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Frequently Asked Questions about techniques

used for constructing & painting aircraft


byJM. Villalba

l k wk |
K3
F re q u e n tly A s k e d Q uestions

Frequently A sked Questions


about techniques used
for constructing & painting a irc ra ft

JM. Vill

ANDREA
IN D E X
INDEM

INTRODUCTION

1 The book

1.1 In tro d u c tio n .................................. .13

2 Considerations before starting

2.1 How to use this b o o k ......... 16


2.2 How did aircraft scale models e u o lu e ? ...................................................... 16
2.3 What do I need to take into account before selecting a kit? . ........... 17
2.4 How mang and w hat tools do I n e e d ? ........... 17
2.5 I t is necessarg to carrg out research before making a m o d e l? ........................ 17
2.6 Superdetailing scale m odels .....................................................................17

3 The w ork enuironment and time

3.1 How much space do I need for mg hobbg? .................................................. 18


3.2 Working w ith sufficient lig h t ................................................................... 18
3.3 Making the hobbg safe ......................................................................... 19

TECHNIQUES

FIRST STEPS

4 On opening the bon

4.1 What do I need to look at f i r s t ? ..............................................................22


4.2 Separating and protecting decals and transparencies .................................... 22
4.3 How do I handle the s p ru e s ? .................................................................. 23
4.4 Whg is it w orthw hile to check the parts before s ta r tin g ? ............................. 23
4.5 Whg is it important to plan the order o f assemblg and painting? .................... 23

5 Basic assemblg tools

5.1 Scissors and cutters ............................................................................ 25


5.2 Modelling knives ................................................................................. 25
5.3 Tweezers ......................................................................................... -26

6 Liquid glues

6.1 What glues can I use on mg model? ........... ............................. ............... 26


6.2 How do I use polgstgrene liquid glue? ...................................................... 26
6.3 What tgpes o f cganoacrglate are the most a p p ro p ria te ? ................................ 27
6.4 How do I use cganoacrglate? .................................................................. 27

7 First questions about paintbrushes and their usage

7.1 What paintbrushes are themost a p p ro p ria te ? ............................................. 28


7.2 What paints should I usewhen painting w ith a paintbrush? .................. 29
7.3 How do I successfully paint fine lines w ith a paintbrush? ....... ........ ............. 29
7.4 How do I apply a base coat w ith a paintbrush? .......................................... 38
7.5 How do I clean and maintain my p ain tb ru s h e s ? ..................................... 31
Index

8 First questions about the airbrush


8.1 Ufhat is im portant to know when choosing an airbrush? ................................ 31
8.2 How do I load the airbrush? ........................... 32
8.3 What air pressure do I use? .................................................................... 32
8.4 How do I apply a base c o a t ? ................................................................... 55
8.5 How can I paint subtle effects w ith an airbrush? ........................................ 34
8.6 How, and when do I need to clean the a irb ru s h ? ........... ............................ 34

COCKPITS HND INTERIORS

9 Building a cockpit straight from the bon

9.1 What does building straight from the bon' m e a n ? ....................................... 36


9.2 How do I prepare the p a r t s ? .................................................................. 36
9.3 What is 'dry fitting' and w hat purpose does it serve? ................................... 57
9.4 Rre seat belts an enception to building straight from the b o n '? ...................... 38
9.5 How do I make my own seat b e lts ? .......................................................... 38

10 Painting a cockpit built straight from the bon

10.1 Why do I need to paint the parts w ithout touching th e m ? ............................. 40


10.2 What do I need to take into account before applying the basecoat, and how do I do it? .41
10.3 Why emphasize the effe ct o f uolume o f the p a r t s ? ...................... ............. 41
10.4 What is an outline and how do I apply i t ? ................................................. 42
10.5 What purpose is served by the technique o f dry brushing and how do I do it? . . .42
10.6 What purpose is served using washes, and how do I do it? ......................... 43
10.7 How do I paint a cockpit side panel step by s t e p ? ..................................... 44
10.8 How do I paint a s e a t? ....................................................................... .46
10.9 How do I make an instrument panel using d e c a ls ? ..................................... 48

11 Rssembly o f a cockpit w ith m ulti-m edia elements

11.1 What is a cockpit w ith m ulti-m edia elements? ......................................... 49


11.2 What precautions do I need to take with resin p a r t s ? .................................... 50
11.3 How do I clean resin p a r ts ? .................................................................. 50
11.4 How do I prepare the model before fitting the resin p a rts ? ...................... . . .52
11.5 How do I cut, handle and attach photo etched parts? ................................. 54

12 Painting a cockpit fitte d w ith m ulti-m edia elements

12.1 What special care do I need to take w ith a cockpit containing fragile parts? .. .55
12.2 How do I paint an instrument panel that includes photo etched m etal? .......... 56
12.3 How do I paint a cockpit containing m ulti-m edia elements .......................... 57
12.4 How do I paint a modern aircraft seat made o f re s in ? .................................60

13 Painting the wheel wells

13.1 How do I paint and w eather the wheel w e ll s ? ........................................... 62

14 Rssembling and detailing engines

14.1 How do I clean up the engines w ithout damaging the detail? ....................... 65
14.2 How do I detail an engine? .................................................................. 66


Index

15 Painting engines

15.1 How do 1 paint a radial engine? .............................................. ........... 67


RSSEMBLV RND TRERTMENT OF SURFRCES

16 Joined panels and surfaces

16.1 How do I eliminate a panel line or a surface s c r a tc h ? ................................. 70


16.2 Uihg repeat the riuets? ...................................................................... 71
16.3 How do I make a riv et w ith a serrated ring to o l? ......................................... 71
16.4 How do I make a riv et w ith a n eed le? ..................................................... 72
16.5 How do I close a fuselage jo in ? ............................................................. 73
16.6 What is puttg and how do I use it? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................... .74
16.7 How do I sand and w hat are the best sandpapers? . . .................................75
16.8 What do I use to scribe panel lin e s ? ....................................................... 76
16.9 How do I cut flging surfaces to create an effe ct o f m o tio n ? ......................... 77

PRINTING TECHNIQUES

17 Protecting pre-painted areas

17.1 How do I applg a mask to protect a pre-painted a re a ? .................................... 81


17.2 How do I seal the m a s k ? ..................................................................... 81
17.3 What precautions do I need to take w ith the mask? ........................... . .82

18 Before applging paint

18.1 References for authentic colours ................................................. .......... 82


18.2 How do I choose the appropriate p a in t s ? ................................................. 82
18.3 Whg is it important to avoid handling alreadg painted areas? ........... ................ 83
18.4 To avoid handling, where do I begin painting the m o d e l? ............................. 83

19 Masks for delineating outlines and edges

19.1 What tgpes o f edges can I obtain using different masks? ................ .84
19.2 How do I applg a mask to get a hard e d g e ? .............................................. 84
19.3 How do I applg a mask to get a semi-hard edg e? ........................................... 85
19.4 How do I applg a mask to get a soft ed g e? ................. ....................... . . .86

20 Rirbrushing from a distance

20.1 How do I make a stain or f le c k ? ............... 87


28.2 How do I make a fine or blurred lin e ? ...................................................... 88

21 Special finishes

21.1 How do I paint a simulated wood s u rfa c e ? ................................................ 88


21.2 How do I paint a bare m etal s u rfa c e ? ...................................................... 98

22 Panel lines

22.1 Whg emphasize panel lines? ................................................................. 92


22.2 How do I emphasize the lines w ith a pencil? ............................................. 93
22.3 How do I emphasize the lines w ith a paintbrush? ................. .93
22.4 How do I emphasize the lines w ith an airbrush? ........................................ 94
Index

23 Shadows and highlights on the external paint

23.1 What are shadows and highlights on scale model painting


and w hat function do theg fulfil? .......................................................... 95
23.2 How do I applg shadows and highlights? ................... .............................. 95
23.3 What is p re-sh ad in g ? .......................................................................... 97

24 Scratches and bare patches

24.1 What is the difference between a scratch


and a bare patch and in what areas can I reproduce th e m ? .............................. 97
24.2 How do I reproduce scratches and bare p atches? ........................................ 98

25 Oil and fluid stains

25.1 Where should I reproduce oil and fluid s ta in s ? ........................................... 99


25.2 How can I simulate oil and fluid s ta in s ? ...................................................99

26 Exhaust stains

26.1 Where should I simulate exhaust s t a in s ? ................................................. 99


26.2 How do I paint exhaust s ta in s ? ............................................................ 188

27 Uarnish

27.1 What kinds o f uarnishes are there and how do I use o n e ? ........................... 188
27.2 How do I applg a uarnish b a s e ? ............................................................ 188

DECHLS HND POINTING NHTIONHL INSIGN 18

28 Decals

28.1 Decals and decal setting solutions ....................... ................................ 181


28.2 Whg cut out a decal and how do I do it? ................................................ 181
28.3 How do I separate a decal from the carrier film ? ............................... 182
28.4 How do I applg a decal? ............................................................. 184
28.5 How do I attach a decal to a painted s u rfa c e ? .................................. 184
28.6 How do I keep a decal inuisible when it cannotbe cut? ......... 185

29 Painting national insignia and numbers

29.1 When do I paint national insignia and numbers? ....................................... 185


29.2 What process do I follow when painting anational insignia or n u m b e rs ? .......... 186

38 Graphics o f painting

38.1 Graphic o f painting the upper s u rfa c e s ................................................... 189


38.2 Graphic o f painting the undersides ........................................................ 118

FINHL FINISH

31 Parts to be assembled at the end

31.1 What parts do I paint and assemble separatelg, and for w hat reason? 111


32 Propellers

32.1 How do I paint and w eather propellers? ............................................... I l l


33 Enhaust

33.1 How do I paint the enhaust on in-line e n g in e s ? ................................ . . . . . 1 1 4


33.2 How do I paint the enhaust on radial eng in es? ..........................................116

34 Landing gear

34.1 How do I clean a landing gear l e g ? ........................................................ 117


34.2 How do I detail a landing gear le g ? ..... 117
34.3 How do I paint a landing gear l e g ? ....................................................... 119
34.4 How do I replace the tgre tread? .........................................................128
34.5 How do I create the e ffe c t o f weight on a t g r e ? ........ 121
34.6 How do I paint a t g r e ? ....................................................................... 122
34.7 How do I paint the tgre t r e a d ? ............................. 123
34.8 How do I get readg to paint the landing gear bag doors? ............................ 125

35 Cannons and machineguns

35.1 How do I hollow out the barrel o f a cannon or m achinegun? ....................... 126
35.2 How do I paint a cannon or machinegun? ............................................... 127
35.3 How do I paint additional a rm a m e n t? .................................................... 129

36 Nauigation lights

36.1 How can I make nauigation lig h t s ? ....................................................... 132

37 Transparencies

37.1 How do I prepare transparencies? ...................................................... .135


37.2 How do I cut a transparencg to open the c o c k p it? .................................... 135
37.3 How do I mask a transparencg? ............................................................ 137
37.4 How do I paint a transparencg? ...... ........................................................ 137
37.5 How do I prepare a uacuum-formed tra n s p a re n c g ? .................................. 138
37.6 How do I attach a transparencg? ................. 139

38 Herials and rigging

38.1 What materials can I use to make an aerial or rig g in g ? .............................. 148
38.2 How do I prepare a model before attaching rig g in g ? ...................... .......... 142
38.3 How do I make an aerial wire? ............................................................ 143

39 Finishing the scale model

39.1 Hduice on presenting and preseruing a scale m o d e l .................................. 144

GHLLERY 145
F re q u e n tly A s k e d Q uestions

Frequently A sked Questions


about techniques used
for constructing & painting a irc ra ft

JM. Vill

ANDREA
1.1 Introduction the rush to see the scale model finished resulted in it often end
Vy first contact with scale models occurred in the toy section of ing up in the scrap box.
= arge store one Saturday afternoon: they were Airfix kits, and I Fortunately, my overriding passion for scale models helped me to
stiil clearly recall the hypnotic effect that the box top artwork had even overcome the painting phase and to finally have some com
on me. pleted scale models that afforded me the confidence to move on
r those days, Airfix classified each scale model by series on the to the next ones. Eventually, the old trial and error school gave
casis of their individual difficulty rating, starting with 1 and me better control over the painting, so much so that I arrived at
rcreasing according to size, complexity and number of parts. I the stage of making the airbrush the next step.
ery much wanted to buy one of the Halifax or B-24 kits, but my Almost in the same way as I had encountered Airfix kits, one day
eager budget would only allow me to buy a 1:72 scale a book about aircraft scale models appeared in my usual shop.
Vesserschmitt Bf 109 from Series 1. This was packed in a trans Titled On Plastic Wings and written by the world famous Belgian
parent blister around a box, with the latter bearing a magnificent modeler and kit manufacturer, Francois Verlinden, this publica
rawing of the aircraft in action. tion revealed some magnificently realized scale aircraft models
jn til the appearance of Airfix scale kits, the only available mod and, in addition, brought with it numerous ideas of how to make
es of aircraft were the ones you cut out of cardboard and stuck my models even more realistic. I devoured the book in just a few
ngether, or toys, either in plastic or cast white metal; the plastic hours, trying to absorb every ounce of its content, and in a few
odels, on the other hand, brought with them the possibility of weeks it had a well-worn appearance from the intense use it was
earning the history of each aircraft, they were in a definite scale subjected to. Today, it resides on my shelf along with other books
s"*d could be authentically decorated and, most important, it that definitively changed my way of viewing the art of making air
ade possible the opportunity of having at home a replica made craft models.
by oneself of those aircraft that, until then, had only been seen in The arrival of competitions gave me the possibility of teaching
encyclopedias and the Sunday movies. others about how I went about constructing my scale models,
Fnom that moment, I remember that any money I saved was used while also making friends with those who share the same pas
lo buy plastic kits. sion for the hobby. These were the times when cockpits were
Sc little by little, kits from the likes of Matchbox, Heller and constructed from plastic cut from any available containers, usu
Vonogram followed the arrival of Airfix, and with them the enthu ally of cleaning products, transparencies were polished with
siastic introduction of the hobby across the whole of Spanish toothpaste and photo etched parts were unheard of.
society. This soon resulted in the appearance of the first special- One day, the appearance of a photograph of one of my scale
st shops and with them came new challenges, such as painting. models in Model-making e Historia [Model-Making and History]
* must be remembered that up to then the goal had been to com magazine provided me with the greatest incentive to further
pete a scale model by assembling the parts as quickly as possi- improve my technique. Then, with my first articles having been
: e without getting too much glue in the wrong places. The arrival published, the possibility arose of my joining the technical team
of the first tins of Humbrol was as exciting as it was frustrating; of the magazine Todo Model Making, today titled Euromodelismo

o
Introduction

[General Model-Making and Euro Model Making, respectively]. It believe that not many hobbies can boast this effect.
was this experience that allowed me to perfect my techniques With regard to personal relations, model making also favours the
and which became the medium that today forms my lifes work establishment of clubs and associations where modelers can get
ing base. Furthermore, looking back, it represented, without to know others engaged in the hobby. In addition, the advent of the
doubt, one of the most pleasant interludes of my career. Internet brought with it an expansion of the hobby along with an
The growth of the model-making industry and the appearance of almost limitless interchange of information, with Web pages,
new kit manufacturers, along with the parallel rise of the after- forums and blogs making us aware of ideas and techniques that
market accessories industry, in addition to new magazines and probably we would otherwise never be exposed to.
work opportunities, caused me to consider the possibility of com Digital photography, another means of high-speed communication,
bining my other hobby, photography, in a professional manner makes it easy to teach everyone about the evolution of a scale
and interweaving it with model-making. Next came the difficult, model. All these things combine to afford us the possibility of
and life-changing decision to give up writing for magazines to fol receiving information and advice during the construction of a spe
low a solitary path. cific model. There is no doubt that the Internet has given us the fur
It is now over 30 years since Airfix first appeared in my life, and ther possibility of creating a global community of modelers.
more than eight since I took the decision to dedicate myself inde One further point that the hobby has in its favour is the potentially
pendently to photography and model making. For the moment, low cost of pursuing it. Admittedly, this point can be controversial
the story continues... Even after years of making scale models, as it is often dependent on the modelers situation, both financial
when I am asked my opinion of the hobby, I still say it is one of and geographic, and with the comparatively recent appearance of
the best pastimes one can have. Making static scale aviation after-market accessories for enhancing a particular scale model,
models, like that of cars and boats, etc, is a totally absorbing one may find oneself paying a final price that will appear high.
activity that bring with it immense satisfaction. However, as with all things, each of us will view this from different
Model making provides us with the possibility of creating our own viewpoints, so that the final valuation becomes relative.
works of art; it constantly imposes its own challenges to improve It is my opinion that the hobby is not expensive if compared with
our technical skill while creating the capacity for observation and other activities or pastimes. While a cinema or concert ticket may
analysis that does not figure in many other hobbies. cost less than a scale model with accessories, how many hours
The constant search for information with which to improve, com of diversion are offered by the construction and painting of the
plete or become familiar with a particular aircraft creates a direct scale model? Indeed, how much satisfaction and how many
link with the hobby through reading, reinforcing in a very important memories will it bring us when we see it year after year in the
way the cultural aspect of the activity. More than a few model-mak cabinet?
ers have, on the basis of gathering reference for making accurate So, if looked at from this viewpoint it can be considered an emi
scale models, turned themselves into historians; I sincerely nently accessible hobby.

6
Introduction

F -16
P hoto JM U illa lb a

-.rather controversial question is, What is the best scale? My ers understand the hobby, that new generations realize that it
:ersonal belief is that no scale is better than another; there are can be both more fun and more eminently more gratifying to be
TxxJel-makers who deprive themselves of the possibility of mak- able create something that is your own and which encompasses
ng a given model simply because it is not in their scale, thus part of your personality than to live in a world that ends when you
making it a barrier that cannot be crossed. However, I think that attain the highest score and then disconnect the console.
i n e model-maker's first commandment is I will have fun, then
r e difference in scales need not be a problem,
rdeed, in my cabinet I have models of various scales sharing
r e same space, and I can only say that I enjoyed in equal meas-
-re making everything, be it an Grumman Avenger in 1/48 or a
Vesserschmitt Bf109 in 1/72.
* is undoubtedly true that the larger size of an aircraft that is
available in different scales may allow the inclusion of more
oetails. Then again, even this is perhaps an outdated idea from
le n an empty cockpit was difficult to add extra detail. Today,
ra .sever, one has only to look through the after market parts cat-
sogues to see the vast range of accessories available that will
enable us to convert a 1/72 aircraft kit with few parts into a spec
tacular, award-winning scale model.
= j t our hobby, controversy aside, also has its problems. That
mch is most evident is trying to attract new adherents from
among the young. It seems so difficult trying to get a
12-year-old to understand that it is better to sit at a table to sand,
? je together and paint a model for several hours than to sit at a
games console and pilot virtual aircraft or to develop digital per
sonalities.
Our hobby is damaged by a mistaken idea that others see us as
producers of scale replicas of machines of war while obscuring
re technical, historical and cultural aspects.
Paradoxically, the violence produced by model making is nil in
comparison to that stemming from some of the video games
jsed daily for much less time.
I is incumbent on us, through our ability to share and make oth

6
Introduction

2. CONSIDERATIONS BEFORE STARTING

With regard to the photographs appearing in the book, I


2.1 How to use this book?
must confess that, of course, the development of the
During the development of this book, I have tried to have
actual techniques were carried out on the work table, not
the order of questions presented in such a way as to fol
against a blue background; the blue background is sim
low an ordered sequence of assembly and painting that
ply for aesthetics. Nevertheless, that said, the position
corresponds to a methodology in common use among
ing of the airbrush and paintbrushes and their distances
model-makers, so that each question and answer corre
from the surfaces have been made as realistic as possi
lates to a projected course of progress in the construc
ble within the limits dictated by photographic techniques.
tion and painting of a model aircraft.
Finally, I wish to add that in no case do I claim to sug
For example, the first questions concern a models inte
gest that the techniques explained in this book are the
rior, its assembly and painting, and then progresses to
only ones or, indeed, the best ones, neither do I claim to
how to close the fuselage and mount the wings, how to
be their author or discoverer. They are simply the ones
paint and age the model, and finally how to add the
used by me and which have produced good results for
decals and complement it with additional details.
me and are, therefore, those that I wish to teach in
However, it is likely that this structure cannot be followed
graphic form so as to share them with model-makers
for all scale models because certain constructions or
unfamiliar with them.
painting processes may require a different method that
As for my skill with this work, this will depend entirely on
would alter the sequence of application of the different
whether this book proves useful to you, the modeler, or
steps.
if some new model-maker joins our community. If this
happens then my efforts will have been worthwhile.

2.2 How did a irc ra ft scale models euolue?


The pioneering manufacturing companies, such as
Airfix, Matchbox, Heller, Monogram, etc, producing
scale aircraft models offered the fledgling model-maker
the comparatively inexpensive possibility of enjoying at
home, in reduced form, those fascinating flying
machines. Those of us who started in the hobby around
this time assembling those kits were used to spartan
cockpits, panels in relief and the fluctuating quality of the
decal sheets.
Fortunately for the hobby, todays advanced production
techniques applied to scale plastic models has resulted
in it being possible to assemble a kit using only the parts

6
Introduction

supplied in the box and having a super-detailed model


as an end product. Extremely fine, incisively etched
panel lines, complete cockpits that need no additional
detailing, hollow machine gun barrels, movable control
surfaces as separate parts and top quality decals, are
common in the latest generation kits.
Personally, I believe that this is wonderful. However, all
this should not make us look upon, say, a 1980s
Monogram kit, correctly assembled and painted, as a
lesser-valued scale model.

it is advisable not to skimp on the cost of an air


brush, the matter of an air supply can be addressed
in more affordable items, such as diaphragm com
pressors or compressed air containers. For the first
scale models I painted with an airbrush I used as an
air source an inner tube filled with a pedal pump.
Over time, other tools can be purchased on the
basis of your criteria of what can simplify a given
task or as a help in developing more complex tech
niques.

2 .5 I t is n ec essa ry to c a rry out res e a rc h


b e fo re m aking a m odel?
2.3 What do I need to take into account Any model can be constructed perfectly well just by
before selecting a kit? following the instructions included in the box.
Before choosing any model, it should first be assessed However, research allows us to complement our
whether the kit about to be purchased is compatible with hobby with knowledge of the aircrafts history, its
the free time one is able to dedicate to it. It is all too com technology and its function.
mon to overhear modelers decrying the fact that a kit In addition, by comparing scale models with actual
bought months ago is barely started and still languishes aircraft, we can determine their pros and cons, thus
in the box. This being because there are too many parts improving our observation skills.
and insufficient free time has diminished the motivation The different criteria that appear will also be the
that was so strong on the day of purchase. result of discussions that constantly increase our
Many would-be modelers who end up abandoning the knowledge, thus enriching the hobby.
hobby do so out of frustration brought on by the inability
to complete a model. So, it is important to assess the 2.6 S u p e rd e ta ilin g scale m odels
possibilities offered by our available free time. Thus,
affordable projects can be chosen that will provide more
in terms of amusement and fun than disillusionment,
thus improving our link with the hobby and allowing us
to progressively tackle more complex projects.
When buying a kit in advance for future assembly, it has
to be taken into account whether it is a model from an
established manufacturers catalogue list or from a limit
ed series from, say, a cottage industry short run manu
facturer. If it is the latter case, it is best to purchase a kit
of a model of an aircraft that has a particular appeal, oth
erwise it is sure to disappear and not be available when
you are ready to work on it.

2.4 How many and w h at tools do I need?


If one is of the belief that model making requires high After-market resin detailing kits, photo etched parts
expenditure for tools and not doing so is an obstacle and decal sheets that are different from those sup
to developing the hobby, it is an erroneous one. plied with the kit allow us to realize a personalized
Starting in this hobby does not require complicated version of our model or assist us in solving a partic
and costly tools, indeed just some side-cutter pliers, ular detailing problem(s) that would otherwise occu
a set of good tweezers, model knives, scissors and py too much of our time.
paintbrushes are sufficient to allow us to start and The after-market detailing industry has grown signif
finish a scale model. Also, these tools last a long icantly in recent years. This is good, as the growth
time! of this add-on activity will undoubtedly contribute to
The largest investment any would-be modeler will the hobby attracting new fans, thus allowing it to
have to make is an airbrush and compressor. While expand and endure.

6
Introduction

3. THE WORK ENVIRO NM ENT AND TIM E


3.1 Howmuch space do I need for my hobby?
I believe that, unlike other hobbies such as building radio controlled flying models or wooden sailing or power boats, the
development of static model making does not require too much space. In my case, the work table and the various tools
that I use are all concentrated in a small corner of my home, and a space such as this is more than sufficient if our pri
ority does not turn to building a model such as the 1/48 scale B36....
Static model making is also a reasonably clean hobby, that is, if we are careful with the paint overspray from the air
brush. The area around the workbench will remain comparatively clean and tidy thus ensuring that we remain part of
family life.

5.2 Working wi th sufficient One o p tio n is to use a lo w - e n e r g y bulb.


These can p ro d u ce a lig h t in te n s ity
light e q u iu a le n t to IB B w w h ile co n su m in g
One of the more important topics to take less th a n h a lf the p o w e r and p ro d u c in g
into consideration is the light source. m uch le ss h e a t. H o w euer, i f such a bulb
is to be used, m a ke su re th e lig h t g iu e n
There are modelers who prefer to use
o u t is w h ite , as som e m a n u fa c tu re rs
'daylight' bulbs, which work at a tempera p ro d u c e b u lb s th a t e m it lig h t w it h a
ture that allows them to emit a colour c le a r p re d o m in a n c e o f g re e n o r blu e . To
close to that of natural light. It has to be te s t th is, s im p ly p la c e a s h e e t o f w h ite
p a p e r b e n e a th th e lig h t b u lb and see
considered whether these lights are ideal w h a t to n a lity i t a cq u ire s.
for constructing and painting scale mod
els, if the possibility is taken into account
that when the scale model is completed it
will be displayed in a house or other
indoor areas that is lit by bulbs that tend
not to emit natural light, thus giving the
further possibility that the colours that
have been applied to the scale model The s u rfa c e on w h ic h th e m o d e l is to be
under our natural light source will appear c o n s tru c te d is as im p o r ta n t as th e lig h t
differently. 10OWatt lamps that emit white source. W o rk in g on a s u rfa c e th a t
r e fle c ts a lo t o f th e lig h t d im in is h e s th e
light work quite well. Any colours applied
c o n tra s t o f th e p a r t on w h ic h w o r k is
under this light will not vary over much b e in g done, and u is u a l fa tig u e w ill also
when a model is later viewed under the in cre a se .
customary light in our homes or when Thus, u sin g a d a rk s u rfa c e w ill h e lp to
a u o id lig h t r e fle c tio n , a d a rk g re y o r
they are displayed in competitions where
b la c k c a rd p la c e d on th e w o r k ta b le w ill
the exhibition areas may be illuminated a b so rb th e lig h t, th u s p re v e n tin g
using neon, halogen, etc, light sources. r e fle c tio n .
Introduction

3.3 Making the hobby safe


Although we may greatly enjoy our hobby, it must never be forgotten that for its development, materials, tools and prod
ucts will be used that can have an adverse affect on our health if we do not take simple, but necessary precautions.

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S a fe ty g o g g le s s h o u ld be an in d is p e n s a b le ite m C u ttin g h a rd p a rts w it h p in c e rs w ill, because


on th e w o r k ta b le , a lth o u g h th e y m a y o n ly be used o f th e p re s s u re e x e rte d b y th e c u ttin g edges, cause
fro m tim e to tim e, th e ir use m a y be n e e d e d to p re u e n t fra g m e n ts to f ly o f f a t h ig h u e lo c ity ; th is is a c le a r
d am age to o u r eyes. e xa m p le o f w h e n to use s a fe ty go g gles.

R s im p le fa ce m a s k is c a lle d f o r w h e n c u ttin g (e x c e p t as Rn g o o d e xa m p le o f w h e n to use a m a s k is w h e n filin g o r


a b o ue ) o r filin g o r s a n d in g p ie ce s, as th e se w ill g iu e o f f a t sa n d in g re s in p a rts ; th e fin e d u s t g iu e n o f f b y th is m a te r ia l is
le a s t s m a ll p a rtic le s . to x ic and can be in h a le d i f a m a s k is n o t used.

W hen p a in tin g o r u sin g s o lu e n ts, a m a s k f it t e d There a re a n u m b e r o f u o la tile a n d /o r to x ic p ro d u c ts


w it h a f i l t e r is re q u ire d . R s im p le m a sk th a t can be in c o n s ta n t use. To use th e se s a fe ly , w e m u s t
w o u ld n o t be c o m p le te ly e ffe c tiu e . a b id e b y th e w a rn in g s d is p la y e d on th e c o n ta in e rs .
Introduction

XF-54
NET 10ml (1/3 FL.Oi
\U y n

I r r ita n ts , i t is e s p e c ia lly im p o r ta n t th a t E n u iro n m e n ta l c o n ta m in a n ts : N e u e r p o u r, F lam m a ble: HIw a y s use and s to re these


w e do n o t in h a le a n y o f th e u a p ou rs, and sp re a d o r th ro w th is p ro d u c t in to the p ro d u c ts f a r fro m a n y h e a t o r p o te n tia l
s h o u ld also a u o id c o n ta c t w it h s k in and tra sh . UJheneuer th is ty p e o f p ro d u c t has s p a rk sources.
m ucous m em b ran e s. re a c h e d th e e n d o f its u s e fu l lif e a lw a y s
p u t i t in to a s u ita b le re c y c lin g c o n ta in e r,
l.e . one f o r p a in ts and so lu e n ts.

To disp o se o f p a in t re sid u e , ja m , o r o th e r P o u r a n y e xce ss p a in t in to th e c o n ta in e r, H fte r a n y p a in t is added, clo se th e j a r


p ro d u c t ja r s can be used. F irs t, p u t som e w h e n th e to ile t p a p e r is c o m p le te ly w it h a h e rm e tic a lly s e a lin y lid . HIw a y s
to ile t p a p e r in th e ja r , th is w ill s to p th e s a tu ra te d i t can be s a fe ly d isp o se d o f. fin a lly disp o se o f th e f u ll ja r s o f p a in t
c o n te n ts fro m s p re a d in y i f th e c o n ta in e r in th e c o rre c t c o n ta in e rs
g e ts a c c id e n ta lly b ro ke n . a t th e re c y c lin g p la n t.

W hen a n y sh a rp in s tru m e n t is n o t in use, o r a re b e in g S im ila rly , h a n d le a ll sh a rp to o ls, such as th e tw e e z e rs ,


tra n s p o rte d , a lw a y s e n su re th a t a n y s a fe ty d euice c o rr e c tly b y p ro te c tin g th e p o in ts w it h th e co u e rs
is in p la c e to a u o id a ccid e n ts. in w h ic h th e y w e re p u rch a se d .
Techniques

FIRST STEPS

ON OPENING THE BOX

4.1 Uthat do I need to look at first?


Before opening the bags of sprues, it is advisable to
examine as far as possible the condition of the parts.
Most manufacturers tend to pack all, or at least several
sprues in a single bag; some parts may have broken
during handling or transport.
Locating these defects early allows you to exchange the
kit for another, undamaged one.

4.2 Separating and protecting decals and transparencies

I t is q u ite com m on to fin d a n y tra n s p a re n t p a rts , R s e lf-s e a lin g b a g w ill p r o te c t th e tra n s p a re n c ie s


canopies, e tc ., p a c k e d to g e th e r w it h th e r e s t o f th e p a rts . fro m b e in g s c ra tc h e d o r d is c o lo u re d
These a re d e lic a te and e a s ily sc ra tc h e d , so ta k e th e m o u t u n t il th e y a re re q u ire d .
and p u t th e m in a s e p a ra te bag.

Decal s h e e t a re also o fte n The la rg e bags th a t h e ld th e sp ru e s can be use d to ke e p the


le f t u n p ro te c te d d e c a l s h e e ts sa fe . I f le f t o u t, th e y can e a s ily g e t d a m a g e d o r
in th e b o tto m o f th e bon. w e t w h ile th e m o d e l is b e in g c o n s tru c te d .
Techniques

4.3 Howdo I handle the sprues?

Sprues h o ld in g th e in d iv id u a l p a rts , som e o f th e m v e ry To a v o id a n y p o s s ib ility o f b re a ka g e ,


d e lic a te , can be fra g ile . I f h a n d le d ro u g h ly , th e y can be e a s ily c a re fu lly h o ld th e sp ru e s b y
b ro ke n . th e o u te r edges.

4.4 Ulhy is it worthwhile to check


the parts before starting?
By checking each part before starting, a clear idea can
be obtained of what we are going to work with. By so
doing, we will realize what parts require more work in
the way of cleaning up or, perhaps, further detailing.
Using this information, we can then start to calculate
the time required to assemble the model, thus making
it easier to plan the work.

4.5 Why is it important to plan the order o f assembly and painting?

Early planning of the assembly sequence and subse


quent painting will help to complete the scale model in a
reasonable time. Also, planned assembly and painting
will prevent the parts from being incorrectly assembled,
or having to re-touch the paint because it has been han
dled too much. This sort of activity unnecessarily
increases the time spent on the model and makes the
process overlong, so much so that making the model no
longer seems fun and, in many cases can cause the
modeler to abandon the project.
Not all scale models can be planned in the same way; it
The f ir s t s te p is to do th e r iv e tin g . Rt th is sta g e , i f a n y p a rts all depends on the type of process the individual model
a re d a m a g e d and th e re a re no sp a re s, th e re is o n ly one er wishes to develop. Generally, the modeler needs to
a lte rn a tiv e ... p u t i t in th e b in and b u y a n o th e r k it.
begin with the more complicated processes, such out
cutting flying surfaces or adding rivets, as these may
include the breaking of parts causing the work to stop.
However, for standard planning, it is best to start with the
interior, fitting and painting all the parts constituting it.
Next, proceed to the closing the fuselage, attaching the
wings, and tailplane.
With the fuselage and wings completed and attached,
work can begin on the general painting. Once this has
been done, the aircraft can be completed with the addi
tion of any accessory parts that have been purchased
separately.
N e xt, w it h th e r iv e tin g co m p le te d , As an example, let us look at the complete process of
f i t and p a in t th e in t e r io r d e ta ils . assembling and painting a Bf 109.


Techniques

M a k e re a d y a n d g lu e a ll th e p a rts th a t re q u ire a d d itio n a l w o rk , M a s k o f f a ll th e p re - p a in te d s u rfa c e s and cle a n th e re m a in in g


f o r e x a m p le lo w e rin g th e fla p s, and p o s itio n in g th e a ile ro n s . a re a s b e fo re b e g in n in g th e p ro ce ss o f g e n e ra l p a in tin g .

C o n tin u e b y p a in tin g th e w h e e l w e lls and th e u n d e rsid e s w h ile P a in tin g th e fu s e la g e re q u ire s th a t th e m o d e l be h a n d le d q u ite


h o ld in g th e m o d e l w it h b u b b le w r a p to a u o id d a m a g in g the, a lo t, so c a rry o u t th e w h o le p ro ce ss w h ile h o ld in g i t b y the
a lre a d y p a in te d u p p e r sides. w in g tip s.

Now, p a in t one w in g w h ile h o ld in g th e m o d e l R fte r a p p ly in g a c o a t o f u a rn ish ,


b y th e o th e r one th a t, a t th is p o in t, has y e t been p a in te d . fo llo w e d b y th e d e ca ls a n d a n o th e r c o a t o f u a rn ish ,
In e u ita b ly , p a in tin g th e re m a in in g w in g re q u ire s th e w o r k o f g e n e ra l p a in tin g is c o m p le te .
th a t th e m o d e l has to be h a n dled . So, h o ld i t b y
th e a lre a d y p a in te d o th e r w in g u sin g b u b b le w r a p .
By d o in g th is, n e c e s s a ry h a n d lin g o f the m o d e ls p a in te d
a re a s w ill be k e p t to a m in im u m .

P re p a re and p a in t a ll a c ce sso ry p a rts s e p a ra te ly , F in a lly, c o m p le te th e m o d e l b y a d d in g a ll th e e le m e n ts


as th is s im p lifie s th e w o rk . th a t haue been w o r k e d s e p a ra te ly .
Techniques

5. BASIC ASSEMBLY TOOLS


5.1 Scissors and cutters

M in ia tu re s c is s o rs a n d c u tte rs a re b a sic a sse m b ly to o ls. S p e cia lly d e sig n e d side c u tte rs , o r sn ip s f o r re m o u in g p a rts
C u tte rs a re s u p p lie d w it h e ith e r fin e tip s f o r s tr a ig h t c u ts o r fro m th e sp ru e a re use d b y p la c in g th e c u t t e r s f la t side
o th e rs f o r c u ru e d c u ts. T o g e th e r w it h a s e t o f sid e c u tte rs , a g a in s t th e p a r t to be re m o u e d . By d o in g th is, th e p a r t w ill be
th e se a re in d is p e n s a b le to o ls on the w o rk ta b le . s e p a ra te d c le a n ly fro m th e sprue.

Scissors f o r c u ru e d c u ts a re u e ry u s e fu l f o r c u ttin g in d iu id u a l Scissors w it h fin e tip s a re used f o r c u ttin g th in w ire , p la s tic


d ecals fro m a la rg e d e ca l sh e e ts, m a k in g b e lts , e tc. sh e e t, sa n d pa p e r, e tc.

5.2 Modelling knives

M od eling kn iu e s w ith e ith e r a s tra ig h t o r curued blade are tools The s tr a ig h t- e d g e d s c a lp e l is use d f o r c u ttin g , b u t also f o r
th a t a re used c o n tin u a lly. The cu ru e d b la d e d kniues, o r scalpels re m o u in g m o u ld lin e s b y sc ra p in g in a re a s w h e re sa n d p a p e r
u su a lly haue a s u rg ic a l o rigin. Rs such, th e y are e x tre m e ly sharp w o n t reach.
and g re a t care m u s t be ta ke n w h ile b o th using and s to rin g them .

To m a in ta in kn iu e s in
g o o d c o n d itio n , p la ce
th e m in a bag o f s ilic a
gel. This w ill a b so rb
a n y h u m id ity ,
p re u e n tin g a n y r u s t
C u ru e -b la d e d s ca lp e ls w ill c u t e a s ily w it h a lit t le p re s s u re i f fo rm in g .
th e b la d e is n e w . They do n o t te a r the p la s tic .

o
Techniques

5.3 Tweezers
The points of good quality tweezers should have
points that come together without a gap. This prevents
the part from slipping or jumping out. Flat-headed
tweezers can also be used and, for reaching hard to
get at areas, curved points ones are very useful.

6. LIQ U ID GLUES

6.1 UJhat glues can I use on my model?


The glues most commonly used are those that have been specif
ically designed for gluing plastic, polystryrene cement, and the
cyanoacrylates, or so-called superglues in their different guises.
As seen in the following sections, all these products must be
used with caution.

6.2 How do I use polystyrene liquid


glue?
Polystyrene liquid glues are extremely useful for
assembling plastic models. Although they do not dry
as quickly as superglue, they operate by actually melt
ing the plastic making a sort of weld, when dry the
joints have a much greater strength.
When using them, it is important to realize, that if too
much is applied it will dissolve the plastic and ruin any
work. So, they need then to be used sparingly.

There a re a n u m b e r o f liq u id p o ly s ty re n e y lu e m a n u fa c tu re rs ,
m a n y o f w h ic h com e w it h an a p p lic a tio n bush in clu d e d .
H ow euer, i f i t does n o t haue one y o u w ill n e e d to use a
p a in tb ru s h w it h a c ry lic b ris tle s .

Rs th is p ro d u c t d isso lu e s p la s tic , W hen use d u e ry s p a rin g ly , jo in t s can be g lu e d


i t is u s e fu l f o r se a lin g p a rts . w h ile also m a in ta in in g a u is ib le jo in lin e f o r la t e r
p a in tin g as a p a n e l lin e .

o
Techniques

6.3 What types of cyanoacrylate are the most appropriate?


There are many cyanoacrylate (superglue) products and, although each may have its own characteristics, it can be said
that, in general, they are all classified by texture, capillary action (fine), liquid (medium) and gel (thick).

M e d iu m u is c o s ity liq u id su p e rg lu e s Gel, o r th ic k su p e rg lu e s d ry m o re


d ry a lm o s t im m e d ia te ly ; th e y a llo w s lo w ly , th u s m a k in g i t p o s s ib le to To m a in ta in su p e rg lu e s,
f o r li t t l e o r no c o rre c tio n s b u t a re c o rre c t th e p o s itio n o f th e p a rts f o r a i t is a d v is a b le to k e e p
g o o d f o r o b ta in in g u e ry s o lid jo in ts . fe w seconds. They a re id e a l f o r g lu in g th e m u p rig h t, thus
The fa s t, o r c a p illa ry te x tu re v a r ie ty p h o to e tc h e d p a rts and s m a ll pieces. p re v e n tin g th e g lu e
a re e v e n m o re v is c o u s a n d d ry eve n Rlso v e ry g o o d f o r f illin g s m a ll gaps. fro m d ry in g in, and
fa s te r; th e y a re id e a l f o r g lu in g p a rts b lo c k in g th e n o z z le .
w it h m o v e m e n t in th e jo in , as the Rlso, ke e p th e m a w a y
c a p illa ry a c tio n e n su re s th a t th e y fro m d ir e c t lig h t.
p e n e tra te in to th o se jo in t s .

6.4 Horn do I use cyanoacrylate?


Superglues are adhesives that must be used with caution as they will glue materials, including human skin, within
seconds and can cause serious injury. In addition, the vapours emitted are irritants.
To avoid running any risk, the best advice is to use them in small amounts that can be kept in a small receptacle.

R s m a ll p la s tic b o x w it h an e a s ily re p la c e d To a p p ly a d ro p o f su p e rg lu e ,
c a rd b o a rd base w ill s e rv e to h a n dle f ir s t c u t a b it o f a c e ta te fro m
th e s u p e rg lu e w it h le ss ris k . th e g lu e s b lis t e r p ack.

Place th e a c e ta te in s id e th e b o x Then, sq u e eze a d ro p


so th a t i t s e rv e s as a base. o n to th e a c e ta te .

o
Techniques

F or a p p ly in g s m a ll q u a n titie s o f glue,
use a to o l m ade fro m a le n g th o f s tre tc h e d sprue.

F or a p p ly in g a la r g e r q u a n tity ,
use a k n ife blade.

I f a w h ite h a lo a p p e a rs a ro u n d th e drop, th is is an in d ic a tio n


th a t th e cya n e le m e n t in th e g lu e has e u a p o ra te d , s ig n a lin g
th a t i t has lo s t it s e ffe c tiv e n e s s . The tra n s p a re n t a c e ta te is a
w o n d e rfu l in d ic a to r o f th e s ta te o f th e p ro d u c t.

7. FIRST QUESTIONS ABOUT PAINTBRUSHES AND


THEIR USAGE
7.1 Ulhat paintbrushes are the most
appropriate?
For the best results, high quality paintbrushes are
needed. This rules out brushes with plastic bristles or
with bristles that fall out easily.
For painting with enamels it is best to use paintbrush
es with acrylic bristles, as these are more resistant to
the solvents use for cleaning them.
However, when painting with acrylics or watercolours
it is always advisable to use the best quality sable
brushes.
F la t p a in tb ru s h e s a re m o re s u ita b le
f o r a p p ly in g base co a ts.

UJith re s p e c t to d ry b ru s h in g m e ta llic p a in ts , No:0 p a in tb ru s h e s , and o th e r fin e ones do n o t h o ld v e ry m uch


i t is a d v is a b le to use th e sam e one e v e ry tim e p a in t, so th e y s h o u ld o n ly be use d f o r p a in tin g s m a ll d e ta ils .
as h o w e v e r m uch i t is cleaned, m e ta l p a rtic le s F o r o u tlin in g o r p a in tin g in d iv id u a l p a n e ls i t is b e s t to use a
w ill a lw a y s re m a in in th e b ris tle s . th ic k e r p a in tb ru s h w it h a g o o d p o in t th a t is a b le to c a rry m o re
p a in t. In th e p h o to can be seen a n o :2 p a in tb ru s h th a t has a
p o in t as th in as th e no:0.
Techniques

F or p a in tin g u e ry s m a ll d e ta ils a No:B p a in tb ru s h , R h ig h q u a lity N o :I o r No:2 p a in tb ru s h can be used f o r a lm o s t


o r euen sm a lle r, can be used. a n y th in g as th e ir g r e a te r p a in t c a rry in g a b ilit y a llo w fo r
e x te n d e d use. W hen p u rc h a s in g one, i t is im p o r ta n t to m ake
su re th e p o in t is undam aged.

7.2 What paints should I use u/hen


painting with a paintbrush?
Acrylic and water paints are best for brush painting as
they spread easily and cover well. One of their best
characteristic is that any retouching is hardly noticea
ble, after a few hours left to dry, a retouch will just
have a softer finish.
That said, tamiya-type acrylic paints are difficult to
apply with a paintbrush, so using them in this way is to
be avoided. Humbrol enamels, on the other hand, can
be applied quite well with a paintbrush. These usually
cover very well with just one coat and, although retou
ching may be more noticeable, after waiting three or
four hours until they are completely dry, the final finish
becomes quite hard.

7.3 How do I successfully paint fine lines with a paintbrush?


Learning to paint fine acrylic lines with a paintbrush can be extremely useful, especially when being used to apply the
techniques for panels and outlining. However, this technique requires practice, so it is advisable to experiment and prac
tice to perfect the technique to obtain satisfactory results.

F or p a in tin g lin e s w ith a p a in tb ru s h i t is e ss e n tia l On lin e 1, th e p a in tb ru s h w a s c a rry in g to o m uch p a in t, g iu in g a


to use a p a in tb ru s h th a t holds s u ffic ie n t p a in t, lin e th a t is th ic k a n d im p re cise .
u su a lly the b e s t sizes a re nos: 1 and 2. On lin e 2, th e p a in tb ru s h is to o d ry ; th e lin e has b ro k e n up and
Rem ouing any excess p a in t is the ste p th a t re q u ire s a g re a t deal is in c o m p le te .
o f p ra c tic e to g e t rig h t, tu rn in g and slid in g the p a in tb ru s h on a On lin e 3 re u e a ls a p e r fe c tly e x e c u te d lin e w h e re the s tro k e is
piece o f to ile t p a p e r a llo w s the re m o u a l o f the excess w h ile , th in a n d c o n tin u o u s. So, th e q u a n tity o f p a in t on th e b ru s h is
s im u lta n e o u sly, m a in ta in in g the p a in tb ru s h tip in goo d co n d itio n. th e m o s t a p p ro p ria te . This ta k e s p ra c tic e !
Techniques

7.4 Hou/ do I apply a base coat with a paintbrush?

P o u r a s u ffic ie n t q u a n tity o f p a in t in to a cle a n Using a d ro p p e r, add som e w a t e r to m a ke th e m ix tu re .


re c e p ta c le ; a b o ttle cap is id e a l f o r th is. R lth o u g h i t m ig h t n o t c o u e r w it h th e f ir s t co a t, i t w ill haue
a th in n e r te x tu re m a k in g i t s p re a d e a sily.

Using a p a in tb ru s h sp re a d the m ix tu re u n til a hom ogeneous R em ouing e xce ss p a in t


appearance is obtaine d . I f the w a te r is n o t m ixe d w ith the p a in t on th e edge o f th e couer.
s u ffic ie n tly , g le a m in g s tre a k s w ill a p p e a r d u rin g the d rying.

R pply an in it ia l c o a t th a t w ill p a r tia lly c o u e r th e p a rt.


R fte r a ro u n d IB m in u te s d ry in g , o r once th e p a in t
has a m a tt a p p ea ra n ce , a n o th e r c o a t can be ap p lie d .

I t is im p o rta n t to p re u e n t the p a in t p o o lin g a round


any ra ise d areas as th is w ill re s u lt in !h a lo s th a t w ill co n tin u e
to shine euen a f t e r the p a in t has d rie d co m p le te ly.

R fte r tw o o r th re e c o a ts o f p a in t,
th e p a r t s h o u ld be w e ll co u e re d . I t w ill ta k e
a ro u n d 2 h o u rs f o r i t to be c o m p le te ly d ry.

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Techniques

7.5 Houj do I clean and maintain my paintbrushes?


Paintbrushes are expensive items and should be correctly maintained to ensure a long working life.

The m o s t d e lic a te p a in tb ru s h e s a re th o se w it h sa b le b ris tle s . UJhen n o t in use, ke e p th e p a in tb ru s h e s


To e x te n d th e ir u s e fu l lif e a n d p re u e n t th e b ris tle s fro m d ry in g in th e ir p ro te c to rs . This w ill p re u e n t th e p o in ts
o u t and b e c o m in g b r itt le , i t is a d u isa b le to w a s h th e m fro m b e co m in g dam aged.
p e rio d ic a lly w it h w a t e r and a n e u tr a l soap.

FIRST QUESTIONS ABO UT THE AIRBRUSH

8.1 Illhat is important to know when choosing an airbrush?


When deciding to buy an airbrush, you should not only take into account its modeling applications but also assess its
construction. An airbrush is a tool that will be used for a long time and, to keep it operating well, will need dismantling
many times. One that is manufactured entirely from metal will guarantee a long life for its components.
Another factor to be taken into account is the specific application for which the airbrush has been designed. Some lea
ding manufacturers produce airbrushes for illustration work and have not designed their tools for the modeling applica
tions of metallic enamels or varnishes. In consequence, their use in model making is somewhat limited.

UJhat is re q u ire d is an a ll- t e r r a in ' a irb ru s h , th a t is one th a t


w ill n o t be a ffe c te d b y d if f e r e n t p a in ts and s o lu e n ts . One m ade
e n tir e ly o f m e ta l w ill, o f course, be th e m o s t d u ra b le .

I f th e a irb ru s h s e le c te d uses a n u m b e r o f heads


f o r d if f e r e n t s tro k e th ickn e sse s, i t w ill possess
g r e a te r f le x ib ilit y in j u s t one to o l.

To p re u e n t dam a g e to th e heads and p a in t ne e dles, s to re


th e m s a fe ly and p ro te c te d in s id e a d e d ic a te d c o n ta in e r.

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Techniques

8.2 Hour do I load the airbrush?

The a irb ru s h cup o r b o ttle q u ite o fte n has a m a rk in d ic a tin g


th e m a x im u m u p p e r le u e l f o r th e p a in t. I f i t is f ille d aboue
th a t lin e , u ie r is k s p illin g th e p a in t euen bg c a rrg in g
o u t th e a c tio n s a s s o c ia te d w it h sp ra g in g .

The f ir s t liq u id in tro d u c e d in to th e p a in t c o n ta in e r needs to be P u t the p a in t in to th e p a in t cup o r b o ttle w it h a p a in tb ru s h ,


a d ro p o r tw o o f th e s o lu e n t th a t is to be used w it h th e chosen
p a in t. I f u n d ilu te d p a in t is in tro d u c e d d ir e c tlg in to th e cup o r
b o ttle , i t co u ld e n te r th e s u c tio n tu b e and clo g it.

To o b ta in th e c o rre c t m ix tu re , S till u sin g th e sam e p a in tb ru s h , s t ir th e p a in t u n til


th e n e x t s te p is to a d d th e a p p ro p ria te a h o m o g e n e o us m ix tu r e is o b ta in e d . B e fo re s ta rtin g
a m o u n t o f so lu e n t. on th e a c tu a l m od e l, f ir s t a irb ru s h som e p a in t on
a p ra c tic e s u rfa c e , ke e p in g in m in d th a t th e f ir s t d ro p s
w ill be s o lu e n t th a t w ill pass th ro u g h th e s u c tio n tube.

8.3 What air pressure do I use?


For airbrushing, air pressure is a very important factor. Insufficient pressure causes application failures that, in turn,
makes using this incredibly useful tool all that much more difficult.
As with using a paintbrush, constant practice with the airbrush is essential because there are innumerable combinations
of pressure and texture.
In the following two examples the same composition of paint has been used,
50% tamiya acrylic matt black mixed plus 50% pharmacy alcohol at 96 in a badger 150 airbrush with a medium head.

6
Techniques

Line 1 re u e a ls th a t in s u ffic ie n t p re s s u re has ca u se d p o o r Using th e c o rre c t p re s s u re g iu e s s tro k e s w it h u n ifo rm


d e fin itio n o f th e lin e , w it h g re a t g ra in d is p e rs io n and th e d e g ra d a tio n a n d lo w p a in t d isp e rsio n . I t m u s t be re m e m b e re d
a p p e a ra n c e o f s o lid p o in ts on th e edges. th a t e u e ry a irb ru s h has it s o w n in d iv id u a lity , so th a t y o u w ill
Line 2 re u e a ls to o m uch a ir p re s s u re , as th e edges o f the h a ve to a d a p t each one to it s o w n c o m p o s itio n o f
s tro k e s a p p e a r h a rd . This is ca u se d bg th e a ir p u s h in g th e p a in t p a in t/s o lu e n t m ix tu re . That said, as a fra m e o f re fe re n c e ,
a cro ss th e s u rfa c e . H o w e ve r, i f th e d is ta n c e b e tw e e n the th e a ir p re s s u re s h o u ld a lw a y s be s o m e w h e re b e tw e e n 0.8
a irb ru s h and th e s u rfa c e is in cre a se d , th e h ig h speed o f the and 1.5 b a r (1 b a r = 14,505 p si).
p a in t f lo w ca u se d b y to o m uch p re s s u re w o u ld p ro b a b ly cause
i t to re a c h th e s u rfa c e a lre a d y d ry, th u s p ro d u c in g a sa n d y
e ffe c t.

8.4 How do I apply a base coat?


Applying a base coat of paint with a fine grain finish is important for the scale model to have a realistic appearance. It is
better to progressively apply the coat so that its final appearance is more regular. The following trial was carried out using
tamiya acrylics thinned with 96alcohol.

Hs an e x a m p le , a lig h t g re y sq u a re has been p a in te d on The d ire c tio n o f th e a irb ru s h s


a te s t pie ce . By d o in g th is, y o u w ill be a b le to see h o w m o v e m e n t is fro m le f t to r ig h t
th e p a in t p ro g re s s iv e ly co ve rs. a n d fro m to p to b o tto m .

The a n g le o f th e a irb ru s h r e la tiv e Using a m ix tu r e o f a p p ro x im a te ly 70% p a in t -50% s o lv e n t,


to th e s u rfa c e s h o u ld be as close th re e c o a ts w e re a p p lie d to th e area. I t can be seen
as p o s s ib le to 90 d e g re e s. th a t th e g re y s q u a re is s t ill v is ib le .


Techniques

R fte r a f u r t h e r th re e o r fo u r co a ts, R co u p le m o re c o a ts o f p a in t e n su re th a t th e g re y c o n tra s t


th e s u rfa c e is a lm o s t couered. c o m p le te ly d isa p p e a rs. The p a in te d s u rfa c e has no u is ib le g ra in
and in t o ta l th e w h o le jo b to o k a ro u n d 2 m in u te s . In le ss th a n
th re e h ours, th e p a in t w a s c o m p le te ly d ry.

8.5 How can I paint subtle effects with an airbrush?


Airbrushing fine, blurred lines will result in soft shadows and produce tarnish effects on scale models. The trial was
carried out using tamiya acrylics and alcohol in a badger 150 with a medium head.

W hen p a in tin g w it h u e ry s m a ll q u a n titie s i t is a d u isa b le P ra c tis in g on a t r ia l s u rfa c e b e fo re p a in tin g


to p la ce th e s o lu e n t in th e c o n ta in e r fir s t. By d o in g this, th e a c tu a l p a r t w ill h e lp to p e r fe c t y o u r te ch n iq u e
g r e a te r c o n tro l is m a in ta in e d o u e r th e m ix tu re . b e fo re a p p ly in g it. In th e p h o to g ra p h , the d is ta n c e b e tw e e n
To ach ie u e th is s o rt ty p e o f e f f e c t th e a m o u n t o f p a in t a irb ru s h and s u rfa c e is c o rre c t.
re q u ire d s h o u ld be a s m a ll b ru s h s tro k e , w it h th e c o n ta in e r To s u c c e s s fu lly o b ta in th is e ffe c t, th e a ir p re s s u re s h o u ld be
b e in g fille d w it h s o lu e n t up to th e m a rk. s e t a t 1 -1 .5 bar. Rt I b a r th e d isp e rsio n , and th u s th e lin e
th ic k n e s s w ill be g re a te r ; a t 1.5b a r th e d is p e rs io n w ill be lo w e r
and the c o rre s p o n d in g lin e th in n e r. W ith a fin e lin e h e a d and
n eedle, th e lin e s can be m ade euen th in n e r.

8.6 How, and when do I need to clean the airbrush?


Cleaning the airbrush is a necessary task if you want this tool to continue operating at its optimum efficiency. So, the air
brush should be cleaned regularly, for example whenever there is a colour change, if the paint begins to build-up in the
diffuser, and particularly at the end of each days use. This will prevent any paint residue building up inside the tubes.

W hen d is m a n tlin g th e h e a d be c a re fu l R lw a ys e x tr a c t th e n e e d le fo rw a rd s to p re u e n t a n y p a in t
n o t to lo se th e s m a ll se a lin g w a sh e r. re s id u e fro m b e in g d e p o s ite d in s id e th e a irb ru s h .

o
Techniques

C o m plete th e re m o u a l o f th e n e e dle b y Clean the n e e d le on a p ie ce o f p a p e r so a ke d in s o lu e n t,


re m o u in g i t fro m th e f r o n t o f th e a irb ru s h . w h ile b e in g c a re fu l n o t to b e n d i t o r d am age th e tip.

F o r c le a n in g th e a irb ru s h s in te rio r ,
do so u /ith a c u rle d p ie c e o f p a p er.

B e fo re cle a n in g th e s u c tio n tube, In th e sam e w a y , clean


s o a k th e to o th b ru s h in s o lu e n t. th e a irb ru s h s f r o n t tube.

B n o th e r a re a th a t re q u ire s re g u la r c le a n in g is th e p a in t I f th e p a in t has d rie d h a rd in sid e , o r on th e p a rts ,


d e p o s it tu b e ; th e to o th b ru s h also com es in u s e fu l h e re . so a k th e m in s o lu e n t f o r a fe w h o u rs.
Techniques

COCKPITS AND INTERIORS

BUILDING A COCKPIT STRAIGHT FROM THE BOX

9.1 Ulhat does 'building straight from the bon' mean?


Building straight from the box indicates that the model has been built without any complementary after-market parts or
any scratch built parts by the modeler. In fact, nothing that was not included in the kit.
Many of today's model kits include plastic parts for creating a cockpit that would once have been considered super-detail
ing. Generally, it is sufficient to just clean the parts or fine-tune some to obtain an excellent cockpit.

9.2 How do I prepare the parts?

Using a c u ru e d b la d e to a u o id te a rin g th e p la s tic , UJith a p ie ce o f 8 6 6 - g ra in sa n d p a p e r fin e d to a


re m o u e a n y fla s h o r re m a in in g sp ru e on th e p a r t a f t e r s m a ll u /o o d s trip , lig h tly sand the s u rfa c e to le u e l it.
i t has been c u t fro m th e sprue.

$
Techniques

To e lim in a te a n y c a s tin g fla s h on s m a ll p a rts , scrap e


th e m c a re fu lly w it h th e edge o f a s tr a ig h t s c a lp e l blade.

G enerally, c o c k p it s e a ts te n d to be to o th ick.
To th in th e p la s tic a n d g e t a m o re r e a lis tic lo o k in g se a t,
sa n d p a p e r th e o u ts id e o f th is p a rt.

C leaning and th in n in g som e p a rts w ill enhance


th e r e a lis tic lo o k o f th e fin is h e d m odel.

9.3 llthat is 'dry fitting' and what


purpose does it serve?
'Dry fitting is a no-glue process whereby the parts
are fitted together to see if there is any problem with
the fit before they are glued and painted. By devo
ting a little time to doing this will spare us a heada
che if parts already painted subsequently prove not
to fit in position.

R n o -g lu e t r ia l a sse m b ly u till s h o w i f th e re a re
a n y f i t c o rre c tio n s re q u ire d b e fo re fin a l g lu in g .

o
Hold th e p a rts to g e th e r C hecking th e f i t o f th e fu s e la g e in t e r io r p a rts
w it h m a s k in g tape. is a n e c e s s a ry s te p i f w e a re to g e t a c o rre c t clo su re .
Techniques

C a rry in g o u t a u a lid t r ia l a sse m b ly depends on


o u r fin in g th e p a rts in th e ir a c tu a l fin a l p o s itio n s .

C o c k p it sid e s a re u s u a lly th e m o s t
d if f ic u lt in te r n a l p a rts to m a ke f i t c o rr e c tly
so th a t th e fu s e la g e sides can be closed.

W hen c lo sin g th e fu se la g e , c a re fu lly


c h e c k th a t no p a rts h in d e r th e pro ce ss.

9.4 Rre seat belts an to


building straight from the bon?
Seat belts are one of the more obvious details that
tend to be missing in kits. After all, including a decal
would take up little space! This detail is so obvious
that many ipms chapters provide for it in their rules of
participation for competitions in the category of build
ing straight from the box.
Unfortunately, some of the more modern kit manufac
turers still fail to resolve this problem. I recall, with
some smugness, that many of the old monogram kits
had superb belts etched on their seats.
So, making and including belts is surely a detail for
completing excellent, realistic cockpits that can be
made straight from the box.

9.5 How do I make mg omn seat belts?

Lead sheet, found in c r a ft shops o r euen around b o ttle tops, F or m a k in g th e b u ckle s, B. 15 m m th ickn e ss
is easy to cu t and mould. The id e a l thickness is B .I-8 .2 mm. c o p p e r w ir e can be used.
Techniques

Using a n e w s tr a ig h t s c a lp e l b lade, a s te e l ru le and Taking th e w id th o f th e b e lt as a re fe re n c e ,


a li t t l e p re s s u re , th in s trip s o f le a d s h e e t can be cu t. d o u ble th e c o p p e r w ir e u sin g the tip s o f
the tw e e z e rs to m a ke th e b u ckle .

Close th e b u c k le w it h th e tw e e z e rs Double o u e r the e n d o f th e b e lt, p re s s in g


and c u t o f f ang excess w ire . w it h th e tw e e z e rs to tra p the b u ckle .

R fte r p o s itio n in g one b u c k le a t the end, W ith a p la s tic p o in te r, p la c e a d ro p


p o s itio n a n o th e r in th e b e lt s c e n tre . o f s u p e rg lu e o n to th e r e a r o f th e se a t.

Then g lu e th e b e lt w it h th is d ro p and Double o u e r th e b e lt C o m plete th e s e a t bg


w a it a fe w m in u te s u n til i t d ries. and g lu e i t a t th e fro n t. a d d in g th e re m a in in g b e lts .

o
Techniques

10. PAINTING A CO CKPIT BUILT STRAIG HT FROM


THE BOX

10.1 Why do I need to paint the parts without touching them?


It is very important not to touch the parts while painting them, as we do not want to get finger marks by handling them
while they are being painted. In the case of small parts, attaching them to a piece of adhesive tape or on one end of a
plastic strip will make it easier to paint them .

W rap a le n g th o f p la s tic s tr ip w it h m a s k in g tape, N ow , p o s itio n th e p a r t th a t is


a f t e r th e f ir s t r o ta tio n tu rn th e ad he si ue ta p e to be p a in te d on th e adhesiue.
so th a t th e a d h e siu e sid e is u p p e rm o s t.

W ith th e p a r t on th e adhesiue, W hen p a in tin g s m a ll p a rts , g lu e th e m to a le n g th


i t can be h a n d le d w ith o u t o f p la s tic s tr ip th a t can be c u t fro m th e k i t s sprues.
a c tu a llg b e in g touched. F irs t, a p p lg a d ro p o f s u p e rg lu e to a h id d e n a re a
o f th e p a rt, and i t can th e n be h e ld w it h im p u n ity .

To p re u e n t tw e e z e rs s c ra tc h in g p a rts th a t hau e a lre a d y Ruoid d a m a g in g th e p a rts b y h o ld in g


been p a in te d p u t som e e le c tric ca b le s h e a th in g on th e tip s. th e m in th e c o u e re d tips.

_
Techniques

B ubble w r a p use d in p a c k a g in g is u e rg u s e fu l To re le a s e th e p a rts fro m th e s u p p o rtin g p la s tic s trip ,


f o r h o ld in g p a rts w ith o u t m a rk in g them . i t ju s t needs to be g e n tly tw is te d ; th e d ro p o f s u p e rg lu e
used to h o ld th e p a r t w ill e a s ily b re a k a w a y.

IB.2 What do I need to take into


account before applying the
base coat, and do I do it?
When ready to apply the base coat, first take into
account what treatments are to follow. Techniques,
such as dry brushing require a solid coat to work on to
avoid leaving any edges uncovered over which the
paintbrush will be passed.
Also, if washes are to be applied, ensure that the base
coat is impervious to any solvent that might be used.
An enamel paint base coat can be damaged with an
oil wash, as oils contain solvents that are also used to
dilute enamels.
Applying a solid, compatible base coat is an important
step that must always be taken into account.

IB.3 Why emphasize the effect of


volume of the parts?
When looking at photographs of actual cockpits, one
sees how the objects in relief are seen more clearly,
while the more hidden parts remain darker. This is
because light entering the cockpit increases the three-
dimensional effect of each object.

In m o d e l m a k in g , u a rio u s te ch n iq u e s a re used to s im u la te th is
e ffe c t. In som e cases, i t m ig h t a p p e a r th a t the e f f e c t has been
o u e rd o n e , h o w e u e r i t needs to ta k e n in to a c c o u n t th a t, once
the fu s e la g e has been closed, th e s m a ll p a rts w ill re c e iu e u e ry

o
lit t le lig h t, so th a t a n y p o s s ib le excess w ill be co m p e n sa te d .
Techniques

IB.4 UJhat is an outline and how do I apply it?


Outlining is a technique of applying shadows to parts in relief to increase their three-dimensional effect.

B w e ll- u s e d p a in tb ru s h th a t, a lth o u g h i t m a y haue lo s t F o r a p p ly in g an o u tlin e u sin g a c ry lic s ,


som e o f it s b ris tle s has re ta in e d a w e ll-s h a p e d tip, use a m ix tu r e o f p a in t d ilu te d w it h w a t e r
w ill be id e a l f o r th is ta sk, as th e p o in te d tip can be to g iu e a lig h t te x tu re .
p a s s e d th ro u g h th e c u ts in th e p a rts .

By s lid in g th e p a in tb ru s h th ro u g h On p h o to e tc h e d p a rts , o u tlin in g in cre a se s


th e c u ts in th e p a rts , b la c k lin e s w ill be m a rk e d th e u is u a l e f f e c t o f p a r t s s e p a ra tio n .
th a t re in fo rc e s th e sh a d o w e ffe c t.

18.5 What purpose is serued by the technique of dry brushiny and how do I do it?
Dry brushing is a technique opposite to that of outlining and washes. The latter serve to bring out the shadows of the
various elements, while dry brushing increases the effect of light on them.

I f th e p a rts to be d ry b ru s h e d a re sm all, B e fo re d ry b ru sh in g , i t is f ir s t n e c e s s a ry to a p p ly
th e y can be p la c e d on a p ie c e o f a d h esiue ta p e to p re u e n t a s o lid base c o a t th a t m u s t be a llo w e d to th o ro u g h ly
th e m m o u in g w h ile c a rry in g o u t th e te ch n iq u e . d ry f o r a t le a s t fo u r hours.
Techniques

A lth o u g h d ry b ru s h in g can be a p p lie d u sin g


a lm o s t a n y p a in t, th e tr a d itio n a l H u m bro l
is e n c e lle n t f o r c a rry in g o u t th is te ch niqu e .
To o b ta in g o o d re s u lts , i t is n o t n e ce ssa ry
to d ilu te i t fir s t. J u s t e n su re th a t
i t has bee n w e ll s tir r e d a n d th e n eu tr a c t
a s m a ll q u a n tity w it h a p a in tb ru s h .

R f la t p a in tb ru s h w it h a c ry lic b ris tle s F irs t, ru b th e p a in tb ru s h on th e sponge


a n d a sponge, f o r re m o u in g a n y e xcess p a in t a re to e lim in a te a n y excess p a in t, so th a t p ra c tic a lly
th e o n ly tw o ite m s re q u ire d . a ll th a t re m a in s is a lig h t sh a d ow .

Then, g e n tly pass th e p a in tb ru s h o u e r Dry b ru sh in g , a te ch n iq u e g iu in g w o n d e rfu l re s u lts


th e p a r t a n d see h o w th e ra is e d d e ta ils on a n y p a r t w it h ra is e d d e ta il, is e s p e c ia lly e ffe c tiu e
a re illu m in a te d and no lo n g e r a p p e a r fla t. on th o se p a rts w it h d e ta ils e tc h e d w it h g re a t fin e sse ,
such as r a d ia to r g rille s , ca b le s o r w h e e l b o lts .

IB.6 What purpose is served using washes,


and how do I do it?
Applying washes is a technique similar to outlining; its function is
to accentuate the shadows to define the etched elements of the
parts. Although applying a wash is a faster process than outlining,
it has the disadvantage that areas adjacent to the raised details
may also be stained, giving an appearance of rings when dry.
Washes can be applied with acrylics or oils, although using the lat
ter will minimize the problem of rings because the drying time is
that much slower.
W ashes a re a u e ry e ffe c tiu e te ch n iq u e
In combination with dry brushing, this is an ideal technique for rein on p a rts c o n ta in in g e tc h e d d e ta ils ,
forcing the three-dimensional effect of parts with etched details. such as r a d ia to r g rills .
Techniques

R fte r a p p ly in g o f a c o m p a tib le base co a t, a w a s h w ill p ro d u ce


th e e f f e c t o f s h a d o w on th e p a rt. In th is case, a base c o a t o f
b la c k m a tt a c ry lic , h ig h ly d ilu te d w it h w a te r, w a s a p p lie d . I t
can be seen h o w th e p a in t becom es c o n c e n tra te d on the
d e ta ils , le a u in g th o se in r e lie f p a r t ly u isib le .

I

_____
i
\ W m .

r i

N ow , to b rin g o u t th e ra is e d d e ta il, UJith th e w a s h a c c e n tu a tin g th e s h a d o w and d ry b ru s h in g


d ry b ru s h u sin g th e sam e c o lo u r as th e base c o a t h ig h lig h tin g th e ra is e d d e ta il, th e p a r t ends up w it h a m uch
(T a m iy a s m a tt a lu m in iu m enam el). g r e a te r th re e -d im e n s io n a l e ffe c t.

19.7 How do I paint a cockpit side panel step by step?


As an alternative to the washing and dry brushing techniques, we are going to put into practice some other techniques
that make elements appear more defined and with greater detail.

On th e p a rt, a lre a d y g iu e n an a c ry lic base co a t, W ith th e base c o lo u r lig h te n e d w it h g re y,


a p p ly som e s h a d o w a ro u n d a ll th e d e ta ils w it h an a irb ru s h , a p p ly h ig h lig h ts to th e c e n tra l a re a s
u sin g m a tt b la c k a c ry lic h ig h ly d ilu te d w it h alco h o l. d e lin e a te d b y th e sh a d ow .
Techniques

Using a fin e tip p e d p a in tb ru s h , To in c re a s e th e e f f e c t o f h ig h lig h ts on th e b la c k -p a in te d


p a in t a ll th e p a rts bla ck. p a rts , a p p ly a u e ry lig h t g re y b y s lid in g th e p a in tb ru s h a lo n g
th e edges o f th e p a rts . D on t w o r r y a b o u t g e ttin g cle a n lin e s
a t th e s ta rt, as th e a c ry lic can be re to u c h e d la t e r
w ith o u t le a n in g a n y tra ce .

F irs t, p a in t th e w ire s b la c k ; la t e r th e y C o n tin u e w it h th is p a in tin g pro ce ss,


w ill be p a in te d w it h th e ir a c tu a l co lo u r, u sin g th e sam e te c h n iq u e on a ll
b u t o n ly on th e top. th e re m a in in g d e ta ils .

By o u tlin in g , sh a d o w s w ill be L ig h te n th e edges u sin g th e base


r e in fo rc e d on th e s m a lle s t d e ta ils . c o lo u r m in e d w it h w h ite .

To add e x tra re a lis m to th e p a rts , The u p p e r a re a s o f th e sid e co n so le s a re m o re e xp o se d to


a p p ly som e scra tch e s. ru b b in g ; to s im u la te w h e re p a in t has been ru b b e d o ff, a p p ly
s m a ll to u che s o f T am iya s m a tt a lu m in iu m enam el.

o
Techniques

To re d u ce th e sh in e o f th e b a re p a tc h e s and th u s in te g ra te
th e m in to th e p a in t, a p p ly a li t t l e w a s h o f h ig h ly d ilu te d
n a tu r a l b ro w n a c ry lic sh a d o w to them .

This p ro ce ss o f p a in tin g th e p a n e ls m a k e s the


e tc h e d d e ta ils s ta n d o u t euen m o re a n d m ake s
th e m lo o k as th o u g h th e d e ta ils a re ra is e d .

IB.8 How do I paint a seat?

R fte r lig h t ly g lu in g th e s e a t to a p ie ce o f p la s tic N ent, o u tlin e th e b e lts u sin g


sprue, g iu e i t a base c o a t o f ta m iy a a c ry lic p a in t. w a t e r - d ilu t e d m a tt b la c k a c ry lic .

R fte r o u tlin in g , a p p ly som e On th e c e n tra l areas, a irb ru s h th e e ffe c ts o f


s h a d o w w it h an a irb ru s h lig h t u sin g th e base c o a t p a in t lig h te n e d .

o
u sin g a lc o h o l-d ilu te d m a tt bla ck. F or th e b e s t re s u lt, add a to u ch o f lig h t g re y
o r lig h t g re e n to th e o rig in a l m in tu re .
Techniques

Being c a re fu l to a u o id s p o ilin g the o u tlin e , To s im u la te th e b e lt seam s, a p p lg a


p a in tin g th e c o lo u r on th e b e lts w it h a p a in tb ru s h . c e n tra l lin e u sin g u e rg d a rk g re g p a in t.

Using th e b e lt s base co lo u r, p a in t tra n s u e rs e lin e s B p p ly th e sam e p ro ce ss on


acro ss th e b e lt, c u ttin g th ro u g h th e c e n tra l th e lo w e r p a r t o f th e b e lts .
d a rk g re y lin e , to g e t a b ro k e n lin e .
Techniques

10.9 How do I make an instrument


panel using decals?
Some kit manufacturers include a decal sheet for
the main instrument panel. This decal is designed to
be placed on a panel that has the various compo
nents are in raised detail. To obtain a realistic result,
the following process can be used:

R fte r th e p a r t has been fin e d


to a p la s tic o u tlin e w it h a d h e sive
ta p e ; p a in t i t w it h th e base co a t.

Us th is c o lo u r w ill haue to be re to u c h e d q u ite a b it, Using th e sid e o f th e p a in tb ru s h , a p p ly som e


g iu e i t a th in c o a t o f b la c k a c ry lic o u e r th e b la c k base c o lo u r to th e ra is e d p a n e l d e ta ils .
so th a t a n y re to u c h in g w ill n o t be v is ib le .

Using v a rio u s to n es o f g re y, Using som e d if f e r e n t c o lo u rs l.e red,


th e p a n e l d e ta ils can be co m p le te d . y e llo w , e tc , p a in t th e p a n e l s w itc h e s .

To p re v e n t th e d e ca l fin in g s o lu tio n s fro m d a m a g in g N ow , c u t th e in s tru m e n t p a n e l


the p a in t, f ir s t a p p ly a c o a t o f m a tt v a rn is h . fro m the d e ca l sh e e t.
Techniques

Using a c u ru e d b la d e c u t th e d ia ls in d iv id u a lly fro m the s h e e t Using a p a in tb ru s h c a re fu lly p la ce


(to k e e p th e m in th e c o rre c t o rd e r a n d to a v o id lo s in g any, each d ia l in it s a p p ro p ria te h o llo w ,
th e y can a tta c h e d to a d h e sive tape). fin in g i t w it h m ic ro s o l liq u id .

By d e p o s itin g a d ro p o f g lo ss v a rn is h on each dial, Once th e v a rn is h has d rie d ,


th is w ill s im u la te th e g la ss c o v e rin g it. th e p a n e l is c o m p le te .

11. ASSEMBLY OF A
CO CKPIT W ITH
MULTI-MEDIA
ELEMENTS

11.1 U/hat is a cockpit u/ith


multi-media elements?
A model or, in this case, a cockpit is considered
to have multi-media elements if it includes a com
bination of parts sourced from a number of man
ufacturers: parts in resin or white metal, photo
etched parts, instrument panels with transparen
cies, etc. This type of after-market items first
appeared as complementary, super-detailing kits
for scale models and was sold separately.
However, recently some manufacturers have
been including them as standard in their boxes.
Techniques

11.2 What precautions do I need to


take with resin parts?
Resin is a material that has allowed the makers of after
market detailing kits to carve out an important niche in
the model-making industry. The primary disadvantages
of these parts are their greater fragility when compared
to plastic, and the appearance of air bubbles that can
deform the parts or even render them useless.
Another factor that must be taken into account is that
these parts tend not to fit with the same precision of
those made of plastic. So, the job of dry-fitting the com
ponents and adapting them becomes much more
necessary.
On the other hand, their great advantage is that they
offer the possibility of improving a scale model that
might contain relatively few details and of super-detai
ling an assembly in less time than would otherwise be
the case.

11.5 Houj do I clean resin parts?

R ESIN PARTS

3 4 5 6 7

Those a re a s to be re m o u e d fro m re s in p a rts a re u s u a lly


m a rk e d w it h sh a d in g on the a sse m b ly in s tru c tio n s .

Once th e p a rts haue been in d iu id u a lly se p a ra te d , W hen c u ttin g re s in p a rts , i t is ad u is a b le to g e n tly p re s s


th e p o u rin g s tu b s m u s t be re m o u e d . w it h th e s a w and use i t w it h a s lo w m o u e m e n t.
This w ill p re u e n t th e p a rts fro m b re a k in g .

6
Techniques

Once th e p o u rin g s tu b has been rem oued, W ith a cu ru e d b lade, re m o u e a n y re m a in in g


c o n tin u e b y c le a n in g up th e c u t s u rfa c e . e xcess re s in fro m th e re a r. This w ill th e n a llo w
th e p a r t to f i t c o rre c tly .

Using a f la t file , cle a n up th e c u t face. Using a la rg e p a in tb ru s h , re m o u e a ll th e d u s t and scra tch e s .

The s m a lle r p a rts w ill also re q u ire som e H olding th e p a r t b y th e a re a to be re ta in e d , p ro g re s s iu e ly


c le a n in g to m a ke th e m re a d y f o r use. re m o u e a n y re s in th a t needs to be d isca rd e d .

The c le a n e d -u p p a rts a re n o w re a d y
f o r a d r y - f it t r ia l a sse m b ly. This w ill g iu e us
an id e a f o r a n y th e n e c e s s a ry c o rre c tio n s b e fo re
th e c o m p le te d p a r t is fin a lly g lu e d and p a in te d .
Techniques

11.4 Hou/ do I prepare the model


before fitting the resin parts?
Generally, after market resin parts are designed to fit
a specific manufacturers kit. That said, there are often
small modifications that can be made so that they will
fit other kits of the specific aircraft.

The f ir s t th in g n o tic e a b le w h e n c o m p a rin g


th e re s in p a rts w it h the p la s tic ones is th a t th e re s in
ones te n d to haue th ic k e r w a lls . This is because re s in
is m uch s o f t e r th a n p la s tic and needs th e g r e a te r th ic k n e s s
to g iu e th e m s tre n g th , e s p e c ia llg f o r th e la r g e r p a rts .

To a d a p t th e k it f o r th e a d d ed th ickn e ss, th e p o in ts W ith a c u ru e d -p o in t blade,


f o r f it t in g th e m in to th e m o d e l w ill haue to be changed. re m o u e th e o rig in a l s u p p o rt.

Sm ooth th e s u rfa c e w it h 800 g ra in sa n dpaper. M a rk th e n e w f i t lin e w it h a p e n cil.

o
Techniques i

On th e fro n t, in c re a s e th e c o n ta c t a re a R echeck to e n su re a c o rre c t f it.


u /ith a n o th e r s m a ll p ie ce o f p la s tic .

Scrape th e p la s tic w it h a c u ru e d blade.

I t is u it a lly im p o r ta n t to ch e ck th a t th e p h o to e tc h e d p a r t C a rry o u t a d r y - f it a s s e m b ly to ch e ck
th a t g iu e s fo rm to the in s tru m e n t p a n e l f it s c o rre c tly . th a t a ll th e p a rts f i t c o rre c tly .
Techniques

11.5 How do I cut, handle and attach photo etched parts?

C a re fu l s e p a ra tio n o f th e p h o to -e tc h e d p a rts fro m th e To a cco m p lish th is, use s p e c ia lly d e sig n e d scisso rs
f r e t is a p ro c e s s th a t w ill p re u e n t th e m b e in g b e n t o r lo s t. f o r c u ttin g p h o to e tc h e d p a rts and a d ia m o n d file .

Glue a p ie c e o f m a s k in g ta p e to th e lo w e r p a r t o f th e p h o to Hold the f r e t w ith o u t d e fo rm in g th e p a rts i t h o ld s and


e tc h e d p a r t so th a t i t re m a in s a tta c h e d to th e m a in fr e t. p ro g re s s iu e ly c u t th ro u g h th e a tta c h m e n t p o in ts .

The p a r t w ill re m a in h e ld w it h th e a d h esiue tape, R em ove a n y re m a in s o f th e a tta c h m e n t


thus p re v e n tin g i t fro m d ro p p in g o f f w h e n p re s s u re p o in ts w it h a d ia m o n d file .
is a p p lie d . Use tw e e z e rs to s e p a ra te it.

Squeeze o u t som e s u p e rg lu e a n d a p p ly a sm a ll Rs s u p e rg lu e g e l d rie s m o re s lo w ly , i t is m uch e a s ie r to


q u a n tity o f i t w it h a p la s tic p o in te r. p o s itio n th e p a rts and m a ke a n y changes to th e fin a l p o s itio n .
Techniques

On th e sid e pa n els, use th e sam e p ro c e d u re fo r g lu in g ang s m a ll p a rts .

The c o c k p it is n o w
re a d g to b e g in the
p a in tin g pro ce ss.

12.PAINTING A COCKPIT FITTED W ITH


MULTI-MEDIA ELEMENTS
12.1 UJhat special care do I need to take a cockpit containing fragile
parts?
Cockpits that contain delicate parts, such as photo etched components or scratch built items, are poor candidates
for using such techniques as dry brushing, as the delicate parts might break away or get damaged by the rubbing
action of the process.
For this type of cockpit it is better to use other airbrush and paintbrush techniques to increase the parts illusion of
volume.
Techniques

12.2 Hour do I paint an instrument panel that includes photo etched metal?

Using a tr ia n g u la r b la d e and c u ttin g w it h c a re fu l P re p a re th e p h o to e tc h e d p a rts a n d ch e ck


p re s s u re , s e p a ra te th e tra n s p a re n c ie s fro m th e sh e e t. the c o m p o n e n ts c o rre c t f it .

To g lu e th e tra n s p a re n c y s e cu re ly, f ir s t lig h t ly sa n d p a p e r P ro te c t s m a ll c o n ta c t a re a s w it h m a s k in g tape,


th e p h o to e tc h e d p a rt. This le ts th e g lu e a d h e re b e tte r . so th e s u p e rim p o s e d p a rts can be g lu e d on.

Using an a irb ru s h , a p p ly a base c o a t R n e w a c ry lic c o a t o f th e sam e c o lo u r a p p lie d


o f p a in t to th e p h o to e tc h e d p a rts . w it h a p a in tb ru s h a llo w s in u is ib le re to u c h in g .

P a in t th e ra is e d d e ta ils Rlso w it h th e tra n s p a re n c ie s , som e a re a s m u s t


w it h a p a in tb ru s h . be p ro te c te d so th e p a rts can be s a fe ly glued.
Techniques

To g e t a w h ite b a c k g ro u n d th a t w ill be co m e N e xt, g iu e i t a n e w c o a t o f b la c k


tra n s p a re n t a n d th u s g iu e fo rm to th e in s tru m e n t to p re u e n t th e tra n s p a re n c g b e in g seen
d e ta ils , a irb ru s h a c o a t o f m a tt w h ite . as a c o a t am o n g th e p h o to e tc h e d p a rts .

Raise th e p r o te c to r a n d sq u e eze Glue th e tra n s p a re n c g to th e base p h o to


o u t a s m a ll d ro p o f su p e rg lu e gel. e tc h e d p a r t and th e p a n e l is c o m p le te .

Glue th e fo r w a r d p h o to e tc h e d p a r t to the base.

12.3 Hour do I paint a cockpit containing multi-media elements

Hold th e p a r t on th e p la s tic sp ru e w it h a p ie c e R irb ru sh a m a tt b la c k s h a d o w


o f a d h e siu e tape. This w ill a llo w i t to be h a n d le d c o a t a ro u n d th e ra is e d areas,
so th a t th e base c o a t can be e a s ilg a p p lie d .
Techniques

N e xt, h ig h lig h t i t usin g Up p ig som e o u tlin e to re in fo rc e


som e lig h te n e d base co lo u r. th e e f f e c t o f the p a r t s s e p a ra tio n .

Using a fin e tip p e d p a in tb ru s h , Rdd som e d e ta il to th e s e a tb e lt,


p a in t th e s e a tb e lts base c o lo u r in c lu d in g th e seam.

Using m a tt a lu m in iu m , H ig h lig h t th e b u ckle s bg p a in tin g


d e c o ra te th e s e a tb e lt buckle s. th e edges w it h a lig h t e r tone.

In th e sam e w a g , p a in t Glue on th e re m a in in g p a rts th a t w e re p a in te d


th e cables and o th e r s m a ll ite m s . s e p a ra te lg e a r lie r and th is w ill c o m p le te th e c o c k p it.
Techniques

Use m a s k in g ta p e to p r o te c t th e c o n ta c t M a sk o f f th e a d ja c e n t a re a s
a re a s in th e lo w e r p a r t o f th e fu se la ge . to re d u ce th e c o c k p it p a rt.

P a in t a base c o a t th e sam e R fte r w a itin g f o r e u e ry th in g to d ry,


c o lo u r as th e c o c k p it. re m ou e th e p ro te c tiu e m a s k in g tape.

Using a p la s tic p o in te r, a p p ly a Fin the c o c k p it sides. UJith th e b a c k g ro u n d p a in te d


s m a ll q u a n tity o f s u p e rg lu e gel. th e sam e co lo u r, i t w ill p re u e n t th e p la s tic b e in g u isib le .

Use th in s u p e rg lu e to fix th e m a in p a rt, th e c a p illa ry a c tio n o f Glue in th e f r o n t in s tru m e n t p a n e l


th is u ltr a - r u n n y g lu e w ill e n su re th a t i t re a ch e s a ll th e p a rts . and th e c o c k p it is c o m p le te .


Techniques

12.4 Houj do I paint a modern aircraft


seat made of resin?
Modem aircraft seats have so many details that they
are almost complete scale models in themselves.

R fte r g lu in g th e s e a t
o n to a h a n d lin g s tic k , g iu e
i t a c o a t o f base co lo u r.

W ith th e base c o a t o f m e d iu m g re y , a p p ly any W ith th e h a n d lin g s tic k g lu e d to th e s e a t base i t a llo w s


s h a d o w in g u /ith d a rk g re y r a t h e r th a n bla ck. th e b e s t a n g le s to be a d o p te d w h e n a p p ly in g p a in t.
This w ill p re u e n t a n y h a rd c o n tra s ts .

The s e a t q u iltin g is p a in te d R cce n tu a te th e u o lu m e o f th e s e a tb e lts


in a g re e n tone. b y o u tlin in g th e m w it h b la ck.

Using th e a irb ru s h , a p p ly P a in t lin e s w it h a p a in tb ru s h to


som e h ig h lig h ts on th e q u iltin g . s im u la te th e crea se s on th e q u iltin g .

Techniques

Giue th e s e a tb e lts C o m plete th e s e a tb e lts b y p a in tin g d e ta ils


a c o a t o f base co lo u r. to s im u la te te x tu re and m e ta l p a rts .

Using th e sam e base c o lo u r as th e q u iltin g , O u tlin e th e p ouch d e ta ils in b la ck.


p a in t th e po u che s on th e sides.

The la b e ls a re p a in t b ru s h e d on. F irs t, g iu e th e m a c o a t o f the Rdd th e in s tru c tio n la b e ls to th e b o ttle


b o t t le s base co lo u r. To m a ke re a lis tic la b e ls, f ir s t p a in t one and s t a r t to b rin g o u t th e s e a t side d e ta ils
lin e a n d th e n c u t a cro ss i t w it h th e base c o lo u r in u e ry fin e b y h ig h lig h tin g w h e re n e c e s s a ry
tra n s u e rs e s tro k e s . By d o in g th is th e s m a ll sq u a re s th a t w ill u sin g a p a in tb ru s h .
re s e m b le lin e s o f te x t.

H fte r p a in tin g th e m e ta l d e ta ils , F in a lly, p a in t th e s e a t e je c tio n


th e s e a t is c o m p le te . m e ch a n ism s e p a ra te ly .
Techniques

On th e re a r, th e d e ta ils hau e bee n p a in te d


u sin g th e o u tlin in g te ch n iq u e s h o w n e a r lie r
a n d a p p lg h ig h lig h ts , b o th w it h a p a in tb ru s h .

The s e a t m o d e l th a t has been used f o r th is c h a p te r is an a ire s re s in 1:32 scale Rees I I se a t.

13. PAINTING THE WHEEL WELLS

13.1 Horn do I paint and weather the u/heel wells?

To p a in t th e w h e e l w e lls o f th is B f 1B9, b e g in bg a p p ly in g Once th is c o a t is d ry, p re c is e ly m a sk


a c o a t o f base c o lo u r to th e a ir c r a f t s u n d ersid e s. o f f th e edges o f the bays.
Techniques

Using s m a ll p ie ce s o f m a s k in g ta p e g ra d u a llg e x p a n d the a re a W ith an a irb ru s h , a p p lg th e base c o lo u r


co u e re d so th a t th e re is no d a n g e r o f s p o ilin g th e base co lo u r. to th e in t e r io r o f th e bags.

R fte r a llo w in g the base c o lo u r to d rg fo r aro u n d th re e hours, Using m a tt b la ck, add som e sh a d o w in g
a cce n tu a te the edges o f the ra is e d d e ta ils using an hb le a d to th e lin e s th a t w e re m ad e u sin g th e p e n cil.
pencil. The p e n c il lin e s w ill a c t as an o u t lin e r, th e re b g re in fo rc in g The a irb ru s h w ill e lim in a te a n y sh in e p e n c ils lead, w h ile
the e ffe c t o f shadow . In th is case, i t is b e tte r to use a p e n cil c re a tin g an e f f e c t u e ry lik e th a t o f o u tlin in g w it h a p a in tb ru s h .
r a th e r than a p a in tb ru s h , as the d e ta ils are h a rd to reach.

B e tw e e n th e s h a d o w e d areas, a p p lg som e R etouch th e edges w it h th e lig h te n e d base co lo u r.


h ig h lig h ts u sin g som e lig h te n e d base co lo u r. To g e t th e b e s t r e s u lt w it h th e p a in tb ru s h ,
a m ix tu r e w a s m ade o f e q u a l p a rts a c ry lic p a in t.

Rs a fin a l ste p , som e s m a ll b a re p a tc h e s w e re a d ded


in th e w e lls in te rio r . R fte r re m o u in g th e m asks, th is p ro ce s s
w a s c o m p le te . Rs th e base c o lo u r o f th e a ir c r a f t s
u n d e rsid e s has a lre a d y been p a in te d in th is area,
i t does n o t n e e d to be co u e re d w it h a n y m asking .
Techniques

I f th e w h e e l w e lls w e re su p p lie d as in d e p e n d e n t p a rts , F irs t, p a in t th e base c o a t


te c h n iq u e s can be d e u e lo p e d f o r p a in tin g th e m th a t and w a it f o r i t to hard e n .
w ill re a c h th e d e ta ils w it h g r e a te r ease.

F or w o rk in g on th e cables and w irin g , UJhile d o in g th is, i f th e y e llo w to n e is a c c id e n ta lly


f ir s t p a in t th e m bla ck. o u e rp a in te d i t can be re to u c h e d u sin g a p a in tb ru s h
and a s im ila r a c ry lic m ix tu re .

Hs th e base c o a t is lig h t, use u e rg Only p a in t th e to p o f th e cables a n d w ir in g


d a rk g re y f o r sh a d o w in g . Doing th is b y d o in g th is, th e b la c k base w ill a c t as an o u t lin e r
w ill h id e a ll tra c e s o f re to u c h in g . and th e ca b le w ill a p p e a r th in n e r and m o re in scale.

H pply th e lig h te n e d base c o lo u r m ix tu r e The w o r k o f s h a d o w in g a n d th e e ffe c ts o f the


to th e ra is e d d e ta ils , such as th e riu e ts . h ig h lig h ts m ake s th e w h e e l e ll d e ta ils s h o w in c re a s e d r e lie f.
Techniques

14. ASSEMBLING
AND DETAILING
ENGINES
14.1 Howdo I clean up the engines
without damaging the detail?

E lim in a tin g m o u ld lin e s th a t u s u a lly a p p e a r


on a r a d ia l e n g in e h e lp s to e n su re th a t w ill
haue a m o re re a lis tic fin a l app ea ra n ce .
In e u ita b ly , a m o u ld lin e m ill a p p e a r on the d e lic a te c y lin d e r
h e a d c o o lin g fin s , th u s c o m p lic a tin g th e re m o u a l pro ce ss.

Rem ouing these m o u ld lin e s w ill re q u ire R f la t file and a p a in tb ru s h f o r re m o u in g


some 8 0 0 -g ra in sandpaper. This can be fo u nd a n y d u s t a re th e o th e r to o ls re q u ire d .
in m o s t iro n m o n g e rs and is so m e w h a t h a rd e r than
the Tamiya one and b e tte r fo r th is process.

Slide th e edge o f th e s a n d p a p e r b e tw e e n The s a n d p a p e r edges q u ic k ly w e a r o u t. W hen i t does,


th e b la d e s a n d g e n tly re m o u e th e m o u ld lin e . s im p ly c u t o f f a fe w m illim e tr e s w it h th e scissors.

Use th e p a in tb ru s h to re m o u e a n y sa n d in g R etouch th e c y lin d e r heads


re s id u e fro m b e tw e e n th e blades. w it h th e f la t file .

o
Techniques

E lim in a te a n y s tr ia tio n s m ade b y F or th e n e x t p ro ce sse s, th e e n yin e


th e file iv it h th e sa n dpaper. w ill n e e d to be h e ld on a h a n d lin y s tic k .

By a p p ly in g som e p o ly s ty re n e liq u id glue, Using th e p o in t o f a blade,


a n y s m a ll s c ra tc h e s re m a in in g b e tw e e n th e b lades re m o u e the m o u ld lin e s fro m
can be re m o u e d a n d i t w ill s o fte n th e shapes. th e u a lu e g e a r p u sh ro d s.

Bs w it h th e c y lin d e rs , use th e liq u id F in a lly, le a u e th e g lu e


g lu e to im p ro u e th e s u rfa c e s . to d ry f o r a fe w h ours.

4.2 Hoivdo I detail an engine?

th e m o s t com m on d e ta il u s u a lly m is s in g fro m r a d ia l


e n g in es is th e ig n itio n w irin g . To m a ke it, b e g in b y
m a rk in g d r ill h o le s w it h a needle.
Techniques

Using a 0.4 m m d r ill b it, m a ke som e To s im u la te ig n itio n cables, use 0.15 m m


s m a ll h o le s u sin g as a g u id e th e p o in ts c o p p e r w ir e th a t is e a sy to o b ta in
m a rk e d w it h th e n eedle. in a n y g o o d e le c tric a l s u p p lie s shop.

To im p ro u e th e m a lle a b ilitg o f th e c o p p e r w ire , Clean th e s o o t fro m th e w ir e


h e a t i t w it h a lig h te r. Doing th is w ill re m o u e ang w it h p a p e r to p re v e n t i t s ta in in g
p ro te c tiu e u a rn is h c o a t w h ile also a n n e a l lin g it, a n y s u rro u n d in g p a rt.
th u s im p ro u in g it s m a lle a b ility and also m a ke i t e a s ie r
to glue. In a d d itio n , i t w ill re m a in m a tt
and th e p a in t w ill a d h e re b e tte r .

Use tw e e z e rs to shape th e w ire s and a d a p t


th e m to th e e n g in e a lth o u g h , a t th is tim e , o n ly
te s t th e m f o r f it . R fte rw a rd s , ta k e th e m o f f
and ke e p th e m sa fe , as th e y w ill o n ly be g lu e d
on a f t e r the e n g in e has been p a in te d .

15. PAINTING ENGINES

15.1 Hour do I paint a radial engine?

Give th e e n g in e a base c o a t o f Tam iya m a tt a lu m in iu m enam el.


Techniques

W hen the a lu m in iu m p a in t has c o m p le te ly d ried , Using th e sam e base co lo u r, lo a d a f la t p a in tb ru s h


g iu e th e e n g in e a w a s h o f m a tt b la ck. w it h it, as th e e n g in e n o w has to be d ry b ru sh e d .

Rem oue m o s t o f th e p a in t Now, lig h t ly b ru sh th e p a in tb ru s h o u e r th e engine, p re s s in g


on som e p a p e r o r a sponge. lig h tly to a u o id lif t in g th e base p a in t a lo n g the edges.

I f a d if f e r e n t to n e is re q u ire d a ro u n d th e base o f the c y lin d e rs , P a in t th e c ro w n o f th e u a lu e g e a r co u e rs


use an a irb ru s h and a p p ly som e d a rk b ro w n sh a d o w in g . w it h a base c o lo u r o f m e d iu m g re y.

Using th e p a in tb ru s h b e g in p a in tin g th e d if f e r e n t d e ta ils . O u tlin e w it h b la c k m a tt.


Techniques

D uring th e o u tlin in g phase, also a p p lg P a in t th e u a lu e g e a r p u sh ro d s


som e s h a d o w in g u sin g u e rg d a rk g re y. m a tt b la ck.

W ith m a tt a lu m in iu m and a u e rg d ry p a in tb ru s h , To e m p h a size th e e n g in e b o lts , f ir s t p a in t th e m b la c k


add a m e ta llic sh in e to th e p u sh ro d s. and th e n g iu e th e m a lit t le to u ch o f u e rg lig h t g re y.

The tw o m a in e n g in e p a rts a re c o m p le te . Glue th e u a lu e g e a r co u e rs o n to th e e n g in e a n d th e n


g lu e th e ig n itio n cables th a t w e re m ade e a rlie r.

P a in t th e ig n itio n ca b le s w it h a fin e tip p e d p a in tb ru s h . The e n g in e is n o w re a d y to be m o u n te d o n to th e m odel.


Techniques

ASSEMBLY AND TREATMENT OF SURFACES

16. JO INED PANELS AND SURFACES


16.1 How do I eliminate a panel line or a surface scratch?
Quite often an incised line or accidental scratch must be removed. If this is done correctly it will ensure that the repair
becomes invisible once it has been painted.

Using a h e a t- s tr e tc h e d sp ru e p o in te r, a p p lg som e s u p e rg lu e
B co m m o n e a m p le is e lim in a tin g p a n e l lin e s.
a lo n g th e in c is e d lin e u n t il i t is c o m p le te lg fille d in.
S uperglue w o rk s m uch b e t t e r th a n fille r , as i t d rie s
m uch fa s te r, is s tro n g e r, and does n o t e u a p o ra te .

Once th e s u p e rg lu e has d rie d , sa n d the a re a s m o o th Using a s t i f f b r is tle d p a in tb ru s h , cle a n o f f


w it h 10B B -grain s a n d p a p e r to a u o id s c ra tc h in g th e s u rfa c e . a n y re s id u e fro m th e p la s tic .

P olish th e s u rfa c e w it h a F in a lly, g iu e th e re p a ire d a re a a c o a t o f p a in t.


p ie ce o f t o ile t p a p e r. This s h o u ld be a d a rk m a tt c o lo u r th a t w ill re u e a l a n y
d e fe c t in v is ib le to th e eye no m a t t e r h o w s m a ll i t m a y be.
R fte r ch e ckin g , re m o v e th e p a in t w it h alco h o l.

o
Techniques

16.2 U)hy repeat the riuets?


Repeating rivets is another technique for detailing
scale models that, in recent years, has gained promi
nence. Rivets add realism to a scale model, although
there is a need for a cautious approach when repro
ducing them. If they are too large, the effect will be at
odds to what is sought.
Personally, I believe that the riveting techniques add
attractiveness to scale models, although this is not to
infer that scale models without them are inferior or
incomplete.

16.3 How do I make a riuetwith a serrated ring tool?


A riveting tool allows the speedy creation of panel lines, however this tool also has its disadvantages. If a mistake is made
while marking a line, it will be very difficult to eliminate.

To o b ta in a r e a lis tic a p p ea ra n ce , a p la n o r d ia g ra m Using a s e t o f d iu id e rs , tr a n s fe r th e p o s itio n s


s h o w in g th e a c tu a l p o s itio n o f th e r iu e t lin e s o f th e r iu e t lin e s fro m th e p la n o r d ia g ra m
m u s t f ir s t be c lo se lg stu d ie d . o n to th e s u rfa c e o f th e m odel.

C onnect th e s t a r t a n d fin is h lin e s w it h a s tr ip


o f m a s k in g tape, th is w ill se ru e as a re fe re n c e
p o in t a n d a g u id e f o r m a k in g th e lin e .

To p re v e n t an a p e rtu re c o in c id in g w it h a p a n e l lin e ,
p r o te c t th e m w it h a p ie ce o f m a s k in g tape. Once p ra c tic e
has b ro u g h t w it h i t s u ffic ie n t c o n fid e n ce , p a n e l lin e s
can be c o m p le te d m uch q u icke r.

W h ile fir m lg h o ld in g th e p a r t to be w o rk e d ,
a p p lg th e w h e e l w h ile u sin g th e ta p e as a g uide.

o
Tmctmtques

The h u e tin g to o l le a u e s a s m a ll b u lg e a ro u n d th e riu e ts . B e fo re sa n d in g th e r iu e te d s u rfa c e s , f ir s t p r o te c t a n y ra is e d


These can be le f t (th e g a re n o t u e rg n o tic e a b le ) o r th e y d e ta il to p re u e n t th e m b e in g dam aged, in th is case the
can be s a n d ed to m a ke th e r iu e ts le u e l w it h th e s u rfa c e . s im u la te d ra is e d rib s o f a c lo th s u rfa c e haue been p ro te c te d .

/
/

Use 1BBB g ra in sa n d p a p e r to sand


th e r iu e te d s u rfa ce s.

The p h o to g ra p h sh o w s th e h o le s s im u la tin g th e riu e ts .


The re s id u a l d u s t has n o t been re m o u e d
so th a t th e r iu e ts can be seen m o re e a s ily .

Rem oue th e d u s t fro m in s id e th e h o le s


u sin g a s t i f f b r is tle d p a in tb ru s h .

16.4 Hout do / make a riuet with a


needle?
Reproducing rivets using a needle has its pros and
cons. Among the advantages is that, generally, it is
relatively easy to do as the process is quite slow,
which allows better control although it is precisely
the slow speed of the process that represents one of
its drawbacks.

To e n s u re th a t th e h o le s a re r e g u la rly d is trib u te d ,
m a rk o f f a p ie c e o f p a p e r in m illim e te r s and use
i t as a re fe re n c e to o b ta in a u n ifo rm s e p a ra tio n .
Techniques

By u sin g as a re fe re n c e a n y a u a il a b le p la n s o r d ia g ra m s Lock a s e w in g n e e d le in to an H -a c to handle,


o f a c tu a l a ir c r a ft, m a k e m a rk s to in d ic a te th e p e rfo r a tio n and th e n b y p re s s in g w it h th is to o l, th e h o le s can be
lin e s s im ila r to th o se on a f u ll- s iz e a ir c r a ft. By p o s itio n in g m ade one b y one. Be e s p e c ia lly c a re fu l to a p p ly a u n ifo rm
th e s te n c il a n d r e ta in in g i t in p o s itio n a lo n g th e re fe re n c e p re s s u re so th a t th e r iu e t d ia m e te rs a re id e n tic a l.
m a rk s w it h m a s k in g tape, th e s t a r t a n d fin is h p o in ts
w ill be e s ta b lis h e d f o r m a k in g th e lin e s.

16.5 Howdo I close a fuselage join?


Any part joined using superglue will set much quicker than those joined with polystyrene Cement. In addition, superglue
not only seals the joints but also acts as a filler.

Using a b lade, sp re a d th e liq u id s u p e rg lu e Close th e fu s e la g e b y a p p ly in g th e a d h esiue to j u s t one side,


o n to one o f th e s u rfa c e s to be jo in e d . be i t th e u p p e r o r lo w e r one. By d o in g th is, th e tw o h a lv e s o f
th e fu s e la g e a re m o re e a s ily a lig n e d . Use a b la d e as a w e d g e
to open a n y p a r t o f th e jo in th a t has n o t been g lu e d a n d f i l l it.

Seal th e e u te rn a l a re a o f th e jo in w it h a s t r in g
o f s u p e rg lu e a p p lie d w it h th e blade.

o
Techniques

16.6 U/hat is P u tty


and how do I use it?

P u tty , o r f ille r is a p ro d u c t th a t is p e rh a p s one


o f th e m o s t u s e fu l in th e m o d e le rs a rm o u ry . I t a llo w s us to f i l l
holes, c o rre c t m o u ld in y fla w s , r e p a ir d e fe c tiu e jo in t s , e tc.
Mr. S u rfa c e r liq u id p u t t y is so ld in a n u m b e r o f d if f e r e n t
te x tu re s and is id e a l f o r f illin g s m a ll jo in s as i t
can be e a s ily a p p lie d w it h a p a in tb ru s h .

F or p ra c tic e , le t us c o rre c t a b le m ish Using a cu ru e d b lade, ta k e a s m a ll q u a n tity


on a c ir c u la r m o u ld in g , th is d e fe c t is q u ite o f p u t t y d ir e c tly fro m th e tube.
com m on on scale m odels.

Spread th e p u t t y o n to th e b le m is h u n til i t has been c o m p le te ly


co ve re d . Rs th is p ro d u c t e v a p o ra te s as i t d rie s, th e p ro c e s s
m ig h t h a ve to be re p e a te d to c o v e r th e b le m is h c o m p le te ly .

R fte r w a itin g a ro u n d tw o h o u rs f o r th e p u t t y to d ry,


sand i t w it h 888 g ra in sa n d p a p e r m o is te n e d w it h w a t e r
to re m o v e a n y e xce ss p u t t y a n d le v e l th e s u rfa c e .

The b le m ish w ill be in v is ib le u n d e r a n y s u b se q u e n t p a in tin g .


Techniques

Mr. S u rfa c e r liq u id p u t t y is a p p lie d u sin g an a c ry lic b ris tle d


p a in tb ru s h . Rs w it h th e p re u io u s ly d e s c rib e d p u tty , th is one
a lso e u a p o ra te s so i t is n e c e s s a ry to w a it u n t il th e f ir s t c o a t
d rie s b e fo re a p p ly in g the n e x t one.
Once d ry, sand th e s u rfa c e u sin g th e sam e pro ce ss.

Use a lc o h o l to cle a n th e p a in tb ru s h .

16.7 Horn do I sand and ufhat are the best sandpapers?

High q u a lity s a n d pa p e rs can be fo u n d in Rs a p re c a u tio n , and b e fo re s ta r tin g a sa n d in g jo b on an a re a


a n y g o o d iro n m o n g e rs , h o w e u e r i f th e u e ry o f a n y scale m o d e l c o n ta in in g p a rts a lre a d y w o r k e d on, th e y
b e s t is re q u ire d , th e re a re som e e x c e lle n t w ill haue to be p ro te c te d to p re v e n t d am age ca u se d b y the
s e ts au a il a b le fro m Tamiya. p la s tic d u s t m ix e d w it h w a t e r le f t b y th e sa n dpaper.

D ipping 8BB g ra in o r h ig h e r s a n d p a p e r in w a t e r w ill W hen sa n d in g a f la t s u rfa c e , f ir s t sa n d in


a llo w w o r k w ith o u t le a u in g deep s c ra tc h e s on th e s u rfa ce . th e d ire c tio n o f th e jo in lin e and th e n a lte rn a te
P ut th e s a n d p a p e r in to som e w a t e r a n d th e n re m o v e m o s t w it h tra n s v e rs e m o v e m e n ts . This w ill g e t th e jo b
o f th e m o is tu re o n to a p ie ce o f p a p e r, le a v in g th e sa n d in g done m uch fa s te r.
sid e o f the p a p e r s lig h tly dam p.

o
Techniques

UJhen sa n d in g a c u ru e d s u rfa c e i t is b e t t e r to sand o n ly w it h


tra n s u e rs e m o u e m e n ts to a u o id c re a tin g f la t a re a s on th e jo in .

The re s id u e o f p la s tic m in e d w it h w a t e r
se ru e s to in d ic a te th e s ta te o f the p a n e l lin e s.

F or re m o u in g th e p la s tic d u st,
use a s t i f f b r is tle d p a in tb ru s h .

16.8 LUhat do I use to scribe panel lines?

R fte r sa n d in g, som e o f th e p a n e l lin e s w ill haue R n e e d le is b e t t e r f o r re p la c in g


d isa p p e a re d . To re -s c rib e them , to o ls such a cu ru e d lin e , w h e re a s th e s c rib e r w o rk s
as n e e d le s a n d s c rib e rs m u s t be used. u e ry w e ll f o r s tr a ig h t lin e s.

W hen s c rib in g w it h a n e e d le i t is b e t t e r to a p p ly ju s t Once th e in it ia l cu ru e has been e s ta b lis h e d ,


a li t t l e p re s s u re a t th e s t a r t to o b ta in the in it ia l curue. i t can be d e e pe n e d b y a p p ly in g a lit t le m o re p re ssu re .
Techniques

When s c rib in g w it h th e n e e dle, s ttia ll rid g e s S te n cils a re a n e c e s s a ry ite m f o r p re c is e scrib in g .


w ill a p p e a r on b o th sid e s th a t w ill n e e d R 8 .2m m th ic k tin s h e e t, c u t in to s m a ll s e ctio n s, w ill e a s ily
to be re m o u e d w it h sa n dpaper. b e n d ro u n d o r o u e r m o s t s u rfa c e s and se ru e as a s te n c il.

F or c u ru e d shapes, b e n d th e tin s te n c il
and h o ld i t s te a d y w it h m a s k in g tape.

Rs w it h th e nee dle, i t is b e t t e r to f ir s t p re ss
s lig h tly and p ro g re s s iu e ly o b ta in th e lin e .

R fte r s c rib in g th e lin e s, s m o o th


th e s u rfa c e w it h sa n dpaper.

16.9 How do I cut flying surfaces to create an effect of motion?

S e p a ra tin g fly in g s u rfa c e s , such as a ile ro n s , fla p s, ru d d e rs Slide th e b la d e g e n tly a lo n g


and e le u a to rs , and re p o s itio n in g th e m in a d if f e r e n t p o s itio n th e e tc h e d lin e th a t
is a p ro c e s s th a t adds re a lis m to a sca le m odel. Begin b y d e lin e a te s th e s u rfa c e .
re m o u in g th e s u rfa c e w it h a n e w tr ia n g u la r blade.

6
M a k in g p ro g re s s iv e passes w ill p ro g re s s iu e lg Then, b y p re s s in g lig h t ly w it h o u r fin g e rs ,
deepen th e cu t, w o rk in g fro m b o th sides th e fly in g s u rfa c e w ill se p a ra te ,
u n til th e c u t is n e a rly th ro u g h .

Doing i t in th is w a y w ill e n su re Clean up a n y im p e rfe c tio n s


a cle a n s e p a ra tio n . r e s u ltin g fro m th e cut.

Using a f la t file , s m o o th th e s u rfa c e . Using an H -U cto s a w m a ke a c u t a p p ro x im a te ly


2 m m deep on the edge o f th e s u rfa c e .

This u - c u t w ill a cco m m o d a te th e n e w fo rw a r d


edge th a t w ill be m ade on th e fly in g s u rfa c e .

Techniques

Cut a s e c tio n o f e u e rg re e n Glue the p la s tic s e c tio n a long


p la s tic o u tlin e . th e edge o f the flg in g s u rfa c e .

Begin ro u n d in g th e p la s tic s e ctio n . P e rfe c t th e shape w it h a file .

S an d p a p er th e edge so th a t i t is in te g ra te d F it the n e w cu ru e d edge b a c k in to the o p e n in g and


c o m p le te ly in to th e fly in g s u rfa c e . se a l th e jo i n t w it h ta m iy a s e x t r a - t h in liq u id glue.

F in a lly , g lu e th e s ta b iliz e rs o n to Bn im p o r ta n t a s s e m b ly d e ta il is to m a ke su re
th e a ir c r a f t s fu se la g e . th e jo in s th a t re m a in u is ib le a re co u e re d w h e n
th e fly in g s u rfa c e s a re re - in s ta lle d .
This d e ta il also te n ds to be seen To c o u e r th e se up, ta k e som e p ie ce s o f c a rd b o a rd
w h e n th e fla p s a re fitte d . p ie ce s and use th e m to m a ke a s te n c il a n d t r a n s fe r th e
shape o n to a p ie ce o f p la s tic a rd o f the c o rre c t th ick n e s s .

R fte r th e y haue bee n d ra w n , Using e n tr a - th in liq u id glue,


c u t th e m o u t w it h th e blade. a tta c h th e m to th e jo in .

This sim p le s o lu tio n w ill so lu e an im p o rta n t,


a e s th e tic a lly p ro b le m a tic d e ta il.
Techniques

PAINTING TECHNIQUES

17. PROTECTING PRE-PAINTED AREAS

17.1 Hout do I apply a mask to protect a pre-painted area?

C losing th e c o c k p it w it h a s o lid m a s k w ill p re u e n t Bg su p e rim p o s in g som e la r g e r pieces,


p a in t f ilt e r in g in to i t fro m th e o u tsid e . th e c o c k p its c e n tre can be closed.
Begin bg c o u e rin g th e c o c k p it w it h s m a ll sq u a re s
o f m a s k in g ta p e a tta c h e d to th e edges.

To a u o id d a m a g in g th e fr a g ile p h o to e tc h e d B tta c h som e ta p e to th e p ie ce


In s tru m e n t p a n e l bg a tta c h in g m a s k in g ta p e o f p a p e r and c o m p le te lg
to it , f ir s t c o u e r i t w it h a p ie ce o f p a p er. clo se th e c o c k p it.

17.2 How do I seal the mask?


If the masking is only to be used for a short period, the
masking tapes own adhesive will be sufficient.
However, if it is to remain on the model for some con
siderable time, the adhesive might dry out and
become unstuck, leaving the area unprotected.
To avoid this risk, apply some white pva glue to the
covered area.
Using a paintbrush spread a thin coat of diluted pva
glue onto the tape. When it dries, the masking will not
move. The white glue will maintain the unity of the
pieces of tape, and when it comes time to remove the
mask it will come off as a single piece.
Techniques

17.3 W hat precautions do I need to take with the mask?


M a s k in g o f f is n e c e s s a ry to p re u e n t a n y su b se q u e n t
p a in t jo b fro m e n cro a ch in g o n to p a rts a lre a d y p a in te d
o n to o th e r p a rts th a t do n o t re q u ire p a in tin g .

I t is u e ry im p o r ta n t to p r o te c t th e jo in a re a s o r f it t in g p o in ts
f o r p a rts th a t a re to be g lu e d a f t e r p a in tin g has been done. I f
th e se jo in s o r f it t in g p o in ts g e t p a in t on them , g lu e w ill n o t
w o r k p ro p e rly and th e u n io n s w ill be in se cu re .

18. BEFORE APPLYING PAINT


18.1 References for authentic
colours.
Much of a models realism is obtained by being painted
in the same colour as that found on the full size aircraft.
A number of publications are available containing actual
examples of the colours and these allow us to compare
the paints used. The publications providing us with this
important tool include the federal standard, monogram
editions, etc. The internet is also an important colour
source but it must be remembered that the colours
themselves are conditioned by what the monitor screen
is able to reproduce.

18.2 How do I choose the appropriate paints?


Today, manufacturers of paints for scale models tend to produce two distinct product lines, enamels and acrylics, with
each type having its fans and detractors. I believe that each modeler must experiment and decide what type of paint suits
his/her and gives the best result.
Personally, except for metallic colours, I prefer acrylics. The gunze sangyo range includes colours whose references are
based on accepted colour norms such as rim or federal standard. A disadvantage of these is that some of the colours
are only produced in gloss or semi-gloss finishes, that somewhat complicates their use.
Tamiyas acrilica range does not have a wide range of referenced colours, but the fineness of their grain makes them my
favorite; diluted with common 96-pharmacy alcohol, they allow the creation of very subtle paint effects.
Both types of paint are toxic, which makes imperative the use of a mask when painting.
Techniques

18.3 Whyis it important to avoid handling already painted areas?


In te n s iv e h a n d lin g o f a re a s a lre a d y p a in te d can dam age
th e p a in t, w it h g lo s s y a re a s a p p e a rin g in th e w ro n g
p la ce s o r euen b e co m in g scra tch e d .
There a re a n u m b e r o f w a y s o f h a n d lin g a m o d e l and also a v o id
d a m a g in g th e p a in t. L a te x g lo u e s a re u se fu l, b u t u sin g th e m
can be in c o n v e n ie n t and th e p a in t bases do n o t a lw a y s le a v e
th e s u rfa c e s in th e b e s t c o n d itio n , ft s im p le m e th o d is to use a
h a n d le m ade fro m a p ie c e o f p la s tic b u b b le w r a p . This is a
q u ilte d m a te r ia l and re s is ts slip p in g , so th a t th e scale m o d e l
can be h e ld s e c u re ly w it h o u t d a m a g in g th e p a in t.

By h o ld in g th e m o d e l b y it s w in g tip s,
th e le n g th y p ro ce ss o f p a in tin g can be e a s ily
c a rrie d o u t, m o v in g th e m o d e l a ro u n d as re q u ire d
w ith o u t any d a n g e r o f i t b e in g dro p p e d .

18.4 To avoid handling, where do I


begin painting the model?
Usually, the fuselage is the part of the model that
requires the most time painting. This part is also the
hardest to airbrush in a comfortable position. I belie
ve that painting the fuselage first is the best way for
ward as, by handling the model by the wing tips, it
can be easily turned and moved as much as requi
red.

To p re v e n t th e a p p e a ra n ce o f a d e m a rc a tio n lin e b e tw e e n
th o se a re a s th a t h a ve been p a in te d and th o se th a t re q u ire
p a in tin g , a lw a y s p a in t to a s p e c ific p a n e l lin e .

W h ile p a in tin g th e u n d e rsid e s, h o ld th e m o d e l b y th e to p On c o m p le tio n o f th e lo w e r c e n tra l p a rt,


o f th e fu s e la g e , w h ic h has n o t y e t been p a in te d . b e g in p a in tin g th e r e s t o f th e fu se la g e ,
The b u b b le w ra p w ill p re v e n t a n y d ir t o r s w e a t fro m h o ld in g th e m o d e l h e ld its w in g tips.
o u r hands fro m g e ttin g o n to th e m odel.
19. MASKS FOR DELINEATING OUTLINES
AND EDGES
19.1 Ulhat types of edges can I
obtain using different masks?
The types of edges that can be achieved using diffe
rent masks are hard, semi-hard and soft.

D e lin e a tin g th e c o lo u rs o f th is g e rm a n s p lin te r


c a m o u fla g e has been done bg g lu in g th e m a s k d ir e c tly
o n to th e s u rfa c e th e re b y c re a tin g h a rd lin e s.

The d iffu s e d d e lin e a tio n lin e s o f th e u n d u la tin g


c a m o u fla g e on th is S p itfire has been m ade u sin g
m asks th a t a llo w som e o f th e p a in t s p ra y to
pass u n d e rn e a th , th u s c re a tin g a s e m i-h a rd edge.

On th is Ruenger, th e lin e s o f d e lin e a tio n w e re m ade b y h o ld in g


th e a irb ru s h a w a y fro m th e s u rfa c e . The s p ra y d e lin e a tin g
th e c o lo u rs is fu ll, th u s c re a tin g a s o ft edge.

19.2 How do I apply a mask to get a hard edge?

To o b ta in an edge th a t is clean, n a rr o w a n d h a rd ,
f ir s t la y d o w n a th in s tr ip o f m a s k in g tape, w h ic h can
be a d a p te d to the s u rfa c e s u n d u la tio n s and curues.

To p re u e n t th e p a in t le a k in g u n d e r o r a ro u n d th e m ask,
e n te n d th e m a ske d a re a u sin g s m a ll p ie ce s
o f ta p e a n d o u e rla p th e f ir s t s trip s .

Rdd m ore , la r g e r p ie ce s to e n la rg e
th e m a ske d area.
Techniques

To p re u e n t th e base c o lo u r s h o w in g th ro u g h use a s o lid c o lo u r


u n d e rc o a t, such as g re y . By usin g th is co lo u r, th o se shades
th a t c o u e r p o o rly , such as y e llo w and red, w ill fin b e tte r.

R irb ru sh the y e llo w to n e and le t i t d ry


f o r a co u p le o f h o u rs b e fo re re m o u in g the m ask.

The s tr ip e is p a in te d w it h a h a rd edge.

19.3 Hour do I apply a mask to get a semi-hard edge?

B lu -ta c k , th a t u s e fu l re u s a b le r u b b e r -lik e a d h esiue p u tty , Cut th e p ro d u c t w ith o u t to u c h in g


can e a s ily be use d to m a ke a m a s k w it h a s e m i-h a rd edge. i t w it h y o u r fin g e rs , to p re u e n t i t
The m a in p re c a u tio n th a t has to be ta k e n in to a cco u n t a b s o rb in g g re a se fro m th e skin.
is th a t som e o f th e se p u ttie s s ta in m a tt s u rfa c e s .
I f th is p ro d u c t is to be used, te s t i t f ir s t on a s m a ll area.

Roll o u t som e s trip s o f a p p ro x im a te ly 3 -4 m m Once th e s trip s haue been m ade,


th ic k o n to a cle a n s u rfa c e . o n ly h a n d le th e m fro m th e top.

0
Techniques

P re p a re th e s u rfa c e b y f ir s t a irb ru s h in g th e lig h te r P o s itio n th e b lu - ta c k s tr ip s o n to th e s u rfa c e ,


to n e a n d a llo w in g i t to c o m p le te ly d ry. fo llo w in g th e lin e o f th e p ro p o s e d c a m o u fla g e schem e.

The m a s k e d a re a can be e n la rg e d w it h tape. H irb ru sh th e d a rk co lo u r, k e e p in g th e a irb ru s h


as n e a r 90 d e g re e s to th e s u rfa c e as p o ssib le .

Once th e p a in t has d rie d , re m o u e th e s trip s . The ro u n d e d edge o f th e b lu - ta c k s tr ip s a llo w s


th e s p ra y fro m th e a irb ru s h to lig h tly
f ilt e r b e lo w , c re a tin g a d iffu s e d edge.

19.4 How do I obtain a soft edge?


If we need to create a delineated edge that is even soft
er than that produced using blu-tack rolls, then airbrush
ing from a greater distance will do it. This technique
requires practice before attempting to paint an actual
surface, and doing so will allow you to become familiar
with the paint flow and the airbrushing distance.
In the example shown, tamiya acrylic paint has been
used. To get the desired fine grain that will help to repro
duce the effect of scale, the paint has been diluted with
alcohol. The percentages of paint/alcohol are approxi
mately 40% paint with 60% common 96-pharmacy
alcohol. Use a medium head on the airbrush and air
brush at a pressure of 1 bar. From a good distance, p a in t the d e lin e a tio n
edges o f the cam ouflage.
Techniques

Using th e sam e m ix tu re , f i l l in the


in te rn a l a reas, th e y can be c o u e re d
c o m p le te ly o r th e base c o lo u r can be
le f t p a r t ly u is ib le , th is la s t b e in g q u ite
u s e fu l f o r som e typ e s o f ca m o u fla g e .

20. AIRBRUSHINGFROM A DISTANCE


28.1 Houi do I make a stain or fleck?
Painting flecks is one of the techniques that many modelers ask questions about. Its application was widespread for german
camouflage during world war ii. Constant practice with the airbrush to the point of ease will help the modeler to apply this
technique on scale models. To make flecks or dots, use a mixture of very light composition paint.
For the example, a mixture of 20-25% tamiya acrylic with the remainder 96alcohol was used at an air pressure of 1.10 bar.
The distance of the airbrush from the paper is as shown, while the airbrushs attitude with respect to the painting surface has
to be as close as possible to 90 degrees.

B e fo re b e g in n in g , f ir s t ch e ck the te ch n iq u e b y a irb ru s h in g H fte r su cce e ding in m a k in g p o in ts w ith o u t


som e p o in ts . This m ill h e lp to assess and a d ju s t, a n y s p a tte r in g o r p a in t a c c u m u la tio n s ,
i f n e ce ssa ry, th e flo w o f a ir and p a in t. n e x t t r y e n la rg in g th e p o in t o u tw a rd s .

The n e x t s te p is to c re a te an ir re g u la r
shape b e g in n in g fro m th e in it ia l p o in t.

Once th e te c h n iq u e has been m a s te re d , By u a ry in g th e c o m p o s itio n o f th e m ix tu re , i t is


i t can be a p p lie d to th e m odel. p o ssib le to re p ro d u c e fle c k s o f u a ry in g in te n s ity .

o
Techniques

28.2 Horndo I make a fine or blurred


line?
Making fine lines with the airbrush is very useful when
simulating, for example, exhaust stains or smoke on a
model. By making a simple wrist movement, a line
appears that has a visible start and a blurred end. The
paint solutions are identical to those explained earlier
in point 8.5 of the section dedicated to the first ques
tions on the airbrush.

To r e s t r ic t th e s t a r t p o in t o f th e s tro k e use
a p ie c e o f m a s k in g tape. Rt th e b e g in n in g o f the
s tro k e , h o ld th e a irb ru s h c lo s e r to th e s u rfa c e .

M o v e th e a irb ru s h w it h an a rc in g m o tio n so th a t, C o m bining u a rio u s to n e s and th ickn e sse s,


w it h th e s e p a ra tio n o f th e lin e o f flo w , th e lin e w ill b lu r. re a lis tic ta rn is h in g e ffe c ts can be c re a te d .

21. SPECIAL FINISHES


21.1 Horn do I paint a simulated utood surface?

C re a tin g a u is u a l e f f e c t th a t re s e m b le s w o o d R irb ru sh a w o o d base c o lo u r u sin g ta m ig a a crg lic s .


is a te c h n iq u e th a t w ill be p u t in to p ra c tic e The base m ix tu r e use d is m a tt g e l lo w w it h a s m a ll p e rc e n ta g e
w h e n p a in tin g W o rld UJar I a ir c r a ft. o f re d to c re a te an o ra n g e tone. To add sub tie tg to th is f ir s t
The fu s e la g e s e c tio n is th e b e s t a re a fo r p ra c tic in g on. m ix tu re , a s m a ll q u a n titg o f b ro w n can also be added.

Take a p ie c e o f g re a s e p ro o f p a p e r s o m e w h a t la r g e r Glue th e p a p e r m a s k to th e are a , h o ld in g


th a n th e s u rfa c e th a t has been g iu e n a c o a t o f base c o lo u r. i t in p la ce w it h m a s k in g tape.
Then, c u t an ir r e g u la r lin e a lo n g the u p p e r edge.

o
Techniques

R fte r in c re a s in g th e p e rc e n ta g e o f b ro w n in th e base m ix tu re , P ra c tic e th e lin e on a p ie c e o f p a p er.


p re p a re an a lc o h o l-d ilu te d m ix tu re , the a p p ro x im a te
p e rc e n ta g e o f p a in t s h o u ld be a ro u n d 38-35% .

R irb ru sh th e edge o f th e m ask. Rem oue th e m a s k a n d assess th e e f f e c t o f the


f ir s t lin e , w h ic h s h o u ld lo o k lik e w o o d g ra in .

R fte r a n u m b e r o f lin e s haue been p a in te d ,


r e - c u t th e edge o f th e m a s k to c re a te
a s lig h tlg n e w p a tte rn .

P ro ce e d in th is w a g u n til Finallg, rem oue the m asks and u ie w the re s u lt. To p a in t the w h o le
th e p a n e l is co m p le te d . fuselage and c re a te a m ore co m p le x c h ro m a tic e ffe c t, tr y
s lig h tly u a ry in g the base c o lo u r and the c o n tra s t o f the lines.
Techniques

21.2 Hout do I paint a bare metal surface?


Applying metallic paints requires that the surface to be painted must be free of defects, as even the smallest mark or
scratch will remain visible even after it had been painted.
Masking metal surfaces can cause the paint to lift when removed. To reduce this problem, try to keep the masking tapes
contact surface as small as possible.
Planning the application of metallic paint is paramount, as metal finishes deteriorate much more if over-handled.

Use 1508 g ra in , o r h ig h e r, sa n d p a p e r to re m o u e L ig h tly sa n d a ll th e s u rfa c e s , f ir s t w it h 1500 g ra in


a n y s m a ll s u rfa c e b le m ish e s o r scra tch e s, and th e n w it h 288 0 g ra in sa n d pa p e rs. Ind ee d , on e u e ry
m odel, c a rry o u t th is p ro c e d u re a f t e r th e m o d e l has
been assem bled, g lu e d a n d the jo in s sanded.

Using a th ic k p a in tb ru s h , re m o u e a n y Upply th e ch ro m e s ilu e r, H-11, in th e sam e w a y


re s id u e fro m sa n d in g o p e ra tio n th a t as a p p ly in g a base c o a t; th e m ix tu r e p ro p o rtio n s a re
has a c c u m u la te d in th e p a n e l lin e s. 70% p a in t w it h th e re m a in d e r b e in g th e e n a m e l s o lu e n t
fro m th e sam e m a n u fa c tu re r as th e p a in t.

R llo w th e p a in t to d ry R e tra ce th e p a n e l lin e s


f o r a p p ro x im a te ly tw o hours. u sin g d ilu te d a c ry lic .
Techniques

W hile m a rk in g th e p a n e l lin e s, i f th e p a in t s tra y s M e ta llic p a in ts a re e s p e c ia lly s e n s itiu e


o u ts id e th e lin e use a c o tto n b u d to re m o u e it. to m a s k in g ; th e p ig m e n ts q u ite o fte n com e a w a y
w it h th e m a s k euen w h e n th e p a in t is d ry.

By p a in tin g w it h h ig h ly d ilu te d a c ry lic c o lo u rs on a n a tu r a l m e ta l fin is h tra n s p a re n c ie s can be c re a te d .


Using w h ite w ill lig h te n w h ile u sin g b la c k w ill d a rke n , w h e re a s u sin g b lu e a n d b ro w n w ill c re a te tin ts
th a t s im u la te th e c o lo u rs on th o se p a n e ls th a t a re clo se to a h e a t so u rce such as e n g in e e xh a u sts.

To m in im iz e the e f f e c t o f m a s k in g o u e r th e base p a in t,
use p a p e r and a tta c h i t to th e m o d e ls s u rfa c e w it h s m a ll
s tr ip s o f m a s k in g tape. By d o in g th is, i t w ill re d u ce
th e a d h esiue s u rfa c e a re a in c o n ta c t w it h th e p a in t.

B d ju s t th e s tr ip o f m a s k in g ta p e to th e p a n e l lin e s ;
th e p a p e r w ill in c re a s e th e a re a o f a n y m asking .

Using a h ig h ly d ilu te d p a in t m ix tu re , s im ila r to th a t use d fo r


b lu rre d lin e s and, in th is case, w h ite p a in t to a irb ru s h th e
p a n e l w it h an h o m o g e n e o us c o a t to lig h te n th e pa n el.

o
Techniques

R llo w th e p a in t to d ry I f th e tra n s p a re n c y d rie s to o m a tt, a f t e r i t is


and re m o u e th e m ask. c o m p le te ly d ry i t can be s h in e d b y g e n tly
ru b b in g i t w it h a li t t l e c o tto n sw ab.

R epeat th e p ro c e d u re u sin g d ilu te d b la c k By co m b in in g th e c o lo u rs o f th e tra n s p a re n c ie s , p a n e ls


to c re a te a d a rk e n e d s u rfa c e . o f s e u e ra l b rig h tn e s s s a n d shades can be c re a te d .

By fo llo w in g th is p ro c e d u re , th e n a tu r a l
m e ta l s u rfa c e s ta k e on th e a p p e a ra n ce
s im ila r to th a t o f a f u ll- s iz e a ir c r a ft.
The to n a l u a ria tio n s a re p ro d u c e d b y
d iffe re n c e s in a llo y s , re p a irs o r the
e ffe c ts o f h e a t.

22. PANEL LINES


22.1 Why emphasize
panel lines?
Emphasizing the panel lines on
model aircraft is complementary
to the overall painting process
and adds realism to the model.
Panels may be highly empha
sized, subtlety emphasized or
not at all, and is a matter for the
model makers personal choice.
Personally, I prefer to mark the
panels and enjoy to the same
degree whether I do it with sub
tleness or more intensively.

Techniques

22.2 Hour do I emphasize the lines


utith a pencil?
Emphasizing panel lines with a pencil prevents them
from being darkened when completing the painting
process. Emphasized panel lines differentiate the sur
faces, adding complexity to the model.

To e m p h a s iz e w it h a p e n c il, use a le a d s iz e o f 0.5 m m


w it h a h a rd n e ss o f hb o r lo w e r, a n y th in g h ig h e r
in th e hb se rie s haue b r ig h te r leads.

Sharpen th e le a d on a p ie c e o f 800 g ra in sa n d pa p e r, This te ch n iq u e a llo w s e m p h a sis on p a n e ls th a t


th is a llo w s i t to be in s e rte d in s id e th e p a n e l lin e . m a y be s h a llo w o r haue a d if f ic u lt shape.

This m e th o d is also a p p ro p ria te f o r e a s ily 0s the s tro k e can be e a s ily c o n tro lle d , i t can be a p p lie d
e m p h a s iz in g th e o u tlin e o f a n y ra is e d d e ta il. o n to u e ry s m a ll shapes w h e re e m p h a s iz in g w it h
a p a in tb ru s h w o u ld be ris k ie r.

22.3 Horn do I emphasize the lines with a paintbrush?


Emphasizing lines using a paintbrush and acrylics is a technique that requires somewhat more practice than doing it with
a pencil, as the stroke has to be handled with more control to avoid spilling the paint and creating rings. Over panels
painted in lighter colours, brown shades can be used to mark the lines. With darker panels, use brown mixed with black.

The in it ia l p a in t c o m p o s itio n s h o u ld c o n ta in The m ix tu r e use d is a h ig h ly d ilu te d one


a p p ro x im a te ly 40% p a in t a n d 60% w a te r. and th e p a in tb ru s h is p re p a re d in e x a c tly
Rn e x a m p le can be seen in th e p h o to g ra p h . th e sam e w a y as f o r d o in g o u tlin in g .

o
T ecrtntques

In s e rt th e p a in tb ru s h in to th e p a n e l lin e w h e re
th e h ig h ly d ilu te d n a tu re o f th e m ix tu r e w ill cause
i t to flo w e a s ily , q u ic k ly d a rk e n in g th e p a n e l lin e .

W hen th e base c o lo u r is b la c k o r a n o th e r u e ry
d a rk co lo u r, th e p ro ce ss is s im p ly re u e rs e d
and a lig h t e r lin e is c re a te d u sin g g re y .

This te ch n iq u e a llo w s th e c o m b in a tio n o f u a rio u s to n es as a


fu n c tio n o f th e base c o lo u r and o f th e a re a w h e re i t is a p p lie d ;
f o r e xa m p le , in a re a s clo se to th e e ngine, e m p h a sis can be
w it h a d a rk e r to n e to d if f e r e n t ia t e p e rm a n e n t p a n e ls fro m the
th o se th a t can be re m o u e d fo r, say, m a in te n a n ce .

22.4 How do I emphasize the lines with an airbrush?


The technique of emphasizing panel lines using an airbrush is appropriate for reinforcing the effect of movement of the
flying surfaces. By applying the airbrush over a mask, a hard edge can be created to mark the line while, at the same
time, a soft one is created that can blur with a few strokes.

F or a p p ly in g th is te ch n iq u e , use a u e ry s m a ll q u a n tity The p a p e r re u e a ls


o f a c ry lic p a in t and, f o r e xa m p le , use u e ry d a rk b ro w n th e m ix t u r e s co m p o s itio n ,
on lig h t e r c o lo u rs o r b la c k on th e d a rk e r ones.

R p o s t - it n o te is u e ry g o o d to use as a m ask. This p ro c e d u re re - c r e a te s q u ite w e ll


Pass th e a irb ru s h a lo n g the p a p e r, th a t has been th e ty p ic a l ta rn is h e d lo o k o f th e jo in lin e s
p o s itio n e d d ir e c tly a lo n g the p a n e l lin e , a n d i t w ill c re a te on fly in g s u rfa c e s th a t a re co m m o n ly
som e s h a d o w in g , th e e f f e c t can th e n be c o m p le te d w it h seen on a ir c r a ft.
w r is t m o u e m e n ts to c re a te a ta rn is h e d lo o k
th a t b e g in s r ig h t fro m th e lin e .
Techniques

23. SHADOWS AND H IG H LIG H TS


ON THE EXTERNAL PAINT

23.1 U/hat are shadou/s and highlights on scale model painting


and what function do theg fulfil?
The effects of highlight and shadow on the general painting of a scale model allows the creation of tonal differences
to simulate the wear imposed on real aircraft as a consequence of friction with air, dirt or harsh climatic conditions.

23.2 How do I applg shadows and highlights?

W hen s h a d o w in g p a n e l lin e s th a t haue a lre a d y been


e m p h a s iz e d w it h an a irb ru s h , a ta rn is h in g e f f e c t w ill be
c re a te d on them . Use a u e ry lig h t p a in t m ix tu re , 5% p a in t
d ilu te d w it h a lc o h o l w ill s u ffic e , w h e n a p p ly in g th e se sh a d ow s.

a p p ly in g th e se sh a d o w s ir r e g u la r ly on the p a n e ls
c e n tra l a re a s w ill c re a te a u a r ie ty o f to n es
th a t r e in fo r c e th e e f f e c t o f p a in t ageing.

By a irb ru s h in g sh a d o w s on th e p a in te d d ecals
o r n a tio n a l in s ig n ia w ill r e in fo r c e th e ir
in te g ra tio n in to th e s u rro u n d in g p a in t.

o
Techniques

Using sh a d ow s and h ig h lig h ts on th e base p a in t,


th e a g e in g p ro ce ss u n d e rg o n e bg th e p a in t on
som e a re a s can be s im u la te d . To g iu e the
a p p e a ra n ce o f p a in t a b ra s io n p ro d u c e d bg
g ro u n d c re w w a lk in g on th e w in g s , s t a r t bg
a p p lg in g sh a d o w on a n d a ro u n d th e p a n e l lin e s.

Using a h ig h lg d ilu te d m ix tu r e o f th e base c o lo u r lig h te n e d R epeat th e s h a d o w in g p ro ce ss in a t o ta lly ir r e g u la r


w it h g re y , a p p ly th e h ig h lig h ts in th e in te rm e d ia te fo rm , im p a rtin g m u ltip le tin ts to th e base co lo u r.
a re a s p ro d u c e d b y th e sh a d ow s.

F or a n y s u rfa c e th a t has e le m e n ts o f ra is e d d e ta il, P o s itio n a s m a ll s e c tio n o f m a s k in g ta p e


th e se can be e n h an ce d b y a p ro ce ss o f s h a d o w in g on m asks. on each ra is e d d e ta il.

On each s tr ip a irb ru s h a m ix tu r e o f m a tt R fte r re m o u in g th e m asks, i t can be seen h o w the


b la c k a c ry lic h ig h ly d ilu te d w it h alco h o l. sh a d o w in g enhances th e ra is e d rib a re a s o f th e fla p .
Techniques

23.3 Whatis pre-shading?


Pre-shading is an alternative to shadowing panel lines. The difference with this technique is that it is applied before the
base coat, and it is the consistency of the latter that produces the transparency.

F or a p p ly in g p re -s h a d in g , b la c k o r u e ry d a rk b ro w n Hirb ru s h th e p re -s h a d in g o n to
can be use d a n d th e p a in t m ix tu r e m u s t p ro d u ce th e p la s tic , a f t e r e n s u rin g th a t i t is
h a rd lin e s f o r th e m to be u is ib le u n d e r the base co a t. d e u o id o f a n y im p u ritie s .

P a in t th e p a n e l lin e s, th u s F o llo w in g th e a p p lic a tio n o f th e base co a t, c h e ck to see i f the


c re a tin g a c o n s is te n t shadow . sh a d o w s th a t w e re a irb ru s h e d f ir s t a re s t ill u is ib le b e n e a th it.
By ch a n g in g th e c o n s is te n c y o f th e base c o a t m ix tu r e w ill
cause the e f f e c t to be g r e a te r o r le sse r.

24. SCRATCHES AND BARE PATCHES


24.1 What is the difference
between a scratch and a
bare patch and in what
areas can I reproduce
them?
If one looks at photographs of actual and
relatively common world war ii aircraft, it
can be seen how the access panels
around engines and equipment have
been rubbed bare of paint, forming the
now characteristic bare metal patches.
This sort of bare metal effect is usually
combined with other marks such as
scratches. These, although they may not
result in bare metal showing through, can
change the colour of the paint and
expose underlying coats that may be
lighter or darker according to the amount
of oxidation accumulating on them.
Sometimes, inferior quality paint on the
actual aircraft may produce effects of
bare patches that extend across all the
surfaces, not only those for access or
maintenance.
24.2 Howdo I reproduce scratches and bare patches?

Scratches te n d to co m m o n ly o ccu r in a n u m b e r o f areas, I t is im p o r ta n t to m a ke su re th a t


e sp e cia lly aro u n d e q u ip m e n t access panels. a n y s c ra tc h e s do n o t c o n tra s t to o m uch w it h
Using d a rk base colours, th is e ffe c t can be sim u la te d th e base c o lo u r base, th e y m u s t be v is ib le
using a m ix tu re o f m edium g re y colour, c re a tin g th in lines, w ith o u t b e in g to o o b vio u s.
p o in ts and irre g u la r shapes close to the p a n e l lines.

R m a tt m e ta llic p a in t s h o u ld be used Spread th e b a re p a tc h e s ra n d o m ly ,


to re p ro d u c e b a re p a tc h e s th a t le a v e th e base c re a tin g ir r e g u la r shapes a ro u n d
m e ta l v is ib le . T am iyas m a tt a lu m in iu m enam el, th e access areas.
lig h tly d ilu te d u sin g Tam iya s o lv e n t, is re a d ily app lie d .

To re d u c e a n y sh in e on th e b a re p a tc h e s and R fte r the w a s h has been a p p lie d , see h o w


to in te g ra te th e m in to th e m o d e ls o v e ra ll tone, the sh in e on th e b a re p a tc h e s has n o w been
a p p ly a w a s h w it h th e p o in t o f th e p a in tb ru s h on each re d u c e d and th e y h a ve be co m e h o m o g e n iz e d
b a re p a tc h ; a d a rk b ro w n to n e d ilu te d w it h lo ts w it h th e p a in t and d o n t s ta n d o u t to o m uch.
o f w a t e r w ill p ro d u c e th e d e s ire d e ffe c t.
Techniques

25. OIL AND FLUID STAINS


25.1 Where should I reproduce oil and fluid stains?
Oil, hydraulic fluid, and fuel stains are produced when an aircraft begins to leak, and they all do in one way or another.
These liquids make their way onto the aircrafts surface and then assume shapes dictated by the aircrafts passage
through the air. These stains can be imitated so that our model will have an operational appearance.

25.2 Hout can I simulate oil and fluid stains?


F or c re a tin g th e d is tin c tiu e shapes o f le a k in g flu id s , h ig h ly
d ilu te d a c ry lic c o lo u rs a re used, in a m ix tu r e s im ila r to, o r
lig h t e r th a n th a t use d f o r a m ash. I t is im p o r ta n t th a t, in th is
in s ta n c e , th e p a in tb ru s h m u s t be a lm o s t d e u o id o f p a in t to
p re u e n t i t fro m sp re a d in g a n d c re a tin g rin g s. I f i t is done in
th is m ay, th e s tro k e p ro d u c e d m ill be a lm o s t tra n s p a re n t.
The c o lo u rs use d a re b la c k and som e shades o f b ro m n ; these
can be c o m b in e d to c re a te m o re r e a lis tic e ffe c ts .

By f ir s t s p re a d in g th e p a in tb ru s h b ris tle s
b y p re s s in g th e m o n to som e p a p e r to re m o u e any
excess p a in t, u e ry th in and p a ra lle l lin e s can
th e n be p ro d u ce d . Old p a in tb ru s h e s
a re u e ry g o o d f o r a p p ly in g th is te ch niqu e .

26. EXHAUST STAINS

26.1 Where should I simulate


stains?
The action of combustion in a piston engine generates
a great deal of exhaust smoke that also tends to con
tain a fair amount of oil. This mixture is dragged along
any adjacent aircraft surfaces by the airflow and gen
erates the characteristic staining that can be seen on
the sides or undersides of the aircraft.
If the engines are installed in the wings, the exhaust
will be blown over their surfaces, creating a quite odd
coloured effect.

O
Tecttnxtues

26.2 Howdo I paint stains?


By ta k in g th e B f1 0 9 as an e xa m p le , th e e x h a u s t
s ta in in g can be p a in te d w it h a s t a r t p o in t b e in g
th e h o llo w o ccu p ie d b y th e e x h a u s t. The s ta in lin e
w ill c o n tin u e a lo n g th e w in g r o o t a n d the fu se la g e .

Using a m ix tu r e o f e a rth - b ro w n a c ry lic p a in t d ilu te d w it h


a lc o h o l in s im ila r p ro p o rtio n s to th a t use d fo r th in o r b lu rre d
lin e s, f ir s t m a rk a r e la tiu e ly sh a rp lin e n e a r th e e x h a u s t,
m a k in g i t lig h t e r to w a rd th e end o f th e w in g ro o t.

R epeat th e p ro ce ss f o r th e b ro w n lin e , c re a tin g a


c e n tra l b la c k lin e r ig h t a lo n g th e p a n e l lin e .

27. VARNISH
27.1 Uthat kinds of varnishes are there
and how do I use one?
Just as with the paints, varnishes are available in both acrylic
and enamel ranges. As with paints, it is recommended that
they be practiced using the different products to discover
which one is preferable for your particular needs.
Generally, it is best to use each varnish with the same manu
facturers solvent, although there are cases where solvents,
such as those by marabu that yield better results when mixed
with the modelmaster solvent.
Unlike with paints, I prefer enamel varnishes, in particular
those by the german maker, Marabu.

27.2 How do I apply a uarnish base?


Applying a varnish coat is a similar procedure to that for applying a base coat; to get a fine-grain finish it is better to give
the surface a number of passes with the airbrush, progressively covering the surface.
As for when to varnish and with what type of finish, there are many different combinations that can be used and various
criteria to be followed.
A particularly common technique is to apply a gloss varnish coat after the model has been painted, with this serving as
a base coat for the decals. Once the decals have been applied, a new coat, which may be a matt or satin-finish, will be
applied. This constitutes the models final finish.
The option I use is to apply a satin-finish coat as a base for positioning the decals. I first trim the decal carrier film to
make them invisible, position each one, and then, when the decaling is complete, apply an overall final finishing coat that
may be a new satin or matt coat.
The advantage of this technique is the avoidance of applying a gloss varnish coat that, generally, is thicker and harder
to airbrush.
Techniques

DECALS AND PAINTING


NATIONAL INSIG NIA

28. DECALS
28.1 Decals and decal setting solutions

Today, a f t e r m a r k e t d e ca l s h e e ts a re m a n y and u a rie d


and th e y a llo w us to p e rs o n a liz e o u r m o d e l usin g
d e c o ra tio n s o th e r th a n th o se in c lu d e d in th e box.
F or e n s u rin g th e d e ca ls f i t sn u g ly o n to th e s u rfa c e , th e re a re a
n u m b e r o f d if f e r e n t s e ttin g s o lu tio n s . N o t a ll m a n u fa c tu re rs
use th e sam e c h e m ic a l c o m p o s itio n , so i t is b e t t e r to use each
one s p a rin g ly a n d w a it b e tw e e n one a p p lic a tio n and th e n e x t,
as an excess o f th e se liq u id s can lit e r a lly d isso lu e a decal.

On th e m a rg in s o f the d e ca l sh e e ts, th e p r in t e r p la ce s I f a d e ca l s h e e ts p o sse sses th ic k o r e x c e s s iu e ly m a tt c a r r ie r


a n u m b e r o f crosse s th a t a re used to e n su re th e c e n te rin g film edges, th is w ill in d ic a te th a t th e d e ca l w ill be d if f ic u lt
o f each c o lo u r d u rin g th e p r in tin g p ro ce ss. I f th e se crosses a d a p t to th e m o d e ls s u rfa c e . In th is case, th e p ro c e d u re o f
haue no d if f e r e n t c o lo u r s u p e rim p o s e d o r o ff- c e n t r e lin e s, c lo s e ly trim m in g th e c a r r ie r film a n d u sin g a p r o p r ie ta r y d e ca l
i t in d ic a te s th a t th e d e ca l s h e e t is a g o o d q u a lity one. s e ttin g s o lu tio n is h ig h ly re co m m en d e d .

28.2 UJhy cut out a decal and how do I do it?


A decal is removed from the sheet to make the carrier film invisible. Even if the model has been given a high gloss final
coat, it is still best to cut off as much of the carrier film as possible to allow the decal to appear part of the aircrafts paint
work.

Using s c is s o rs o r a b la d e s e p a ra te Using th e tr ia n g u la r blade, re m o u e th e m a rg in s,


th e in d iu id u a l n a tio n a l in s ig n ia . th u s e lim in a tin g th e c a r r ie r film .
Techniques

W ith n u m b e rs o r le t t e r s th a t haue in te rn a l
open shapes, l.e . 0, p, b. Etc., i t is n o t n e c e s s a ry
to trim th e tra n s p a re n t p a p e r. J u s t s lid e a b la d e
a lo n g th e m a rg in s to re m o u e o n ly th e c a r r ie r film .

Using th e p o in t o f th e blade,
c a re fu lly l i f t th e film .

W ith tw e e z e rs , re m o u e th e c a rr ie r
film fro m in s id e th e le tte r .

28.3 Horndo I separate a decal from the carrier film?

H olding th e d e ca l w it h tw e e z e rs , d e p o s it i t in a R fte r a s h o rt tim e , th e p a p e r b a c k in g w ill s e p a ra te


w a t e r - f ille d re c e p ta c le , le a u in g i t to flo a t on th e s u rfa c e . fro m th e decal, in d ic a tin g th a t i t is re a d y.
Techniques

W ith th e tw e e z e rs re m o u e th e d e ca l fro m the W ith le tte r s and n u m b e rs, a f t e r re m o u in g th e c a r r ie r film , the


w a t e r a n d t r a n s fe r i t o n to th e m o d e ls s u rfa c e . d e ca ls w ill becom e m o re fra g ile . To p re u e n t th e m b re a k in g up
w h ile b e in g re m o u e d fro m th e w a te r, m a ke a s im p le to o l.

M a k e a s p a d e -s h a p e d to o l fro m Using th e to o l, th e d e ca l can be e a s ilg p ic k e d o u t o f th e w a t e r


a le n g th o f p la s tic sp ru e a n d p la c e d a p p ro x im a te ly in th e p o s itio n i t w ill occupy. Hs the
a n d a p ie c e o f tra n s p a re n t a c e ta te . m o d e ls s u rfa c e can be seen th ro u g h th e tra n s p a re n t a c e ta te ,
i t j u s t needs a p a in tb ru s h to re m o u e th e d e c a l fro m th e to o l
b e fo re p la c in g i t on th e m o d e ls s u rfa c e .

By u sin g th is p ro c e d u re f o r c u ttin g o u t decals, th e n u m b e rs and le t t e r s w ill lo o k as th o ug h th e y haue been p a in te d on th e a ir c r a ft.


Techniques

28.4 How do I apply a decal?

Using a c o m p le te ly cle a n p a in tb ru s h f ir s t a p p ly a s m a ll P u ll th e d e c a l in to its


q u a n tity o f w a te r. In th e case o f a d e ca l th a t is u e ry s t if f , c o rre c t p o s itio n , u sin g a to o th p ic k
a d e c a l s e ttin g s o lu tio n , such as m ic ro sol, can be to a v o id d a m a g in g it.
use d to a ch ie u e a g o o d re s u lt.

Once i t has been p la c e d in to p o s itio n , a p p ly a s m a ll q u a n tity To m a ke th e d e ca l a d a p t b e t t e r to th e s u rfa c e ,


o f s e ttin g s o lu tio n th a t w ill e n su re th e d e ca l is p ro p e rly in s e rt som e m ic ro s o l s e ttin g s o lu tio n in to th e p a n e l lin e s,
in te g ra te d o n to th e s u rfa c e . I f th e d e ca l is ha rd , re p e a t the liq u id w ill f i l t e r b e lo w th e d e ca l th ro u g h c a p illa ry
the o p e ra tio n a f t e r a fe w m in u te s has elapsed. a c tio n a n d p u ll i t s n u g ly d o w n o u e r a n y ra is e d d e ta il.

28.5 Hou/ do I attach a decal to a painted surface?

Euen i f s e ttin g s o lu tio n has been used, a d e ca l s t ill m ay l i f t e r th e d e ca ls a re c o m p le te ly d ry, re d o the


n o t a d a p t to p a n e l lin e s on the su rfa ce . To r e c t if y th is p a n e l lin e s u n d e r th e m b y u sin g a n y o f th e d if f e r e n t
and m ake the d e ca l in te g ra te b e tte r, a p p ly a sm a ll q u a n tity p a n e lin g m e th o d s. In th is w a y , th e e f f e c t o f
o f s e ttin g s o lu tio n and then p re ss g e n tly w ith a needle. In te g r a tin g th e d e ca ls w ill be re in fo rc e d .
Techniques

28.6 How do I keep a decal invisible


when it cannot be cut?
Decal carrier films are impregnated with a powerful
transparent adhesive. If a small quantity of this
adhesive is diluted with a drop of water and then
deposited on a matt or satin-finish surface, when
dry it will remain glossy. This property can be used
to keep small decals invisible and fix them solidly
onto the models surface.

Using a tr ia n g u la r b la d e and a p p lg in g a lit t le p re s s u re ,


trim th e c a r r ie r film as clo se as p o ssib le .

Using a p a in tb ru s h , p la ce a d ro p o f w a t e r to one o f the


m a rg in s o f th e s h e e t, d ilu tin g th e g lu e th a t c o a ts it.

D e p o sit th e g lu e e n a c tIg o n to th e a re a
w h e re th e d e ca l s h o u ld be pla ce d .

R fte r p o s itio n in g th e decal, a s m a ll q u a n tity o f m ic ro s o l


s e ttin g s o lu tio n w ill a d a p t i t to th e s u rfa c e . W a it f o r i t to d ry.
Then, re m o u e a n y g lu e re s id u e u sin g th e p a in tb ru s h d a m p e n e d
w it h w a te r. D c o a t o f m a tt o r m a t t - s a t in u a rn is h w ill e lim in a te
th e sh in e and le a u e th e d e ca l s e e m in g ly in u is ib le .

29.1 When do I paint national insignia and numbers?


National insignia and number painting processes are called for when a different version of an aircraft not covered by the
available decal sheets is wanted, or when the painted surface contains details such as riveting that would be hidden by
a decal. One basic element when painting national insignia is masking film. This material, found in art shops, is usually
available with two levels of adherence, low or high tack. The low tack film is more appropriate for use in model making,
as the high tack sort may lift the base coat when being removed.
It is important to first test the film on a painted surface similar to that of the scale model, as some may leave adhesive
residue on the surface that will be difficult, if not impossible to remove.
Techniques

29.2 U/hat process do I follow when painting a national insignia or numbers?

W hen p a in tin g a n a tio n a l in s ig n ia usin g a d e ca l as Rs w o r k e le m e n ts , use a p ie c e o f a c e ta te s h e e t


a te m p la te f ir s t s e p a ra te i t fro m the s h e e t w h ile as a c u ttin g base and a p ie c e o f m a s k in g film la r g e r
r e ta in in g a m a rg in o f p a p e r b a ckin g . th a n th e d e c a l b e in g use d as a te m p la te .

C ouer the s u rfa c e w it h a n o th e r p ie ce o f m a s k in g film .


Use tw e e z e rs to a u o id g e ttin g ang s w e a t o r o th e r
b o d y o ils on th e adhesiue.
Techniques

To a u o id s p o ilin g it, s e t a sid e th e m a sk


and a tta c h i t to th e edge o f th e a c e ta te .

Using th e sam e p ro c e d u re , trim th e c ro s s s


e x te rn a l o u tlin e , th is w ill also g iu e a m a sk
f o r th e second ste p .

P o s itio n th e m a s k th a t fo rm s th e e x te rn a l Enlarge th e edges o f th e m asks


o u tlin e o f th e cross on th e m o d e ls s u rfa c e . w it h tape.

R irb ru sh a c o a t o f b la c k o u e r the m a s k in g w h ile k e e p in g H fte r w a itin g f o r the p a in t to d ry, p o s itio n


th e a irb ru s h as clo se as p o s s ib le to 90 d e g re e s to th e s u rfa c e th e m a s k f o r th e c ro s s s in te rn a l o u tlin e .
to p re u e n t th e a ir flo w fro m lif t in g th e m a sk a n d a llo w in g To p re u e n t i t fro m m o vin g , re in fo rc e
th e p a in t to c re e p u n d e r it. th e fa s te n in g w it h p ie ce s o f m a s k in g tape.
Techniques

P a in t i t w h ite . Once again, a f t e r w a itin g f o r i t to d ry


and then, u sin g tw e e z e rs re m o u e th e m ask.

N e xt, re m o u e the ew te n d e d m a sk The n a tio n a l in s ig n ia d e sig n is n o w p a in te d


and th e n th e m a s k p ro p e r. and to ta lly in te g ra te d in to th e s u rfa ce .

I f a d ra w in g is to be used as a te m p la te , F irs t, fin i t o n to an a c e ta te s h e e t a n d th e n p ro c e e d


i t can be tra c e d o n to g re a s e p ro o f p a p er. in th e sam e m a n n e r as p re u io u s ly d e scrib e d .

H p p lyin g th e m a s k in a p la n n e d sequence,
th e d e c o ra tio n is c o m p le te .
Techniques

30. GRAPHICS OF PAINTING


38.1 Graphic of painting the upper surfaces

1- Panel lines marked in black on the engine cowling.


2- Simulating gunsmoke residue using an airbrush.
3- Making scratches on access panels with greg paint.
4- Oil stains in and around the engine with black paint.
5- Rust on the exhaust using brown and black tones.
6- Delineating the edges of the soft camouflage.
7- Degrading the base colour with a lighter tone.
8- Panel lines painted on the national insignia.
9- Simulating oil stains on the flging surfaces joins.
10- Greasg marks on the walk wags using black paint.
11- Bare patches on the walk wags using metallic paint.
12- Bare patches around the access areas.
13- Scratches using greg paint.
14- Painted national insignia on the fuselage to leaue the riueting uisible.
15- Trimmed decals.
Techniques

30.2 Graphic of painting the undersides

1- accentuating the raised detail accentuated with pencil.


2- Base colour shaded with dark grey inside the areas that form the panel lines.
3- Panel lines marked out in dark brown using a paintbrush.
4- Tarnish with grey shadow on the flying surfaces.
5- The flying surface lines highlighted with airbrush and paintbrush.
6- Registers and panels marked on the decals.
7- Stains and spatters on the undercarriage doors.
8- Simulating oil stains on the engine cowling with black paint.
9- Bare patches made with metallic paint.
10- Panel lines marked with black paint on the engine cowling.
11- Simulating rust with an airbrush.
12- Staining caused by leaking fluids using a paintbrush.
13- Stains and bare patches in the wheel wells.
14- Contrast of base colour with lightening tone and shadow.
15- Surface riuets.
Techniques

FINAL FIN IS H

31. PARTS TO BE ASSEMBLED AT THE END

31.1 Ulhat parts do I paint and assemble separately, and for reason?
The parts to be painted separately include such components as landing gear, propellers, etc.
This allows them to be worked on more conveniently and gives the modeler the ability to carry out work on them, such
as detailing and painting that can be extensive despite the reduced handling of the model.

32. PROPELLERS
32.1 Hour do I paint and u/eather propellers?

To p a in t p ro p e lle rs s u p p lie d w it h s e p a ra te blades,


f ir s t a tta c h each one to a s tic k f o r e a s ie r h a n d lin g .

R irb ru sh the base c o lo u r.

UJith the base c o lo u r lig h te n e d w it h m ed iu m


g re y , a p p ly de sig n s to th e b la d e s fo rw a r d
edges, thus c re a tin g a w e a th e rin g e ffe c t.
Techniques

R fte r s e p a ra te ly p a in tin g th e d if f e r e n t p a rts , W hen p a in tin g a o n e -p ie c e p ro p e lle r, f ir s t a tta c h i t to a


a sse m b le th e c o m p le te p ro p e lle r. h a n d lin g s tic k th a t can be b e n t a f t e r a p p ly in g som e h e a t.

Rem oue a n y encess p a r t o f th e s tic k In s e rt th e s tic k in to th e p r o p e lle r f it t in g h o le ;


a n d p u t som e m a s k in g ta p e on th e end. th e use o f m a s k in g ta p e w ill ke e p th e p ro p e lle r
h e ld s te a d y b u t w ill also a llo w a change o f p o s itio n .

By d o in g th is, th e p ro p e lle r can be k e p t in To im p ro u e th e a d h e sio n o f th e y e llo w ,


an o p tim u m p o s itio n w h ile b e in g p a in te d . f ir s t a irb ru s h a base c o a t o f m e d iu m g re y.

Ouer the, n o w d ry g re y co lo u r, W h ile w a itin g f o r th e y e llo w to h a rd e n ,


a p p ly th e d e s ire d y e llo w . usin g a liq u id m a s k s o lu tio n , c o a t th a t p a r t o f the
p r o p e lle r th a t w ill be p a in te d in n a tu r a l m e ta l.
Techniques

UJith a ru le r, m e a su re and c u t P o s itio n th e p ie ce s o f m a s k in g ta p e on


e q u a l le n g th s o f m a s k in g tape. th e b la d e tip s b e fo re c o u e rin g the g e llo u j.

Hpply th e b la c k p a in t Using tw e e z e rs , re m o u e th e liq u id m a s k in g


and re m o u e th e m asking . th a t c o u e re d th e p ro p e lle r boss.

N e xt, p r o te c t th e b la d e s th a t haue H irb ru sh th e p ro p e lle r boss


a lre a d y been p a in te d w it h m a s k in g tape. w it h Tam iya m a tt a lu m in iu m .
Techniques

To g e t a b e t t e r u is u a l e f f e c t o f w e a th e rin g , co m b in e
th e s c ra tc h e s w it h b a re p a tc h e s u sin g m a tt a lu m in iu m .

P o s itio n th e d ecals and th e n fin and a d a p t


th e m u sin g m ic ro s o l s o lu tio n s .

R c o a t o f m a t t - s a t in u a rn is h
w ill c o m p le te th e jo b .

33. EXHAUST
33.1 Howdo I paint the enhon in-line engines?

The m o u ld in g o f m o d e l a ir c r a f t in - lin e e x h a u s ts p a rts Sand th e im p e rfe c tio n s w it h som e


te n d to haue b re a k s m a k in g i t n e ce ssa rg to re to u c h them . 8 0 8 -g ra in sa n dpaper.
Techniques

Clean up a n y fla s h u /ith a file . F or an e x h a u s t th a t s h o u ld haue a w e ld lin e , th is d e ta il


can be re s to r e d w it h a s m a ll s tr ip o f 0.1 m m p la s tic .

d u e i t an a irb ru s h c o a t o f Giue i t a w a s h o f ta m iy a m a tt b ro w n m ix e d
Tam iya m a tt a lu m in iu m enam el. w it h b la c k h e a u ily d ilu te d w it h alco h o l.

P a in t th e a re a th a t s h o u ld Using th e p a in tb ru s h and lig h t b ro w n ,


be h o llo w w it h m a tt bla ck. p a in t th e edges o f th e e xh a u st.
Techniques

The h ig h lig h t e f f e c t th a t has been p a in te d a lo n g th e edge o f th e e x h a u s t and w h ic h c o n tra s ts


w it h th e b la c k in te rio r , im p a rts a u is u a l e f f e c t th a t g iu e s th e illu s io n o f a h o llo w tube,
a p p ly in g a q u ite in te n s iv e b ro w n w a s h g iu e s th e e x h a u s t a d is tin c tiv e app ea ra n ce .

33.2 Hout do I paint the exhaust on radial engines?

F irs t, a tta c h the e x h a u s t p ip e


to a p la s tic h a n d lin g s tic k .

Give i t a d a rk b ro w n w ash. Using an o ld p a in tb ru s h , a d d s m a ll s ta in s o f


a d ilu te d m ix tu r e o f d a rk b ro w n and bla ck.

P a in t th e h o llo w in t e r io r Rdd a to u ch o f lig h t b ro w n h ig h lig h t a ro u n d the


o f th e p ip e b la ck. edge o f th e p ip e to r e in fo r c e th e h o llo w e ffe c t.

The e ffe c ts o f th e h o t gases


ca u sin g a sco rch e d a p p ea ra n ce
w h e n i t is e je c te d is an im p o r ta n t
v is u a l e le m e n t o f th e m odel.

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Techniques

34. LANDING GEAR


34.1 Hout do I clean a landing gear leg?

The m o s t co m m o n d e fe c t on a n y c y lin d ric a l p la s tic , Using a cu ru e d b la d e w ill p re u e n t


o r m e ta l p a r t is th e p re se n ce o f a m o u ld lin e . This m u s t be d am age to th e p a r t w h e n re m o u in g
re m o u e d i f i t is h o p e d to y e t a r e a lis tic a p p ea ra n ce . i t fro m th e sprue.

Scrape o f f th e m o u ld lin e s w it h B f t e r re m o u in g th e m o u ld lin e s, th e p a rts


th e p o in t o f a tr ia n y u la r blade. a re re a d y f o r f u r t h e r d e ta ilin g .

34.2 Hour do I detail a landing gear leg?

Begin th e d e ta ilin g o f th e la n d in g g e a r le g
b y p re p a rin g som e 1 m m p la s tic a rd o re p la c e
th e s h o c k a b s o rb e r s c is s o r lin k .

Cut o u t th e sq u a re shapes w h e re
th e s c is s o r lin k s f i t o n to th e legs.

Cut th e p a rts to g iu e th e m a tr ia n g u la r shape.


Techniques

Glue on th e p a rts w it h su p e rg lu e . The k it s u p p lie d sh o ck a b s o rb e r s c is s o r lin k s


a re u s u a lly q u ite th ic k . In th e p h o to g ra p h th e o rig in a l
can be c o m p a re d w it h th e s c ra tc h b u ilt one.

F or h y d ra u lic p ipes, use a le n g th Rem oue p a r t o f th e in s u la tio n , r e ta in in g o n ly


o f B.3 m m c o p p e r w ire . a s m a ll p o rtio n th a t w ill s e rv e to s im u la te
th e fle x ib le s e c tio n o f th e p ip in g .

Coil th e r e ta in e d p a r t o f in s u la tio n R tta c h th e le g to th e h a n d lin g s tic k .


o n to a m e ta l c y lin d e r.

Using a p la s tic p o in te r, a p p ly P o s itio n th e w ir e on


s m a ll d ro p s o f s u p e rg lu e gel. th e u n d e rc a rria g e leg.
Techniques

Rdd som e clam ps m ad e o f 0.1 m m a lu m in iu m


s h e e t. This m a te r ia l is use d to m a ke caps
and se a ls f o r m a n y h o u se h o ld fo o d ite m s .

W h ile th e cla m ps f u lf ill a d e ta ilin g fu n c tio n ,


th e y also e n s u re th a t th e w ir e s s im u la tin g
th e h y d ra u lic p ip e s re m a in g lu e d in p lace.

R fte r m a s k in g o f f th e c o n ta c t s u rfa ce s,
th e p a r t is n o w re a d y to be p a in te d .

34.3 Hoiv do I paint a landing gear leg?

jk

R fte r a tta c h in g th e p a r t to a te m p o ra ry To g e t th e e f f e c t o f th e d if f e r e n t p a rts th a t go to m a k e


h a n d lin g s tic k , a irb ru s h i t w it h a base co a t. up th e c o m p le te d u n d e rc a rria g e leg, a p p ly som e o u tlin in g .

I f y o u haue n o t y e t m a s te re d th e te ch n iq u e o f o u tlin in g Rpply som e sh a d o w s w it h h ig h ly


w it h a p a in tb ru s h , u sin g a p e n c il w ill o b ta in a s im ila r e ffe c t. d ilu te d b la c k a c ry lic .
Techniques

H ig h lig h t th e ra is e d d e ta il bg p a in tin g th e m w it h P a in t th e cla m ps w it h m a tt a lu m in iu m .


a m ix tu r e o f p a in tb ru s h a c rg lic s s im ila r to
th e base to n e b u t lig h te n e d w it h m e d iu m gre g .

P a in t the p ip e s m e d iu m g re g b u t p a in t the
fle x ib le p o rtio n w it h a b ro w n le a th e r tone.

R cce n tu a te th e b o lt heads bg
f ir s t p a in tin g th e m b la c k and
th e n a d d in g a w h ite h ig h lig h t sp o t.

W ith th e le g s c o m p le te , re m o u e the
m asks th a t haue been c o u e rin g the
c o n ta c t a re a s a n d th e h a n d lin g s tic k s .

34.4 Houf do I replace the tyre tread?

Using 8 8 8 -g ra in sa n d pa p e r, re m o u e ang W hile re m o u in g th e m o u ld lin e , p a r t o f the


m o u ld lin e s on th e w h e e ls. tg r e s tre a d d e ta il w ill also be lo s t.
Techniques

By u sin g th e edge o f
th e sa n d pa p e r, th e ty re
tre a d can be re c u t.

34.5 Hour do I create the effect of weight on a tyre?


Reproducing the effect of weight on a tyre will make the model look much more realistic. While this technique can be
applied to solid plastic wheels, it cannot be carried out on wheels that are composed of two hollow halves.

Use a b la d e to scrap e S m ooth th e s u rfa c e


a f la t a re a on th e ty re . w it h a f la t file .

M a k e su re th a t th e f la t s u rfa c e th a t R fla t-h e a d e d s c r e w d r iu e r f it t e d w it h an in s u la te d h a n d le w ill


has bee n c re a te d is re g u la r and n o t tilte d . be re q u ire d to d e fo rm th e ty re a n d m a ke i t b u lg e re a lis tic a lly .

Place th e s c r e w d r iu e r on a n o n -fla m e h e a t so u rce The h e a t w ill d e fo rm th e f la t s u rfa c e


such as an iro n . R fte r a ro u n d 7 o r 8 m in u te s , p re s s the in to a b u lg e on th e b o tto m o f th e ty re ,
s c r e w d r iu e r o n to th e ty re , ta k in g ca re n o t to b u rn y o u rs e lf. th u s p ro d u c in g th e d e s ire d e ffe c t.
Techniques

34.6 Howdo I paint a wheel?

R irb ru sh a b la c k base coat. W ith th e tip o f th e p a in tb ru s h and u sin g d a rk


g re y p a in t, a c c e n tu a te th e w h e e ls in te rn a l d e ta il.

R etouch th e g re y p a in t w it h bla ck. Cut a ro u n d m a sk to p r o te c t


th e w h e e ls c e n tra l rim .

R irb ru sh e a rth - b ro w n p a in t a ro u n d Use tw e e z e rs to re m o u e th e m ask


th e m ask. This w ill s im u la te th e d u s t and th e n u ie w th e e ffe c t.
th a t a c c u m u la te s a ro u n d th is a re a o f th e ty re s .

Using th e sam e b ro w n m ix tu re , a irb ru s h D arken th e tre a d w it h b ro w n


th e ty r e tre a d to c re a te a d u s ty e ffe c t. p a in t to g iu e c o n tra s t.
Techniques

Odd a fe w m e ta llic to u che s to those Using ju s t th e se sim p le p a in tin g te ch niqu e s, th e w h e e ls


p a rts th a t can be d is m a n tle d . w ill end up lo o k in g as th o u g h th e y haue been in s e rv ic e .

34.7 Horn do I paint the tyre tread?

O fte n w h e n s a n d in g th e ty re to re m o u e a n y m o u ld lin e s, B e fo re s ta r tin g to p a in t, c o u e r th e c o n ta c t a re a


som e, i f n o t th e e n tire ty re tre a d w ill also be lo s t. o f th e p a r t so th e in te rn a l disc can be s a fe ly g lued.

P o s itio n th e s trip s o f ta p e On th e t y r e s u p p e r p a rt, a irb ru s h


a t e q u a l in te rv a ls . a v e ry th in c o a t o f m e d iu m g re y.
Techniques

R fte r th e p a in t has d ried , To p a in t th e w h e e ls in te rn a l disc w ith o u t h a n d lin g them ,


re m o u e th e s trip s . a tta c h th e m to h a n d lin g s tic k s w it h m a s k in g tape.

Upp ig th e base co a t. Em phasize th e ra is e d


d e ta il w it h a p e n cil.

R irb ru sh b ro w n a n d b la c k a c c e n tu a te th e b o lts w it h w h ite p a in t,


s h a d in g on th e ra is e d d e ta il.

N ow , g lu e th e disc to th e w h e e l;
th e c o n tra s t g e n e ra te d bg the
g re y th a t w a s p a in te d on th e ta p e
s tr ip s c re a te s a u is u a l e f f e c t
re s e m b lin g th e ra is e d tre a d .
Techniques

34.8 Hoiu do I get ready to paint the


landing gear bay doors?

The u n d e rc a rria g e d o o rs haue som e m o u ld e je c t o r p in m a rk s on


th e m th a t lo o k b o th u n re a lis tic and a e s th e tic a lly u n a p p e a lin g .
These m a rk s a re u s u a lly in th e m o s t h a r d - t o - g e t - a t p la ce s on
th e p a rts u /h e re s a n d p a p e r c a n n o t re a c h o r a re clo se to som e
d e ta ils th a t m ig h t g e t dam aged. To so lu e th is p ro b le m , c o u e r
th e e je c t o r p in m a rk s w it h m a d e -to -m e a s u re p ie ce s o f p la s tic .

Place th e p a r t on som e g re a s e p ro o f p a p er, Using th e p a p e rs n a tu r a l tra n s p a re n c y ,


h o ld in g i t in p la ce w it h s tr ip s o f tape. d ra w th e in te rn a l a re a s o f th e p a r t w it h a p e n cil.

H o llo w o u t th e se are a s Using th e p a p e r as a s te n c il, t r a n s fe r th e o u tlin e


w it h a blade. o f th e p a rts o n to a s h e e t o f B .lm m th ic k p la s tic a rd .

Cut o u t th e p ie ce s N o w th e p ie ce s can be g lu e d o n to th e d o o rs to c o u e r
w it h a sh a rp blade. up th e m a rks. Hs a fin e a d ju s tm e n t, se a l th e jo in t s
w it h Tam iya e n tr a - th in liq u id ce m e n t.
Techniques

Use som e f ille r to f i l l in th e m a rk s Once th e f ille r has d rie d , sa n d i t


on the u p p e r a re a o f th e p a rt. s m o o th w it h 1BO B-grain sa n dpaper.

C o m bining th e a lre a d y fa m ilia r te ch n iq u e s


o f a irb ru s h a n d p a in tb ru s h , th e ra is e d d e ta il
e f f e c t on th e p a rts can be in cre a se d .

35. CANNONS AND MACHINEGUNS


35.1 How do I hollow out the barrel of a cannon or machinegun?

I t is q u ite com m on to fin d th a t th o se p a rts re p re s e n tin g


cannon a n d m a ch in e g u n b a rre ls a re n o t h o llo w e d out.
D rillin g th e m o u t w ill g iu e th e m a m o re r e a lis tic a p p ea ra n ce .

Use a n e e d le to m a rk th e c e n tre o f each b a rre l,


so th a t w h e n i t is d rille d th e c e n tre o f the
h o le is g u a ra n te e d to be c o rr e c tly alig n e d .

The m o s t fr a g ile a re a o f th e d r ill b it is th e lin e w h e re


th e s p ira l begins. UJhen in s e rtin g a b it in to a h a n dle
o r d r ill hole, be c a re fu l to m a ke su re th a t th is a re a
does n o t co in cid e w it h th e p o in t o f p re ssu re .
Techniques

G e n tly tu rn in g a 0.4 m m d r ill b it o n to th e c e n tre p o in t I f th e o p e n in g is to be co n ica l, tr im th e sides


th a t w a s m ade w it h th e nee dle, d r ill d o w n a ro u n d 1.5 m m. o f th e d r ill h o le u sin g th e p o in t o f a tr ia n g u la r blade.

Using liq u id glu e , s o fte n th e scra p e d H fte r a llo w in g th e g lu e to d ry,


a re a on th e in s id e o f th e hole. th e b a rr e l is n o w re a d y f o r p a in tin g .

D rille d b a rre ls adds e n tra


re a lis m to sca le m odels.

35.2 How do I paint a cannon or machinegun?


Viewing photographs of cannon and machineguns on full-size aircraft shows how the black tone of these items has worn
off. This effect is produced by a number of causes, including handling, lubricants and heat.
A piece of plastic can be given a similar appearance by the judicious application of various techniques.

F irst, se cu re th e p a rts in a h a n d lin g s tic k .


Hs p re s s u re m u s t be a p p lie d d u rin g p a in tin g ,
th e y n e e d to h e ld s e cu re ly, so i t is a d u isa b le
to d r ill a s m a ll h o le in an a re a th a t
w ill e u e n tu a lly be h idden.
Techniques

R irb ru sh a base c o a t o f Using b la c k a c ry lic d ilu te d w it h alco h o l,


Tam iya m a tt a lu m in iu m enam el. a p p ly a u e ry th in c o a t o f p a in t th a t does
n o t c o m p le te ly c o u e r th e p a rt.

Leaue th e b la c k p a in t c o a t Using an a b s o lu te ly clean, f la t p a in tb ru s h , g e n tly ru b th e gun


to d ry f o r a t le a s t tw o hours. b a rre l. The e f f e c t o f th e p a in tb r u s h s b ris tle s ru b b in g th e b la c k
p a in t w ill re m o v e i t fro m a lo n g th e edges a n d on a n y ra is e d
a re a s a llo w in g th e m e ta llic base c o a t to s h o w th ro u g h .

I t is n o t n e c e s s a ry to v a rn is h th e p a r t; th e e ro d in g H n o th e r m e th o d th a t can be u se d to c re a te
o f th e b la c k p a in t b y th e p a in tb ru s h w ill also c re a te a s im ila r e f f e c t is th e g ra p h ite te ch n iq u e . F or this,
d iffe re n c e s in sh in e and g iv e th e p a r t e x tra re a lis m . the p a r t m u s t f ir s t be a irb ru s h e d w it h a base c o a t
o f m a tt b la c k a c ry lic and a llo w e d to d ry f o r tw o h ours.

Rubbing a s o f t 2b le a d p e n c il o n to a p ie ce Im p re g n a te a f la t p a in tb ru s h
o f s a n d p a p e r w ill r e s u lt in a p ile o f g ra p h ite du st. w it h th e g ra p h ite du st.
Techniques

Shake a n y e xce ss d u s t o n to a p ie ce o f p a p er.

Rpply th e d u s t-im p re g n a te d p a in tb ru s h
b y g e n tly ru b b in g i t o n to th e p a rt.

The g ra p h ite d u s t w ill a d h e re to th e edges a n d ra is e d d e ta il,


c re a tin g a m e ta llic sh in e s im ila r to h o w th e b a rre ls w o u ld
a p p e a r in r e a lity . Rs w it h th e e a r lie r te ch n iq u e , i t is b e t t e r n o t
to u a rn is h in o rd e r to p re s e ru e th e fu ll ra n g e o f shine.

35.3 Hoiv do I paint additional armament?


Scale models of modern aircraft carry a lot of the additional armament that is an important part of the final detailing. Given
the large quantity of detail that these items carry, a good deal of additional time will have to be dedicated to completing
this stage of the model.
As an example, let us illustrate the work required to detail and paint just one 1:72 scale gbu bomb from a hasegawa
armament set.

B e fo re s ta rtin g , any residu e le f t w h e n the p a rt w a s se p a ra te d Using a cu ru e d blade,


fro m the sprue b y the side c u tte rs m u s t be cleaned up. f ir s t le u e l th e s u rfa c e .

The b ig g e s t d ra w b a c k w it h th e se ite m s Using th e sid e c u tte rs , re m o u e th re e


te n ds to be th e o u e r scale th ic k n e s s o f th e fin s. o f th e f o u r o rig in a l fin s.
Techniques

Then, u sin g th e re m a in in g fin as a te m p la te , N ow , re m o u e th e re m a in in g fin and le u e l


m a k e a c o p y o f i t on a p ie ce o f g re a s e p ro o f p a p er. th e s u rfa c e w it h th e cu ru e d blade.

Rgain u sin g th e sa n d pa p e r, To fin th e n e w fin s, m a rk th e d r ill h o le


s m o o th th e jo in lin e . c e n tre s w it h a n eedle. F or re fe re n c e to
a lig n each hole, use a s tr ip o f m a s k in g tape.

D rill th e h o le s w it h a 0.4m m b it. Using th e blade, h o llo w o u t th e f in s fo rm


th a t w a s d ra w n o n to th e g re a s e p ro o f p a p er.
Techniques \

Using th e p a p e r as a te m p la te , t r a n s fe r th e shape Once th e shapes haue been m a rk e d o n to


o f th e fin s o n to a p ie ce o f B .lm m th ic k p i as tic a rd. the p la s tic a rd , c u t th e m o u t w it h a sh a rp blade.

B e fo re b e g in n in g to p a in t, te s t th e To p a in t th e fin s w ith o u t h a n d lin g them ,


a lig n m e n t a n d f i t o f th e n e w fin s. fin th e m o n to a p la s tic s tic k w it h m a s k in g tape.

Hold the bo m b w it h a h a n d lin g s tic k w h ile a p p lg in g H irb ru sh th e fin s w it h the base co lo u r. R fte r th e p a in t
th e base co lo u r, in th is case T am igas o liu e d ra b a crg lic. has d rie d , re m o u e th e m fro m th e tape, tu rn th e m
o u e r and p a in t th e o th e r side.

O u tlin e th e d if f e r e n t p a rts Shade th e o u tlin in g w it h b la c k p a in t


o f the bo m b w it h b la ck. h ig h lg d ilu te d w it h alco h o l.
Techniques

Using th e base c o lo u r lig h te n e d w it h lig h t b ro w n , M a s k o f f th e c e n tra l p a r t o f the


a irb ru s h b ro k e n lin e s th a t w ill c re a te tin ts fo r bom b a n d p a in t th e b o m b s g u id a n ce
th e base p a in t to s im u la te a g e in g on th e ite m . u n it w it h lig h t g re y.

R fte r f u r t h e r m a skin g , F in a lly, p a in t th e s m a ll d e ta ils


p a in t th e c o lo u re d d e ta ils . to c o m p le te th is phase.

Once th e p a in tin g is c o m p le te , a irb ru s h th e bom b To c o m p le te th e bom b, g iu e i t a fin a l c o a t o f


w it h a c o a t o f s a tin u a rn ish . Then, a f t e r a llo w in g th is c o a t m a tt- s a tin u a rn is h as th is w ill in te g ra te th e d ecals
to drg, a p p lg th e d e ca ls and th e d e ta ilin g is c o m p le te . and m a ke th e m a p p e a r in te g ra l w it h th e p a in t.

36. NAVIGATION LIGHTS


36.1 Hou> can I make navigation
lights?

To re p ro d u c e b u lb -ty p e n a u ig a tio n lig h ts , b e g in b y


c u ttin g som e s m a ll c ir c u la r p ie ce s fro m a tin sh e e t.
Techniques

This m e ta ls n a tu r a l sh in e is id e a l Fin th e p ie ce s o n to a h a n d lin g


f o r m a k in g th is ty p e o f lig h t. s tic k w it h a d h e siu e tape.

Place som e d ro p s o f u n d ilu te d g lo ss u a rn is h n ilo w th e f ir s t d ro p to d ry f o r a ro u n d th re e h o u rs


o n to th e p ie ce s o f tin w it h a p a in tb ru s h , and th e n re p e a t th e p ro ce ss. R fte r d o in g th is th re e o r fo u r
T am iya s c le a r u a rn is h is id e a l f o r this. tim es, a fo rm s im ila r to th a t o f a b u lb w ill haue fo rm e d .

To g iu e the lig h ts som e c o lo u r


use T am iyas tra n s p a re n t co lo u rs.

P ro g re s s iu e ly a p p ly th e p a in t Using th is te ch n iq u e a llo w s us to m ake


to p re u e n t i t g o in g lu m py. tra n s p a re n t o r c o lo u re d lig h ts .

The disc fro m th e tin s h e e t th a t is b e in g use d as a base


a c ts as a m ir r o r th a t, u n d e r c e rta in lig h t c o n d itio n s ,
c re a te s an e f f e c t re s e m b lin g th a t o f a lu m in e s c e n t lam p.

Once th e lig h ts haue been c o m p le te d , c a re fu lly s e p a ra te th e m


fro m th e a d h e siu e and a tta c h th e m to th e m o d e l w it h pua glue.
Techniques

To c re a te le u e l n a u ig a tio n lig h ts , a n o th e r p a in tin g Begin b y p a in tin g th e n a u ig a tio n


p ro c e d u re is use d b a se d on s u p e rim p o s itio n o f tones. lig h t a re a m a tt bla ck.

P a in t th e c e n tre o f th e m a tt b la c k a re a w it h re d N o w a p p ly m o re re d in th e a re a th a t
h e a u ily d a rk e n e d w it h b la ck, le a u in g a s m a ll e d g in g w a s p a in te d d a rk red , thus c re a tin g
o f b la c k a ro u n d i t to c re a te a g ra d in g o f tone. a n o th e r g ra d in g o f tone.

F in a lly, p a in t a tin y re d p o in t h ig h lig h te d C o m plete th e lig h t b y a p p ly in g


w it h w h ite , c re a tin g a la s t g ra d in g o f tone. a s m a ll d ro p o f g lo ss u a rn ish .

B e fo re h a n d lin g th e p a r t again, a llo w the This te ch n iq u e p ro d u ce s u e ry re a lis tic re s u lts w it h le u e l


g lo ss u a rn is h to d ry f o r a t le a s t tw o h ours. lig h ts o r w h e n th e re a re no c le a r p a rts a u a ila b le .
Techniques

37. TRANSPARENCIES
37.1 Houi do I prepare transparencies?

The c o m p o s itio n o f th e p la s tic o f tra n s p a re n t p ie ce s


is u s u a lly m uch h a rd e r and, in consequence, m o re b r itt le .
W hen re m o u in g th e tra n s p a re n c y fro m th e sp ru e o r
re m o u in g a n y fla s h fro m the p a rt, a p p ly as li t t l e p re s s u re
as p o s s ib le as th e re is a fe a r th a t th e se fr a g ile p a rts w ill
c ra c k o r euen b re a k w it h no p o s s ib ility o f b e in g re p a ire d .

To re m o u e th e fin a l re m a in s o f th e sprue, i t is b e s t Giue a d e fin itiu e shape to th e p a r t b y lig h t ly sa n d in g


to use a c u ru e d b la d e a n d le u e l th e s u rfa c e b it - b y - b it . i t w it h IBB Bgrade sa n d pa p e r.

I f th e tra n s p a re n t p a r t has been sc ra tc h e d , B p p ly th e co m p o u n d w it h


T am iyas p o lis h in g co m p o u n d is id e a l f o r re m o u in g them . a m ic ro - fib re s ch a m o is le a th e r.

37.2 How do I cut a transparency to open the cockpit?

O fte n a c o c k p it ca n o p y is s u p p lie d as a s in g le piece. The p rim a r y p ro b le m w it h a n y tra n s p a re n c y is th a t


To c u t i t so th a t th e m o d e l can be u ie w e d w it h th e o p e n in g s d e m a rc a tio n lin e s a re b a re ly u is ib le to g u id e
th e c o c k p it open re q u ire s th e fo llo w in g ste p s: th e cu t, i t is a d u isa b le to m a rk the lin e o f s e p a ra tio n o f
th e ca n o p y w it h tw o s trip s o f m a s k in g tape, le a v in g
a space b e tw e e n th e m o f a p p ro n im a te ly 1.5mm.
Techniques

Using th e ta p e s tr ip s as a c u ttin g re fe re n c e , p o s itio n To p re u e n t th e ca n o p y c ra c k in g o r euen b re a k in g ,


a fin e - to o th e d r a z o r s a w a lo n g th e c e n tra l space and i t is w is e to g e n tly m oue th e s a w w h ile a p p ly in g u e ry
th e n t r y to m a in ta in th e s a u /s in c lin a tio n w it h re s p e c t lit t le p re s s u re w it h each m o tio n . Doing th is,
to th e p a r t so th a t th e c u t re m a in s s tr a ig h t. w ill r e s u lt in a cle a n cu t.

Using th e p o in t o f th e b lade, re m ou e L e u el th e s u rfa c e w it h a f la t file ,


a n y p la s tic re s id u e fro m th e c u t lin e .

To a c h ie u e th e fin a l fin is h and e lim in a te a n y s c ra tc h e s F in a lly, use a s m a ll b ru sh


ca u se d b y th e file , use som e IB B B -g ra in sa n dpaper. to cle a n th e tra n s p a re n c y .

Using th is p ro ce ss, th e r e s u lt w ill be


an open ca n o p y th a t can be g lu e d to
th e m o d e l and w h ic h w ill g iu e an
u n in te r r u p te d u ie w o f th e c o c k p it in te rio r .
Techniques

37.3 How do I mask a transparency?

To w o r k on a tra n s p a re n c y w it h o u t to u c h in g it,
f ir s t a p p ly som e Tam iya m a s k in g tape, w it h the
s tic k y sid e fa c in g o u tw a rd s , o n to th e end o f a le n g th
o f sp a re p la s tic sp ru e and m o u n t th e tra n s p a re n c y
on th a t. I t is m o s t im p o r ta n t to use a n e w p ie ce
o f ta p e so th a t th e re is no d a n g e r o f le a n in g
a n y a d h esiue re s id u e on th e tra n s p a re n c y .

To e n su re th a t th e m a s k in g ta p e Then, e n la rg e th e s u rfa c e Use som e m ic ro m a s k liq u id


a d a p ts to th e c u ru e d s u rfa c e s , o f th e m a s k in g w it h s m a ll m a s k to p r o te c t th e c e n tre
f ir s t use 2m m w id e s trip s . sq u a re s o f tape. o f th e tra n s p a re n c y .

B p p ly m ic ro m a s k w it h a p a in tb ru s h ; th e c o n s is te n c y F in a lly, e n la rg e th e m a s k in g w it h
o f the liq u id w ill a llo w i t to a d h e re to th e s u rfa c e . ta p e to p re v e n t th e p a in t fro m c re e p in g
In th e f ir s t in s ta n c e , i t is b e s t to a p p ly a s m a ll q u a n tity o n to th e in te rn a l a re a o f th e tra n s p a re n c y .
as, in e x c e s s iv e q u a n titie s , th e liq u id w ill s lid e o v e r
th e s u rfa c e s . The p ro ce ss can be re p e a te d a f t e r
w a itin g a b o u t an h o u r f o r th e f ir s t c o a t to d ry.

37.4 How do I paint a transparency?

Now, ap p ly a co a t o f the e x te rn a l colour. This w ill c o v e r the fir s t


co a t o f p a in t th a t w ill then o n ly be v is ib le fro m the in side o f the
tran sp a ren cy. In this w a y, a co m p lica te d double m asking jo b is
avo id e d th a t w o u ld o th e rw is e be re q u ire d to a p p ly the
Begin th e p a in tin g o f th e tra n s p a re n c y tra n s p a re n c y s in te rn a l colour. R fte r the p a in t has dried, g iv e i t
b y f ir s t a p p ly in g a c o a t o f p a in t the a co a t o f the sam e v a rn is h th a t w a s used on the o th e r s u rfa ce s
sam e c o lo u r as the c o c k p it in te rio r . o f the m odel, thus o b ta in in g the sam e tone as a fin a l colour.
Techniques

Using the p o in t o f th e blade, re m o u e the liq u id m a skin g .


This p ro d u c t is id e a l f o r m a s k in g tra n s p a re n c ie s ,
as i t le a u e s n e ith e r m a rk s n o r re sid u e .

F o r a fin a l ste p , c a re fu llg re m o u e th e f ir s t


s tr ip o f tape. I t is b e s t to w a it u n til th e p a in t
has c o m p le te ly d rie d b e fo re re m o u in g the
m a s k in g so th a t c ris p e r edges a re o b ta in e d .

Release th e tra n s p a re n c y fro m th e h a n d lin g s tic k ,


a n d i t is n o w re a d y to be fin e d to th e m odel.

37.5 Hoiv do I prepare a vacuum-formed transparency?

R u a c u u m -fo rm e d tra n s p a re n c y is a u a ria n t


o f th e in je c te d p la s tic typ e . These can be fo u n d
in m o d e l k its s u p p lie d b y s h o rt ru n m a n u fa c tu re rs
o r m a y be a c q u ire d as re p la c e m e n ts p a rts f o r o th e r k its .
These p a rts , a lth o u g h m o re d if f ic u lt to h a n d le th a n r e g u la r
tra n s p a re n c ie s , haue th e a d u a n ta g e o f b e in g m uch th in n e r
th a n the p la s tic ones and w ill g iu e th e c o m p le te d m o d e l
a m o re r e a lis tic sca le e ffe c t.

To re m o u e th e tra n s p a re n c y s base, f ir s t Edging i t w it h th e ta p e g iu e s a c le a r


edge i t w it h a s tr ip o f m a s k in g tape. re fe re n c e f o r th e lin e o f s e p a ra tio n .

$
Techniques

To m a k e th e tra n s p a re n c y easy Begin b y c u ttin g th e p a r t w it h a tr ia n g u la r


to h a n d le w ith o u t i t d e fo rm in g , H -R cto b lade, p re s s in g u e ry g e n tly
f ir s t a tta c h i t to a c a rd b o a rd base. so th e c u t lin e is p ro g re s s iv e ly m a rke d .

R fte r s e v e ra l passes w it h th e blade,


th e u s e fu l p a r t o f th e tra n s p a re n c y p a r t
can be s e p a ra te d w it h ease.

To p a in t a v a c u u m -fo rm e d tra n s p a re n c y , The p rim a r y a d v a n ta g e o f a v a c u u m -fo rm e d


use th e sam e p ro ce ss f o r p a in tin g p la s tic tra n s p a re n c y is th e th in n e ss o f the p la s tic , w h ic h
tra n s p a re n c ie s as d e s c rib e d e a rlie r. g iv e s a b e t t e r scale e f f e c t to the fin is h e d m odel.

37.6 Hoiv do I attach a transparency?


Although superglue is the most versatile and quickest
glue for attaching parts to a scale model, it is not good
for attaching transparencies. The reasons have
already been described in the chapter describing its
use, as the vapours this product gives off as it dries
will stain the parts and damage the finish.
To safely attach any transparency it is better to use
white pva glue that, although it dries much more slow
ly, does possess enough strength to hold these deli
cate parts.

F ill a c o n ta in e r w it h p v a g lu e a n d w it h
a p la s tic p o in te r ta k e a d ro p o f glue.
Techniques

F or h o ld in g th e tra n s p a re n c ie s w ith o u t d a m a g in g flp p lg p u a g lu e to th e c o n ta c t a re a s b e tw e e n


th e p a in t, p u t som e s m a ll p ie ce s o f ca b le in s u la tio n the tra n s p a re n c g and th e m o d e l and a f t e r an h o u r the
o n to the p o in ts o f th e tw e e z e rs . g lu e w ill haue s e t and th e tra n s p a re n c g h e ld se cu re lg .

38. AERIALS AND RIGGING


38.1 Ulhat materials can I use to make an aerial or rigging?
Rigging are cables used on the old biplanes and monoplanes to increase structural strength.
Reproducing these cables in scale models is a delicate, time-consuming process. There are various types of rigging, plai
ted cables, solid steel, etc. For model-making simple
materials for making rigging can be used, such as
plastic, copper or steel wires.

The s im p le s t m a te r ia l th a t can be used is h e a t- s tr e tc h e d


p la s tic . This is o b ta in e d fro m th e sp ru e s th a t a cco m p a n ie d
th e p a rts o f th e m odel. I f th e sp ru e s h appen to be m e ta llic
b la ck, th e rig g in g p ro d u c e d w it h th e m w ill n o t re q u ire p a in tin g
a f t e r b e in g fin e d , so th e rig g in g p ro ce ss w ill be s im p lifie d .

Begin bg c u ttin g th e sp ru e in to
a p p ro x im a te Ig 5 cm le n g th s .

Using a lig h te r, a p p lg h e a t to th e le n g th o f sprue.


I t is b e s t to s w iu e l th e sp ru e as i t is b e in g h e a te d ,
th is w ill p re u e n t th e a p p e a ra n ce o f bu b bles.

R fte r a fe w seconds o f h e a t, th e b a r w ill b e g in to ben d


as a con se qu e n ce o f g ra u itg . This is th e s ig n a l th a t
th e b a r is s o f t enough to a p ro d u c e th in th re a d .
Techniques

N ow , g e n tly p u ll b o th ends o f th e sp ru e and th e c e n tra l This p ro c e d u re can, and w ill r e s u lt


th re a d w ill b e co m e th in n e r. The m o re y o u p u ll, th e th in n e r in th re a d s s im ila r in th ic k n e s s to,
the re s u ltin g th re a d . H o w euer, th is p ro ce ss does ta k e p ra c tic e . o r th in n e r th a n a h um an h a ir.

To m a k e a th ic k e r rig g in g th a t w ill r e ta in F o r th e e xa m p le , 1.5 m m w ir e w a s used. R fte r h e a tin g th e w ir e


it s te n sio n, c o p p e r w ir e can be used. F or 1 /7 2 scale to re m o u e th e u a rn is h in s u la tio n , th e w ir e w a s s tre tc h e d usin g
use 1 m m w ire , f o r 1 /4 8 use 1.5 m m w ire . p lie rs . This w a s done w it h ca re to a u o id b re a k in g th e w ire . The
fin a l r e s u lt w a s som e p e r fe c tly s tr a ig h t le n g th s o f w ir e th a t
h a d also been re d u c e d in th ic k n e s s to a ro u n d 1.3mm.

Using th e s c is s o rs f o r c u ttin g p h o to e tc h e d p a rts , The le n g th s th a t re m a in e d w e re b o th s t i f f


th e p a rts o f th e w ir e th a t h a d been h e ld a n d th in eno ug h to s im u la te th e rig g in g
in th e ja w s o f th e p lie rs w e re rem o u e d . as used on w o r ld w a r /'/' seaplanes.

8 n o t h e r u e ry u s e fu l m a te ria l is s te e l w ir e a lth o u g h
c u ttin g and a tta c h in g th is typ e o f w ir e is m ore
d if f ic u lt than usin g co p p e r w ire . Its a d u an ta g e is th a t
i t has a m a g n ific e n t, high gloss fin is h w h ic h is u e ry
u s e fu l fo r rig g in g a b ip la n e fro m the 1928s and 1930s.

To re d u ce th e sh in e on th e se w ire s , lig h tly sand


th e m w it h 1 8 0 8 -g ra in sa n d pa p e r. This w ill re d u ce
th e sh in e and m a ke th e m m o re a p p ro p ria te
on a ir c r a f t th a t haue seen a g re a t d e a l o f se ru ice .
Techniques

38.2 Hoid do / prepare a model before


attaching rigging?
Preparing a model before attaching the rigging is
paramount, as most aircraft models do not include any
kind of hole for attaching the wires.

In fo rm a tio n on th e c o rre c t p o s itio n in g


o f th e rig g in g is fu n d a m e n ta l i f th e scale
m o d e l is to lo o k re a lis tic . F o rtu n a te lg ,
n o w a d a ys, m o s t m a n u fa c tu re rs in clu d e
in s tru c tio n s to g u id e us th ro u g h th is pro ce ss.

f t f t e r c o m p a rin g th e p a rts w it h the d ra w in g s , Using a n e e d le to m a rk


m a rk th e p o s itio n f o r the h o le s to be d rille d th e d r ill h o le c e n tre s .
f o r a tta c h in g th e rig g in g w ire s .

Using a B.4 m m s iz e d r ill b it m a ke


th e h o le s a t th e m a rk e d p o in ts . D rill
th e h o le s a p p ro x im a te ly 8.5 m m deep.
This w ill a llo w s u ffic ie n t d e p th f o r
th e w ire s to be s a fe ly and
s e c u re ly a tta c h e d .

On th is ft ire o 2H 2, th e rig g in g w a s m ade u sin g s tre tc h e d


P la s tic sprue. F irst, i t w a s g lu e d in to d r ill h o le s u sin g s u p e rg lu e
gel. Once th e g lu e h a d h a rd e n e d , th e w ir e w a s p u lle d ta u t and
s tu c k in th e s m a ll h o llo w s b e tw e e n th e s tru c tu re s and the
w in g s . W ire s h e a th in g w a s used to s im u la te th e te n sors.

On th e C u rtis s P6, th e rig g in g w a s m ade u sin g s tre tc h e d


c o p p e r w ire , fts th is m a te r ia l m a in ta in s it s o w n te n sio n,
i t is s u ffic ie n t to c u t th e le n g th s in h a lf and g lu e th e m
in to th e d r ill h o le s; once a ll o f th e rig g in g is pla ce d ,
p a in t i t w it h b la c k a c ry lic u sin g a p a in tb ru s h .
Techniques

On th e G rum m an F3 F2, the rig g in g w a s m ade w it h sa n d ed s te e l w ir e ;


as w it h th e P6, s u p e rg lu e g e l w a s used to h o ld it.

38.3 Hoiv do I make an aerial w ire?


The process of making a wire antenna is similar to that for rigging; the same materials can be used, although given the
greater fineness of an aerial, I prefer to use stretched sprue of various colours.
To simulate the insulation on an antenna, a drop of white paint is ideal. For the less experienced modelers, it is perhaps
better to paint the insulation after gluing the first end of the antenna, because if it is painted after pulling the wire taut and
do not control the pressure of the paintbrush, it might break and the work will be ruined.

To a tta c h an a n te n n a , s tr e tc h a le n g th o f p la s tic
sp ru e and g lu e i t f ir s t a t th e m o s t d if f ic u lt p o in t,
th is u su a llg b e in g th e a n te n n a m a s t. Use a s m a ll
ro p o f s u p e rg lu e g e l as th e a d hesiue. Once i t is drg,
th e a e ria l in s u la tio n can be s im u la te d w it h
a d ro p le t o f u n d ilu te d w h ite p a in t.

O f t e r a p p lg in g th e w h ite p a in t f o r th e a n te n n a
in s u la tio n , p la c e a s m a ll d ro p o f s u p e rg lu e g e l
on th e o th e r a tta c h m e n t p o in t, p o s itio n the
w ir e a n d gen tig p u ll ta u t.

Once th e s u p e rg lu e has d rie d , c a re fu llg


c u t o f f th e excess w it h th e cu ru e d blade.
Techniques

39. FIN IS H IN G THE SCALE MODEL


39.1 Hduiceon presenting and preseruing a scale model
If the model is to be exhibited or entered into competition, it is best to do so after mounting it on a suitable base. These can
be made of various materials depending on the model-makers taste. However, above all, the chosen base must be finished
to the same high standard as the model as all too often a fine model has been spoilt by mounting it on an unsuitable, or badly
finished base.
One very important piece of advice is to always indicate, with a sign, whether the model is attached to the base or not, as the
case may be. By doing so, any judge who handles the model to study it will know how to avoid a devastating accident.
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