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Burglar Alarm Using LM 324

Princess Belle Marie David1, Justine Desamero 2, Genrev Kiel Hizon3


Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institue, University of the Philippines
Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines

Abstract the design project entitled Burglar Alarm Using LM 324 input of the operational amplifier. The output of the
aims to create a circuit prototype of an alarm. This prototype operational amplifier is connected to the oscillator. The output
alarms person whenever an object is blocking the Light Dependent of the oscillator is then connected to the speaker.
Resistor (LDR). To integrate this circuit, it needed the usage of
LDR, light emitting diode (LED), and LM 324 operational
amplifier.

I. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, there are lots of incidents happening related to
robbery and other crimes. And due to technological
developments, burglar alarm was created. A burglar alarm is a
system designed to detect intrusion unauthorized entry
into an area. Having an alarm makes a significant difference
for protection and security.
On our project, we use LM 324 OP AMP as voltage
comparator, two 4.5 V source, potentiometer, LEDs and LDR.
To simply summarize how it works, when an object is
Fig. 2. Oscillator Circuit
place between the light source and the LDR, the LDRs
resistance will go up and the variable voltage will be lower The second figure is the sub-circuit of the Burglar
than the fixed voltage. The output voltage is zero and no alarm Alarm. It functions as the oscillator of the general circuit. The
will be produced. When the object is removed and light shines value of the capacitor connected to pins 2 and 6 is 1F. R1
on the LDR, its resistance will go down to about 5k ohms. The and R2 are both 500k .
voltage between the potentiometer and GND will be higher
than 4.5 V and the output of the op amp will be 9 volts. This
will power the oscillator circuit and produce a blinking red B. Circuit operation
light and beeping sound.
It uses a voltage comparator (LM 324 OP AMP) that
compares the voltage from two voltage dividers. One is fixed
II. PROJECT DEVELOPMENT at 4.5 volts (9 volts equally divided between 2 5k resistors),
while the other is variable due to the potentiometer (sensitivity
A. Circuit description adjustment) and the LDR (sensor).
When an object is place between the light source and the
LDR, the LDRs resistance will go up and the variable voltage
will be lower than the fixed voltage. The output voltage is
zero and no alarm will be produced.
When the object is removed and light shines on the LDR,
its resistance will go down to about 5k ohms. The voltage
Fig. 1. Burglar Alarm Circuit between the potentiometer and GND will be higher than 4.5 V
and the output of the op amp will be 9 volts. This will power
The circuit contains a 9V battery, three resistors (two-5k the oscillator circuit and produce a beeping sound.
and a 470 ), a white LED, an LDR, a 100k potentiometer,
an LM 324 operational amplifier, a sub-circuit for the
oscillator and a speaker. C. Project Construction
The series connection of the two-5k resistors is We started constructing the project from the LM 324 op-
connected in parallel to the 9V battery. Connected between amp. Then we proceeded by connecting the other components
the two resistors is the negative input of the operational on the left of the op-amp. After that, we constructed the
amplifier. A series connection of a white LED and a 470 oscillator circuit with the output of the op-amp as the VCC of
resistor is also parallel to the source and to the series the 555 IC. The output of the 555 IC is connected to the alarm.
connection of the LDR and the 100k potentiometer. We added a switch as we packaged the project.
Connected between the LED and potentiometer is the positive
should be connected between the 100k potentiometer and
the LDR.

E. Division of Labour
Research everyone
Procurement Hizon
Circuit Construction everyone
Packaging David
Documentation everyone

Fig. 3. Actual Circuit of the Burglar Alarm F. Bill of Materials


For packaging purposes, we extended the wires of the LED, TABLE I
LDR and the switch. Quantity Material Price
1 White LED 5
1 100k Potentiometer 4
1 555 10
1 9V Battery 35
1 LDR 3
1 LM 324 15
1 Protoboard 169
1 Speaker 8
1 Switch 3
2 Solid Wire (1.5 meters each) 15
3 Capacitors 4.50
5 Resistors 2.50
TOTAL: 274

Fig. 4. The Project with its Packaging


III. PROJECT APPLICATIONS/ FUTURE WORK

D. Problems Encountered
The first problem our group encountered is that we do not
know what to connect on the pins of the LM 324 and 555. IV. CONCLUSION
We researched for the datasheet of the two and used the This project aims to see the use of devices like operational
datasheets as a guide in constructing the project. The next amplifier and LDR and their functionalities. With the
problem is that we already connected the ICs properly but knowledge of basic electric circuit theories, this circuit was
we cannot make the project work as it should. The speaker is constructed. Moreover, the project is useful to humans.
on whenever the object is blocking the light source and it is
off whenever the LDR is receiving light from the light source. REFERENCES
We asked help to our orgmates and they told us that the
negative input of the op-amp should be connected between [1] www.cicuiteasy.com
the 2-5k resistors and the positive input of the amplifier [2] http://www.electronics-
tutorials.ws/waveforms/555_oscillator.html