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AGMA 923- B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Metallurgical Specifications for Steel


Gearing
AGMA 923- B05

AGMA INFORMATION SHEET


(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)
American Gear Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing
Manufacturers AGMA 923--B05
Association CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,
revision, or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA
technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the As-
sociation on the subject matter.
[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be quoted or extracted. Citations should
read: See AGMA 923--B05, Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing, published by
the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350,
Alexandria, Virginia 22314, http://www.agma.org.]
Approved May 3, 2005
ABSTRACT
This document identifies metallurgical quality characteristics which are important to the performance of steel
gearing. The AGMA gear rating standards identify performance levels of gearing by heat treatment method and
grade number. For each heat treatment method and AGMA grade number, acceptance criteria are given for
various metallurgical characteristics identified in this document.
Published by

American Gear Manufacturers Association


500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Copyright 2005 by American Gear Manufacturers Association
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic
retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
ISBN: 1--55589--848--3

ii
AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

Contents
Page
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4 Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5 Metallurgical requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Tables
1 Metallurgical characteristics for through hardened gearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2 Metallurgical characteristics for carburize and hardened gearing . . . . . . . . . 17
3 Metallurgical characteristics for induction or flame hardened gearing . . . . . . 22
4 Metallurgical characteristics for nitrided gearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Figures
1 Continuous carbide network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2 Semi--continuous carbide network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3 Discontinuous carbides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4 Dispersed carbides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5 Solid on shaft pinion blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
6 Bore style gearing blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
7 Disc style gearing blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
8 Web style gear blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
9 Intergranular oxidation in carburized gearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
10 Non--martensitic transformation products in carburized gearing . . . . . . . . . . . 8
11 Tempered martensite and 5% retained austenite in carburized gearing . . . . 10
12 Tempered martensite and 20% retained austenite in carburized gearing . . . 10
13 Tempered martensite and 30% retained austenite in carburized gearing . . . 10
14 Variations in hardening pattern obtainable on gear teeth with flame or
induction hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved iii


AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Foreword
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for
informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of AGMA Information
Sheet 923--B05, Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing.]
In November, 1984, an ad hoc Metallurgy and Gear Rating Committee met to define the
factors required to qualify the various metallurgical quality grades that were to be introduced
into the gear rating standard that eventually became ANSI/AGMA 2001-- B88, Fundamental
Rating Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur and Helical Gear Teeth.
In May, 1988, ANSI/AGMA 6033--A88, Standard for Marine Propulsion Gear Units -- Part 1,
Materials, was published using a short list of metallurgical factors in table form.
In September, 1988, ANSI/AGMA 2001--B88 was published using metallurgical factors in
table form.
Starting in July, 1992, AGMA representatives participated in writing ISO 6336--5,
Calculation of Load Capacity of Spur and Helical Gears -- Part 5: Strength and Quality of
Materials, which was a modification of the tables in ANSI/AGMA and DIN Standards.
In February, 1993, AGMA 6002--B93, Design Guide for Vehicle Spur and Helical Gears, was
published using a modified version of the tables used in ANSI/AGMA 2001--B88.
In September, 1993, the AGMA Metallurgy and Materials Committee accepted the task of
consolidating the various tables to avoid redundancies and conflicting requirements, and
started work on AGMA 923--A00, Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing.
In January, 1995, a revised ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95 was published using a version of the
ANSI/AGMA 2001--B88 tables as revised by the AGMA Helical Gear Rating Committee.
In November, 1997, a revised ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97, Rating the Pitting Resistance and
Bending Strength of Generated Straight Bevel, Zerol Bevel and Spiral Bevel Gear Teeth,
was published using a version of the ANSI/AGMA 2001--B88 tables as revised by the AGMA
Bevel Gearing Committee.
The committee reviewed all metallurgical tables of the gear rating standards ANSI/AGMA
2001--B88, ANSI/AGMA 2003--A86, and ISO 6336--5:1996 and their proposed revisions to
develop consolidated tables describing the metallurgical characteristics associated with
each specific type of heat treatment and metallurgical quality grade. Effort was made to
reference ISO specifications where possible. The consolidated tables were submitted to
the gear rating committees for their agreement and are published here for reference by
other standards.
AGMAs goal is to develop a consistent metallurgical specification which reflects the quality
requirements for steel gearing. AGMA 923--A00 was such a document, and was intended to
be consistent with the applicable portions of ISO 6336--5:1996, to the extent possible while
the two standards were in parallel development. The AGMA Technical Division Executive
Committee approved the publication of AGMA 923--A00 in August, 2000.
This edition of the information sheet, AGMA 923--B05, incorporates changes to item 8,
microstructure, of table 1, Metallurgical characteristics for through hardened gearing. The
balance of the document remains unchanged. The AGMA Technical Division Executive
Committee approved the publication of AGMA 923--B05 in May, 2005.
Suggestions for improvement of this information sheet will be welcome. They should be
sent to the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350,
Alexandria, Virginia 22314.

iv AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Metallurgy and Materials Committee

Chairman: Phil Terry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lufkin Industries, Inc.


Vice Chairman: Dale J. Weires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boeing Defense & Space Group

ACTIVE MEMBERS
C. Berndt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Caterpillar, Inc.
I. Botto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FFE Minerals
D. Breuer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metal Improvement Company
R.J. Cunningham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consultant
G. Diehl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philadelphia Gear Corporation
D. Herring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Herring Group, Inc.
D.R. McVittie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gear Engineers, Inc.
J. Mertz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Falk Corporation
R.L. Schwettman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Xtek, Inc.
M. Stein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applied Process Southridge, Inc.
J.B. Walenta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Caterpillar, Inc.
L.L. Witte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Motors Corporation/Allison Transmission Division

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AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

American Gear Manufacturers ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95, Fundamental Rating


Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur
Association -- and Helical Gear Teeth
ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97, Rating the Pitting
Resistance and Bending Strength of Generated
Metallurgical Straight Bevel, Zerol Bevel and Spiral Bevel Gear
Teeth
Specifications for Steel ANSI/AGMA 2004--B89, Gear Materials and Heat
Gearing Treatment Manual
ANSI/AGMA 2007--B92, Surface Temper Etch
Inspection After Grinding
ANSI/AGMA 6002--B93, Design Guide for Vehicle
Spur and Helical Gears
1 Scope ANSI/AGMA 6032--A94, Standard for Marine Gear
Units: Rating
ASTM A29--99, Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon
This information sheet recommends steel material
and Alloy, Hot--Wrought and Cold--Finished,
and metallurgical quality characteristics for use in
General Requirements for
conjunction with AGMA gear rating standards. This
information sheet identifies specifications and re- ASTM A148--93b(1998), Specification for Steel
quirements for various metallurgical quality grades Castings, High Strength, for Structural Purposes
for through hardened, carburize and hardened, ASTM A255--99, Test Method for Determining
induction and flame hardened, and nitrided gearing. Hardenability of Steel
Characteristics covered include raw material, heat ASTM A275--98, Test Method for Magnetic Particle
treatment and post heat treat processing, and their Examination of Steel Forgings
associated inspections. Topics related to gear de- ASTM A290--95(1999), Specification for Carbon
sign and rating, such as case depth, stress numbers, and Alloy Steel Forgings for Rings for Reduction
and quality control sampling plans are not included in Gears
this document. ASTM A291--95(1999), Specification for Steel
Forgings, Carbon and Alloy, for Pinions, Gears and
Shafts for Reduction Gears
2 Normative references ASTM A304--96, Specification for Carbon and Alloy
Steel Bars Subject to End--Quench Hardenability
Requirements
The following standards contain provisions which,
ASTM A322--91(1996), Specification for Steel Bars,
through reference in this text, constitute provisions of
Alloy, Standard Grades
this document. At the time of initial development, the
editions shown were valid. All standards are subject ASTM A370--97a, Test Methods and Definitions for
to revision, and parties to agreements based on this Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
document are encouraged to investigate the possi- ASTM A388--95, Practice for Ultrasonic
bility of applying the most recent editions of the Examination of Heavy Steel Forgings
standards shown below. ASTM A519--96, Specification for Seamless
Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing
AGMA 904--C96, Metric Usage
ASTM A534--94, Specification for Carburizing
ANSI/AGMA 1010--E95, Appearance of Gear Teeth Steels for Anti--Friction Bearings
-- Terminology of Wear and Failure
ASTM A609--91(1997), Practice for Castings,
ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90, Gear Nomenclature, Carbon, Low--Alloy, and Martensitic Stainless
Definitions of Terms with Symbols Steel, Ultrasonic Examination Thereof

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 1


AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

ASTM A751--96, Test Methods, Practices, and ASTM E407--99, Practice for Microetching Metals
Terminology for Chemical Analysis of Steel and Alloys
Products
ASTM E415--99, Test Method for Optical Emission
ASTM A837--91(1996)1, Specification for Steel Vacuum Spectrometric Analysis of Carbon and
Forgings, Alloy, for Carburizing Applications Low--Alloy Steel
ASTM A866--94, Specification for Medium Carbon ASTM E428--92, Practice for Fabrication and
Anti--Friction Bearing Steel Control of Steel Reference Blocks Used in
Ultrasonic Inspection
ASTM A919--84 (1993)1, Terminology Relating to
Heat Treatment of Metals ASTM E709--95, Guide for Magnetic Particle
Examination
ASTM A941--99a, Terminology Relating to Steel,
Stainless Steel, Related Alloys, and Ferroalloys ASTM E1077--91, Test Methods for Estimating the
Depth of Decarburization of Steel Specimens
ASTM A956--97, Test Method for Equotip Hardness
Testing of Steel Products ASTM E1444--94a, Practice for Magnetic Particle
Examination
ASTM E3--95, Practice for Preparation of
Metallographic Specimens ISO 642:1979, Steel -- Hardenability test by end
quenching (Jominy test)
ASTM E8--99, Test Methods for Tension Testing of
Metallic Materials ISO 643:1983, Steels -- Micrographic determination
of the ferritic or austenitic grain size
ASTM E10--98, Test Method for Brinell Hardness of
Metallic Materials ISO 683--1:1987, Heat--treatable steels, alloy steels
and free--cutting steels -- Part 1: Direct--hardening
ASTM E18--98, Test Methods for Rockwell
unalloyed and low--alloyed wrought steel in form of
Hardness and Rockwell Superficial Hardness of
different black products
Metallic Materials
ISO 683--11:1987, Heat--treatable steels, alloy
ASTM E23--98, Test Methods for Notched Bar
steels and free--cutting steels -- Part 11: Wrought
Impact Testing of Metallic Materials
case--hardening steels
ASTM E45--972, Test Methods for Determining the
ISO 4967:1979, Steel -- Determination of content of
Inclusion Content of Steel
non--metallic inclusions -- micrographic method
ASTM E92--82(1997)2, Test Method for Vickers using standard diagrams
Hardness of Metallic Materials
ISO 6336--5:1996, Calculation of load capacity of
ASTM E110--82(1997)2, Test Method for spur and helical gears -- Part 5: Strength and quality
Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by of materials
Portable Hardness Testers
ISO 14104:1995, Surface temper etch inspection
ASTM E112--96, Test Methods for Determining after grinding
Average Grain Size
SAE/AMS 2300G, Premium Aircraft--Quality Steel
ASTM E125--63(1997), Reference Photographs for Cleanliness, Magnetic Particle Inspection
Magnetic Particle Indications on Ferrous Castings Procedure
ASTM E140--971, Hardness Conversion Tables for SAE/AMS 2301H, Cleanliness, Aircraft Quality
Metals (Relationship Among Brinell Hardness, Steel Magnetic Particle Inspection Procedure
Vickers Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Rockwell
SAE/AMS 2304, Special Aircraft--Quality Steel
Superficial Hardness, Knoop Hardness, and
Cleanliness, Magnetic Particle Inspection
Scleroscope Hardness)
Procedure
ASTM E350--95(1997)1, Test Methods for
SAE/AMS--S--13165, Shot Peening of Metal Parts
Chemical Analysis of Carbon Steel, Low--Alloy
Steel, Silicon Electrical Steel, Ingot Iron, and SAE J419 Dec 83, Methods of Measuring
Wrought Iron Decarburization
ASTM E384--89(1997)2, Test Method for SAE J422 Dec 83, Microscopic Determination of
Microhardness of Materials Inclusions in Steels

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

SAE J423 Dec 83, Methods of Measuring Case banding: A segregated structure consisting of
Depth alternating, nearly parallel bands of different chemi-
SAE J864 May 93, Surface Hardness Testing with cal composition, typically aligned in the direction of
Files primary hot working. Segregation is frequently
expressed as a departure from the average
chemical composition. Elements which tend to
segregate are sulfur, phosphorus, carbon, silicon,
3 Definitions and manganese.

base hardness: The surface hardness in the tooth


The terms used in this document, wherever applica- area that was developed by through hardening and
ble, conform to AGMA 904--B89, ANSI/AGMA not changed by subsequent heat treatments. If the
1012--F90, and ASTM A919, but they have been material selected has adequate hardenability for the
modified to cover only those concepts applicable to required hardness and section size combination,
this document. For definitions of technical terms not this surface hardness represents the expected
included in this clause, see ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90, hardness at the intersection of the root circle and the
ANSI/AGMA 2004--B89, ASTM A919, and ASTM centerline of the tooth at mid--face width. Base
A941. Key terms used in this document are defined hardness is applicable to through hardened, induc-
as follows: tion hardened, flame hardened, and nitrided
NOTE: These definitions may differ from those in other gearing, but not to carburize and hardened gearing.
AGMA publications. The user should not assume that
familiar terms can be used without a careful study of bending strength: The bending strength of gear
their definitions. teeth related to their resistance to gear tooth bending
failure. Bending failure is a fatigue phenomenon
alloy steel: A steel containing specified quantities of
usually resulting in cracking at the tooth root fillet.
alloying elements (other than carbon and the
Typical cracks and fractures are illustrated in ANSI/
commonly accepted amounts of manganese, cop-
AGMA 1010--E95. See standards such as ANSI/
per, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus) added to
AGMA 2001--C95, ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97,
increase hardenability and to affect changes in
ANSI/AGMA 6002--B93, or ANSI/AGMA 6032--A94.
mechanical properties.
capable of: The producer documents that the
annealing: The heating to and holding at a suitable
material was produced with the processing steps
temperature above the upper transformation tem-
and controls that the producer has established to
perature and then cooling, typically in the furnace at
assure compliance with the specification, but the
a suitable rate, for reducing hardness, improving
testing to confirm compliance is not required.
machinability, producing a desired microstructure, or
obtaining desired mechanical properties. carbide: A microstructural phase which is a
compound of metal (M) and carbon (C) having the
austenite: A solid solution of one or more elements
chemical formula of MxCy. See figures 1 through 4
in face--centered cubic iron. In carbon and low alloy
for photomicrographs of various classifications of
steels this phase is stable only at elevated
carbide structures (white constituent) in tempered
temperatures and is non--magnetic.
martensite.
austenitizing: The forming of austenite by heating
carbon potential: A measure of the ability of a
a ferrous material into the transformation range
furnace environment containing active carbon to
(partial austenitizing) or above the transformation
alter or maintain, under prescribed conditions, the
range (complete austenitizing).
carbon content of the steel.
bainite: An aggregate of ferrite and cementite
carbon restoration: Carburizing to replace the
resulting from the transformation of austenite at
carbon lost in the surface layer due to previous
temperatures below the pearlite range but above the
thermal processing.
martensite start temperature. Its appearance is
feathery if formed in the upper part of the bainite carbon steel: A steel having no specified minimum
transformation range and acicular, resembling quantity of alloying elements except manganese
tempered martensite, if formed in the lower part. and silicon.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 3


AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

5% nital etch 5% nital etch


400 X mag. 400 X mag.
Figure 3 -- Discontinuous carbides
Figure 1 -- Continuous carbide network

5% nital etch 5% nital etch


400 X mag. 400 X mag.
Figure 2 -- Semi--continuous carbide network Figure 4 -- Dispersed carbides

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

carburizing: A heat treatment process in which an controlling section: The section size which has the
austenitized steel is brought into contact with a greatest effect in determining the rate of cooling
carbonaceous atmosphere of sufficient carbon po- during quenching at a location where the specified
tential to cause adsorption of carbon at the surface hardness is required. Figures 5 through 8 illustrate
and by diffusion to create a concentration gradient. the controlling section size for various gearing
Carburizing is generally followed by quenching and configurations whose teeth are machined after heat
reheating (tempering) of an item to produce a treatment and whose hardness must be maintained
hardened and tempered case. at the roots of the teeth. The maximum permitted
section size for an alloy steel increases with the
case: The outer portion that has been made harder hardenability of the alloy steel.
than the inner portion (see core hardness) as a result
of altered composition, microstructure, or both, by
Teeth
treatments such as carburize and hardening,
induction hardening, flame hardening, and nitriding.

case depth: See the specific type of case depth


such as effective or total case depth. 6 in
(150 mm) 8 in
(200 mm)
case hardening: The generic terminology covering
carburize and nitride hardening applicable to steel
that change the chemical composition and micro- 6 in Controlling section:
(150 mm) 8 in (200 mm) diameter
structure of the surface layer by adsorption of
carbon, nitrogen, or a mixture of the two and by Figure 5 -- Solid on shaft pinion blank
diffusion, create a chemical composition gradient.

Adsorption of carbon processes involve a subse- Teeth


quent quenching to harden, while adsorption of
nitrogen does not require quenching to harden.
4 in
(100 mm)
case hardness: For carburize and hardened 8 in
gearing and induction or flame hardened gearing the (200 mm)
hardness is measured at 0.002--0.004 inches (0.05 -- 12 in
0.10 mm) below the surface using a microhardness (300 mm) Controlling section: 2 in
(50 mm) wall thickness
test technique.
NOTE: If the bore diameter is less than 20 percent of
the length of the bore, then the controlling section is de-
For nitriding specifications surface hardness is
termined by figures 5 or 7.
typically used rather than case hardness.
Figure 6 -- Bore style gearing blank
Case hardness is not to be confused with surface
hardness which is taken directly on the surface using
a conventional or portable hardness tester. Teeth

cementite: A hard compound of iron and carbon,


known chemically as iron carbide, having the
chemical formula Fe3C.
12 in
(300 mm)
cold treatment: The preferred terminology for 1.5 in
cooling carburize and hardened parts to tempera- (40 mm)
tures typically below minus 80F (minus 60C) to 2 in
reduce retained austenite. Cold treatment is also (50 mm)
known as sub--zero treatment or deep freezing. If Controlling section: 2 in
cooled to below minus 300F (minus 185C), the (50 mm) thickness
correct terminology is deep cryogenic treatment. Figure 7 -- Disc style gearing blank

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 5


AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Teeth the hardness at a specified location such as surface,


quarter radius, mid--radius, or centerline.
decarburization: The loss of carbon from the
near--surface of a ferrous material.
36 in
32 in (900 mm) deoxidizing: The removal of oxygen from molten
(800 mm)
steel by addition of suitable elements, such as silicon
and aluminum which react with oxygen, primarily
forming discard slag.
Controlling section: 2 in 8
direct quenching: The quenching of carburized
(50 mm) rim thickness (200 mm)
gearing directly after the carburizing operation,
Figure 8 -- Web style gear blank generally from a reduced temperature within the
austenitic range.

Note that a flat plate with thickness equal to the effective case depth: The distance from the
diameter of a round bar will cool slower than the bar. finished tooth surface to a specific sub--surface
The thickness of a plate equivalent in cooling rate to hardness value. Stock removal done after heat
that of a round bar (equivalent controlling section treating will reduce the as heat treated effective case
size) is 0.7 times the bar diameter. depth and potentially the surface hardness.

The controlling section size for the selection of an Carburize and hardened
appropriate type of steel and specified hardness The effective case depth is measured normal to the
combination must consider part configuration at the finished gear surface to a location where the
time of heat treatment. Special stock additional hardness number is 50 HRC (542 HK500 or 515
allowances, such as those used to minimize distor- HV500 min) by conversion from a microhardness test
tion during heat treatment, must be considered. result. Note that ISO 6336--5 uses 550 HV500 min,
which converts to 52.4 HRC or 583 HK500, as its
converted hardness: The hardness number re- criterion for determining the effective case depth. It
ported on a scale different from the scale used for is recognized that the effective case depth of
hardness testing. For example an actual microhard- carburize and hardened gear teeth varies with
ness test reading of 542 HK500 has a converted location on the gear tooth.
hardness of 50 HRC and would be properly reported
as 50 HRC (542 HK500) with the hardness number Induction and flame hardened
and scale in parentheses representing the actual For Grades 1 and 2 gearing, the effective case depth
testing result and method. is measured from the finished surface to a location
where the hardness number is equivalent to 10 HRC
core hardness: The hardness at the intersection of numbers below the specified minimum surface
the root circle and the centerline of the tooth at hardness. Grade 3 induction hardened gearing uses
mid--face width that was developed during the the carburize and hardened definition for its effective
hardening of carburized gearing. An alternative case depth definition. Note that ISO 6336--5 uses
location is given by ISO 6336--5, table 4, item 8. the distance from the surface to the location where
The material must have adequate hardenability for the hardness is equal to 80% of the specified
the required hardness and section size combination minimum surface hardness as its criterion for
for the required core hardness to be achieved. The determining the effective case depth.
quench severity must also be adequate in order to Nitrided
achieve the required core hardness. The effective case depth is measured from the
finished surface to a location where the hardness
The term core hardness is applicable to carburize
number is equivalent to 40.8 HRC (421 HK500 or 400
and hardened gearing. Induction, flame, and nitride
HV500 min) by conversion from a microhardness test
hardened gearing may use the term base hardness.
result. If the core hardness is more than 38.9 HRC
The core hardness of non--tooth portions (such as (391 HK500 or 380 HV500 min), core hardness plus 54
journal areas of carburize and hardened gearing), is HK500 or 50 HV500 min (4.6 HRC) may be used as the

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

definition of nitrided effective case depth. Note that hardness: See specific kind of hardness such as
this is the same definition used in ISO 6336--5. base, case, core or surface.

ferrite: A solid solution of one or more elements in hardness conversion chart: A published docu-
body--centered cubic iron. In carbon and alloy steels ment for use in converting from one hardness testing
this phase is stable at room temperature. scale to another.

flame hardening: A case hardening process in Hardness conversion charts should be used with
which only the surface layer of the work piece is great caution since discrepancies of 0.3 HRC
heated by a flame to above the upper transformation numbers at 30 HRC to 3.9 HRC numbers at 60 HRC,
temperature and immediately quenched. have been noted between various published conver-
sion charts. Therefore, it is suggested that the
free ferrite: The ferrite that is formed directly during conversion chart used for testing and reporting be
cooling without simultaneous formation of carbide. specified. Some of the more popular hardness
conversion charts are found in ASTM A370, ASTM
grain size: The dimensions of the grains, or E140, ISO 6336--5, and certain individual corporate
crystals, in a polycrystalline metal exclusive of documents and standards. For this document,
twinned regions and sub--grains when present. The ASTM A370 is used and should be used whenever
ASTM grain size is a designation bearing a relation- no other document is specified.
ship to average intercept distance at 100 diameters
magnification. Commercial grain size is categorized induction hardening: A surface hardening process
as either coarse (grain size 1--4) or fine (grain size 5 in which only the surface layer of the work piece is
or finer). heated by electrically induced currents to above the
upper transformation temperature and immediately
hardenability: The property of a ferrous alloy that quenched.
determines the depth and distribution of hardness
induced by quenching. intergranular oxidation (IGO): The preferential
oxidization of certain alloying elements along grain
hardened depth: For induction or flame hardened boundaries during gas carburizing. See figure 9 for a
gearing, alternative terminology for effective case photomicrograph of intergranular oxides (black
depth. constituent).

Unetched
400 X mag.
Figure 9 -- Intergranular oxidation in carburized gearing

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AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

linear indication: An indication with length at least non--martensitic structures: Inclusive terminolo-
three times its width. gy for ferrite, carbide, retained austenite, pearlite,
and bainite due to incomplete transformation to
marquench: Quenching into a liquid media whose
martensite or incomplete austenization. Retained
temperature is above the martensite start trans-
austenite is not included in the quantitative
formation temperature, typically 300 -- 500F (150 --
metallographic measurement of non--martensitic
260C), held at this temperature until temperature is
structures.
uniform throughout, and then cooled to form
martensite. Marquenching is used to achieve
non--martensitic transformation products: Inclu-
reduced distortion when compared to conventional
sive terminology for ferrite, cementite, pearlite, and
quenching.
upper bainite in the surface microstructure of
martensite: A generic term for microstructures carburize hardened gearing due to incomplete
formed by the diffusionless phase transformation of transformation to martensite. See figure 10 for a
austenite. Martensite is characterized by an acicular photograph of non--martensitic transformation prod-
or needle--like pattern in the microstructure and is ucts in martensite.
the hardest of the austenitic transformation products
in steel. normalizing: The heating of a ferrous alloy to a
suitable temperature above the transformation
microsegregation: The non--uniform distribution of
range and then cooling, typically in air, to a
alloying elements, impurities, or phases observed
temperature substantially below the transformation
primarily in the microstructure of the material.
range.
nitriding: The introduction of nascent nitrogen into
a suitable solid ferrous alloy by holding at a suitable pearlite: A microstructural constituent consisting of
temperature in contact with a nitrogenous material. lamellar ferrite and cementite resulting from the
Adsorption of nascent nitrogen produces case transformation of austenite at temperatures above
hardening without quenching. the bainite range.

5% nital etch
400 X mag.

Figure 10 -- Non--martensitic transformation products in carburized gearing

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

pitting resistance: Endurance limit adequate to For forged or rolled rings:


resist contact fatigue. Initial pitting and progressive B is the cross sectional area of the billet prior
pitting are illustrated and discussed in ANSI/AGMA to upsetting, in2 (mm2);
1010--E95. See standards such as ANSI/AGMA
C is the height of the cutoff ingot prior to upset-
2001--C95, ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97, ANSI/AGMA ting, inch (mm);
6002--B93, or ANSI/AGMA 6032--A94.
D is the height of the upset blank after upset-
process control test coupon: For carburize and ting before piercing, inch (mm);
hardened gearing or nitrided gearing, a test coupon E is the height of the upset blank after piercing,
used primarily to monitor the consistency of the heat inch (mm);
treatment process in terms of carbon or nitrogen F is the wall thickness of the upset blank after
penetration and case microstructure. Sometimes piercing, before any bore expansion
called a standardized test coupon. For procedures associated with piercing, inch (mm);
associated with process control test coupons, see G is the height of the finish forged or rolled ring,
4.2.1. inch (mm);
H is the wall thickness of the finish forged or
Due to differences in quench cooling rates and
rolled ring, inch (mm).
hardenability, the microstructure and hardness of
process control test coupons used for carburize and representative test coupon: A test coupon de-
hardened gearing may not be the same as that of the signed to represent the quenching rate of the
finished gear tooth. finished gearing tooth. If the coupon is to be used
only to determine the case properties, it can be
reduction ratio: In forging and rolling, the ratio of smaller than one used to determine the core
the cross sectional area of the rough cast ingot or properties of the gear tooth. A representative test
continuously cast billet to the final cross--sectional coupon sized for determining the core hardness and
area. The reduction ratio is calculated by the microstructure can also be used for determining the
following equation: case properties or as a process control test coupon.
A representative test coupon sized for determining
RR = A C E F (1) the case properties can also be used as a process
B D G H
control test coupon but not for determining core
where
properties unless substantiated by documented test
RR is reduction ratio; data. For procedures associated with representative
test coupons, see 4.2.2.
A is the cross sectional area of the cast ingot
or continuous cast billet, in2 (mm2). retained austenite: The metastable austenite
retained within a quenched microstructure. The
For bar stock and forged shafting including step amount of retained austenite is a function of carbon
shafts for solid on shaft pinion blanks as in figure 5: content, alloy content (especially nickel and
B is the cross sectional area at the finished manganese), quench temperature and subsequent
largest forging diameter in the area where thermal or mechanical treatments. See figures 11,
the teeth will be, in2 (mm2); and, 12 and 13 for examples of visual estimates of
retained austenite (white constituent) in tempered
C, D, E, F, G and H = 1. martensite. More precise measurements of retained
For upset forged gearing blanks as in figures 7 and 8: austenite can be obtained by X--ray diffraction
techniques.
B is the cross sectional area of the billet prior shot peening: A cold working process performed
to upsetting, in2 (mm2); by bombarding the surface of a part with small
C is the height of the cutoff ingot prior to upset- spherical media. This results in a thin layer of high
ting, inch (mm); magnitude residual surface compressive stress and
generally improves the bending strength in the roots
D is the height of the finish forged upset blank
of gear teeth. Shot peening should not be confused
before piercing, inch (mm); and
with grit blasting or shot blasting which are cleaning
E, F, G and H = 1. operations.

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AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

5% nital etch 400X mag. 5% nital etch 400X mag.


Figure 11 -- Tempered martensite and 5% Figure 13 -- Tempered martensite and 30%
retained austenite in carburized gearing retained austenite in carburized gearing

specialty nitriding steel: A steel typically alloyed


with 1% aluminum to provide higher surface hard-
ness after nitriding than normally attained with
nitrided through hardening steels.
standardized test coupon: Alternate terminology
for a process control test coupon.
subcritical anneal: Reheating to a temperature
below the transformation range. For carburized
gearing the temperature is typically 1200--1250F
(650--675C) and is done after carburizing and
before hardening.
surface hardening: The generic terminology for
selective induction or flame heating of a surface
layer and then quenching that layer to produce a
hardened surface layer that may be thinner than the
heated area, but is harder than the unheated base
material. With induction or flame hardening there is
no significant alteration of the chemical composition
of the surface layer.
surface hardness: The hardness measured
5% nital etch 400X mag. directly on the functional surface, after appropriate
Figure 12 -- Tempered martensite and 20% surface preparation. Surface hardness is not to be
retained austenite in carburized gearing confused with case hardness, which is taken on a

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

metallographic cross section using a microhardness Banding -- See microsegregation.


tester. Carbon -- See surface carbon.
tempering: The reheating of a hardened ferrous Case hardness
alloy part to a temperature below the transformation
For carburize and hardened gearing, unless
range, and then cooling it at any rate.
otherwise specified, the case hardness is deter-
test bar: A sample used for tensile or impact mined at a location 1/2 of tooth height (or from a
strength testing. Also used as alternate terminology representative test coupon).
for a test coupon used for hardness and For induction or flame hardened gearing, unless
microstructure testing. otherwise specified, the case hardness is deter-
test coupon: See specific type of test coupon such mined at a location 1/4 of tooth height above the
as process control or representative. root.
For nitrided gearing, unless otherwise specified,
total case depth: For carburized gearing the the case hardness is determined at a location 1/2
maximum depth of diffused carbon. of tooth height (or from a process control or
The total case depth for induction or flame hardened representative test coupon).
gearing is usually assumed to be the same as the Chemistry -- Analyzed per ASTM A751.
hardened and effective case depths.
Core hardness -- Per a standard or superficial
The total case depth for nitrided gearing is the hardness testing method listed under hardness.
distance from the surface to the depth at which the Decarburization -- Per any of three methods:
HRC hardness number is 110% of the hardness
number for the core. Method 1 -- File hardness
The flanks of a tooth are file hardness tested per
total nominal alloy content: The sum of the
SAE J864 or ISO 6336--5, annex D with lack of file
mid--points of the specified ranges for all alloying hardness indicating possible decarburization or
elements added to increase hardenability (e.g., Mn, non--martensitic structures.
Cr, Ni, Mo).
Method 2 -- Reduction of hardness
transformation temperature: The temperature at Surface hardness readings are taken in the same
which a phase change occurs. area using two different hardness testing loads,
traveling indication: An uninterrupted ultrasonic such as HRC and HR15N with major loads of 150
testing signal on the display which moves horizontal- kg and 15 kg respectively. The two sets of read-
ly on the sweep line as the transducer is moved on ings are compared using a standard hardness
the scanning surface. Travel of the signal indicates conversion chart, such as ASTM A370, ASTM
E140 or ISO 6336--5, annex C. Decarburization is
varied depth of the discontinuity from the scanning
indicated by a lower converted hardness for the
surface, often indicative of a crack.
lighter load compared to that from the heavier
load, presuming that proper hardness testing
techniques were used for both sets of tests.
4 Procedures
Method 3 -- Metallographic evaluation
A metallographic specimen is prepared per ASTM
4.1 Recommended test methods E3, etched per ASTM E407, and evaluated per
The test methods listed in this clause are to be used ASTM E1077 or SAE J419.
when no other method is clearly defined or specified. Effective case depth -- Per SAE J423 microhard-
These are the methods to be used for evaluations to ness test method. For carburize and hardened
the requirements of clause 5. gearing and nitrided gearing, unless otherwise
Testing of the actual part is preferred and should specified, the effective case depth is determined at a
always be used whenever practical. However, location 1/2 of tooth height (or from a representative
properly selected test coupons can also be used. test coupon).
The dimensions in this document are always to be For induction or flame hardened gearing, unless
measured normal (not oblique) to the surface. otherwise specified, the effective case depth is

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AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

determined at a location 1/4 of tooth height above the of three points HRC from actual HRC measurements
root. per ASTM E18. The significance and interpretation
of those results needs to be agreed upon between
Grain size -- Per ASTM E112 or ISO 643.
the parties.
Hardenability -- Per ASTM A255 or ISO 642
Intergranular oxides -- In the unetched condition,
end--quench test or by hardenability calculation per
see metallography and figure 9.
ASTM A255.
Magnetic particle -- Per ASTM E1444 regardless of
Hardness -- Listed below are each method and the
form, or alternatively ASTM E125 for raw castings,
associated processes which are tested by that
ASTM A275 for raw forgings, or ASTM E709 for
method.
finished gearing.
ASTM E10, Brinell hardness testing
Mechanical testing -- Per ASTM E8 for tensile
-- Through hardened parts testing and ASTM E23 for impact testing (also see
-- Base hardness of flame, induction, or nitride hardness).
hardened parts Metallography -- Performed at a magnification of
ASTM E18, Rockwell hardness testing 400 -- 600 diameters. Metallographic samples shall
be prepared per ASTM E3 and etched per ASTM
-- Through hardened parts
E407, except for intergranular oxidation which shall
-- Carburize and hardened parts be evaluated in the unetched condition.
-- Flame and induction hardened parts Microhardness -- See hardness.
-- Nitrided parts Microsegregation -- Analyzed per ASTM A534.
ASTM E92, Vickers hardness testing Acceptance criteria is not specified but is to be
-- Through hardened parts agreed upon.

-- Carburize and hardened parts Microstructure -- See metallography.

-- Flame and induction hardened parts Nonmetallic inclusions -- Per any of the following
methods:
-- Nitrided parts
-- SAE/AMS 2301, for aircraft steels
ASTM E384, Microhardness testing
-- ASTM A534, for carburizing bearing steels
-- Carburize and hardened parts
-- ASTM A866, for through hardening bearing
-- Flame and induction hardened parts
steels
-- Nitrided parts -- ASTM E45, for inclusion count
If standard bench top hardness testing cannot be -- ISO 4967, by comparison to micrographic
accomplished as stated in ASTM E10 or ASTM E18, diagrams, Method B, Plate II with 0.3 in2 (200
portable testing may be accomplished by ASTM mm2) inspection area
E110 or other appropriate methods.
-- SAE J422, by comparison to micrographic
Measurement of surface hardness per ASTM E18 is diagrams
used as a nondestructive method to evaluate the Surface carbon -- Per one of the following methods:
conformity of individual work pieces to the surface
hardness requirements. The measurement method Method 1 -- Spectrometric
should be appropriate for the size and configuration Per ASTM E415.
of the work pieces. The teeth area requirements for
Method 2 -- Combustion
hardness measurements include the root of the
tooth. Alternate methods of hardness measure- The combustion method utilizes chips from a ma-
ment, including file testing in accordance with SAE chining cut of 0.001 -- 0.004 inch (0.02 -- 0.10 mm)
in thickness on a carbon control specimen. The
J864 or ISO 6336--5, annex D, may be used.
chips from this cut are collected and analyzed by
Due to the state of the art of alternate microhardness combustion for carbon content per ASTM E350.
testing methods, results may vary by the equivalent The specimen should be machined dry with high

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

speed cutting tools on centers, and at least one control range. The process control test coupons
gram of clean chips free of contamination should may be made of various steel grades, different sizes,
be used for analysis. and differing geometry depending on the parameter
to be monitored and the heat treat facilitys quality
Both methods require that prior to carburizing the
process control specimen, sufficient stock be ma- control plan. Process control test coupons are not
chined from the surface to be carburized, in order intended to be used for final acceptance.
to remove all material with non--uniform surface
The properties of a process control coupon may be
chemistry. correlated by experience to the properties of the
Surface temper -- Per ANSI/AGMA 2007--B92 or finished gearing with regard to hardness and case
ISO 14104. depth. The process control test coupon
microstructure may be correlated to the condition of
Test coupons -- Microstructure, microhardness and the finished gear. The method of correlation should
core hardness characteristics may be determined be documented.
from either actual parts or test coupons. See 4.2 for
the specific type of test coupon (process control or Process control test coupons may be used to
representative). determine surface carbon concentration, carbon
penetration, carbon gradients, nitride depth, white
Ultrasonic inspection -- Ultrasonic inspection is layer thickness, intergranular oxidation depth, and
recommended for large parts to detect flaws before process repeatability. Shim stock is often used to
incurring the expense of machining. When ultrason- monitor atmospheric carbon potential. Variations
ic inspection is specified, the following guidelines from expected process control limits are used as
shall apply: indicators of unacceptable heat treat process varia-
-- For wrought products the straight beam pro- tions. As long as the process control test coupons
cedures described in ASTM A388 shall apply. Ei- are within expected control limits, the parts being
ther the flat bottom hole or back reflection method heat treated should have the expected metallurgical
may be used. properties.

The sensitivity for the flat bottom hole method The process control test coupon for carburize and
shall utilize standard test blocks per ASTM E428 hardening should have minimum dimensions of 5/8
with the reflector size as specified in tables 1 inch (16 mm) diameter by 2 inches (50 mm) long and
through 4 of this information sheet. The metal test is suitable for gearing 4.5 normal diametral pitch (5.6
distance for the blocks shall be 4.000 inches module) and finer. A 1 inch (25 mm) diameter by 2
(101.6 mm). This sensitivity shall be used when inches (50 mm) long coupon may be used for
radially scanning the portion of the wrought mate- coarser pitch (module) carburized gearing to 1.5
rial that will comprise the tooth area. The tooth normal diametral pitch (17 mm module). The size of
area includes only those portions of the gearing the coupon for coarser than 1.5 normal diametral
material where the teeth will be located to a depth pitch (17 module) gearing should be agreed upon,
below the finished tooth tips of at least 1.5 times and should approximate the inscribed diameter at
the tooth height. The balance of the part may be mid height of the tooth cross section. The coupon
scanned using a distance amplitude correction length should be a minimum of 2 times the diameter.
curve (DAC) whose construction is detailed in Test disks or plates may be used whose minimum
ASTM A388. thickness is 70 percent of the appropriate test bar
diameter. The minimum inscribed diameter on a test
-- For cast products the straight beam proce- disc (or plate dimensions) should be three times its
dures described in ASTM A609 shall apply. The thickness.
back reflection method shall be used.
For determination of case hardness, case depth,
4.2 Test coupons and case microstructure, the process control test
4.2.1 Process control test coupons coupon should be examined on a section normal to
its axis and at least one diameter from the end of the
Process control test coupons are used to monitor test coupon. Case hardness is to be measured by a
various heat treatment process parameters, their microhardness method at a depth 0.002 to 0.004
variation, their interactions, and to verify that these inch (0.05 to 0.10 mm) below the surface. Any
parameters are maintained within their expected post--heat treat stock removal must be considered.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 13


AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

4.2.2 Representative test coupon ratings. Refer to the applicable gear rating
standards for specific gear ratings.
The representative test coupon shall be from the
same grade of alloy steel with similar hardenability Individual customers and manufacturers may have
as the production part, but need not necessarily be specific modifications to the metallurgical grade
from the same heat of steel. Representative test requirements or special material and processing
coupon proportions of a minimum diameter of 6 conditions that are not covered in these tables.
divided by the normal diametral pitch (6 times These modifications and special conditions are
module) but not less than 5/8 inch diameter (16 mm), permissible with mutual agreement.
and a minimum length 2 times its diameter, as used The following tables establish reasonable minimum
in ISO 6336--5, are recommended. A representative limits for each material and metallurgical character-
test coupon may contain a tooth form that will be istic that will allow gearing, which meet dimensional
used to verify the heat treat process. tolerances, to meet the minimum expectations of the
gear rating design standards. As individual gearing
With customer approval, representative test coupon designs increase in size and complexity of features,
proportions of a minimum diameter of 3 divided by they become more difficult to manufacture, heat
the normal diametral pitch (3 times module) but not treat, and inspect. This document, as a general rule,
less than 5/8 inch diameter (16 mm), and a minimum does not differentiate based on gearing size.
length 2 times its diameter, as used in ISO 6336--5, However, where necessary, specific notation is
are recommended. made to reflect the special processing methods,
A representative test coupon should have the same techniques and inspections required for large gear
heat treat condition prior to carburizing as the part(s) manufacturing.
represented. This coupon should remain with the All requirements for a metallurgical quality grade
part(s) represented throughout the entire heat treat must be met in order to use the stress value, from the
process, with the possible exception of heat AGMA rating standard, for that grade. This can be
treatments prior to carburizing. accomplished by specifically certifying each require-
ment where necessary, or by establishing practices
The representative test coupon, when positioned in
and procedures to obtain the requirements on a
a heat treat load in the same general area but
production basis. It is not the intent of this document
separate from the piece part, is intended to represent
that all requirements for metallurgical quality grade
the metallurgy of the heat treated tooth section. The
be certified, but that practices and procedures be
microstructure at the center of the minimum size established for their compliance on a production
representative test coupon approximates the core basis. Intermediate values are not classified since
microstructure of the tooth section. the effect of deviations from the quality standards
cannot be evaluated easily. Specific sampling plans
and test methods need to be addressed by either the
manufacturer, the customer, or both.
5 Metallurgical requirements
The various characteristics are listed in the order in
which that characteristic is typically evaluated during
The metallurgical characteristics identified in the the manufacturing sequence. Each individual
tables of this clause are intended to be used for all characteristic has the same item number in tables 1,
steel gearing. Metallurgical characteristics defined 2, 3 and 4 whenever it is used, regardless of which
in the tables of this clause are intended to assure the table it appears. Some characteristics are only
quality of the finished gear teeth.
applicable to specific heat treat methods. Therefore,
Individual AGMA rating standards may have specific some item numbers are not used in some tables.
modifications to the metallurgical characteristics Characteristics that are typically evaluated at the
grading; but the intent is to formalize the assump- same time are grouped by having the same number
tions and definitions on which the various AGMA before the decimal point, and modified with different
standards are based. These characteristics should numbers after the decimal point for the individual
be compatible, wherever possible, with ISO 6336--5. characteristics evaluated at that time.

Users of this document must be aware that the 5.1 Through hardened gearing
Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 gearing produced by The major metallurgical characteristics that affect
different heat treatment processes have different through hardened gearing performance are shown

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

in table 1. The minimum acceptable requirements be met to qualify for the stress number associated
for each factor for metallurgical quality Grades 1 and with that metallurgical quality grade.
2 are specified. All criteria in any given grade must

Table 1 -- Metallurgical characteristics for through hardened gearing


Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2
1 Material chemistry Not specified or Test report only. Medium carbon alloy steel.
verified. 0.025% maximum sulfur.
2 Grain size Verification not Predominantly 5 or finer. Test report only.
required.
3 Hardenability Not specified. A minimum hardenability which is appropriate for part size and
quench severity should be specified.
4 Non--metallic inclusions Not specified. Wrought gearing
(cleanliness, steelmaking) 3) Capable of meeting (certification not required)
SAE/AMS 2301, ASTM A866 or SAE J422 S2--O2
Cast gears
Only permissible if primarily round (Type 1) sulfide inclusions.
5.1 Material form Forgings per either ASTM A290 or ASTM A291
Bar stock per ASTM A29, ASTM A304 or ISO 683--1
Castings per ASTM A148
Tubing per ASTM A519
5.2 Material reduction ratio Notl specified. -- At least 7 to 1 for strand or continuous cast
(wrought only) -- At least 3 to 1 for ingot cast4) 5)
6 Heat treatment Not specified. Quench and temper
900F (480C) minimum temper.
7 Mechanical properties after Hardness testing is required. Other mechanical testing is required only if specified.
heat treatment6)
8 Microstructure3) Not specified. Sound metallurgical practice dictates that the microstructure require-
ments in the tooth area should be predominantly tempered martensite
with limited upper transformation products (ferrite, upper bainite and fine
pearlite). The microstructure shall be free of blocky ferrite (due to incom-
plete austenization) with the following limits for non--martensitic upper
transformation products:
Controlling section size, Non--martensitic structures,
inch maximum
at least less than
---- 5 5%
5 10 10%
10 15 20%
15 ---- Hardness must be obtained at
roots with 900F minimum temper

Controlling section size, Non--martensitic structures,


mm maximum
at least less than
---- 125 5%
125 250 10%
250 375 20%
375 ---- Hardness must be obtained at
roots with 480C minimum temper
9 Ultrasonic inspection3) 5)
Wrought material. Inspection recommended to the following limits:
Either method is acceptable.
-- Flat bottom hole (FBH) Not specified. -- No indications giving a signal response greater than an 8/64 inch (3.18
technique mm) reference standard.
-- No indications giving a signal response greater than 50% of the same
reference standard if accompanied by a 50% loss of back reflection.
-- No indications which are continuous over an area twice the diameter
of the search unit.
(continued)

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AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 1 (concluded)

Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2


9 (continued)
-- Back reflection technique Not specified. -- No indications giving a signal response greater than 15% of back
reflection.
-- No multiple indications that lower the amplitude of the first back
reflection by more than 40%.
-- No traveling indications whose amplitude is greater than 10% of back
reflection and length is greater than 0.75 inch (19 mm).
Castings
-- Back reflection technique Not specified. -- ASTM A609 Level 1 from outside surface to 1.5 times tooth height be-
low finished tooth tips.
-- ASTM A609 Level 2 greater than 1.5 times tooth height below finished
tooth tips.
16 Surface microstructure Should meet the following surface related characteristic:
considering subsequent stock
removal
16.3 Decarburization. Any of the fol-
lowing methods are acceptable
-- Method 1. File testing. Not applicable. Not applicable.
-- Method 2. Reduction of Not specified. Maximum 2 HRC points or equivalent by conversion.
surface hardness by two load
method.6)
-- Method 3. Metallographic Not specified. No total or partial decarburization apparent on the finished gear tooth.
evaluation.
21 Surface cracks7) 8) Cracks, bursts, seams and laps are not permissible in functional areas of finished gearing.
22 Magnetic particle inspection of Inspection recommended to the following limits:
finished gearing5) 7) 8) 9)
-- Below the pitch line Not specified. No indications.
-- Above the pitch line
Normal
diametral pitch Module
at less more at Indication, maximum
least than than most inch mm
---- 3 8 ---- 1/8 3.2
3 10 2.5 8 Not specified. 3/32 2.4
10 ---- ---- 2.5 1/16 1.6
23 Shot peening10) Shot peening per SAE/AMS--S--13165 may be used to increase surface residual compressive
stress.
NOTES:
1) See clause 3 for definitions and clause 4 for test methods.
2) The metallurgical requirements assume homogeneous composition. In practice, microsegregation and banding occurs in steels.
This microsegregation can produce variations in microstructure and properties that need to be assessed.
3) The grade requirements for non--metallic inclusion, ultrasonic and microstructure characteristics apply only to those portions of the
gearing material where the teeth will be located to a depth below the finished tooth tip of at least 1.5 times the tooth height.
4) A 7 to 1 minimum reduction ratio is recommended. For large gearing where this reduction ratio is not physically obtainable, lesser
reduction ratios may be used down to a minimum of 3 to 1.
5) In--process ultrasonic and/or magnetic particle inspection of gearing blanks is recommended for large diameter parts to detect flaws
before incurring the expense of further machining.
6) See ASTM A370, ASTM E140 or ISO 6336--5, annex C for hardness conversion tables.
7) Removal of defects that exceed the stated limits is acceptable, provided the integrity of the gear is not compromised.
8) Cracks in non--functional areas require engineering disposition.
9) Limits: maximum of one indication per inch (25 mm) of face width with a maximum of five such indications on any one tooth flank.
Indications less than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) are not considered.
10) It is recommended that ANSI/AGMA 2004--B89 be reviewed to determine if the benefits of surface residual compressive stress
achieved by shot peening may be beneficial to the particular application. Shot peening of the flanks of gear teeth should be reviewed to
ensure that no detrimental effects are caused to the gear set.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

5.2 Carburize and hardened gearing minimum acceptable requirements for each factor
The major metallurgical characteristics that affect for metallurgical quality Grades 1, 2 and 3 are
carburize and hardened gearing performance are specified. All criteria in any given grade must be met
shown in table 2. Neither carbonitrided nor nitrocar- to qualify for the stress number associated with that
burized gearing is covered by this document. The metallurgical quality grade.

Table 2 -- Metallurgical characteristics for carburize and hardened gearing

Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3


1 Material chemistry Specified, but not Test report only. Alloy steel. Test report only. Alloy steel.
verified. 0.025% maximum sulfur.3) 0.015% maximum sulfur.3)
2 Grain size Predominantly 5 or finer. Test report only.
3 Hardenability Verification A minimum hardenability which is appropriate for part size and quench
not required. severity should be specified.
4 Non--metallic inclusions Not specified.
p Wrought gearing Wrought gearing
(cleanliness, steelmaking)3) 4) Alternative A: Alternative A:
-- Capable of meeting bearing qual- -- Certified ASTM A534
ity per ASTM A534
Alternative B, all of the following: Alternative B, all of the following:
-- The steel must be certified: -- The steel must be certified:
-- electric furnace practice -- electric furnace practice
-- ladle refined -- ladle refined
-- deoxidized -- deoxidized
-- vacuum degassed -- vacuum degassed
-- bottom poured ingot or strand -- bottom poured ingot
casted -- protected from reoxidation
-- protected from reoxidation during teeming or casting
during teeming or casting -- oxygen content of 20 ppm
-- capable of oxygen content of maximum
20 ppm maximum -- certified cleanliness by either
-- capable of cleanliness con- ASTM E45 or ISO 4967 Method B
firmation by either ASTM E45 or Plate II with 0.3 inch2 (200 mm2) in-
ISO 4967 Method B Plate II with 0.3 spection area. Acceptable if does
inch2 (200 mm2) inspection area. not exceed:
Acceptable if does not exceed:
Type Fine Thick Type Fine Thick
A (sulfide) 3.0 3.0 A (sulfide) 2.5 1.5
B (alumina) 2.5 1.5 B (alumina) 2.0 1.0
C (silicate) 2.5 1.5 C (silicate) 0.5 0.5
D (globular oxide) 2.0 1.5 D (globular oxide) 1.0 1.0
Alternative C: Alternative C:
Capable of meeting SAE/AMS Certified SAE/AMS 2300 or
2301 or SAE J422, S2--O2 SAE/AMS 2304.
Alternative D:5)
Magnetic particle inspection of fin-
ished gearing to the requirements
of Item 22, Grade 3.
Cast gears Cast gears
Only permissible if primarily round Not permitted.
(Type 1) sulfide inclusions.
5.1 Material form Forgings per ASTM A837 and either ASTM A290 or ASTM A291
Bar stock per ASTM A29, ASTM A304 or ISO 683--11
Tubing per ASTM A519
Castings per ASTM A148. Castings not permitted.
5.2 Material reduction ratio Not specified. -- At least 7 to 1 for strand or continuous cast
(wrought only) -- At least 3 to 1 for ingot cast 6) 7)
(continued)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 17


AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 2 (continued)
Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
9 Ultrasonic inspection4) 7)
Wrought material. Inspection recommended to the Inspection required to the following
Either method is acceptable. following limits: limits:
-- Flat bottom hole (FBH) Not specified. -- No indications giving a signal re- -- No indications giving a signal re-
technique sponse greater than an 8/64 inch sponse greater than a 5/64 inch
(3.18 mm) reference standard. (1.98 mm) reference standard.
-- No indications giving a signal -- No indications giving a signal re-
response greater than 50% of the sponse greater than 50% of the ref-
reference standard if accompanied erence standard if accompanied by
by a 50% loss of back reflection. a 50% loss of back reflection.
-- No indications which are -- No indications which are continu-
continuous over an area twice the ous over an area twice the diameter
diameter of the search unit. of the search unit.
-- Back reflection technique Not specified. -- No indications giving a signal re- -- No indications giving a signal re-
sponse greater than 15% of back sponse greater than 10% of back
reflection. reflection.
-- No multiple indications that lower -- No multiple indications that lower
the amplitude of the first back re- the amplitude of the first back re-
flection by more than 40%. flection by more than 20%.
-- No traveling indications whose -- No traveling indications whose
amplitude is greater than 10% of amplitude is greater than 10% of
back reflection and length is great- back reflection and length is great-
er than 0.75 inch (19 mm). er than 0.50 inch (13 mm).
Castings
-- Back reflection technique Not specified. -- ASTM A609 Level 1 from outside
surface to 1.5 times tooth height
below finished tooth tips.
-- ASTM A609 Level 2 greater than
1.5 times tooth height below fin-
ished tooth tips.
11 Tempering after case Recommended. Required.
hardening
12 Surface hardness in tooth area. Should meet the following characteristics:
Alternative method of inspec-
tion is case hardness.8) 9) 10)
-- Tooth flank 55--64 HRC or 58--64 HRC or equivalent 58--64 HRC or equivalent
equivalent
-- Tooth root
-- Normal diametral pitch 3 53 HRC minimum or 56 HRC minimum or equivalent 58 HRC minimum or equivalent
(module 8) and coarser equivalent
-- Normal diametral pitch 55 HRC minimum or 58 HRC minimum or equivalent 58 HRC minimum or equivalent
finer than 3 (module 8) equivalent
13 Case depth considering Should meet the following characteristics:
subsequent stock removal
13.1 Effective case depth in finished Minimum and maximum effective case depth requirements for the tooth should be specified in
condition 10) 11) accordance with the appropriate rating standard.
13.2 Effective case depth minimum Not specified. 50% of minimum specified effective 66% of minimum specified effective
at root radius, as determined by case at 1/2 tooth height case at 1/2 tooth height
bending strength rating.10) 11) recommended. recommended.
12)

14 Core hardness after case hard-


ening 12) 13)
-- For pitting resistance rating Not specified. 21 HRC minimum 21 HRC minimum
-- For bending strength rating 21 HRC minimum 25 HRC minimum 30 HRC minimum14)

(continued)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

Table 2 (continued)
Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
15 Surface carbon (typical)15)
For up to 2.5% total nominal 0.60 -- 1.10%C 0.60 -- 1.10%C 0.60 -- 1.00%C
alloy content
2.5% to 3.5% total nominal 0.60 -- 1.10%C 0.60 -- 1.00%C 0.60 -- 1.00%C
alloy content
Over 3.5% total nominal alloy 0.60 -- 1.10%C 0.65 -- 0.95%C 0.65 -- 0.95%C
content
16 Surface microstructure consid- The first 0.002 -- 0.003 inch (0.05 -- 0.08 mm) of case microstructure in the tooth area should
ering subsequent stock remov- meet the surface hardness requirement of the specific grade and also meet the following sur-
al 12) 16) face related characteristics and the requirements of Item 17:
16.1 Intergranular oxidation (IGO) Not specified.
(see figure 9)
Minimum specified effective
case depth
inch (mm)
at less at less Maximum allowable depth Maximum allowable depth
least than least than inch (mm) inch (mm)
---- 0.030 ---- (0.75) 0.0007 (17) 0.0005 (12)
0.030 0.060 (0.75) (1.50) 0.0010 (25) 0.0008 (20)
0.060 0.090 (1.50) (2.25) 0.0015 (38) 0.0008 (20)
0.090 0.120 (2.25) (3.00) 0.0020 (50) 0.0010 (25)
0.120 ---- (3.00) ---- 0.0025 (60) 0.0012 (30)
16.2 Non--martensitic transforma- Not specified.
tion products (see figure 10)17)
Minimum specified effective
case depth
inch (mm)
at less at less Maximum allowable depth Maximum allowable depth
least than least than inch (mm) inch (mm)
---- 0.030 ---- (0.75) 0.0007 (17) 0.0005 (12)
0.030 0.060 (0.75) (1.50) 0.0010 (25) 0.0008 (20)
0.060 0.090 (1.50) (2.25) 0.0015 (38) 0.0008 (20)
0.090 0.120 (2.25) (3.00) 0.0020 (50) 0.0010 (25)
0.120 ---- (3.00) ---- 0.0025 (60) 0.0012 (30)
16.3 Decarburization. Any of the
following methods are
acceptable.
-- Method 1. File testing. Not specified. Gear tooth surfaces must be file hard to the minimum surface hardness.
-- Method 2. Reduction of sur- Not specified. Maximum 3 HRC points or equiva- Maximum 1.5 HRC points or equiv-
face hardness by two load lent below maximum measured alent below maximum measured
method or reduction of case hardness by conversion, but hardness by conversion, but
hardness.10) measuring at least 58 HRC or measuring at least 58 HRC or
equivalent by conversion in the equivalent by conversion in the
finished state. finished state.
-- Method 3. Metallographic Not specified. No partial decarburization appar- No partial decarburization appar-
evaluation. ent on active tooth profile. No fer- ent on the gear tooth. No ferrite (to-
rite (total decarburization) is per- tal decarburization) is permissible
Minimum specified effective missible in the case microstructure in the case microstructure of the
case depth of the gear tooth. gear tooth.
inch (mm)
at less at less Maximum allowable depth in root
least than least than inch (mm)
---- 0.030 ---- (0.75) 0.0007 (17)
0.030 0.060 (0.75) (1.50) 0.0010 (25)
0.060 0.090 (1.50) (2.25) 0.0015 (38)
0.090 0.120 (2.25) (3.00) 0.0020 (50)
0.120 ---- (3.00) ---- 0.0025 (60)
17 Case microstructure consider- The microstructure of the first 20% of the minimum specified effective case depth should be pre-
ing subsequent stock removal, dominantly tempered martensite. Additional requirements for the case microstructure are given
disregarding corner effects 12) in Item 16 and the following case related characteristics:
(continued)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 19


AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 2 (continued)

Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3


17.1 Carbide precipitation in the Continuous carbide Semi--continuous carbide network Discontinuous carbides per figure
case. network per figure 1 per figure 2 is not acceptable, but 3 are not acceptable, but dispersed
is not acceptable, discontinuous carbides per figure 3 carbides per figure 4 are accept-
but semi--continu- are acceptable. Maximum accept- able.
ous carbide network able length of any carbide is 0.0008
per figure 2 is inch (0.02 mm).
acceptable.
17.2 Retained austenite in the Not specified. Retained austenite 30% maximum determined metallographically by
case.9) comparison with figure 13. Rejection of piece parts shall only be based
on case hardness. The minimum microhardness at 0.004 inch (0.1 mm)
or through the area of highest retained austenite shall be 58 HRC (690
HK500).10) 16)
17.3 Microstructure of the case to a Not specified. Primarily tempered martensite with Primarily tempered martensite with
depth of 0.010 inch (0.25 mm) Untempered mar- 5% maximum non--martensitic only trace non--martensitic struc-
or the first 20% of the minimum tensite is accept- structures, carbide precipitation tures permissible, carbide precipi-
specified effective case depth, able. per Item 17.1, retained austenite tation per Item 17.1, retained aus-
whichever is smaller, along the per Item 17.2, and other surface mi- tenite per Item 17.2, and other sur-
flank (for pitting resistance crostructures as defined under face microstructures as defined un-
rating). 18) Items 16.1 through 16.3. der Items 16.1 through 16.3.
17.4 Microstructure of the case from Untempered mar-
a depth of 0.010 inch (0.25 mm) tensite is accept-
or the first 20% of the minimum able.
specified effective case depth,
whichever is smaller, to a depth
equal to 40% of the minimum
specified effective case depth
along the flank (for pitting
resistance rating). 18)
-- Normal diametral pitch 3 Not specified. Not specified. Not specified.
(module 8) and coarser.
-- Normal diametral pitch finer Not specified. 5% maximum non--martensitic Only trace non--martensitic
than 3 (module 8). structures. structures.
17.5 Microstructure of the case to a Not specified. Un- Primarily tempered martensite with Primarily tempered martensite with
depth of 0.010 inch (0.25 mm) tempered marten- 10% maximum non--martensitic 5% maximum non--martensitic
or the first 20% of the minimum site is acceptable. structures, carbide precipitation structures, carbide precipitation
specified effective case depth, per Item 17.1, retained austenite per Item 17.1, retained austenite
whichever is smaller, at the root per Item 17.2, and other surface mi- per Item 17.2, and other surface mi-
fillet (for bending strength crostructures as defined under crostructures as defined under
rating). 18) Items 16.1 through 16.3. Items 16.1 through 16.3.
17.6 Microstructure of the case from Untempered mar-
a depth of 0.010 inch (0.25 mm) tensite is accept-
or the first 20% of the minimum able.
specified effective case depth,
whichever is smaller, to a depth
equal to 40% of the minimum
specified effective case depth
at the root fillet (for bending
strength rating). 18)
-- Normal diametral pitch 3 Not specified. Not specified. Not specified.
(module 8) and coarser.
-- Normal diametral pitch finer Not specified. 10% maximum non--martensitic 5% maximum non--martensitic
than 3 (module 8). structures. structures.
17.7 Microcracks in case (cracks Not specified. 10 maximum per 0.0001 in2 (0.064
across more than one platelet) mm2) field. 9) 19)
(continued)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

Table 2 (continued)

Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3


18 Core microstructure4) 12) Not specified. Sound metallurgical practice dictates that the core microstructure re-
quirements are maintained in the tooth area to a depth of twice the mini-
mum specified effective case depth or 0.100 inch (2.5 mm), whichever
is less, below the minimum specified effective case depth. The micro-
structure in this zone should be predominantly tempered martensite.
This microstructure zone should be free of blocky ferrite, pearlite, and
measurable bainite. Below this zone the core microstructure should be
free of blocky ferrite and be primarily tempered martensite with some
acicular ferrite and bainite permissible.
20 Surface temper etch inspection Not specified. FB2, which allows light tempering FB1, which allows light tempering
of ground teeth on 25% of functional area. on 10% of functional area.
21 Surface cracks20) Cracks, bursts, seams and laps are not permissible in Cracks, bursts, seams and laps are
functional areas of finished gearing.21) not permissible in any area of fin-
ished gearing.
22 Magnetic particle inspection of Inspection recommended to the Inspection required to the following
finished gearing 7) 20) 21) 22) following limits: limits:
-- Below the pitch line Not specified. No indications. No indications.
-- Above the pitch line
Normal
diametral pitch Module
at less more at Indication, maximum Indication, maximum
least than than most inch mm inch mm
---- 3 8 -- -- Not specified. 1/8 3.2 3/32 2.4
3 10 2.5 8 3/32 2.4 1/16 1.6
10 ---- -- -- 2.5 1/16 1.6 1/32 0.8
23 Shot peening 23) Shot peening per SAE/AMS--S--13165 may be used to increase surface residual compressive
stress.
NOTES:
1) See clause 3 for definitions and clause 4 for test methods.
2) The metallurgical requirements assume homogeneous composition. In practice, microsegregation and banding occurs in steels.
This microsegregation can produce variations in microstructure and properties that need to be assessed.
3) Intentional additions of calcium or calcium alloys for deoxidation or inclusion and shape control are not permitted unless specifically
approved by the purchaser. The use of lime or fluorspar, or both, in the steelmaking slag is acceptable.
4) The grade requirements for non--metallic inclusion, ultrasonic, and microstructure characteristics apply only to those portions of the
gear material where the teeth will be located to a depth below the finished tooth tip of at least 1.5 times the tooth height.
5) Care should be exercised when using Alternative D because of the risk of rejection after the expense of further manufacturing pro-
cesses.
6) A 7 to 1 minimum reduction ratio is recommended. For large gearing where this reduction ratio is not physically obtainable, lesser
reduction ratios may be used down to a minimum of 3 to 1.
7) In--process ultrasonic and/or magnetic particle inspection of gearing blanks is recommended for large diameter parts to detect flaws
before incurring the expense of further machining.
8) Root hardness may be less than flank hardness, depending on the size of the gear and the quench process.
9) If cold treatment is performed, it is recommended that it be preceded by tempering at 300F (150C) minimum in order to minimize
formation of microcracks. Retempering is required after cold treatment. Cold treatment should not be used to transform large amounts of
retained austenite (e.g., 50%) to gain excessive improvements in hardness, even with prior tempering.
10) See ASTM A370, ASTM E140 or ISO 6336--5, annex C for hardness conversion tables.
11) When specifying minimum case depth, note that the optimum values for pitting resistance and bending strength capacity are not the
same. A maximum case depth is prescribed in order to minimize the risk of embrittlement in the tooth area, including the tips.
12) See clauses 3 and 4 for a discussion of test coupons.
13) Core hardness requirements for pitting resistance and bending strength are considered independently. The gear rating may be lim-
ited by either pitting resistance or bending strength for the selected metallurgical quality grade and its core hardness requirement.
14) Minimum hardness of 30 HRC for Grade 3 may be difficult to achieve on coarse pitch gearing. Due to the tooth section size of 3 normal
diametral pitch (8 module) gearing and coarser, the alternate (ISO) core hardness test location may be used provided documented test-
ing or experience is available.

(continued)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 21


AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 2 (concluded)
NOTES:
15) Optimum pitting resistance is best achieved at surface carbon levels above the eutectoid carbon for a given alloy chemistry.
16) If excessive, salvage may be possible by processes such as shot peening per Item 23 or by grinding provided the integrity of the
gearing is not compromised.
17) At maximum allowable depths the surface may not be file hard and may not have the expected residual stress profile.
18) Bainite, observable at 200X, that extends from the core microstructure into the case area is considered a ratable characteristic.
This bainite is the result of slower heat extraction rates due to part section size, mass of furnace load, marginal agitation, elevated
quenchant temperatures, and generally follows alloy segregation and material flow lines. The bainite that results in a fine pepper
structure at 400 -- 600X, but is still not resolvable at 800X, is considered nonratable (trace).
19) Maximum limit of microcracks (Item 17.5) for Grade 3 gearing may be difficult to achieve if cold treatment is used to transform the
retained austenite level to 30% maximum.
20) Removal of defects that exceed the stated limits is acceptable, provided the integrity of the gear is not compromised.
21) Cracks in nonfunctional areas require engineering disposition.
22) Limits: maximum of one indication per inch (25 mm) of face width with a maximum of five such indications on any one tooth flank.
Indications less than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) are not considered.
23) It is recommended that ANSI/AGMA 2004--B89 be reviewed to determine if the benefits of surface residual compressive stress
achieved by shot peening may be beneficial to the particular application. Shot peening of the flanks of gear teeth should be reviewed to
ensure that no detrimental effects are caused to the gear set.

5.3 Induction or flame hardened gearing Grades 1, 2 and 3 are specified. Grade 3 is restricted
The major metallurgical characteristics that affect to contour spin induction Type A (Contour) harden-
induction or flame hardened gearing performance ing only. All criteria in any given grade must be met to
are shown in table 3. The minimum acceptable qualify for the stress number associated with that
requirements for each factor for metallurgical quality metallurgical quality grade.

Table 3 -- Metallurgical characteristics for induction or flame hardened gearing


Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
Spin induction Type A
(Contour) only
1 Material chemistry Not specified or Test report only. Test report only.
verified. 0.025% maximum sulfur for 0.015% maximum sulfur for
wrought. wrought.
2 Grain size Predominantly 5 Predominantly 5 or finer. Test report only.
or finer. Verifica-
tion not required.
3 Hardenability Not specified. A minimum hardenability which is appropriate for part size and quench
severity should be specified.
4 Non--metallic inclusions Not specified. Wrought gearing Wrought gearing
(cleanliness, steelmaking) 3) Capable of meeting (certification Capable of meeting (certification
not required) SAE/AMS 2301, not required) SAE/AMS 2301,
ASTM A866 or SAE J422 S2--O2 ASTM A866 or SAE J422 S2--O2
Cast gears Cast gears
Only permissible if primarily Not permitted
round (Type 1) sulfide inclusions.
5.1 Material form Forgings per either ASTM A290 or ASTM A291
Bar stock per ASTM A29, ASTM A304 or ISO 683--1
Tubing per ASTM A519
Castings per ASTM A148. Castings not permitted.
5.2 Material reduction ratio Not specified. -- At least 7 to 1 for strand or continuous cast
(wrought only) -- At least 3 to 1 for ingot cast4) 5)
6 Heat treatment prior to surface Not specified. Quench and temper
hardening 900F (480C) minimum temper.
(continued)

22 AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

Table 3 (continued)
Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
Spin induction Type A
(Contour) only
7 Mechanical properties prior to Not specified. 28 HRC minimum. Other mechani- 30 HRC minimum. Other mechani-
surface hardening. See also cal testing is required only if speci- cal testing is required only if speci-
Item 14. 6) 7) fied. fied.
8 Microstructure prior to surface Not specified. Sound metallurgical practice dictates that the core microstructure re-
hardening3) quirements are maintained in the tooth area to a depth twice the minimum
specified effective case depth or 0.100 inch (2.5 mm), whichever is less,
below the minimum specified effective case depth. The microstructure
in this zone should be predominantly tempered martensite that is free of
blocky ferrite, pearlite, and measurable bainite observable at 400--600X.
Below this zone the core microstructure should be primarily tempered
martensite and free of blocky ferrite with the following limits:
Controlling section size, Non--martensitic structures,
inch maximum
at least less than
---- 5 5%
5 10 10%
10 15 20%
15 ---- Hardness must be obtained at
roots with 900F minimum temper

Controlling section size, Non--martensitic structures,


mm maximum
at least less than
---- 125 5%
125 250 10%
250 375 20%
375 ---- Hardness must be obtained at
roots with 480C minimum temper
9 Ultrasonic inspection3) 5) Inspection recommended to the Inspection required to the following
Wrought material. following limits: limits:
Either method is acceptable.
-- Flat bottom hole (FBH) Not specified. -- No indications giving a signal re- -- No indications giving a signal re-
technique sponse greater than an 8/64 inch sponse greater than a 5/64 inch
(3.18 mm) reference standard. (1.98 mm) reference standard.
-- No indications giving a signal -- No indications giving a signal
response greater than 50% of the response greater than 50% of the
reference standard if accompanied reference standard if accompanied
by a 50% loss of back reflection. by a 50% loss of back reflection.
-- No indications which are -- No indications which are
continuous over an area twice the continuous over an area twice the
diameter of the search unit. diameter of the search unit.
-- Back reflection technique Not specified. -- No indications giving a signal re- -- No indications giving a signal re-
sponse greater than 15% of back sponse greater than 10% of back
reflection. reflection.
-- No multiple indications that lower -- No multiple indications that lower
the amplitude of the first back re- the amplitude of the first back re-
flection by more than 40%. flection by more than 20%.
-- No traveling indications whose -- No traveling indications whose
amplitude is greater than 10% of amplitude is greater than 10% of
back reflection and length is great- back reflection and length is great-
er than 0.75 inch (19 mm). er than 0.50 inch (13 mm).
Castings
-- Back reflection technique Not specified. -- ASTM A609 Level 1 from outside
surface to 1.5 times tooth height
below finished tooth tips.
-- ASTM A609 Level 2 greater than
1.5 times tooth height below fin-
ished tooth tips.
(continued)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 23


AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 3 (continued)
Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
Spin induction Type A
(Contour) only
10 Overheating, especially at the Avoid surface temperatures that result in grain growth, incipient melting or unfavorable
tooth tips and end faces 8) residual stresses. Larger chamfers minimize this problem.
11 Tempering after surface 1 hour minimum at temperature furnace temper is required.9)
hardening
12 Surface hardness on a repre- 50 HRC minimum or 54 HRC minimum as required by 58--64 HRC or equivalent
sentative surface. Alternative rating standard.
method of inspection is case
hardness. 7) 8)
13 Case depth considering subse- Should meet the following characteristics:
quent stock removal. Also see
Item 19. 7) 8) 10)
13.1 Effective case depth in finished Minimum and maximum effective case depth should be Minimum and maximum effective
condition specified in accordance with the rating standard. A case depth should be specified in
hardening pattern per figure 14 shall be specified. accordance with the rating stan-
dard. Figure 14 Type A contour
pattern only shall be specified.
13.2 Effective case depth minimum Not specified. 50% of minimum specified effective 100% of minimum specified effec-
at root radius, or on representa- case at 1/4 tooth height above the tive case at 1/4 tooth height above
tive sample with same root recommended. the root recommended, and 66% of
geometry and material as work minimum specified effective case
piece, as determined by at the root.
bending strength rating.
14 Base hardness after surface Not specified. 28 HRC minimum 30 HRC minimum
hardening.
Also see Item 7. 6) 7) 8) 10)
17 Case microstructure consider- The first 20% of the case microstructure should be predominantly tempered martensite. The
ing subsequent stock removal, microstructure should be free of undissolved pearlite observable at 100X and measurable
disregarding corner bainite observable at 400 -- 600X.
effects8) 10) 11)
The following case microstructure characteristics for each grade must be met:
17.3 Microstructure of case along Primarily fine Primarily fine acicular tempered Primarily fine acicular tempered
flank (for pitting resistance acicular marten- martensite. Non--martensitic struc- martensite with no non--martensitic
rating). site. tures anywhere in the case should structures.
not exceed 5%.
17.5 Microstructure at root (for Primarily fine Primarily fine acicular tempered Primarily fine acicular tempered
bending strength rating). acicular marten- martensite. Non--martensitic struc- martensite. Non--martensitic struc-
site. tures anywhere in the case should tures anywhere in the case should
not exceed 10%. not exceed 5%.
19 Heat affected zone. Also see Induction and flame hardening heat treatments have a characteristic heat affected zone that
Item 13. 8) 10) is caused by the surface heating process. This zone can have lower hardness and different
microstructure than the base material. The case depth specification should be established
to avoid gear failure which might initiate in this zone.
20 Surface temper etch inspection Not specified. FB2, which allows light tempering FB1, which allows light tempering
of ground teeth on 25% of functional area. on 10% of functional area.
21 Surface cracks 12) 13) Cracks, bursts, seams and laps are not permissible in functional areas of finished gearing.
22 Magnetic particle inspection of Inspection to the following limits:
finished gearing5) 12) 13) 14)
-- Below the pitch line Not specified. No indications. No indications.
-- Above the pitch line
Normal
diametral pitch Module
at less more at Indication, maximum Indication, maximum
least than than most inch mm inch mm
---- 3 8 -- -- Not specified. 1/8 3.2 3/32 2.4
3 10 2.5 8 3/32 2.4 1/16 1.6
10 ---- -- -- 2.5 1/16 1.6 1/32 0.8
(continued)

24 AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

Table 3 (concluded)
Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
Spin induction Type A
(Contour) only
23 Shot peening 15) Shot peening per SAE/AMS--S--13165 may be used to increase surface residual
compressive stress.
NOTES:
1) See clause 3 for definitions and clause 4 for test methods.
2) The metallurgical requirements assume homogeneous composition. In practice, microsegregation and banding occurs in steels.
This microsegregation can produce variations in microstructure and properties that need to be assessed.
3) The grade requirements for non--metallic inclusion, ultrasonic, and microstructure characteristics apply only to those portions of the
gear material where the teeth will be located to a depth below the finished tooth tip of at least 1.5 times the tooth height.
4) A 7 to 1 minimum reduction ratio is recommended. For large gearing where this reduction ratio is not physically obtainable, lesser
reduction ratios may be used down to a minimum of 3 to 1.
5) In--process ultrasonic and/or magnetic particle inspection of gearing blanks is recommended for large diameter parts to detect
flaws before incurring the expense of further machining.
6) Mechanical properties, including core hardness, may not be the same after induction or flame hardening as they were before induc-
tion or flame hardening.
7) See ASTM A370, ASTM E140 or ISO 6336--5, annex C for hardness conversion tables.
8) See clauses 3 and 4 for a discussion on test coupons.
9) Induction tempering is recommended for Grade 3 as a crack preventing stress relief heat treatment prior to furnace tempering.
10) The hardness pattern, depth, facilities and process method must be established, documented and verified to be repeatable. The
process equipment and methods must be sufficiently accurate to reproduce the specified results. Excessive case depth can generate
unfavorable residual stress conditions.
11) Microstructure analysis of induction hardened test specimens have shown indications of undissolved pearlite or ghost pearlite.
This is especially true with rapid (short) heating cycles. This ghost pearlite should not be present.
12) Removal of defects that exceed the stated limits is acceptable, provided the integrity of the gear is not compromised.
13) Cracks in non--functional areas require engineering disposition.
14) Limits: maximum of one indication per inch of face width with a maximum of five such indications on any one tooth flank. Indications
less than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) are not considered.
15) It is recommended that ANSI/AGMA 2004--B89 be reviewed to determine if the benefits of surface residual compressive stress
achieved by shot peening may be beneficial to the particular application. Shot peening of the flanks of gear teeth should be reviewed to
ensure that no detrimental effects are caused to the gear set.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 25


AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Spin hardening
Induction coil Induction coil
Inductor coil or flame head or flame head

Type A Type A Type B


(Contour) (Non--contour) Grades 1 and 2 only
Grades 1, 2 and 3 Grades 1 and 2 only

Flank hardening (tooth to tooth)


Inductor or flame head Inductor or flame head

Type B Type B
Grades 1 and 2 only Grades 1 and 2 only
Flank and root hardening (tooth to tooth)
Inductor or flame head

Top lands are not fully hardened

Type A
Grades 1 and 2 only
NOTE:
-- Type A indicates that flanks and roots are hardened for contour or non--contour patterns.
-- Only spin hardening Type A (Contour) is applicable to Grade 3.
-- Type B indicates that the flanks are hardened only to the form diameter.
-- For Type B the full active profile must be hardened with the transition zone not in the root fillet area.
Figure 14 -- Variations in hardening pattern obtainable on gear teeth with flame or induction
hardening

5.4 Nitrided gearing of which are covered by this document. The


minimum acceptable requirements for each factor
The major metallurgical characteristics that affect for metallurgical quality Grades 1, 2 and 3 are
nitrided gearing performance are shown in table 4. specified. All criteria in any given grade must be met
These characteristics are not necessarily applicable to qualify for the stress number associated with that
to carbonitrided or nitrocarburized gearing, neither metallurgical quality grade.

26 AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

Table 4 -- Metallurgical characteristics for nitrided gearing

Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3


1 Material chemistry3) Not specified or Test report only. Medium carbon Test report only. Medium carbon
verified. alloy steel. 0.025 % maximum alloy steel. 0.015 % maximum
sulfur . sulfur .
2 Grain size Predominantly 5 or finer. Test report only.
3 Hardenability Not specified. A minimum hardenability which is A minimum hardenability verified
appropriate for part size and by certification, calculation or test
quench severity should be speci- which is appropriate for part size
fied. and quench severity should be
specified.
4 Non--metallic inclusions Not specified. Wrought gearing Wrought gearing
(cleanliness, steelmaking) 4) Capable of meeting (certification Certified to SAE/AMS 2304,
not required) SAE/AMS 2301, ASTM A866 or SAE J422 S2--O2
ASTM A866 or SAE J422 S2--O2
Cast gears Cast gears
Not permitted. Not permitted.
5.1 Material form Forgings per either ASTM A290 or ASTM A291
Bar stock per ASTM A29, ASTM A304 or ISO 683--1
Tubing per ASTM A519
Castings not permitted.
5.2 Material reduction ratio Not specified. -- At least 7 to 1 strand or continuous cast
(wrought only) -- At least 3 to 1 ingot cast5) 6)
6 Heat treatment prior to case Quench and temper with tempering temperature 900F (480C) minimum and 50F (28C)
hardening minimum above the nitriding temperature.
7 Mechanical properties prior to Hardness testing is required. Other mechanical testing required only if specified.
case hardening. Also see Item
14.7) 8)
8 Microstructure prior to case Not specified. Sound metallurgical practice dictates that the core microstructure re-
hardening. Also see Item quirements are maintained in the tooth area to a depth twice the minimum
16.3.4) specified effective case depth or 0.100 inch (2.5 mm), whichever is less,
below the minimum specified effective case depth. The microstructure
in this zone should be predominantly tempered martensite. This micro-
structure should be free of blocky ferrite, pearlite, and measurable bainite
observable at 400--600X. Below this zone the core microstructure
should be free of blocky ferrite and be primarily tempered martensite with
the following limits:
Controlling section size, Non--martensitic structures,
inch maximum
at least less than
---- 5 5%
5 10 10%
10 15 20%
15 ---- Hardness must be obtained at
roots with 900F minimum temper

Controlling section size, Non--martensitic structures,


mm maximum
at least less than
---- 125 5%
125 250 10%
250 375 20%
375 ---- Hardness must be obtained at
roots with 480C minimum temper

(continued)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 27


AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 4 (continued)

Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3


9 Ultrasonic inspection4) 6)
Wrought material. Inspection recommended to the Inspection required to the following
Either method is acceptable. following limits: limits:
-- Flat bottom hole (FBH) Not specified. -- No indications giving a signal re- -- No indications giving a signal re-
technique sponse greater than an 8/64 inch sponse greater than a 5/64 inch
(3.18 mm) reference standard. (1.98 mm) reference standard.
-- No indications giving a signal -- No indications giving a signal
response greater than 50% of the response greater than 50% of the
reference standard if accompanied reference standard if accompanied
by a 50% loss of back reflection. by a 50% loss of back reflection.
-- No indications which are -- No indications which are
continuous over an area twice the continuous over an area twice the
diameter of the search unit. diameter of the search unit.
-- Back reflection technique Not specified. -- No indications giving a signal re- -- No indications giving a signal re-
sponse greater than 15% of back sponse greater than 10% of back
reflection. reflection.
-- No multiple indications that lower -- No multiple indications that lower
the amplitude of the first back re- the amplitude of the first back re-
flection by more than 40%. flection by more than 20%.
-- No traveling indications whose -- No traveling indications whose
amplitude is greater than 10% of amplitude is greater than 10% of
back reflection and length is great- back reflection and length is great-
er than 0.75 inch (19 mm). er than 0.50 inch (13 mm).
12 Surface hardness on a repre-
sentative surface. Alternative
method of inspection is case
hardness. 7)
-- Specialty nitriding steels9) Either 89 -- 93 HR15N, 650 -- 900 HV or 690 -- 900 HK
-- Through hardening steels Either 83 min HR15N, 450 min HV or 470 min HK
13 Case depth considering subse- Should meet either of the following characteristics:
quent stock removal10)
13.1 Effective case depth in finished Minimum effective case depth requirements for the tooth should be specified in accordance
condition with the appropriate rating standard.
13.3 Total case depth in finished Minimum total case depth requirements for the tooth should be specified in accordance with
condition the appropriate rating standard.
14 Core hardness after case hard- 28 HRC minimum 32 HRC minimum
ening. Also see item 7.7)
16 Surface microstructure The first 0.002 -- 0.003 inch (0.05 -- 0.08 mm) of case microstructure in the tooth area should
considering subsequent stock meet the surface hardness requirement of the specific grade and also meet the following sur-
removal 10) face related characteristics and the requirements of Item 17:
16.3 Decarburization. No decarburization permitted on surface to be nitrided.
-- Method 1. Not applicable.
-- Method 2. Reduction of hard- Not specified. Maximum 2 HRC points or equiva- No reduction in hardness below
ness by two load method. 7) lent below maximum measured maximum measured hardness by
hardness by conversion. conversion is permissible.
-- Method 3. Metallographic Not specified. No partial decarburization appar- No partial decarburization
evaluation. ent except in unground roots. apparent.
16.4 Epsilon () nitride (white layer)
along flank or in root
Minimum specified
effective case depth
inch (mm) M i
Maximum
at less at less allowable depth Maximum allowable depth Maximum allowable depth
least than least than inch (mm) inch (mm) inch (mm)
---- 0.015 ---- (0.37) 0.0010 (0.025) 0.0008 (0.019) 0.0005 (0.012)
0.015 ---- (0.37) ---- 0.0010 (0.025) 0.0008 (0.019) 0.0008 (0.019)

(continued)

28 AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

Table 4 (concluded)
Item Characteristic1) 2) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
17 Case microstructure consider- The first 20% of the case microstructure should be predominantly tempered martensite with
ing subsequent stock removal, interspersed nitride. The microstructure should be free of blocky ferrite, pearlite, and mea-
disregarding corner effects surable bainite.
20 Surface temper inspection The normal inspection methods, as defined in ANSI/AGMA 2007--B92 or ISO 14104, are not
applicable to nitrided gearing. Care must be taken when grinding nitrided surfaces to ensure
that no harmful surface conditions are produced in the grinding process.
21 Surface cracks 11) 12) Cracks, bursts, seams and laps are not permitted in Cracks, bursts, seams and laps are
functional areas of finished gearing. not permitted in any area of finished
gearing.
22 Magnetic particle inspection of Inspection recommended to the Inspection required to the
finished gearing 6) 11) 12) 13) following limits: following limits:
-- Below the pitch line Not specified. No indications. No indications.

-- Above the pitch line


Normal
diametral pitch Module
at less more at Indication, maximum Indication, maximum
least than than most inch mm inch mm
-- -- 3 8 -- -- Not specified. 1/8 3.2 3/32 2.4
3 10 2.5 8 3/32 2.4 1/16 1.6
10 -- -- -- -- 2.5 1/16 1.6 1/32 0.8
23 Shot peening Not recommended.
NOTES:
1) See clause 3 for definitions and clause 4 for test methods.
2) The metallurgical requirements assume homogeneous composition. In practice, microsegregation and banding occurs in steels.
This microsegregation can produce variations in microstructure and properties that need to be assessed.
3) Chemistry must include adequate nitridable alloying elements such as chromium, aluminum, vanadium or molybdenum.
4) The grade requirements for nonmetallic inclusion, ultrasonic and microstructure characteristics apply only to those portions of the
gear material where the teeth will be located to a depth below the finished tooth tip of at least 1.5 times the tooth height.
5) A 7 to 1 minimum reduction ratio is recommended. For large gearing where this reduction ratio is not physically obtainable, lesser
reduction ratios may be used down to a minimum of 3 to 1.
6) In--process ultrasonic and/or magnetic particle inspection of gearing blanks is recommended for large diameter parts to detect
flaws before incurring the expense of further machining.
7) See ASTM A370, ASTM E140 or ISO 6336--5, annex C for hardness conversion tables.
8) Mechanical properties including core hardness may not be the same after nitride hardening as they were before nitride hardening.
9) Specialty nitriding steels are typically alloyed with 1% aluminum to provide higher surface hardness after nitriding than normally
attained with nitrided through hardening steels.
10) For a discussion of test coupons see clauses 3 and 4.
11) Removal of defects that exceed the stated limits is acceptable, provided the integrity of the gear is not compromised.
12) Cracks in non--functional areas require engineering disposition.
13) Limits: maximum of one indication per inch (25 mm) of face width with a maximum of five such indications on any one tooth flank.
Indications less than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) are not considered.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 29


AGMA 923--B05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

(This page is intentionally left blank.)

30 AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 923--B05

Bibliography

The following documents are either referenced in the text of AGMA 923--B05, Metallurgical Specifications for
Steel Gearing, or indicated for additional information.

ANSI/AGMA 6033--B98, Materials for Marine Pro- Kern, Roy F. and Suess, Manfred E., Steel Selection
pulsion Gearing -- A guide for improving performance and profits,
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1979
ASM Handbook, Volume 1 -- Properties and selec-
tion: Irons, steels and high--performance alloys, Krauss, G., Steels: Heat Treatment and Processing
ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 1990 Principles, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio,
1996
ASM Handbook, Volume 4 -- Heat treating, ASM
International, Materials Park, Ohio, 1991 Parish, Geoffrey, Carburizing: Microstructures and
Properties, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio,
Boyer, Howard E., Ed., Hardness Testing, ASM
1999
International, Materials Park, Ohio, 1987
Practical Data for Metallurgists, 14th edition, The
Doane, D.V. and Semchyshen, M., Modern carbu-
Timken Company, Canton, Ohio, 1999
rized nickel alloy steel, Nickel Development Institute,
Toronto, 1990 Reed--Hill, R.E., Physical Metallurgy Principles, D.
Van Nostrand, New York, 1973
Heat Treaters Guide -- Practices and procedures for
irons and steels, ASM International, Materials Park, Totten, G.E., and Howes, M.A.H., Steel Heat Treat-
Ohio, 1995 ment Handbook, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 31


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