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BF gas nakon primarnog ienja u praini, gde se uklanja veina tekih estica, kree se ka fazi

sekundarnog ienja gasa (preraivai), to je sistem za mokro ienje. U ovoj fazi, BF gas oistimo
u kontaktu sa vodom i gotovo sve suspendirane estice su odvojene (vie od 99%). U nekoj postroji
ovaj gas se uzima u elektrostatike precipitatore. Obraeni gas nakon sekundarne faze ienja gasa
se uzima u BF gasnu mreu postrojenja i koristi se i za grejanje BF pei. Zagaena voda iz sistema
istovremeno sadri i visoke koncentracije suspendovanih estica u opsegu od 500 do 10,000 mg / l i
kao takav se alje na naslaganje ribnjaka / zagaivaa-zgunjivaa tamo gde se praina oporavlja i
ista voda sa vrha Pumpa se za ponovnu upotrebu. Scrubbers su dostupni u irokom spektru dizajna,
veliina i performansi. Predvieni su prvenstveno za sakupljanje estica.

Operacija ienja bez problema, ak i prilikom usitnjavanja usitne pei, preduslov je ekonominog
gvoa u visokoj pei. Dizajn ienja je optimizovan kako bi se obezbedila visoka pouzdanost i
superiorne performanse. Karakteristike potrebne tokom pranja su (i) mehanizmi vie uklanjanje
praine, (ii) minimalne ribanje potrebe za vodom, (iii) superiornu kontrolu top pritisak, (iv) dokazane
performanse i visoku efikasnost, (v) zahtjev mali prostor, (vi) Niska potronja energije i (vii) niska
emisija buke.

Veliina estica je jedan od najvanijih faktora koji utiu na efikasnost uklanjanja ienja. Vee lake
estice su mnogo lake uklonjene dok su estice submikrona najtee ukloniti.

to se tie mehanizma uklanjanja praine u vlanim ienje, odvajanje estica praine iz visoke pei
plina zahtijeva primjenu sile koja proizvodi diferencijal kretanja estica u odnosu na vrijeme gas i
dovoljno zadravanja estica da migriraju u Sakupljanje povrine.

Prskalice za ienje visokog pei rade na osnovnom aerodinamikom principu. Jednostavna analogija
aerodinamikog principa je da ako se projektuje da se kapljice vode velikih dimenzija sudaraju sa
esticama plinskog toka znatno manjim, onda su statistike anse za sudar vrlo male. Kako je veliina
kapljica vode svedena na skoro veliinu estica gasa, poveavaju se anse za sudar. Studije su
pokazale da povrinski film oko vodene kapljice ima priblinu debljinu od 1/200 njegovog prenika.
estica gasnog toka u letu tee kroz vodeni film oko kapljice bez sudara ako ima prenik manje od
1/200 prenika vodene kapljice. Ali, ako je prenik vodene kapi mnogo manji, onda e doi do sudara.
Ciljna estica od 10 mikrona zahteva vodene kapljice manje od 2000 mikrona (200 10) za adekvatno
sakupljanje. Efikasno ienje, prema tome, zahteva atomizovanje vode do finosti vezane za veliinu
estica kako bi se omoguio maksimalan kontakt sa esticama koje se trebaju zarobiti. Dalje,
verovatnoa kapljice vode koja udara estice praine proporcionalna je koncentraciji praine. Jedna
estica praine je manje verovatno da e udariti samo jednu kapu nego njihov roj. Izjednaavanja tih
faktora, skruberi su regulisane u pogledu koliine gasa da se trljala (mjereno po kap pritisak potoka
plin), i vode se prska (mjereno hidraulikim pritiskom na mlaznice). Visina i prenik komore za
ienje su takoe prilagoeni poznatim karakteristikama gasa.

Glavni razdvaja mehanizama u gasa ribanje visoka pe se sastoje od (i) inercijalni presretanje, (ii)
turbulentan (Brownovo) difuzija, i (iii) linija toka presretanje. Kada se mala estica suspendira u
tenosti, ona je podvrgnuta udarcima molekula tenosti. Za ultra-fine estice (koloida), trenutni
zamah prenositi estice varira sluajnim koja uzrokuje estice za kretanje na erotski put sada poznat
kao Brownovog gibanja. Inercijalno presretanje karakteriu razliite inercijalne sile razliitih masa.
Kada gas ispusta praina oko vodene kapljice vode, estice praine vee mase ne prave linije protoka
plinskog toka. Ove estice, koje pokreu inercijalna sila, udaraju i prodiru kapljice vode, a time se
uklanjaju iz plinskog toka. Turbulentna difuzija je veoma efikasna u uklanjanju manjih estica praine
iz gasa. Mala estica, posebno ona ispod 0,3 mikrometra u preniku, pokazuju znaajan Browni
pokret i ne kreu se ravnomerno du linije gasa. Ove estice difuzuju od plina do povrine kapljica
vode i sakupljaju se. Ovaj mehanizam za sakupljanje moe funkcionisati samo u istaima koji
promoviu turbulentan protok meavine gasne tenosti, rade sa niskim brzinom i obezbeuju
dovoljno retenciju. Presecanje toka protoka funkcionie samo ako gasna linija prolazi unutar jednog
radijusa estica sakupljajue kapljice vode. estica praine koja putuje du ove linije dotie vodenu
kapu i sakuplja se bez uticaja inercije ili turbulentne difuzije. Mehanizam za uklanjanje praine tokom
ienja vode BF gasa dat je na slici 2.

BF gas after primary cleaning in the dust catcher, where the majority of heavy particles are removed,
moves towards the secondary gas cleaning stage (scrubbers) which is the wet cleaning system. In
this stage, BF gas is cleaned in contact with water and almost all the suspended particles are
separated (more than 99 %). In some plant this gas is further taken into electrostatics precipitators.
Treated gas after secondary gas cleaning stage is taken into BF gas network of the plant and is used
also for BF stoves heating. Polluted water from the system at the same time contains high
concentrations of suspended particles in the range of and 500-10,000 mg/l and as such is sent to
settling ponds/ clarifier-thickener where the dust settles down and the clear water from the top is
pumped for reuse. Scrubbers are available in a wide range of designs, sizes, and performance
capabilities. They are to be designed primarily for collection of particles.

Trouble-free scrubber operation, even during rough furnace driving conditions, is a prerequisite to
economical iron production in the blast furnace. The design of the scrubber is to be optimized to
provide high reliability and superior performance. The characteristics needed from the scrubber are
(i) multiple dust removal mechanisms, (ii) minimum scrubbing water requirements, (iii) superior top
pressure control, (iv) proven performance and high efficiency, (v) low space requirement, (vi) low
energy consumption, and (vii) low noise emission.

Particle size is one of the most important factors affecting removal efficiency of the scrubber. Larger
particles are much more easily removed while submicron particles are the most difficult to remove.

With regards to the dust removal mechanism in the wet scrubber, the separation of dust particles
from the blast furnace gas requires the application of a force that produces differential motion of the
particle relative to the gas and sufficient retention time for the particle to migrate to the collecting
surface.

The scrubbers for the blast furnace gas cleaning operate on the basic aerodynamic principle. A simple
analogy of the aerodynamic principle is that if water droplets of very large size are projected to
collide with gas-stream particles of much smaller size then the statistical chances of collision are very
small. As the size of the water droplets is reduced to more nearly the size of the gas stream particles,
the chances of collision improve. Studies have shown that a surface film surrounding a water droplet
has an approximate thickness of 1/ 200 of its diameter. A gas stream particle in flight flows through
the streamline film around the droplet without collision if it is having a diameter less than 1/ 200 the
diameter of the water droplet. But if the water droplet diameter is much smaller, then collision
would occur. A 10 microns aim particle requires water droplets smaller than 2000 microns (20010)
for adequate collection. Efficient scrubbing, therefore, requires atomizing the water to a fineness
related to particle size to afford maximum contact with the particles to be captured. Further the
probability of a water droplet hitting the dust particles is proportional to the dust concentration. A
single dust particle is less likely to hit a single droplet than a swarm of them. To equalize these
factors, scrubbers are regulated as to the volume of gas to be scrubbed (measured by pressure drop
of the gas stream), and water to be sprayed (measured by hydraulic pressure at the spray nozzles).
The scrubbing chambers height and diameter are also tailored to the known characteristics of the
gas.

The principal separating mechanisms in the blast furnace gas scrubbing consist of (i) inertial
interception, (ii) turbulent (Brownian) diffusion, and (iii) flow line interception. When a small particle
is suspended in a fluid, it subjected to the impact the liquid molecules. For ultra-fine particles
(colloids), the instantaneous momentum imparted to the particle varies random which causes the
particle to move on an erotic path now known as Brownian motion. Inertial interception is
characterized by the different inertial forces of the varying masses. When the dust-laden gas flows
around the collecting water droplet, the dust particles of larger mass do not follow the flow lines of
the gas stream. These particles, propelled by the inertia force, strike and penetrate the water
droplet, and thus are removed from the gas stream. Turbulent diffusion is highly effective in
removing smaller dust particles from the gas stream. Small particles, particularly those below about
0.3 micrometer in diameter, exhibit considerable Brownian movement and do not move uniformly
along the gas streamline. These particles diffuse from the gas stream to the surface of the water
droplets and are collected. This collection mechanism can only function in scrubbers that promote
turbulent flow of a gas-liquid mixture, operate at low velocity and provide sufficient retenti time.
Flow-line interception only functions if the gas-streamline passes within one particle radius of the
collecting water droplet. The dust particle travelling along this streamline touches the water droplet
and is collected without the influence of inertia, or turbulent diffusion. Dust removal mechanisms
during water scrubbing of the BF gas are given in Fig 2.