and a very diluted


...a n d then the other one, always paint to make small oil leaks from the engine.
taking care of no messing up the Then, I apply almost clear layers of paint in Sepia
model during this process. tones over the panel lines.

I tinge the Finally, I integrate and


exhausts and the tinge all the effects with
panel lines with brown a small layer of very
light sh a d o w s. diluted paint, almost
transparent. We can
also use a filter to
achieve the integration
of the the tones.

247
I mask with tape the squadron I apply white and I carefully remove
markings on the plane. the masks.

Over the markings that


I have painted in white, I create The white colour of the lower surface
the same effects that for the rest of will receive the same treatments that the
the plane. one used for the upper surfaces.

I apply glossy varnish only on the


area where I am going to place the
decals (observe the change of tone between I place the decals in their
the varnished area and the unvarnished one). corresponding places.

We integrate the decals with their effects, just like


in the rest of the plane.

Subsequently,
I apply matte varnish
on the decals.

248
I paint the last details such as the gun's gas exit, the
walkways, the w ing roost or the engine gas exit.

Plane ready for the


final assembly

249
I airbrush a first light coat of Tamiya XF-11 UN
Green, highly diluted with alcohol. This
allows us to still see the metallic
colour below the newly applied
green layer

I apply more coats of heavily diluted green paint


Now I mask off the undersides of the to create more depth in some chosen areas, whilst
fuselage and tailplane with masking tape, in order to other surfaces are purposely covered with a semi
protect these surfaces from overspray accidents. transparent layer of paint.

With a sponge.
I remove the Mas ko I
revealing the metallic colour
below the green paint.

I add highlights to the panels with a


mixture of base green colour and X F-4 Yellow-Green

The anti-glare panel between


the propeller and the windshield is painted Some oversized paint chips are retouched with
Now its time to improve the overall effect by
with matte black. Next, I apply highlights to this the green base colour, applied with a brush
adding small chips with a metallic watercolor
area with Tamiya XF-6 3 German Gray, highly diluted with alcohol
:e r :

and add some chipping


to the anti-glare panel area, in
With a metallic watercolor pencil, I detail the rivet lines order to unify its appearance with the
surrounding surfaces
AIRCR,
W atercolour
pencils of various
For adding the
metallic and light
hm om arus, I
grey colours, used
first cut the circles
to create small
from masking tape
paint chips.
pieces, using a
compass cutter

I then apply white paint, and


once dry, it s time to place a
narrow width circular mask
into the white area, of the
same diameter as the white
circle. This will leave the
majority of this area of white
paint still exposed.

I end the process


by airbrushing the
red colour

Overall view with the masks


removed. The red. when
applied over the white colour,
looks more intense and lively
Although the chipping created so far
is perfectly suitable for many Japanese
aircraft, in this case, I have to cover this
here and there with several light coats of the
green base colour, heavily diluted with alcohol, in order
to simulate the appearance of wear on the paint.

Now I add masks for the yellow


bands on the w ing leading edges and
fuselage

I remove the
masking tape carefully,
revealing the yellow
bands
To ensure that the
surrounding areas
suffer no overspray, I
mask them with large
pieces of tape, and
T.en apply a matte
yellow colour

252 -IRCRAFT FAQ


Once the paint is dry I start to
I apply a coat of gloss varnish, emphasize panel
and then add the decals. These lines and rivets with
Detail view of the nose of the are sealed with another layer of AK-Interactive AK045 Dark
after all weathering sequences, so far applied gloss varnish Brown W ash-

And when the excess wash is removed


with a soft, flat brush dampened with
thinners, wiping in the direction
of airflow, we are left with a
subtle brown shadow in the
panel lines and around
rivet lines and joints
Here you can see
the final effect.
after this

process
General view of the model and
weathering, so far applied

For increased wear in various areas, I apply oil paint


spots (ochre yellow in this case) on top of several panels.
Please note the same position that this is applied to.
With a synthetic hair brush, I streak the oil paint in a And with a flat brush, also synthetic, the oil paint is
on these panels. This will create a harmonious, yet
downwards motion completely blurred and blended
distressed effect which is pleasing to the eye

The same operation is applied on each of the areas I spread the oil paint on each area And this is the final appearance, giving us the visual
that remain between the lines of rivets. Again, see between rivet lines mpression of stressed skin.
how this is applied to the same place on each panel
253
7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATIIEItlNG
7.2 WOHLD WAN TWO
7.2.3 JA P A N ES E SCHEM ES
7.2.3.2 Natural metal finish
M a n y Ja p a n e se a ircra ft th a t se rve d in th e S e c o n d W o rld W ar. w e re le ft in a n atural m e tal fin ish , a lth o u g h
it w a s m o re c o m m o n to se e th e m c a m o u fla g e d in e ith er g re e n o r b ro w n co lo u rs. To illustrate a N M F
sch e m e . I w ill p a in t a 1/32 " S h o k i" o r *Tojo"; th e K i- 4 4 fro m H a se g a w a . T h is w ill re qu ire a lo n g and
te d io u s p ro ce ss o f m a n u a l m a sk in g , b u t o n c e it's co m p le te d , th e e ffo rt w ill b e w o rth it.

1 I mask the 1 I airbrush black over


transparent windshield the windshield and the
and the engine landing light, simulating
compartment. the colour of the interior
k framework. I apply a base coat using
silver enamel paint. I use
enamel paint because of its
resistance to the masking processes.

I mask
various panels The result after
on the wings and removing the masks.
fuselage. The subtle variation in
With the airbrush, ^
metallic tones
and using a mix of base ^
k can really be
colour with a little brown or
^ appreciated here.
transparent 'smoke* paint, I shade
along some panel lines, and also some panel areas
themselves.

Now I add masks


for the yellow bands
of the wing leading
edges. I apply matte ^
I also use metallic pigments, applied with a brush. These are yellow paint, taking
then buffed to a shine. care not to overspray the
metalic coloured areas.
Again, I remove the
Now I mask the
masking tape, being
ailerons and tail
careful not to damage
elevators...
the metallic paint.

...and with a light gray


colour, I airbrush the fabric
elevators and ailerons.

Carefully, slowly and


patiently, I mask the
red fuselage stripe with
masking tape.
To ensure that the model suffers no
Again, I carefully overspray in the silver areas, I use pieces of
remove the masks. paper as supplementary masking.

I carefully
remove the
masking, trying Once again. I mask
not to damage the gun area along the
me metallic leading edge of the
paint vVir.q

...and apply
matte red paint

I remove the
Now, I carefully
masking tape
mask for the
with care.
lightning strike
on the fin.

... and again, I


paint this with
matt red.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 255


I again
mask the
model, to paint the
anti-glare area, using
matte black as the
base colour, and a
Now. I cut circles into sections dark gray for the
of wide masking tape, to create the hinomarus . highlights

A With a red-orange
paint, and using a
After carefully
very fine brush, I
removing all masks,
add small chips and
I . !, vc-
scratches to the red
masking process

I highlight the raised detail on the


anti-reflective black area, using dark
gray paint

Detail view of cowl area with chips applied to the anti-glare


panel. These are created using a silver watercolor pencil
pencil.
I apply a coat of gloss varnish over the whole
model. Next, I highlight all lines of rivets and
panel lines, using a dark brown wash...

...and after leaving to dry for about 20


minutes, I remove the excess wash from all
rivet ind ;mi ! nes

I perform the same


operation on the
wings

After painting the last details,


such as the exhaust pipes, the
model is fully completed and
ready for final assembly

...and again, after another 20


minutes, I further remove the
remainder of the wash, streaking
the direction of airflow

256 IRCRAFT FAQ


7. CAMOUFLAGE 1AINTINli AND WEATHERING
7.2 WORLD WAR TWO
7.2.4 HERMAN SCHEMES
7.2.4.1 Desert scheme
T h e G e rm a n d e se rt sch e m e is ve ry a p p e a lin g to th e eye, a n d o ffe rs m a n y p o ssib ilitie s fo r w e a th e rin g
Ea ch p la n e h ad its o w n ch a ra c te ristic w e a r a n d tear, a n d in th is c a se I w ill p a in t a 1/48 M e sse rsch m itt
Bf 1 09 E -4 fro m T am iya To a d d a cu rio u s n ote, o n e w in g o f this a ircra ft w a s p a in te d in a sta n d a rd
E u ro p e a n sch e m e

mask the transparent parts I apply German RLM 02


I always begin with the lightest
of the canopy, as well as Gray-Green to the outside of
colour. In this case, it s RLM 65
the engine, radiators and oil the cockpit canopy
Blue-Gray.
cooler intake.

I mix the blue-gray colour with


a little white, in a proportion
of 8 0 % of blue-gray and 2 0%
white. With this mixture, I
highlight the center of each of
the panels.

Now I start to paint the upper


surfaces, and again, I start with the
lighter colour. In this case, the RLM 02
which will be displayed on the non-
desert wing
Using a mixture of RLM 02
with a little white. I airbrush
highlights within the center
of each of the panels

Now I apply
the dark colour, in this
case, RLM 71 Green

With masking tape, I mark


the edges of the splinter
camouflage pattern
AIRCRAFT F/ 257
I now apply the last camouflage colour to the upper With a mixture of RLM 79, and a little
The appearance of the lower surfaces,
surfaces. In this case, RLM 79 Sand Brown white, I add the highlights to the center of
where you can see the difference between the
each of the panels and, after dry, I remove
RLM 65 of the "European" wing, and the desert
the wing mask
RLM 78 colour

Now. I mask the around


the lower engine cowl, in
preparation for the next step
I now apply
yellow to this area I airbrush a mixture of yellow with a
touch of white, creating the appearance of
subtle wear on the engine cowl.

258 IRCRAFT FAQ


After masking, I apply white to the fuselage tail
band, wing tips, and spinner.

I seal the work so far,


with a layer of gloss varnish,
Again, I apply a coat of
and then I airbrush the Luftwaffe Next. I seal the work with a
gloss varnish, and add a
crosses, using a series of masks. layer of matte lacquer.
number of decals.

Again I mask off the


European" wing, and with I mix 8 0 % RLM 79
RLM 79 mixed with a little with 2 0 % reddish-
reddish brown (9 0 % RLM brown paint, and
79 + 10% reddish brown), I apply the mixture in
darken the engine cowl and thin coats over the
wing root panel lines. engine cowl and wing
roots.

Using Tamiya X-19


"Smoke", I simulate
the exhaust stains
and accumulated
wing root dirt. After
removing all masks.
I apply a final coat of
matte varnish.
With an HB hardness pencil, I mark
the engine panels lines, weapons bay
covers, and also the rest of the panel
lines. I then emphasize those lines
with a dark brown wash.

AIRCRAFT FAC 259


I apply the lighter
colour of the upper
...followed by the
camouflage. In this case,
Darker Grey RLM74, which is
it is RLM75...
applied at the end.

To start the winter scheme, ^ After having done


I first cut the German crosses in the upper several tests on some old
surface of the w ings and then fasten them to models' plastic pieces, I use
The spotted paint on the sides the surface with a bit of Blue-tack o with air matte white to apply, freehand,
of the plane is a mixture of the masks to demarcate the White edge of the a tiger scheme over the standard
colours RLM74 and RLM75. camouflage. camouflage.

I remove the masks made of


tape from the w ing crosses,
leaving some space to place
after the crosses.

In this case,
I have also made the
masks for the crosses.

Finally, I paint in matte red the engine


band and the number. Once the
marks have already been painted, I
go over some parts of the tiger white
camouflage before carrying on.

AIRCRAFT FAQ 261


I draw the panel lines of the I start spotting the winter camouflage around the I use darker Grey and a very fine Detail of the area treated
plane with a pencil. covers and registers of the plane using the sponge brush to make bigger scratches on with all the effects we
technique (the sponge is previously damp in the more worn out areas. have seen up until now.
Medium Grey) and carefully removing the excess
paint.

Once we reach this point we


should consider the intensity of
the wearing on the scratches...

General aspect after all the processes.

I seal all the process


with a coat of glossy
varnish.
...just in case we need to intensify these
effects on some places. If we do, we must
be very careful, as we do not want to
overdo the model.

use Siena and


Earth tones to
simulate dust
and dirt.
I use oils. Brown and Sepia, to wear
away and dirty the wing roots and in
the areas of the covers and registers.

262 AIRCRAFT FAQ


7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATHERING
7.2 VO L VA TWO
7.2.4 GERMAN SCHEM ES
7.2.4 Mottle and waves
T ry in g to g a th e r all th e G e rm a n c a m o u fla g e s in ju s t o n e a n d fin e w a v y lines. In th is ca se , w e w ill m a k e a Trum p ete r
b o o k w o u ld b e a s h ard a s cre a tin g a la n g u a g e e n c y c lo p e - Bf 1 09 G - 6 in 1/32 fo r n ig h t fig h tin g , in w h ic h w e ca n see
dia, th eir va ria tio n s a re e n d le ss W e w ill fo c u s o u r a tte n tio n b oth e ffe c ts w h ic h ca n later b e u sed o n o th e r aircraft
on so m e o f th e m o st in te re stin g o n e s, su ch a s th e m o ttle

I get the plane ready for the painting


process. I cover the transparent parts of
the cabin and the landing gear bays

paint the cabin structure as usual. The


colour we have used is Tamiya German
Grey XF-63.

Before the camouflage


scheme. I have to make the
mixtures of RLM colours
with Tamiya acrylics

Like m all the camouflage


schemes, I start by painting I mask the direction rudder tha
the lighter colour, in this has previously been painted in
case, yellow Yellow

I mask the RLM75 and start to add the


darker grey, RLM74. The scheme edges
Now it is the turn of the light grey on the Then, I apply freehand Light Grey from the upper are hard, therefore we will stick the mask
lower surfaces and the sides. Grey RLM76 camouflage scheme RLM75 to the fuselage

264 IRCRAFT FAQ


I remove the masks Using very diluted paint
I apply the RLM74 carefully trying not to
achieving this result and the compressor at a pressure between 0.5
dirty the RLM76 on the sides. If you do
and 0.8 atm I airbrush freehand RLM74 and
not feel confident, or do not have total
RLM75 to mottle the sides
control over the airbrush, I recommend
you to m ask them.

In the market there


are various brands that
make m asks for planes' I apply matte
markings. On this occasion White on the upper and side
I have used the ones from the Polish Luftwaffe crosses.
manufacturer Montex

Carefully and
after several tests, One of the lower
We have to take good care of the pressure
I proceed to airbrush wings is black, but I use a slightly
and the adequate dilution to avoid dirtying lighter colour (OTAN black) as we
the lines on the upper surfaces of the plane
the upper crosses of the Luftwaffe have seen before.
n th RLM76

After making the panel lines

.. the next step is the chipping. I will use


Light Grey to do this

AIRCRAFT 265
For the chipping, I use a very
fine brush. We must work
especially over those areas We now have to carry on the tedious task of I apply matte red
of intensive use, like covers, working with the walkway broken line. I first in the walkway
registers, hoods, etc. {Never mark the perimeter and then I use little bits of lines
use Silver colour for this) tape and a ruler to make the broken line

Now, I use a wash


I seal all the process
..that will work as a with Dark Brown to
made up until now with a layer of
base for the decals. mark all the fuselage
glossy varnish.
lines and wings of the planes. We must let it dry for
about ten minutes.

I paint the exhaust


tubes of the engine
in dark brown.

Look of the camouflage after For the smoke, I use a dark colour
removing the excess of wash with a in the centre of the trail
brush dipped in White spirit.

I use different shades of pigments to obtain more chromatic richness.

Painting phase finished


The model is ready for the
final assembly
7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATHERING
7.3 THE JET AGE
iJ.\ 1.8. JET A ) AFT
7.3.1.1 S.E.A. scheme
O n e o f th e m o st strik in g a n d a ttra ctiv e sc h e m e s th a t w a s ca rrie d by U S A F a ircra ft, w a s th e ca m
o u fla g e for th e S o u th E ast A sia n (S E A ) th eatre. T h is sc h e m e w a s w id e ly u sed in th e late 1 9 6 0 s a n d
e a rly 1 97 0 s, a n d w a s ty p ic a lly th e sta n d a rd sc h e m e d u rin g th e V ie tn a m W ar. To s h o w yo u h o w to
a p p ly th is sch e m e , I w ill u se th e w o n d e rfu l F-1 0 2 fro m M e n g , a n d co m p le te it a s a n a ircra ft w h ic h
x v a s'a s sig n e d to b e a n aeriaT ta fge T. F o r m is're a so n , if w ill W eaf hf^ ht/isro ility o ranrge'stripes:

mask the clear parts of the


windscreen, the air intakes, the
engine exhausts and the landing
gear wells

I mix Tamiya Enamels (X-11 8 0 %


X-10 20% ), to create metal with a
more used appearance

Detail of metalized
areas of the engine.

I apply black to the windshield, as


this is the colour you will see from
r e r : de

As a base for the bright red colour, I first


apply matte white

A few small areas which I need to keep


in the white colour, are now masked off

AIRCRAFT F 267
I apply the high KJM T -m i I remove the
visibility orange over the white. I emphasize masks, revealing the
panel lines in orange areas white stripe on the tail.

Cr s the pa nt mark
C ;nel lines with
p"-:
: : r . gloss varnish T-v ' : : colour
painted ,! r. and then place uppt side made from
the code d ecas Tamiya Kd

After the light sand


colour, I apply then a light green
Once the red areas are masked. I start with the SEA In this case, XF-67, which is somewhat pale
camouflage, in this case, a gray for the underside area m colour
mixing 6 0 % of XF-19 with 4 0 % of XF-2 from Tamiya.
*In' next colour : green
/. - ..... olive "IV such Tamiya
complete camouflage pattern

Now, over the light sand colour


I apply the German W W 2 colour, RLM 79,
which in my opinion, is almost the exact tone of the SEA
scheme tan colour (XF-59: 3 X F -7 9 :1). I go over the
bright green areas with n.i'.l flf 1 cor
Tamiya X F-58 Olive Green sppfy matte bad

268 IRCRAFT FAQ


Mixing the base colours of each
On the upper side of the of the tones with a little white. I apply a
A view of the overall pattern
nose cone, I apply a little XF-63 subtle shading to the center of each of the panels
of the completed camouflage
German Gray, in order to create a This lightens the panels, creating more volume to the
scheme
little more contrast and volume - model, and also a subtle fading effect

With an HB hardness
pencil, I mark the panel lines in areas
painted in the tan camouflage colour.
Everything is now
sealed with a layer
of gloss varnish, also I now apply all of the decals and stencils for
serving as the base this particular scheme.
finish for the addition of
the decals

For adding
small chips, I use a
very fine 000 brush and
a very light gray paint

TO another coat of gloss varnish,


and then I apply a dark brown wash to
panel lines. This is sealed with a layer
of matte varnish

A
The masks are removed, and
b
the contrast between the
high visibility orange and the
worn, matte camouflage is
easily seen.

Model completed and


ready for final assembly

-iRCRAFT FAQ 269


t in
I prepare the model for the painting phase, Before starting the painting phase, I apply For all camouflage schemes, as a
masking the areas that are not a part of the black paint to the masked windshield area, rule, I start with the lightest colour.
paint scheme. you can see that In this case,
colour from it is white. a
the inside. I ' ^

I apply white to all the


lower surfaces.

I then mask the


areas around the
exterior of the

I also apply red to the slat


areas. A s I has already painted
a white layer which lies
underneath this, the red looks
more vivid and striking.

Next, I apply matte red.

.and remove the masks.

270 AIRCRAFT FAQ


mix gray and white together,
in order to achieve the correct
shade of gray paint, and apply
this to the upper surfaces

I project those red areas with


masking tape, in preparation
for the next colour I will apply

Before applying
the black, with a
neutral gray, I airbrush
Again, I apply masking tape, but this the antenna which is in
time around the anti-glare panel in front that area
of the windshield

I mask the antenna

I now apply black matte onto


the anti glare panel

I then mask the red air intakes of the engine.

Before applying the red, I apply


matte white so that the red will
look more vivid and striking

With the masks removed.

AIRCRAFT FAQ 271


A s the model is of an Argentine Navy aircraft, I have I then apply the light blue of Once the m asks are removed, the
to paint the flag of that country onto the rudder of the the Argentine flag. finished flag is revealed.
plane, utilizing some careful masking.

I apply matte black on the walkways, and


once dry, with a neutral gray which has been
heavily diluted with alcohol, I add highlights
I now have to make use of more to these areas. I remove all the masks
masking tape. In this case, for the from the w alkway area.
wing root walkways.

Here we see the


model with all the
panel lines
marked.

With an HB hardness
pencil, I mark all aircraft
panel lines.

With the same gray, mixed with


I perform the same technique a darker gray, and again heavily
on the underside of the model. diluted with alcohol, I shade
some of the panels, especially
those which contain access
panels and ports.

272 AIRCRAFT FAQ


I seal everything with a layer
of gloss varnish.

In some cases, there can be areas


where the sheen does not look
good. Keep applying varnish until
the model looks like a mirror.

I place all decals and stencils. Some stencils


sit on top of the aircrafts main markings and
insignia.

Now I apply another coat of


gloss varnish to seal all the
decals.

With a dark brown wash, I


additionally emphasize the panel
lines.

With the washing process


finished, I leave the product
to dry for around ten minutes.
I then remove all excess wash
from the panel lines.

I seal the whole model again, but


this time with a layer of matte
varnish. With all m asks removed,
the painting process is now
^ finished.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 273


7. CAMOUFLAGEPAINTINGANDWEATHERING
7.3 THE JET AGE
7.3. II S. J E T A C A FT
7.3.1.3 Natural metal finish
T h o s e a irp la n e s w ith a n a tu ra l m e ta l fin ish re q u ire e x tra w o r k w h e n it c o m e s to
u sin g m a sk s. T h e sc h e m e s a lso re q u ire d iffe re n t w e a th e r in g te c h n iq u e s th a n th o se
a p p lie d to c a m o u fla g e d a ircra ft F o r o u r e xa m p le , I w ill p a in t a 1/48 F7 U C u tla ss.
fro m H o b b y c ra ft

After masking the


model, I airbrush
Now, using X-11
matte black over the
Chrome Silver
canopy framing.
enamel from
Tamiya, I apply a
general coat as a
base layer

I use this paint, applied with airbrush,


and diluted 4 0 % with its specific solvent (blue cap thinner).
This paint is very tough, and resistant to the following procedures.

Using masking tape, I


outline specific panels
on the model Now with XF-16 Flat
Aluminum enamel,
also from Tamiya, I
airbrush these panels.

when removing
the masks, you will
see a very subtle
variation between the again mask other 9
tones, avoiding high panels with masking
cI " - ; .

274 IRCRAFT FAQ


Notice again the subtle
tonal changes between
the various panels. w in g detail, showing different metallic tones.

I now use a flat brush with short bristles, and


slightly dampen in graphite powder. This can Then, to create the effect of heat on the metal of
be obtained from a pencil sharpener. I now the exhaust nozzles, I use clear orange in some
burnish the surface of the model, and add the areas around the rear of the fuselage.
burning effect to the inner structure of the
exhaust area.

With a soft graphite pencil of


approximately 2B hardness, I mark all the
rivet lines and panel lines.

You can also simulate very faint rusting


effects, and to do this. I apply clear orange
on some areas of the wings, but in very subtle
manner.

Appearance of the
model after paneling
with a pencil. J

The moving surfaces, such as air


brakes and control surfaces, are Vivid red is applied to the slat areas.
outlined in black, using a fountain
pen filled with black ink.

AIRCRAFT FAQ 275


With a silver paint, I paint the slat actuators, and
also shade the red area with shadows
and highlights which are based on
slightly lightening and darkening
I seal the whole model with gloss varnish.
the red base colour.
This helps to lock in the graphite which can
otherwise cause smudging on the model,
through poor handling.

I now apply all


decals to the
mocei

Now I have to integrate


the decals with the
finished model...

... with which, after re-varnishing the model Removing the mask carefully so as not
in gloss varnish, I mask one of the panels and to damage the decals, and you will
apply a very faint brown transparent paint notice the subtle difference in tone
between the panel and the rest of the
model, including the portion of the Now, as the model has a glossy
decal that is inside this area. finish over the whole surface, I must mask
the panels as I did earlier, and apply matte varnish.

Here, we can see the effect achieved, with


differing reflective surfaces

With a dark brown enamel paint, mixed with X-19 Smoke from
Tamiya, I apply several thin applications to the area of the fuselage With masks, I paint the walkways, and
through which the rear exhaust pipes pass. This will create the weather them as shown in another chapter
overall effect of heat in this area. in this book.
276 IRCRAFT FAQ
On the undersides, in the area where
the exhaust pipes pass through, I
place tape onto a panel line, and with
the airbrush loaded with very diluted
black paint, with a drop very dark
brown added to it, I create the effect
of fluid seepage...

General appearance of the


lower area. I now airbrush
several areas with Tamiya
X-19 Smoke, around the area
...always airbrush this in the direction
of airflow, and after dry, remove the
masks.

Model completed and


ready for final assembly.

AIRCRAFT FAQ 277


7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTINGANDWEATHERING
7.3 THE JET AGE
7.3.2 SOVIET JET A AFT
7.3.2.1 Desert scheme. Example 1
So vie t a n d R u ssia n p la n e s a p p e a r ve ry rich in co lo ur, w ith th e ir sp e c ta cu la r c a m o u fla g e sc h e m e s th at
cre ate a g re a t ch ro m a tic intensity. T h is e ffe c t is ve ry in te re stin g to th e m o de lle r. A m o n g th e se sch e m e s
it is th e the d e se rt o n e s th a t are th e m o st a ttra ctiv e To illustra te th is, I w ill u se a 1/32 M iG -2 1 F-13 of
th e E g y p tia n A ir Force, fro m C h in e se m a n u fa c tu re r, Trum p ete r

always apply, as a general rule,


the lightest camouflage colour first
prepare the aircraft to begin painting
In this case, it's the blue-gray
phase, masking the cockpit and landing
for lower surfaces
gear wells. Then I apply the lighter camouflage
colour; yellow sand, for the
sinaces

with a neutral gray, and


using my airbrush in
freehand mode, I mark
the wavy lines of the
camouflage
pattern.

I fill the gaps between


the gray waves with a
camouflage green colour.

I retouch the junctions between


the colours in order to sharpen
the camouflage pattern.

A s this is an Egyptian aircraft which


operated under desert conditions.
I fade the yellow sand colour by
airbrushing a mixture of base
colour with a little white,
onto each of the panels
centers, from the
inside to the
outside I repeat the process over the
neutral gray wavy areas...

278 AIRCRAFT FAQ


..and finish the process of
highlighting by fading the
green colour in the same
manner as the other two
colours.

Now I mix the desert yellow with


some brown, and I darken a number
of panel lines that are painted in
that colour (desert yellow)...

Overview of the model with


... and ending the process with the same
repeat the operation on the neutral applied fading and wear
effect applied to the green colour, in
gray wave panel lines, taking care not
order to accentuate the appearance of
to encroach onto the other colours
wear over the whole
airframe

I perform the same


operation on the
lower surfaces
pf the rr odel.

For adding the Arabic


numbers to plane s
nose. I first mark them
with a pencil, and
then, with a 0.2mm
fountain pen loaded I repaint the numbers using
with black Indian the appropriate documentation
in k ... as reference

I seal the model with a layer of I add a pin wash to each


gloss varnish. and every panel and rivet
line, using a dark brown
wash. a

I fade the panels using white, gray and


ochre oil dots, blending them with a brush
dampened with white spirit

AIRCR,
I repeat again the whole
process using dark
brown wash on the lower
This is the appearance surfaces...
after 20 minutes of drying
... this is the general
time, and removal of the
appearance after
excess wash.
removing the excess
wash; with all lines
clearly accentuated.

I add the decals to the model.


I seal the work again with a
layer of gloss varnish.

I seal the work


again, but with
a layer of matt
varnish.

Now with pastels, I add another


degree of wear and tear by applying
chalk dots with a brush, in powder
form, before using a dry brush to
mix and blend these in the direction
of airflow.
With a silver watercolor With another watercolor pencil, this time in white or very
pencil, I add some light gray colour, I simulate scratches on the fuselage
chipping.

I apply a coat of matte


varnish to end the whole
process

AIRCRAFT FAQ 281


I CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATIIEIlING
U THE JET AGE
7.3.2 SOVIET J E T A ( A FT
7.3.2.2 Desert scheme. Example 2
T h is is a n o th e r e x a m p le o f a d e s e r t s c h e m e se e n o n R u ssia n a irc ra ft. In th is ca se , a n a ir c r a ft fro m th e
A fg h a n is t a n A ir Fo rce , w it h a s p e c ta c u la r f iv e -c o lo u r c a m o u fla g e , th e te c h n iq u e s a p p lie d to th is m o d e l
a re p e r fe c tly a p p lic a b le to th e R u ssia n E u ro p e a n " s c h e m e , w h ic h is q u ite sim ila r to th is d e se rt o n e
A s a n e x a m p le , I'll u se a M iG -2 1 fro m E d u a r d 's 1 /4 8 ra n g e

mask all areas that


I apply the inside cockpit colour, turquoise For painting the engines exhaust
will not be painted with the
blue, to the outside of the canopy. From the inside, the area, I first apply a base coat of
camouflage colours, such as canopy,
framework will be seen in this colour silver...
nose air intake, exhaust and landing
gear wells

I apply a light misting of smoke paint, which is Thats how it looks after removing the With a pencil, I mark the line separating
transparent enough to just slightly darken the masking tape. You can clearly see two the two rings, and fade the graphite away
silver colour previously applied. tones of silver in this area. from that line, using a flat tip brush.

... and I mask off the exhaust


nozzle ring with masking ta p e ..

A s always, I begin with


the lightest colour
In this case, it s the
I now mask off the blue sky for the lower
exhaust area that has
just been finished. This With all landing gear wells, air
will of course prevent any intakes and exhaust orifices safely and with a mixture of that blue sky
damage caused by the masked, the plane is ready for the colour plus a drop of white. I airbrush the
main painting process. camouflage painting phase. highlights onto each of the panels on the
lower side.

282 AIRCRAFT FAQ


I now work on the upper
surfaces, applying the lighter
colour. In this case, it s yellow sand The next colour is dark I apply the light green colour,
brown, airbrushed with always taking care not to
freehand control. overspray the other colours...

I end this process by applying


the dark green colour to General view of
and continue
complete the camouflage the model with the
by adding the
scheme. finished camouflage.
reddish brown
colour

I start the fading


process by adding highlights of
As the whole yellow to the sand zone, using a mixture of 8 0 % yellow
camouflage process is applied sand colour with 2 0% white
freehand, it is appropriate to review
the junctions between the colours, to
be sure everything looks alright...

and the same for light


green areas

I proceed with the same


operation on the earth
coloured zone, using a little
white mixed with the earth
colour...

...and I end by fading the


reddish brown and dark green areas
always using the proportion of 8 0 % of
base colour, with 2 0 % of a lighter colour,
for providing the corresponding
highlights to each panel.

283
General viewafter
camouflage application
and fading.

With a gray
watercolor pencil, With an HB hardness graphite
I add small scratches pencil, I outline maintenance
to the fuselage. With a accs coven eu
gray watercolour pencil
I add small scratches to
the fuselage

When the gloss varnish is dry,


I apply the kit decals for an
It s time to apply a coat of gloss varnish
Afghanistan Air Force aircraft.
in and protecting the work so far
These are then sealed under
extra gloss varnish.

I put several dots of oil paints on and with a flat brush, I blend
the surface of the w ing in order to the oil dots together, always in
reproduce general wear... the direction of airflow

284 iRCRAFT FAQ


General appearance after the Again, I apply a
decaling and oil paint process. light coat of gloss varnish.

... I let the wash dry for 15


panel lines with a dark brown to 20 minutes...

...and I then remove the excess wash


with a cloth and a flat brush, wiping
in the direction of airflow.

Final appearance of the model, after applying


a coat of satin or matte varnish, according to
the preference of the modeller.

AIRCRAFT FAC 285


. SPECIAL FINISHES AND MARKINGS
8.1 IIIIIINT AREAS
- O n e o f th e m o s t c u r io u s e ff e c t s o n m a n y a irc ra ft, is t h e d e te rio ra tio n
* 6 f th e p a in t o n th o s e p a rts w h e r e a lo t o f h e a t c a u s e s th e p a in t to
fa d e , fla k e , o r e v e n d is a p p e a r to ta lly. A s a n e x a m p le , I w ill s h o w o n e
o f th e a ir c r a ft o n w h ic h th is e ffe c t is m o re p ro n o u n c e d , th e F -1 0 0
S u p e r S a b re . In th is p a r tic u la r c a s e th e m o d e l w ill b e th e T ru m p e te r
re le a se , in 1/32 sca le

After painting the entire aircraft, I prepare this area so I apply a base layer in silver. In this Now with a darker metallic shade, I paint
that I can start the painting phase case, I use A ldad lacquer the rear of the fuselage

With another silver colour, I apply the dark metallic With a smoke colour, I darken the center of Again, using a very dilute smoke, I
areas between the panel lines and the rivets. each of the panel lines. apply a thin coat around the front of
the metallic area.

With clear orange, also very diluted, I paint the central


To create the effect of scorched paint.
With a very dilute clear blue, I shade some panel and areas between the lines of rivets, creating the feel of
I first apply a sand or very light beige colour
rivet lines around the rear of the fuselage. "burning on these panels at the rear of the fuselage.
to most, but not all of the rivet and panel lines.
I apply the first color, following the reference marks I I now apply the second camouflage colour, I end the process in the same way. using the third
previously added with a marker to the m asking tape again very diluted, allowing me to control colour. If this is to your own taste, you can leave
covering the tail. These marks allow me to recognize the opacity as I apply paint layers. it here, as you will have effectively created the
where the camouflage pattern would have been. appearance of scorched paintwork.

For me, however, I decided to apply a few I remove the mask to reveal the result of I mark the rivet and panel lines with a
extra layers of dilute paint. the techniques I have used. pencil, or a dark brown wash.
- T h e f ir s t ru le in p a in tin g a n a ircra ft, o r p a rt o f it, in b la c k , is n e ve r to
" "b ctu a lly u se b la c k . In ste a d , I a lw a y s re c o m m e n d T a m iy a X F - 6 9 N A T O
' B la c k, w h ic h is a n e xtre m e ly d a r k gra y, a n d u se it a s it w a s b la c k . T h is
a c tu a lly a llo w s yo u to u se b la c k itself, fo r s h a d in g . A s a b a s ic e x a m p le
o f b la c k p a in t a p p lica tio n , I w ill u se a 1/32 F -4 D P h a n to m , fro m T am iya.

Now, with a slightly


I apply a base layer of
lighter gray, I detail
NATO Black (Tamiya
a number of small
XF-69) over all the
panels.
lower surface of the
model.

With a heavily diluted


neutral or medium
gray paint, I lighten all ...then with a
panels, creating a very very dilute black,
distinct contrast... I reduce the
overall contrast
by airbrushing
several coats over
the whole work,
until just the
right contrast is
obtained.

With several shades of


brown applied to the rear
fuselage/exhaust area, I
create the appearance of
lost fluid, and always in
the direction of airflow.

After emphasizing the fluid leaks in


the engine area, I remove the masks to reveal the overall effect.

290 MRCRAFT FAQ


. SPECIAL FINISHES AN MA UNI S
8.3 CIIECKEHI OAM)
T h e c h e c k e r b o a r d in t h e p la n e s is o n e o f th e m o s t s t rik in g p a in t
sc h e m e s th a t e x ist a n d it c a n se e m h a rd to d o it. It is a c tu a lly re lative ly
easy, b u t te d io u s. T h e se cre t lies in th e rig h t d iv isio n o f th e ch e q u e rs,
so all th e sq u a re s a re p ro p o rtio n a lly eq u a l.

I paint the piece in white and then draw the paint the piece in white and then draw l repeat the same process, but now alternatively cover every vertical
lines around the hood, where the masks will the lines around the hood, where the over the wide part of the hood band of the checkerboard
be placed. masks will be placed

Same process with the horizontal bands I airbrush with black I remove the masks, allowing the first
part of the checkerboard to be visible

Now, I use fine pieces of tape to and I mask it, leaving only the squares
delimit the black squares of the first which will painted in black, to finish the
part of the checkerboard checkerboard

AIRCRAFT FAC 291


Example 2
Here. I w ill p a in t th e ru d d e r o f a 1/32 F -8 C ru sa d e r, fro m T ru m p ete r. A g a in
in v e stin g tim e in p la n n in g th e m a s k in g s t a g e w ill sa v e a lo t tim e d u r in g th
e p a in tin g p ro ce ss.

Count the squares that make up the rows


I mask the entire perimeter of the With a pen, mark a half-way point on rudder of checkers, from top to bottom, and across I now remove alternate
rudder. both on the top and on the bottom each of these areas, I place a strip of tape. strips of tape.
running the full width of the rudder

Based on the marks I made with the apply the first colour. In this case, red Now, with the same strips that had been previously used, I cover the
pen at the top and bottom, I place red areas that I have just applied
another piece of tape down the
length of the rudder

Again I place the piece of tape which runs down


the length of the rudder, using the guide marks I
previously added

Rudder completely finished, with red and


white checkerboard. This technique is also
applicable for checkerboards with more
rows of squares.

again apply the red colour.

292 IRCRAFT FAQ


A ir c r a ft th a t p a rticip a te d in th e D -D a y in v a sio n , fro m J u n e 1 9 4 4 o n w a rd s, w e re
"p a in te d w ith b la c k a n d w h ite id e n tifica tio n strip s, a n d fo r m e. th e se p ro v id e a

IB
se rio u s a m o u n t o f eye c a n d y , a n d g iv e visu a l rich n e ss to th e m o d e l. I a b so lu te ly
d e c la re m y se lf a lo ver o f th e se strip e s! A s a n e xa m p le , I w ill a p p ly th e m to a
1/32 P -5 1 B , fro m Trum p eter.

After having .
completely painted the I now mask the entire I apply the first layer
plane's main scheme colour, aircraft to avoid any overspray of the two colours. In this
I outline the width of the of invasion ruining the rest of model during case I use white, which is
stripes, on both the wings and fuselage. the next painting phase. of course the lighter colour
of the two.

I mask with tape the


sections that will remain
white, using the dots as my
reference as to where the tape
Once the paint dries, I measure the total width With a pencil, I mark the front and rear of the wing
will be applied. Here there are three
of the area, and divide it by five. with a few pencil points.
white bands, and two of black.

Final result after


removing the masks. All
that remains is to blend
them together with the rest
of the aircraft, with the final
weathering stages

I apply the matte black

293
8. SPECIAL FINISHES AND MARKINGS
8.f>METAL WEATHERING
- N o t all a ircra ft w ith a n atura l m e ta l o r m e ta llic fin ish m u s t a lw a y s b e c le a n . T h e y
w "ca n a lso e x h ib it w e a th e r in g a n d d irt. Fo r th is e xa m p le , I w ill u se th e w in g o f a
1/32 F - 8 4 G , fro m H o b b y b o ss

Once the plane is Once the wash is dry


painted and the decals applied, I remove the excess with a cloth
I mark the panel lines and rivets with a dark brown wash. in the direction of airflow.

Now, with a very dark brown oil,


.almost black (a smoke colour, for
example), I place very
E M k small quantities around
some of the panel
edges.

With a flat-tipped
brush, I blur the oil
into the surrounding
paintwork.

And now, with thinners (in this case,


With a bigger and wider brush,
WHum brol) and a very fine brush, I
I blend further, until it merges
^ ^ w a d d chipping to the areas in
completely with the rest of the
| j ^ \ w h j c h I blended the oil
model surface.
S A L , ' into the surrounding
^ \ paintwork

294 IRCR AFT FAQ


. SPECIAL FINISHES ANDNANKINGS
H. FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES SHADING
M a n y a irc ra ft o f th e S e c o n d W o rld W a r h ad fa b ric-co v e re d c o n tro l su rfa c e s
a n d to s h o w yo u h o w t o re cre ate th ese, I h ave c h o se n a 1/32 B f 1 0 9 E -4 , fro m
Edu ard

With all the aircraft being painted, and with the


decals applied, I mask the fabric-covered structures
of the airplane's control surfaces

I apply a layer of heavily diluted matte


black (90% solvent of its own brand, or
96 alcohol, and 10% of black) over the
inner structures of the control surfaces,
creating depth and contrast to the regular
fixed wing and fin surfaces

296 IRCRAFTFAQ
8. SPECIAL FINISHES AND MARKINGS
8.7 SHARK MOUTH
11.7.1 SHARK MOIITII OK M i l
O n e o f th e m o st s trik in g d e ta ils w h ic h yo u ca n a p p ly to a n a ircra ft, is th e in fa m o u s s h a rk 's m o u th w h ic h w a s se e n o n so m e
n o se s. T h e u se o f d e c a ls for th is e ffe c t is o fte n d iffic u lt b e c a u se th e c o m p o u n d c u rv e s o f th e a irp la n e s n o se , m a k in g d e c a l
p la c e m e n t ve ry c o m p lic a te d . T h e a lte rn a te a n s w e r for re p ro d u c in g th is sp e c ta c u la r d e c o ra tio n is to ca re fu lly m a sk y o u r
m o d e l. To s h o w y o u th is ta sk . I'll u se a Bell P -3 9 , a n d I'll ca re fu lly e xp la in e a ch o f th e ste p s w e h ave to u n d e rta k e o rde r
to cre ate th e sh a rk m o u th

Before we start, we need to have all


possible information at hand, so we are
able to perfectly reproduce the design. I
will use a large illustration of a P-39 with
shark mouth on its nose. I now mark
the drawing contours, using as a guide
the panels lines on both the illustration
and the model. This allows me to fix the
perimeter of the mouth onto the model.

After gently outlining the perimeter of the


mouth with a sharp pencil, I apply a couple
of thin strips of masking tape (the thinner
the better to adapt to the contours) to
mark the boundaries of the mouth

From the contour lines outwards, I mask the nose area I apply the base colour, which is matte Now, to recreate the shape of the mouth
around the shark mouth black in this case. again mark the outlining penmeter with a
very thin piece of masking tape.

Now, with the outline in place,


I perform the same operation,
putting a piece of tape up
against the perimeter one.
This will mask out what will
become the black edging to
the mouth.

am about to start separating


the a Durswithin the mouth
For this I put a thin strip of
masking tape to divide the
black zone from the red one

297

I start with the lightest colour, red, which


simulates the tongue in the mouth... and this is the result

The process now becomes complicated at this point. I first draw with a pencil, the , and then I must fill in the gaps between the teeth, as best as I can to avoid any overspray i
outline of the teeth, and then mark this out with extra-thin strips of masking tape other parts of the mouth

I apply the white on I then care-


the teeth area. fully remove the teeth
masks, and we can
see how the mouth
looks after the work
so far.

When all masking is removed, we can see how this looks Many shark mouths had no eyes, but others, as in this case, have I apply the white
against the camouflage colours. them. For this. I have to paint them, and I now make a mask to help colour
me apply the eye shape.
298 IRCRAFT FAQ
I then remove the mask I repeat the process by adding the masks for the blood drops falling from the mouth. I now paint the blood drops with red paint.

and again Now. w ith a very sharp


am penci
oencil. I Using the pencil line a s a guide, I outline the
l remove the masking: online the shape of the eyes iris iris with red pamt, using a very fine brush...

and I complete the I conclude the work with the final


process by painting a effects, such as the comers of the lips ^
black dot in the center and eyebrows, all painted with a very fine
of the iris to simulate the brush and a lot of patience.
pupil, and then outlining
the blood drops in black

AIRCRAFT FA 299
. SPECIAL FINISHES AND MANKINDS
a.7 SHANK MOUTH
11.7.2 S A III MOUTH ON M O
A n o th e r o f th e m o st fa m o u s a irc ra ft o f W W II w a s th e C u r tis s P -4 0 . F ig h te rs
o f th is ty p e w e re a lw a y s ch a ra c te rize d by a la rg e sh a rk m o u th o n th e air
in ta k e o f th e e n g in e . S c a le m o d e l k its a lw a y s h a v e a d e c a l fo r th is, b u t in
so m e ca se s, it is a lm o s t im p o ssib le to p ro p e rly a p p ly th is d u e to th e c u rv a
tu re o f th e e n g in e co w l

T V w -v

After marking the outline of the mouth with a pencil, I


area outside of this region, to avoid overspray. First of all I apply a matte white base co a t

Then, using the decal as reference, I copy the teeth onto a After placing the teeth mask, I apply the matte red Now I make the tongue contour
piece of masking tape. After this. I place the teeth mask over that simulates the tongue mask, with its particular shape
the white zone

I add black paint to the


upper part of the mouth,
creating depth to the
mouth

>

After removing all


masks, the shark
jaws are revealed

30 0 IRCRAFT FAQ
Again I repeat the process of masking, but this time for painting the
eyes; Firstly, I draw the eye contour onto a piece of masking tape
and then I cut it out, and put it on place on the model I apply the matte white remove the mask with care
co our

Appearance
of the mouth Again, with the fountain pen, I
With a fountain pen filled with black and eye outline the jaws with black.
Indian ink, I outline the shape of the
eye and its iris. This work can also be
done with a very fine brush

Final view, with


everything now
complete

Wf

301
I take as my base, a round piece of DM pressboard and I trace a baseline along which to start laying From the center of the base, I place the first section
wooden strips that simulate the planking of the flight the planks. of the deck using white glue as my adhesive, and
deck. from this starting point I then begin to lay the
remainder of the planks.

With patience, and always trying to keep the planks When I ve placed a number of planks, I cut them back Slowly I fill the surface with wooden planks
parallel to each other, I lay the sections and allow them to the perimeter of the base
to overlap the edges of the board.

After marking
Here, the surface is now completely Next, I use a sheet of the anchor points on the
finished, with all planks in place. photo-etch parts, and surface, using a drill bit, I
place anchor points on then drill the holes where the
the deck. anchor points will be placed.

304 / AIRCRAFT FAQ


I apply a layer of neutral gray, but very diluted with alcohol, so that once dry. the With German gray, I begin to shadow to the anchor points and some of the
wood can still be seen. This gives a visual appearance of heavy use. planks of the deck so as to give greater volume.

Now with the base painted, I


add masking tape to the flight and then the yellow stripes
deck, marking the positions of
the white stripes

Once the paint is dry, all


masking tape is removed

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 305


With a flat brush, ^
With a black watercolor dipped in water, I proceed to
pencil, I mark all lines between the deck planks, to simulate caulking. blur all the lines I had drawn with the watercofor pencil.

With a sponge, slightly dampened with matte


Surface appearance after
black paint, I start to lightly mark the deck in a
all the procedures so far
manner similar to dry-brushing.
applied.

Again with the black watercolor With a light gray watercolor


pencil, I proceed to simulate the tread marks on the pencil, I proceed to add small scratches to the surface of the flight deck.
surface of the flight deck.

With a 2000 grit sanding sponge, I will


Tightly rub over the whole surface to
integrate all of the effects, and apply a
general weathered appearance to the
whole surface.

306 AIRCRAFT FAQ


Flight deck completed

For those who wish to save some time, the Czech


company Eduard offers a range of pre-painted
photo-etched aircraft carrier deck bases in various
scales, which are easy to use, and have a very
realistic appearance

307
To create a little more volume, I add numerous small stones onto the edge of the
Appearance of the ground after the processes surface. These are stuck to the base using very dilute white glue
are applied

I finish the base with the


addition of some vegetation
and cans. Finally. I remove the
masking tape from the edge of
the base.

Small scene
completely
n :-nec

AIRCRAFT FAQ 309


9. CREATINGA SCENE
9.3 concrete apron
T he re are d iffe re n t co m m e rc ia l k its a va ila b le to re p re se n t th e c o n cre te h a rd sta n d s w e
-so m e tim e s se e o n a irfie ld s. W e w ill m a k e o u rs fro m s a n d p a p e r a n d sm o o th p la stica rd
sh ee t. T h is kin d o f te rra in c a n b e u se d to e a sily a n d e ffe c tiv e ly d isp la y a n y a ircra ft fro m
W W II o r fro m a m o re m o d e rn era. W h e n w e w o rk w ith b a s e s th a t co n ta in sq u a re
e le m e n ts su ch a s th e se , it is b e st to a vo id th e c o n v e n tio n o f m a k in g e v e ry th in g a p p e a r
p aralle l to e a ch o th e r w h e n w e a d d v a rio u s o th e r e le m e n ts su ch a s e q u ip m e n t, a n d
o f co u rse , th e aircra ft.

To reproduce the concrete pavement, I will use I divide the styrene sheet into equal squares Next, I cut the sandpaper into pieces of the same size
Evergreen plasticard sheet and 500-grit wet sandpaper as the styrene squares created in the previous step, and
glue them together

To get rid of any possible flaws, I sand the edges of I then lay the squares diagonally against I also apply Das Pronto modelling clay into a small triangular
the squares, using a metal file. the edges of the board, leaving small gaps area in the upper left comer of the board, in order to create
between them, and subsequently cut them a basic ground texture which will spice up the base.
back to the perimeter of the base.
I continue the shading process by applying a mixture which
I start the painting process by spraying a base Next. I airbrush a light gray colour in a number of includes a little sand colour. Again, this is sprayed in a
colour layer of dark gray. random strokes, starting from the center and moving random manner, to add variety and richness to the surface
to the edges of each square

310

\ X _
I add a little black to the previous mixture, and use I reproduce some fuel and oil stains with AK-
With brown pigments, I additionally darken the joints
this to emphasize the joints between the pavements Interactive A K08 4 Engine Oil enamel.
between the pavements and create a dirty appearance
and simulate some subtle tire tracks.
of the areas that are adjacent to the joints.

I then focus on the small ground area in the I also add little pieces of Woodland Scemcs grass vinyl mat into I finish the base with the
corner. I airbrush several green tones over it, and the joints between the pavements, in order to create some small addition of a figure and barrels.
finish the grass with a yellow enamel paint, using vegetation that grows there.
the dry-brush technique
-

9. CHEATINGASCENE
9.4 VEHICLES
T h e in c lu sio n o f a v e h ic le a lw a y s h e lp s to sp ice u p a n a ircra ft d io ra m a . Eve n sm a ll a ssista n c e
ve h ic le s, a lo n g w ith so m e fig u re s, w ill b rin g th e w h o le c o m b in a tio n to life. W h e n c h o o s in g th e
vehicle th a t w ill fe a tu re o u r sce n e , it is im p o rta n t to ta k e its size in to co n sid e ra tio n , b e c a u se if
th e v e h ic le is to o b ig , it w ill d o w n p la y th e ro le o f th e a ircra ft m o d e l. I w ill illustra te th is se ctio n
w ith a c o u p le o f a ircra ft c a rrie r d e c k ve h icle s, w h ic h a re fu n to p a in t a n d d irty. S in c e th e re
a re n 't m a n y m o d e ls o f th e se ve h ic le s o n th e m a rke t, I w ill a lso s h o w y o u h o w to co n v e rt an
a va ila b le k it w ith so m e scra tch b u ild in g

I will use a 1/48 Jeep Willys I re-shape the rear


from Hasegawa, to build an I start by cutting the vehicle into of the vehicle, using pieces of
aircraft carrier deck vehicle from the 1950s two parts. The rear part is redundant for this project. plasticard, and remove the front
bumper

Next, I fair
I detail the front of the vehicle I modify the engine hood
over the front lights
with plasticard and copper wire. with pieces of styrene sheet.

The seat and other equipment which is specific for the The hoses are made from tin wire.
I place the steering wheel and an additional carrier deck vehide is also built from plasticard and
instrument panel inside the vehicle. thin copper wire, and glued with cyano.

Although some parts will be left


separate for the painting stage, I
dry fit them to avoid any problems
312 AIRCRAFT FAQ during the final assembly
With the gray primer layer, I achieve unification of the I apply a base coat of I emphasize the panel lines with a wash, and add
various materials. yellow, tinted with a little paint chips and small scratches.
orange, over all parts of
the vehicle.

The finished vehicle.

A n o t h e r e x a m p le o f a ir c r a f t c a r r ie r d e c k v e h ic le , p a in t e d in g r e y .

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 313


B-25J Mitchell

AIRCRAFT FAO 323


Phantom II
342 , IRC RAFT FAQ
DEDICATED TO

This book firstly like to dedicate my family, my parents Rosi and Dani, and my
brothers David and Nuria.
Especially my father who has always supported me, encouraged and given forces in
the most difficult moments of my life and that is and always will be a landmark in my
life.
Last but not least, I want to dedicate this book also my good frie n d s...
Sebastin Salazar Ortega
Alberto Hernndez Rubio
Pablo Montero Tapia
Ramiro Mayordomo Pinero
Miguel Neff Martinez
Toms de la Fuente Maganto
Javier Lpez de Anca
Josu Arvalo
Many thanks to all the AK-Interactive team. Fernando, Enrique, Perico, Pedro. Jalal,
Horten, Eva. Sandra. Jam es and Matthew.
With my father, my grandfather and my great grandfather Paco Casimiro
Thanks to Jose Maria Martinez Fernndez "Chema" for his collaboration in this book
with a magnificent section of the First World War.
To all of them, and all those who during all these years you have always treated me
with love and affection, thanks.

384 URCRAFT FAQ


Eduard plastic kit production line is
supplemented with a wide range of both
Brassin and photo-etched accessories.

BRASSIN ACCESSO RIES PH O TO -ETCH ED ACCESSO RIES


672008 MiG-15 ejection seat 72575 MiG-15/ MiG-15bis exterior 672020
672007 MiG-15 wheels 72574 MiG-15 landing flaps
672021 MiG-15 airbrakes
672022 MiG-15 cockpit PAIN TIN G M A SK
672020 MiG-15bis airbrakes CX375 MiG-15 Weekend
672024 MiG-15bis cockpit
672028 SR-55 rocket pod
672023 OFAB-100 bomb
672009 S-21 Soviet unguided rocket

1 2 0 2 1

15. /B
672009 <

672007

672028