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Derechos de la Madre Tierra

Objetivo del grupo en trminos de debate y producto

Construir un proyecto de Declaracin Universal de Derechos de la Madre Tierra


Discutir propuestas para impulsar los derechos de la madre tierra a nivel
nacional, regional e internacional

Principales cuestiones a discutir por el grupo

Por qu madre tierra?


Por qu derechos de la madre tierra?
Por qu una Declaracin Universal?
Cules son esos Derechos?
Qu medidas pueden contribuir a la adopcin de dichos derechos a nivel
nacional, regional, internacional?

Antecedentes

El concepto indgena:

El concepto de Madre Tierra o Madre Naturaleza tiene sus races en la gran mayora de
pueblos indgenas de todo el mundo. El calificativo de madre tiene precisamente el
objetivo de connotar una relacin de respeto y de reconocimiento de nuestro origen. La
Madre Tierra es la fuente de la vida de todo lo que existe, incluidos los seres humanos.
En la visin indgena la naturaleza no es un objeto inerte, una fuente de recursos, sino,
nuestro hogar con el cul los seres humanos estamos emparentados. De ah las
diferentes practicas de agradecimiento a la Madre Tierra de los pueblos indgenas que
tienden a crear una relacin de hermandad con las aves, las montaas, los ros, el viento
y todos los seres que nos rodean. La Madre Tierra es sabia, est viva y es sagrada. Los
pueblos son parte de ella y deben vivir en armona con ella.

Concepto cientfico

La Tierra es un sistema que articula lo fsico, lo qumico, lo biolgico y lo humano de


forma interdependiente. La vida es parte y producto de este sistema.

James Lovelock, Lynn Margulis, Elisabet Sahtouris, Jos Lutzenberg y otros, a partir de
los aos 70 del siglo pasado, propusieron la visin de la vitalidad de la tierra, segn la
cual la atmsfera actual no resulta solamente de mecanismos fsicos, qumicos y de
fuerzas directivas del universo, sino principalmente de la interaccin de la vida misma
con todo el entorno ecolgico. De esta interaccin resulta que la atmsfera es un
producto biolgico. La sinergia de los organismos vivos con los elementos de la Tierra
va creando y manteniendo el habitat adecuado que denominamos biosfera, por lo que la
Tierra misma esta viva.

El concepto en Naciones Unidas


La Organizacin de las Naciones Unidas lo asumi el 22 de abril del 2009 al Declarar el
Da Internacional de la Madre Tierra: Madre Tierra es una expresin comn
utilizada para referirse al planeta Tierra en diversos pases y regiones, lo que
demuestra la interdependencia existente entre los seres humanos, las dems especies
vivas y el planeta que todos habitamos, Segn la Resolucin 63/278 de las Naciones
Unidas la Tierra y sus ecosistemas son nuestro hogar, y () para alcanzar un justo
equilibrio entre las necesidades econmicas, sociales y ambientales de las generaciones
presentes y futuras, es necesario promover la armona con la naturaleza y la Tierra.
http://derechosmadretierra.org/day/

http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2009/ga10823.doc.htm

Desarrollo del tema y algunos de sus principales antecedentes

En1982, la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas aprob la Carta


Mundial de la Naturaleza, en la cual se reconoce que la especie humana es
parte de la naturaleza y la vida depende del funcionamiento ininterrumpido
de los sistemas naturales.

http://www.pnuma.org/docamb/cn1982.php

En 1992 fue adoptada la Declaracin de Ro sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo


que reconoce la naturaleza integral e interdependiente de la Tierra, nuestro
hogar, y seala que Los Estados debern cooperar con espritu de
solidaridad mundial para conservar, proteger y restablecer la salud y la
integridad del ecosistema de la Tierra. Sin embargo para la Declaracin de
Ro: Los seres humanos constituyen el centro de las preocupaciones
relacionadas con el desarrollo sostenible. Y el derecho al desarrollo debe
ejercerse en forma tal que responda equitativamente a las necesidades de
desarrollo y ambientales de las generaciones presentes y futuras.
http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/agenda21_spanish/res_riodecl.shtml
El 2000 fue aprobada la Carta de la Tierra redactada por 23 personalidades
despus de un proceso de consultas con la sociedad civil en diferentes
regiones del mundo. La Carta de la Tierra es una declaracin internacional de
principios, propuestas y aspiraciones para una sociedad mundial sostenible,
solidaria, justa y pacfica en el siglo XXI. La Carta de la Tierra promueve el
Respeto y cuidado de la vida en toda su diversidad con entendimiento,
compasin y amor. Plantea proteger y restaurar la integridad de los sistemas
ecolgicos de la Tierra, y proceder con precaucin cuando el conocimiento
sea limitado. As mismo plantea adoptar patrones de produccin, consumo y
reproduccin que salvaguarden las capacidades regenerativas de la Tierra.
http://earthcharterinaction.org/contenido/pages/La-Carta-de-la-Tierra.html
El 13 de Julio del 2001 cientficos del Programa Internacional Geosfera-Biosfera
(IGBP), el Programa Internacional de Dimensiones Humanas del Cambio
Ambiental Global (IHDP), el Programa Mundial de Investigacin Climtica
(WCRP) y el Programa Internacional de Biodiversidad DIVERSITAS
aprobaron la Declaracin de msterdam sobre el Cambio Global, en el cul se
seala: Las actividades humanas estn influyendo considerablemente en el
medio ambiente de la Tierra en muchos aspectos, adems de las emisiones de
gases de efecto invernadero y el cambio climtico. Los cambios
antropognicos de la superficie terrestre, los ocanos, las costas y la atmsfera
y de la diversidad biolgica, el ciclo del agua y los ciclos biogeoqumicos son
claramente identificables ms all de la variabilidad natural. Son iguales a
algunas de las grandes fuerzas de la naturaleza en su alcance y su impacto.
Muchos se estn acelerando. El cambio global es real y est ocurriendo
ahora. La probabilidad de un brusco cambio inducido por el hombre en el
medio ambiente de la Tierra an no se ha cuantificado, pero no es
despreciable. Y plantean que se necesita con urgencia un marco tico para la
gestin global de la Tierra.
http://derechosmadretierra.org/2001/07/13/declaracion-de-amsterdam-sobre-
el-cambio-global/
La Comisin Mundial de tica del Conocimiento Cientfico y la Tecnologa
(COMEST) recomend que la UNESCO elaborara un marco de principios
ticos en relacin con el cambio climtico.
http://derechosmadretierra.org/2009/10/13/examen-de-la-conveniencia-de-
preparar-un-proyecto-de-declaracion-universal-de-principios-eticos-en-
relacion-con-el-cambio-climatico/
http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001849/184909s.pdf
1,360 expertos de 95 pases que participaron de la Evaluacin de los
Ecosistemas del Milenio realizada a solicitud del Secretario General Koffi
Annan entre los aos 2001 al 2005, plantean que al analizar y definir las
acciones que influyen sobre los ecosistemas es necesario tomar en cuenta no
slo el bienestar humano sino tambin los valores intrnsecos de las especies y
los ecosistemas. El valor intrnseco es el valor de algo en s y por si mismo.
http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.439.aspx.pdf
En el 2009 las Naciones Unidas aprobaron, adems de la resolucin del Da
Internacional de la Madre Tierra, la resolucin 64/196 por la cual se incluye
en la Agenda de la Asamblea General el tema de Armona con la
Naturaleza y se invita a los Estados Miembros, las organizaciones
pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas y las organizaciones
internacionales, regionales y subregionales a considerar, segn corresponda,
el tema de la promocin de la vida en armona con la naturaleza y a que
hagan llegar al Secretario General sus visiones, experiencias y propuestas al
respecto para que presente un informe sobre este tema a la Asamblea
General en su sexagsimo quinto perodo de sesiones.
http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2009/ga10907.doc.htm
http://derechosmadretierra.org/draft-resolution/

Proyectos y propuestas

El ao 2009 se promulg la Constitucin Poltica del Ecuador que seala: La


naturaleza o Pacha Mama, donde se reproduce y realiza la vida, tiene derecho
a que se respete integralmente su existencia y el mantenimiento y
regeneracin de sus ciclos vitales, estructura, funciones y procesos
evolutivos.
El 22 de abril de 2009, el Presidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Evo
Morales Ayma propone a la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas
elaborar una Declaracin Universal de los Derechos de la Madre Tierra.
Plantea que esta declaracin reconozca el derecho a la vida, el derecho de
regeneracin de su biocapacidad, el derecho a vivir libre de contaminacin y
el derecho a vivir en armona.
Los Presidentes del ALBA TCP en su VII Cumbre realizada el 2009 en
Bolivia aprueban la Declaracin Especial para una Declaracin Universal
de los Derechos de la Madre Tierra. La referida Declaracin reconoce que
el precepto de que slo los seres humanos tienen derechos genera un
desequilibrio de todo el sistema.
En Bangkok, del 28 de septiembre al 9 de octubre de 2009, durante el sptimo
periodo de sesiones del Grupo de Trabajo Especial para la Cooperacin a
largo plazo en el marco de la Convencin de Naciones Unidas sobre Cambio
Climtico, Bolivia plante que en una visin comn de la cooperacin a
largo plazo deberan tomarse en consideracin no slo los derechos de los
seres humanos, sino tambin los derechos de la madre tierra y de todos los
seres vivos http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/awglca7/spa/14s.pdf
En las negociaciones de Copenhague de diciembre de 2009 de la referida
Conferencia de Naciones Unidas, el G77 y China respaldaron la propuesta de
que para una visin compartida para la accin cooperativa a largo plazo debe
considerar no slo los derechos de los seres humanos, tambin los derechos de
la madre tierra y de todos los seres naturales.
La propuesta de conclusiones preparadas por el Presidente del citado Grupo
Especial sobre Cooperacin a Largo Plazo, documento
FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/L7/Rev1 para una visin comn, dice que Tomando
nota de la resolucin 10/4 del Consejo de Derechos Humanos de las Naciones
Unidas sobre los derechos humanos y el cambio climtico, que reconoce que
los seres humanos se encuentran en el centro de las preocupaciones
relacionadas con el desarrollo sostenible, as como de la importancia de
respetar a la Madre Tierra, sus ecosistemas y todos los seres vivos.
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/awglca8/spa/l07r01s.pdf

Documentos de referencia:

Resolucin de la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas 37/7 Carta Mundial


de la Naturaleza de 1982.
Carta de la Tierra de 2000.
Declaracin de Amsterdam sobre Cambio Global de 1991.
Resolucin 63/278 de la ONU que proclama el da 22 de abril da internacional
de la madre tierra de 2008.
Declaracin del ALBA por una Declaracin Universal de los Derechos de la
Madre Tierra de 2008.
FCC/AWGLCA/L.7./Rev. 1 del Grupo de Trabajo Especial sobre la
Cooperacin a Largo Plazo en el Marco de la Convencin. 8vo Periodo de
Sesiones. Copenhaguen diciembre de 2009.

http://cmpcc.org/2010/02/06/derechos-de-la-madre-tierra/

Otros documentos del grupo de trabajo:


Proyecto de Declaracin Universal de Derechos de la Madre Tierra
La reinvencin de Las Naciones Unidas, una Organizacin indispensable
Implicaciones empricas de la visin alternativa de la Tierra como sujeto de derechos
http://marxmadera.org/book/export/html/297

W. Jason Morgan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

William Jason Morgan

W. Jason Morgan receiving National Medal of


Science from President George W. Bush, 2003.

October 10,
Born 1935
Savannah, GA)

Citizenship US

Fields geophysicist

Princeton
Institutions
University

Georgia
Alma mater Institute of Technology,
Princeton University

Doctoral
advisor Bob Dicke
William Jason Morgan (born October 10, 1935 in Savannah, Georgia) is an American
geophysicist who has made seminal contributions to the theory of plate tectonics and
geodynamics. He retired as the Knox Taylor Professor emeritus of geology and
professor of geosciences at Princeton University.[1] He currently serves as a visiting
scholar in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard University.

Contents
[hide]

1 Life and main scientific contributions


2 Selected publications
3 See also
4 Notes
5 External links

[edit] Life and main scientific contributions

After having received his BSc in physics from the Georgia Institute of Technology in
1957, he went to Princeton University, where he completed his PhD in 1964 under the
supervision of Bob Dicke. He joined the faculty of the university immediately
afterwards.

His first major contribution, made in the late 1960s, was to relate the magnetic
anomalies of alternating polarity, which occur on the ocean bottom at both sides of a
mid-ocean ridge, to seafloor spreading and plate tectonics.

From 1971 on he worked on the further development of the plume theory of Tuzo
Wilson, which postulates the existence of roughly cylindrical convective upwellings in
the Earth's mantle as an explanation of hotspots. Wilson originally applied the concept
to Hawaii and explained the increase in age of the seamounts of the Hawaii-Emperor
chain with increasing distance from the current hotspot location; however, the concept
was subsequently applied to many other hotspots by Morgan and other scientists.

Morgan has received many honors and awards for his work, among them the Alfred
Wegener Medal of the European Geosciences Union (1983), the Maurice Ewing Medal
of the American Geophysical Union (1987), the Wollaston Medal of the Geological
Society of London (1994)[2] and the National Medal of Science of the USA, award year
2002.[3]

"The theory of plate tectonics he published in 1968 is one of the major milestones of
U.S. science in the 20th century," F. A. Dahlen, chair of the Princeton Department of
Geosciences, wrote in 2003.[4]

"Essentially all of the research in solid-earth geophysical sciences in the past 30 to 35


years has been firmly grounded upon Jason Morgan's plate tectonic theory," Dahlen
said. "The scientific careers of a generation of geologists and geophysicists have been
founded upon his landmark 1968 paper."
[edit] Selected publications

Morgan, W. J. (1968, 1991 reprint). "Rises, Trenches, Great Faults, and Crustal Blocks".
Tectonophysics 187: 622. Bibcode 1991Tectp.187....6M. doi:10.1016/0040-
1951(91)90408-K. http://www.mantleplumes.org/WebDocuments/Morgan1968.pdf.
1968 JGR publication, full text
Morgan, W. J. (5 March 1971). "Convection plumes in the lower mantle". Nature 230
(5288): 4243. Bibcode 1971Natur.230...42M. doi:10.1038/230042a0.
Morgan, W. J. (February 1972). "Plate motions and deep mantle convection". The
American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 56 (2): 203213.
doi:10.1306/819A3E50-16C5-11D7-8645000102C1865D.
http://www.mantleplumes.org/WebDocuments/Morgan1972.pdf.
Morgan, W. J. (1972). Plate motions and deep mantle convection. In Shagam, R,
Hargraves, RB, Morgan, WJ, Van Houten, FB, Burk, CA, Holland, HD, and Hollister, LC.
"Studies in earth and space sciences: A memoir in honor of Harry Hammond Hess".
Geological Society of America Memoir 132: 722.
Morgan, W. J. (1981). "Hotspot tracks and the opening of the Atlantic and Indian
Oceans". In Cesare Emiliani. The Oceanic Lithosphere. New York: Wiley. pp. 443489.
ISBN 0-674-01736-6.
http://books.google.ch/books?id=gRZihrnakJoC&pg=PA443&dq=Morgan,+W.+Jason+G
eol.+Soc.+Am.+Mem#v=onepage&q&f=false.

[edit] See also

List of geophysicists

[edit] Notes

1. ^ Bill Bonini and Laurie Wanat, ed. (Fall 2003). "Jason Morgan Retires". The Smilodon:
The Princeton Geosciences Newsletter 44 (2).
http://www.princeton.edu/geosciences/about/publications/smilodon/SmiloFall03.pdf.
Passages about W. Jason Morgan from McPhee, John (1998) Annals of the Former
World, New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux.
2. ^ "Wollaston Medal". Award Winners since 1831. Geological Society of London.
http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/null/lang/en/page750.html. Retrieved 2009-02-25.
3. ^ National Science Foundation, "W. Jason Morgan", The President's National Medal of
Science: Recipient Details.
4. ^ Princeton press release

[edit] External links

Georgia Tech alumni biography


Lamont-Doherty bio
National Medal of Science, Princeton

Marie Tharp
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Marie Tharp

Tharp and Bruce Heezen

July 30, 1920


Born
Ypsilanti, Michigan

August 23, 2006 (aged 86)


Died
Nyack, New York

Resid
ence United States

Citize
nship United States

Natio
United States
nality

Fields Geology, Oceanography

Instit Lamont-Doherty Earth


utions Observatory

Ohio University
Alma
University of Michigan
mater
University of Tulsa
Know
n for Seafloor topography

Marie Tharp (July 30, 1920 - August 23, 2006) was an American geologist and
oceanographic cartographer who, along with her colleague Bruce Heezen, mapped the
ocean floor including the Mid-Oceanic Ridges, a line of undersea mountains.

[edit] Life and career

Tharp was born in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Her father, William, made soil classification
maps for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Her mother, Bertha, was an instructor in
German and Latin.

Tharp graduated from Ohio University in 1943 with bachelor's degrees in English and
music and four minors. She later received a master's degree in geology from the
University of Michigan before earning a degree in mathematics from the University of
Tulsa while working as a geologist for the Stanolind Oil company.[1]

Moving to New York in 1948, Tharp was employed by Maurice Ewing at the Lamont
Geological Laboratory (now the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory) at Columbia
University, initially as a general drafter.[1] There, Tharp met Heezen and their early
work together used photographic data to locate downed aircraft from World War II.[2]
Later, they began working together to map the topography of the ocean floor. For the
first 18 years of their collaboration, Heezen collected data aboard the Observatory's
ship, the Vema, and Tharp drew the maps from that data (since traditionally, women
were not allowed on board ships at that time, Tharp did not accompany Heezen on a
data-collecting expedition until 1965). Tharp also used data collected from the Woods
Hole Oceanographic Institution's research ship, the Atlantis, and seismographic data
from undersea earthquakes. Their work represented the first systematic, comprehensive
attempt to map the entire ocean floor.

Heezen and Tharp published their first physiographic map of the North Atlantic in
1957. Collaborating with the Austrian landscape painter Heinrich Berann, their map of
the entire ocean floor was published in 1977 (coincidentally, also the year of Heezen's
death). Although at the time they favoured the expanding Earth hypothesis,[3][4] Heezen
and Tharp's mapping of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge helped pave the way for general
acceptance of the alternative theories of plate tectonics and continental drift.

Tharp continued to serve on the faculty of Columbia University until 1983, after which
she operated a map-distribution business in South Nyack, New York during her
retirement.

Tharp died of cancer in Nyack, New York on August 23, 2006.[5]


[edit] References

1. ^ a b Tharp, M. (2006-12-12). "Marie Tharp biography". Woods Hole Oceanographic


Institution. http://www.whoi.edu/sbl/liteSite.do?litesiteid=9092&articleId=13407.
Retrieved 2008-06-02.
2. ^ Evans, R. (November 2002). "Plumbing Depths to Reach New Heights".
http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0211/tharp.html. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
3. ^ Barton, C. (2002). "Marie Tharp, oceanographic cartographer, and her contributions
to the revolution in the Earth sciences". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 192 (1): 215228. doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2002.192.01.11.
http://sp.lyellcollection.org/cgi/content/abstract/192/1/215.
4. ^ Doel, R.E.; Levin, T.J. and Marker, M.K. (2006). "Extending modern cartography to the
ocean depths: military patronage, Cold War priorities, and the Heezen-Tharp mapping
project, 1952-1959". Journal of Historical Geography 32 (3): 605626.
doi:10.1016/j.jhg.2005.10.011.
5. ^ Fox, Margalit (August 26, 2006). "Marie Tharp, Oceanographic Cartographer, Dies at
86". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/26/obituaries/26tharp.html.
Retrieved April 9, 2012.

C250 Celebrates 250 Columbians Ahead of Their Time: Entry on Marie Tharp.
Woods Hole Oceeanographic Institution. "Marie Tharp Honored at Women Pioneers
Seminar."
The Earth Institute at Columbia University. "Mapping Methodology Examples (North
Atlantic)."
The Earth Institute at Columbia University. "Marie Tharp, Pioneering Mapmaker of the
Ocean Floor, Dies." Earth Institute News, August 23, 2006.
Nelson, Valerie. "Marie Tharp, 86; Pioneering Maps Altered Views on Seafloor
Geology." The Los Angeles Times, September 4, 2006.
Hall, Stephen S. "The Contrary Map Maker" The New York Times Magazine, December
31, 2006.

[edit] External links

Marie Tharp Maps


Soundings: The Story of the Remarkable Woman Who Mapped the Ocean Floor by Hali
Felt
Marie Tharp at Columbia University

Bruce C. Heezen
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Bruce Charles Heezen


Marie Tharp and Bruce Heezen

April 11, 1924


Born
Vinton, Iowa

Died June 21, 1977 (aged 53)

Resid
ence United States

Citize
United States
nship

Natio
nality United States

Fields Geology, Oceanography

Instit Lamont-Doherty Earth


utions Observatory

Alma University of Iowa


mater Columbia University

Know
n for Seafloor topography

Bruce Charles Heezen (April 11, 1924 June 21, 1977) was an American geologist.
He is most famous as being the leader of a team from Columbia University which
mapped the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during the 1950s.
Heezen was born in Vinton, Iowa. He received his B.A. from the University of Iowa in
1947 and in 1952 his M.A. from Columbia University and in 1957 his Ph.D.

Heezen interpreted his early work on the mid-Atlantic ridge as supporting S. Warren
Carey's Expanding Earth Theory which had been developed in the 1950s,[1] and
"eventually gave up the idea of an expanding earth for a form of continental drift in the
mid-1960s".[2]

Heezen died in 1977 during a research cruise to study the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near
Iceland aboard the NR-1 submarine.[3]

The Oceanographic Survey Ship USNS Bruce C. Heezen was christened in honor of
him in 1999.[4]

[edit] References

1. ^ Oreskes, Naomi, 2003, Plate Tectonics: An Insider's History Of The Modern Theory Of
The Earth, Westview Press, p. 23, ISBN 0813341329
2. ^ Frankel, Henry, The Continental Drift Debate, Ch. 7 in Scientific controversies, p. 226,
1987, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-27560-6
3. ^ "Marie Tharp Bio". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 2006-12-12.
http://www.whoi.edu/sbl/liteSite.do?litesiteid=9092&articleId=13407. Retrieved
2008-06-02.
4. ^ "Navy's Newest Ocean Survey Ship Will Offer Public Tours August 3 for Lamont
Community August 4 & 5 at Intrepid Pier". The Earth Institute. 2000-07-14.
http://www.earthinstitute.columbia.edu/news/story7_1.html. Retrieved 2008-06-02.

[edit] External links

Bruce Heezen explaining formation of oil traps on the ocean floor


Bruce Heezen explaining turbidity currents

Authorit
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y control

This biographical article about an American geologist is a stub. You can help
Wikipedia by expanding it.

Retrieved from
"http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bruce_C._Heezen&oldid=527525691"
Categories:
1924 births
1977 deaths
University of Iowa alumni
Columbia University faculty
American geologists
American oceanographers
Recipients of the Cullum Geographical Medal
American

Maurice Ewing
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Maurice Ewing

Maurice Ewing in 1948. Photo courtesy Columbia


University

May 12, 1906


Born
Lockney, Texas

Died May 4, 1974

Nationalit
y American

geophysics
Fields underwater acoustics
oceanography

Institution Columbia University


s University of Texas
Alma
mater Rice University

J. Lamar Worzel
Influence Frank Press
d Jack Nafe
Jack Oliver

John J. Carty Award (1963)


Notable
National Medal of Science (1973)
awards
Vetlesen Prize (1960)

William Maurice "Doc" Ewing (May 12, 1906 May 4, 1974) was an American
geophysicist and oceanographer.

Ewing has been described as a pioneering geophysicist who worked on the research of
seismic reflection and refraction in ocean basins, ocean bottom photography, submarine
sound transmission (including the SOFAR channel), deep sea coring of the ocean
bottom, theory and observation of earthquake surface waves, fluidity of the Earth's core,
generation and propagation of microseisms, submarine explosion seismology, marine
gravity surveys, bathymetry and sedimentation, natural radioactivity of ocean waters
and sediments, study of abyssal plains and submarine canyons.

He was born in Lockney, Texas, where he was the eldest child of a large farm family.
He won a scholarship to attend Rice University, earning a B.A. with honors in 1926. He
completing his graduate studies at the same institution, earning an M.A. in 1927 and
being awarded his Ph.D. in 1931. In 1928 he was married to Avarilla Hildenbrand, and
the couple had a son.

He moved to Columbia University, becoming a professor of geology in 1947. In 1959


he was named the Higgins Professor of Geology at Columbia. Dr. Ewing (often simply
called 'Doc' by those who worked with him) was the founder (established in 1949) and
first director of Lamont Geological Observatory (now known as Lamont-Doherty Earth
Observatory (LDEO) in Palisades, New York) where he worked with J. Lamar Worzel
(gravity specialist), Dr. Frank Press (seismologist), Jack Nafe, and Jack Oliver. The
former LDEO research vessel R/V Maurice Ewing was named in his honor.

He divorced a second time, and married Harriet Greene Bassett in 1965. In 1972 he
joined the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, and was named the head
of the Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences of the Marine Biomedical Institute.

During his career he published over 340 scientific papers. He served as president of the
American Geophysical Union and the Seismological Society of America. He led over
50 oceanic expeditions. He made many contributions to oceanography, including the
discovery of the SOFAR Channel, the invention of the sofar bomb, and did much work
fundamental on plate tectonics. He was the chief scientist on board the Glomar
Challenger. He came up with the idea behind Project Mogul.
Contents
[hide]

1 Awards and honors


2 Selected publications
3 References
4 See also
5 External links

[edit] Awards and honors

Penrose Medal, 1974 (posthumously)


Walter H. Bucher Medal, 1974
William Bowie Medal, 1957
Arthur L. Day Medal, 1949
John J. Carty Award of the National Academy of Sciences, 1963[1]
Distinguished Public Service Award, 1955
Sidney Powers Memorial Medal, 1968
Robert Earl McConnell Award, 1973
National Medal of Science, 1973
Vega Medal of the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography, 1965
Cullum Geographical Medal of the American Geographical Society, 1961
Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 1964
Elected to the National Academy of Sciences
Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Elected to the American Philosophical Society
Foreign Member of the Geological Society of London, 1964
Guggenheim Fellow, 1938, 1953, 1955
Awarded eleven honorary degrees.
Geophysics Laboratory at the University of Texas Medical Branch Marine Science
Institute was renamed Maurice Ewing Hall.
The Maurice Ewing Medals of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists and American
Geophysical Union were named after him.
The lunar wrinkle ridge Dorsa Ewing was named after him.

[edit] Selected publications

with Hugo Benioff and Frank Press: "Sound waves in the atmosphere generated by a
small earthquake". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 37 (9): 600-603. 1951. PMC 1063427.
//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1063427/.
with Jack Oliver: "Seismic surface waves at Palisades from explosions in Nevada and
the Marshall Islands". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 44 (8): 780-785. 1958. PMC 534559.
//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC534559/.
with Bruce C. Heezen and David B. Ericson: "Significance of the Worzel deep sea ash".
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 45 (3): 355-361. 1959. PMC 222565.
//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC222565/.
[edit] References

1. ^ "John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science". National Academy of


Sciences. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101229180532/http://www.nasonline.org/site/PageSe
rver?pagename=AWARDS_carty. Retrieved 25 February 2011.

[edit] See also

List of geophysicists
Research Vessel Maurice Ewing

[edit] External links

W. Maurice Ewing
William Maurice Ewing Biography
Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
The Vetlesen Prize
Photo
Excellent Video Lecture Explaining SOFAR Spheres
National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir