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01.02.

05
,

:
- .-. , .

2016
2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1. KGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.4.3 . . . . . . 60
2.5 . . . 66
2.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.5.2 . 68
2.5.3 . . . . . . . . . 69
2.5.4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3

2.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . 78

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4




.
,
, ,
[1].

. .

,
.
,
.
(),
.

.
,
.

.
[2], ,
(, ,
). , ,
.

:
, ,
,
5

.
.



5060-x .
. .
. . [3],
( 2, ) - .

.


, .

6

,
.

. J. Geertsma F. de Flerk [4]
( 2, ),
,
[5]. ,
(KGD).

() ()
2 KGD ()
()


.
,

( )
( ).
4
( 3): c
( ) [68], c
( ) [9], c
() [8; 10; 11], c
() [10].
.

7


[12; 13].

3
KGD

3 ,
.
,
[9],
, . [9]
(near- ) (near-
),
. ,
, [12] [13].

, [14]
-.
,
,

[15]. ,
, [10],
(near-) (near-)
.

[15].


[1618]. -

8

8(1 2 )
[19],
2
, ,
.
1 ,
.
,
[15],
.
[15].

,
. ,
.
[4].
KGD
(Madyarova M. Propagation of a fluid-driven
penny-shaped fracture in a permeable elastic medium: masters thesis. / Univ. of
Minnesota. Minneapolis, 2003.) [10;20]. , ,
- - (.
3).
KGD
() .
,
, .

. KGD c [21] ,
,
, ,
.
, .

[22].
[23],
,
9

.
,
[24].
[25]
T. K. Perkins L. R. Kern, ,
, .
, .

- ( 4, a).
,
.
[26]. [27]

[5] ,
PKN (Perkins Kern Nordgren).

[28; 29].

() ()
4 KGD ()
()

[30]

. PKN

. ,

10

PKN ,
. ,
. ,
PKN
.
PKN
(P3D) [3133].
PKN ( 4, ),
,
. PKN
,

.
, ,
, , P3D
. ,
KGD [16], ,
-
. , [32;34].
[34] P3D
PKN-
.

.
P3D,
, ,
,

[30]. , ,
P3D .
Planar 3D (PL3D)
(
5). P3D, ,
Planar 3D
11

, [35].

, .
KGD,
, .


,
.
,
[36; 37].

KGD [36].

.

5 Planar 3D

. .
. ,
,

[38].

[39; 40].
. ,
12

,

( ,
) [41].
- [42].

PKN [39], KGD [43] P3D [44].
,
,
.
, .

, .
KGD, [4549] ,
,
.
KGD
.

[19].
[4547] ,
, .
[48]
.
[49]
. ,

.
,
.

[5054].
,
.
13

-
, .

. [52]
: ,
68 ;
.
[50],
,
. [51].
[53; 54]
: ,
.
,
.
,
- ,
.

. [55],
. . [5658].

, ,
, .

.
[59; 60].
: ,
, .

1970- [6163],
. ,
, .
14



, ,
(backstress). [64],

KGD, .
[65] PKN
, .
,
, .

[66].

[67].
[68],

.


.
(MULTIGRID) [69],
. ,
,
.

[70].

KGD .
,
. [71]
.
,
.
.
15


[72].

. ,

. ,

, ( ).

.
,
.
,
[16;17].

,
. ,
, :
,
.

, ,
[73]:
1. ,
, 60 % ,
[74].
2.
[75].
3. (/)
. ,
,

[65]. ,
.
16


. ,
[76; 77].


[78; 79]. [80]
,

, .

[81].
[77; 8284] ,

.
[75].
, [85; 86], ,
,
[75; 87; 88].

. (
) [89;90] (

) [91].


,
.

,

,
, [72].


17



.
:

KGD
,

;
KGD
;

;
,

,

;
,

;

; ,

;

,

.



. ,
[21],
18

,
[21; 37; 39].
KGD,
,
. ,
,

.


. ,
,

.


( ) [92],
.
,

,
.

,

.

- , ,
.

, .
,

.
19

,
,

. ,

, ,
, .
, ,
. ,
1 %
.



,
.


.
,
, ,
. ,

.


:

;

, ;
[93]
,
FreeFEM++ [94];
20


[95].
,


..
:


,
KGD
;
,

,
;

,
.

, ,

, , .

[93],
FreeFEM++ [94].

, .


. . . (, 2013),
. . .
(, 2013), 2- ,
21

1- 2-
(, 2014),
3- ,
. . .
(, 2014), 1- ,
. . .
(, 2015), 1- ,

. . . (, 2016),
-
(-,
2016),

. . . (, 2016),
:

: , 95-
. . (, 2014),
XI
(, 2015)
VIII
, (, 2015),
:
, 70- .-. . .
(, 2016),
Advanced Problems in Mechanics
(-, 2016).
8
, 3 , [9698], 4
[99102], 1 [103],
.

( -2133.2014.1,
-8146.2016.1).
22


,
:
, ,
,
,
. , ,
,
.

, ,
. 94 46
5 . 115 .

KGD
,
. 1.1 1.2
.
1.3
, 1.4

[7] .
1.5

.

,

. 2.1
.
2.2
,
. .
2.3
23

.


.
2.4
2.2 c .

.
, [92],
. 2.5

. ,


, .
2.6
.


, .
.

,
- .-. , .
, ,
,
.
24

1. KGD

1.1


2 ,
.
, 1.1.

.

, .

= /2
- .
,
: ,
; :
= (,), . ,
,
.

1.1 KGD
25

, ,
- .
,
. ,
, 2.
(, ),
(,) .
, ,
,
: (,) = (,) . ,
.
, :
( , , ,
), (
, ), (
) (
() (,)),
(,) .

1.2

,

[104]:


+ = . (1.1)

,
.
[32]:
26

2+1
2+1 (2 + 1)
= 1 , = . (1.2)

1/


.
1
2+1
(, ) = 1/

. (1.1) c
(1.2) .

[105]:


4
(,) = (,) (,; ) , = , (1.3)
1 2
0


2 2 + 2 2
(,; ) = ln . (1.4)


2 2 2 2

,
. (1.3)


(,) 2
(,) = . (1.5)
4 2 2
0

(1.1)
(1.3) -
.
, .
- ()

[19] .

27

1.2

:

(,)
= 2 . (1.6)
2 2
0

= , (1.7)

, .

( 1.2).
:

8 (
3/2
)
(,) = + ( ) . (1.8)
2

,
,
,
[106; 107]. , [3; 9; 12],
,
= : = 0.
, , = 0, (1.8)
. ,
( ) ,
= 2/(+2) [16]. ()1 .
,
28

1.3

()
8() () (,)
(,) = +
2 () 2 2 () 2
0
()

4 4 () ()
+ (,)(,; ()) = + (1.9)
2 () 2
0
() ()
4 4
+ (,)(,; ()) = (,)(,; ()).

0 0

, ,
: (,) = 0 ()
(. 1.3), . ,
(,) ,
.
(. . () < 6 )
(,
), -
.
(1.1) 0 < (),
() < < , = 0 = 0.

( ) 0
.
. ,
: () < .
29

(. . ( ) = ),
.
(1.9)
()
(1.1) - :

( )
4
(,) (,; ) (, ) = . (1.10)

0

(0) = (), ( ) = 0. (1.11)

, ,
[7].
,
(1.5).
(1.10)
. :

* *
= , = , = , = , = , = , = 2 .
*

* ,
( )1/

* = .

, (1.10)
,

1 ( )
4
(,) (,; 1) (, ) = ,

0 (1.12)
1
2+1

(, ) =
.

30

,
(1.11) = 1.0.

1.3

(1.11), (1.12) .
.
(1.12) () 0 1.

1 1 1
4
() (,)(,; 1) + (, ) =

0 0 0
(1.13)
1
() (0) , (0,) = 0 ().
0

, (1.13)
[0, ], > 0 (
).
(1.13) [0,1]
:

1 , = , = 1/, = 1, . . . ,, 0 = 0.

-
,



= () (), (1.14)
=0
31

()



(/) ( 1), 1 / ,

() = ( + 1) (/), / + 1, (1.15)



0, .

(1.14) (1.13) = ,
(1.13) :

p + p = c, p(0 ) = p0 , (1.16)

p = (0 (), . . . , ()) ; , c

1 1
4
= () () (,; 1) ,

0 0
1
= (, ) () () ,
0
1
= 0 .
0

0 - ; () = /.

,
.
(1.16)
( - ):

(p+1 p ) + p+1 = c p+1 = ( + )1 ( p + c),

p p - = , = 0,1, . . . , ,
= /.
( + ), , .
x
32

.
, ,
1. , (1.3), (
. [96]) ,
: min () 0 .
, 105 ,
.
( + )
.

min max

150 0.02 8.12 106 0.018038411 2.22 103


300 0.01 2.03 106 0.009032086 4.45 103
600 0.005 5.08 107 0.004519255 8.90 103
1200 0.0025 1.27 107 0.002260429 1.78 104
2400 0.00125 3.17 108 0.001130415 3.56 104

, p
.
,
.

1.4

,
(1.1) ( = 0)
(1.3),
[7].
33

:
1/2 +1
= 0 +2 ,

= +2 () ,
1/2 1
= 0 +2 () , (1.17)

= 0 () ,

= /() .

,

0 , ( = 0).
, , ,
(. [7]).

.
(1.13) (1.17) 0 = 100.
= 300
(1.17).
= 150, 300, 600 1200
1.4.

.

() ()
2 . 2

|| ||2
() =
||||2

= 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 = 150, 300, 600, 1200,


2400.
, ,
() = 1 + ( ). , , ,
34

0.45

1.5 0.4
0.35
1 0.3
0.25
0.5 0.2
0.15
0 0.1
0.05
-0.5 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 1.01 1.02 1.03

0.45 0.45
0.4 0.4
0.35 0.35
0.3 0.3
0.25 0.25
0.2 0.2
0.15 0.15
0.1 0.1
0.05 0.05
0 0
0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 1.01 1.02 1.03 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 1.01 1.02 1.03

1.4 ,
= 150, 300, 600, 1200, : ()
() () = 0.5; ()() () = 1 = 1.0,
0.7, 0.5. (1.17)

log(error) = log + ,
2,
. 1.5
. , ,
(1/2 ) .
35

2 :
2

= 0.5 = 0.7 =1

error error error

150 0.01035 0.00581 0.01002 0.01150 0.00962 0.02913


300 0.00517 0.00250 0.00501 0.00678 0.00481 0.02040
600 0.00259 0.00134 0.00250 0.00424 0.00240 0.01421

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

-7
-7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0

1.5
.

1.5

, ,
,
().
:
= 25 GPa, = 0.15;
= 0.1 ,
= 1.0;
36

0 = 103 2 /.
= 600,
1 . :

0 , 100 2 < 100 (2 + 1),
() = = 0,1,2.
0, 100 (2 + 1) < 100 2( + 1),

()
:
1
1
() = =1 (,) .
()
0

, (,)
(, ).
, :

(,) = (,),


(,), (,) > 0,
(,) =
0, (,) 0.
[32]

. ,

:
(1 )()
() = 1 .

pos (,)
0


. -,
,
. -,

37

,
, .
1.6
, = 0,
. ,
, ,
.
1.2 1

1.1 0.9
1 0.8
0.9
0.7
0.8
0.6
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.4

0.3 0.2

0.2 0.1
100 200 300 400 500 600

1.6 ( ) (
), = 0,

80

70

60

50

40

30
100 200 300 400 500 600

1.7

38

1.7.

, ( ) < , = 105 .
. ,


.
39

2.

2.1


, ( 2.1).
. KGD (.
1), ,
. [3; 4] ,
. ,

= /2 .
, ,
(x),
u(,x) (,x).
.

q = ( / ). , ,
, , .
, , ,
, .
,
, .
,
, 0 (,).
,
, 0
.

:
40

div = 0, = 0 + div u I +2 (u) I ,


( u ) (2.1)

= div .

(u)
2(u) = / + / (, = 1,2), , (x) (x)
, I .
= tr ,
[60]:
(0 )(1 )
= + , = , (2.2)

2
= + , 0 .
3

u = (1 , 2 ) = (, ) ,
(1 , 2 ) = (, ).

(2.1) = {(,) : || , 0 },
2.2.

2.1 2.2

= 0

: |x| =
= :

: = , n = , ( n) = . (2.3)

n s
;
41

.
, = e2 , . ,
, 0
, : 0 n| = .
= 0

= { () 6 6 (), = 0},

,

= { < < (), = 0} { () < < , = 0}.

(. [108]):


: = 0, = 0, = 0. (2.4)

(,) ,
:

: = , n n = + , s n = 0. (2.5)

,
.
,
.
[109] [110],
( 2.3),

, .

, - (),
.
[111]
( 2.4):
42


, 0 6 6 ,






( )

() = , 6 6 , (2.6)



0, > .


2.3 2.4


.
. ,
. ,

1
= , (2.7)
2
,
[112], .
, = 5 104 .
= 0 [92].
,

[113]:


= , (2.8)
1 2

.
43

,
:

3
+ = 2 , 2|=0 , = . (2.9)
12

,
. ,

.
:


= . (2.10)
=0

2 (2.9) ,
.

3
( )

= +2 . (2.11)
12 =0

( ),
,

3 3
( )
() 1
() = = , (2.12)
2 2 12 =0 12 =0+

2 ,
( ) , ()
, .
(2.11) [106].
, (2.10) (2.11)
(2.1).
,

[32].
44


0 :

u|=0 = u0 (,), |=0 = 0 (,), |=0 = 0 , = ,. (2.13)


. ,
0 ,
. [108]
:


u = u x, = , = 0 , = . (2.14)
2( + )
(2.14) (2.1)
(2.3)(2.5), (2.11) (2.12), :

: div = div 0 , = div u I +2 (u)


I, (2.15)

(
u )
: = div
, (2.16)

: = 0, n = 0, (2.17)

: = 0, = 0, = 0, (2.18)

: n n = (
+ ) n 0 n + , s n = 0, (2.19)
( 3 )


= + ,
3
: (2.20)
3 3
+ = ().
3 =0,=0+ 3 =0,=0

,
.
45

2.2

2.2.1

,
, .

,
( 2.5). ,
,
.
, ,
, : = = .
,
: 0 n = n. ,
2.1, ,
(2.15)(2.20):

: div = 0, = div u I +2 (u) I, (2.21)


( )

: div = 0, (2.22)

: lim = 0, lim n = 0, (2.23)


|| ||

: = 0, = 0, = 0, (2.24)

: n n = + ( ), s n = 0, (2.25)

3
( )

: + = 0. (2.26)
3

,
46

2.5

(. (2.20)),
.

2.2.2

, (, , ) ,

( = ), (2.21)(2.26)
:
= 1/3 (), = 1/3 (), = 2/3 (). (2.27)

(,) : = cos , = sin ,


= cos + sin , = sin + cos u
.

( )
2/3 2/3
11 = /3, 212 = 2 /3 , 22 = 2/3 ( + ),

( ( ) ( )
2/3 2/3
)
11 = 2 2 + /3 + , 12 = 2 /3 ,
( ( )
2/3
)
22 = 2 2/3 + + ( + 2) .


. (2.27) (2.21), (2.22)
, ,
47

2( + 4) /3 8( + 2)/9 + 2/3 = 0,

( + 2) + 2(2 + 5) /3 8 /9 = 0, (2.28)

+ 4/9 = 0.

(2.28) (2.24)

( 2( ) )
= cos . (2.29)
3
(2.28) ,
(2.24),
( ) ( ) ( )
0 = 1 + 4 cos 2( )/3 2 cos 4( )/3 ,
( ) ( ) ( ) (2.30)
0 = 1 2 + 5 sin 2( )/3 + 2 sin 4( )/3

1 , 2 .

( ) ( ) )
cos (2 + )/3 (2 + 3) sin (2 + /3
= , = . (2.31)
4( + 2) 4( + 2)

(2.28) (2.30) (2.31).


.
, , 2/3 .
, (2.23)
. (2.24) .
(2.25),
(2.26). ,

1
= , = .
=0, >0 =0 =0, >0 =0
48

(2.25)

22 |=0 + 2/3 (0) = 0 41 ( + )( + 2) 22 ( + 2)+


( ) (2.32)
+ ( 3) + 3( 2) = 0,

12 |=0 = 0 41 ( + )( + 2) + 42 ( + 2)+
(2.33)
+ ( + 3) = 0.
(2.26)

4 (0)3
(0) + (0) = 0
27
2 + 3
1 (2 + 5) 2 + = (12 )1/3 . (2.34)
4( + 2)

(2.32), (2.33), (2.34) 1 , 2



( )1/3
( 2) + (3 4)
1 = ,
18 ( + 2)( + (2 ))
()1/3
4 +
2 = , (2.35)
9 + (2 )
( )1/3
4 2( + )
= .
9 + (2 )
(2.35) .

2.2.3

= 2 |=0 = 35/6 22/3 ( )1/3 , (2.36)

, .
49


2/3 ,
,
, 1/3 [16].

. ,

- .
= 0

4/3
3 4 (0)3 25/3 ( + ) 2/3

2/3

= 2 = (0) = 1/6 0 .
3 =0 ,=0 9
=0 3 ( + (2 ))

(,) = (0,0)
2 2

2 2/3
= q e = () =
0 =0 0 3 =0
(2.37)
3 2/3
= = ,



=0

, ,
, . ,
,
.
(2.10)


= = 5/3 (0) = 5/3 . (2.38)
=0
3
,
[0 , + ) .
q = /
2.6. ,
,
.
50

2.6 2.7
,

, ,
2.7.
(2.29),
(2.37) (2.38) ,
.

1/3
(2/3)2/3
= . (2.39)
(1 + )(2(1 ) + (2 1))
, , ,
, ( 0 < 6 1/2). ,
,


* = (2.40)
4(1 )

, 0 < < 2/3.



, (2.36).
, .
,
51

(2.37) (2.38) .
,
.

2.3


, 2.1.
. [108] -
( )
= 1 (,),2 (,) (,),

2 | = 0, | = 0. (2.41)

(2.15) (2.16)
. (2.17)(2.20),


( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( )
div u div + 2 u :


( + + n 0 n )2 = 0, (2.42)


( )
+ + div u +

3


+ + ()(0,0) = 0. (2.43)
3


,
,
52

. ,
,
, = 0, > 0.

. ,
:

: > 0. (2.44)

(2.44),

1
[<0] 2 , (2.45)

(2.42). 1 , [<0]
{x : (x) < 0}.
, (2.42)

( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( )
div u div + 2 u :


1
( + + n 0 n )2 + [<0] 2 = 0, (2.46)

,
(2.19)

1
: n n = ( + ) + [<0] n 0 n + , s n = 0. (2.47)

0, (2.19)
| > 0, | = 0 .

[93; 114]. () =
inf () = sup . (2.43), (2.46)
|=0 >0 |=0 >0
{x : (x) > 0},
.
53

(2.43), (2.46)
, ,

. [92],
,
.

,
.
(2.43), (2.46)
- FreeFEM++ [94].
- P1-
.
+1
: , ,

; . :
= ( ,x), = 0 + .
: u0 = 0, 0 = 0.
.

2.4

2.4.1

, 2.3,

,

.
2.2
.
54


,
( 2.8):

= {(,) : |x| , 0}.

2.8

= 0.1
,
.
(2.21), (2.22).
, = { : |x| = }
= { : |x| = }
(2.29). ,
u. (2.24),
(2.26).
. ,
, .
.
,
, 2.3,
.

- FreeFEM++ [94].
55

: = 200 , = 0.8, = 0.3 ,


= 15 , = 0.18, = /((1 + )(1 2)), = /(2(1 + )).
- P1-.
,
/2 , /10.

3


max = max

100 565 9.13 103 9.56 102 4.90 103 1.93 102 1.08 102
200 2066 2.30 103 4.79 102 1.76 103 5.41 103 3.59 103
400 8026 6.00 104 2.45 102 3.25 104 1.40 103 8.71 104
800 31300 1.62 104 1.27 102 8.17 105 3.64 104 2.24 104
1600 31300 4.09 105 6.39 103 1.97 105 9.21 105 5.55 105


2
u . ,
, ,
max

= max . 3 ,

|| ||2
= .
|| ||2

.
.
2.9 .
1.4, ,
log ( ) = log +,
, 2.0.
56

2.9 = 0.8

2.4.2

,
.
,
. ,
,
:

0 n = n.

4.
,
. (2.2).
57

4 ,


105
. max
40
. max
40
17
0.2
120
1.25
0.2
1014 2
0.75
1.46 1011 1
10
0
103
101
2 103 2 /


FreeFEM++ [94], 2.10.

3 3
= , = = ,
400 800
max max
( ) ( )

= , = ,
20 20
( max (2.48)
+
)

= 4 ,

max max
( )
+
= , = =
20 240

,
.
58



= { < < max
, = 0} {max
< < , = 0},

max
max

.

2.10


= 800 21 , = 1, . . . ,5 .
,

2 :

|| /2 ||2
() = , (2.49)
||/2 ||2
, ,

= max , max
. 5,
(), () () = 10
, ,
.

( )
max () = max (), (), () 100 % (2.50)
59

5
= 10

max = max

800 4763 6.13 102 2.48 101 5.90 102 4.76 102 4.36 102
1600 15836 1.80 102 1.34 101 1.26 102 1.19 102 1.04 102
3200 61483 4.49 103 6.70 102 3.34 103 3.24 103 2.48 103
6400 237765 1.27 103 3.57 102 9.68 104 9.18 104 6.99 104
12800 954416 3.95 104 1.99 102
.

,
2.11.
6.2
t = 1.0
5.2
t = 10.0
t = 100.0
4.1 t = 900.0
max , %

3.1
2.1
1.1
0.0
0.04 0.07 0.13 0.25
h
2.11 2

, 0.13 ( = 1600)
2 % ,
.
60

2.4.3

, [9], [10] KGD



( )
( ).
:
c ,
c ,
c , c
. ,
, [92]

KGD.

,
[92].
,
, 4 2.4.2
= 45 ,
max
= max
= 15 ,
.
c

= = 104
.
= 3.7 .
= 1015 2 = 1016 2
14 20 , ,
. [92]
KGD
(near- [10]) (.
, 3) .
61

2.12 c ,
( 1, 2), [92] (
5, 6).
( 3, 4 7, 8)
.
( 2.13) ,
, (
2.14).
[92].
14.0
1
2 kr = 1016 2
,

11.7 3
4
9.3 5
6
7.0 7
8
4.7 kr = 1015 2
2.3

0.0
0 3 7 10 13 17 20
t,
2.12
c : = 1015 2 (1)
, (5) [92]; = 1016 2 (2) , (6) [92].
:
= 1015 2 (3) , (7) [92]; = 1016 2 (4)
, (8) [92]

,
= 0, (2.42)
(2.43). =
2.15.
2.16 [92] (),
,
c .
,
c .
= 5 = 5 1015 2
62

0.7 0.4

,
,
0.6 0.3 kr = 1015 2
kr = 1016 2
C&G, kr = 1015 2
0.5 0.3 C&G, kr = 1016 2

0.3 0.2

0.2 kr = 1015 2 0.1


kr = 1016 2
C&G, kr = 1015 2
0.1 C&G, kr = 1016 2 0.1

0.0 0.0
0 3 7 10 13 17 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
t, x,
2.13 2.14
, ,
= 10 c = 1015 2
= 1015 2 = 1016 2 , = 1016 2 ,
[92] (C&G)
[92] (C&G)
c c

3.0
. ,

2.5 = 0.75
=0
C&G, = 0.75
2.0 C&G, = 0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0 2 5 7 9 12 14
t,
2.15
c
( = 0.75) ( = 0.0) ,
[92] (C&G) = 1016 2

,
. =
,
63

= 0.02 .
, [5],
(near- [10]) (. ,
3), [92].
0.6 9.0
krx = 5 1015 2
krx = 1016 2
,

,
0.5 7.5
C&G, krx = 5 1015 2
C&G, krx = 1016 2
0.4 6.0

0.3 4.5

0.2 krx = 5 1015 2 3.0


krx = 1016 2
0.1 C&G, krx = 5 1015 2 1.5
C&G, krx = 1016 2
0.0 0.0
0 17 33 50 67 83 100 0 17 33 50 67 83 100
t, t,

2.16 (a), ,
() ( = 5 1015 2 )
( = 1016 2 ), [92]
(C&G) c

c
, :
= = 101 . = 1015 2 ,
= 3.7 . 2.17, 2.18
[92] ,
,
( = 0.75) ( = 0) .
( - [9]) [92]
. [92] ,
(. 2.17),
(. 2.18)
[115], [72]. , ,
.
64

2.5 10.0
,

,
2.1 8.3

1.7 6.7

1.3 5.0
= 0.0 = 0.0
= 0.75 = 0.75
0.8 C&G, = 0.0 3.3
C&G, = 0.0
C&G, = 0.75 C&G, = 0.75
0.4 1.7

0.0 0.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
t, t,

() ()
2.17 (), ,
() ( = 0.75)
( = 0) , [92] (C&G)
c

6.0
. ,

5.0 = 0.0
= 0.75
C&G, = 0.0
4.0 C&G, = 0.75

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
t,
2.18 ( = 0.75)
( = 0) , [92] (C&G)
c

c
: .
,
= 5 1012 2
= 0.00002 .
7.2 , = = 101 . 2.19, 2.20
,
65

, ,
( = 0.75) ( = 0) .
- [9] KGD.
-
(. 2.20). ,
(. 2.19)
.
4.0 18.0
= 0.75
,

= 0.75

,
3.3 15.0 = 0.0
= 0.0 C&G, = 0.75
C&G, = 0.75 C&G, = 0.0
2.7 C&G, = 0.0 12.0

2.0 9.0

1.3 6.0

0.7 3.0

0.0 0.0
0 33 67 100 133 167 200 0 33 67 100 133 167 200
t, t,

() ()
2.19 (), ,
() ( = 0.75)
( = 0) , [92] (C&G)
c

20.0
. ,

16.7 = 0.75
= 0.0
C&G, = 0.75
13.3 C&G, = 0.0

10.0

6.7

3.3

0.0
0 33 67 100 133 167 200
t,
2.20 ( = 0.75)
( = 0) , [92] (C&G)
c
66

2.5



.
,
4, .

2.5.1

,
(. (2.1)).
= 0 ,
,
. = 1
- .

( )
2.21.
,
(. 2.21, ), (.
2.21, ).
:
- -

.

.

,
(2.15) (2.16),
67

= 300 = 300
16.0 2.0
= 0.21

,
= 0.4 = 0.21
13.2 = 0.6 1.7 = 0.4
= 0.8 = 0.6
,

10.3 = 0.99 1.3 = 0.8


= 0.99
7.5 1.0

4.7 0.7

1.8 0.3

1.0 0.0
84 56 28 0 28 56 84 84 56 28 0 28 56 84
x, x,
() ()
2.21 () ()

= 300

. , = 0, = 0
, ,
= 0, = 0
.
,
: A) = 0.75, = 0.75 (
); ) = 0.75, = 0.0 ( ); ) = 0.0, = 0.75 (
); ) = 0.0, = 0.0 (). 2.22

( = 1014 2 )
( = 1.46 1011 1 ) = 300 .
,
. ,
.
2.23,
. ,
, .
68

= 300 = 300
14.0 2.5
) e = 0.75, f = 0.75

,
) e = 0.75, f = 0.0
13.0 2.1 ) e = 0.0, f = 0.75
) e = 0.0, f = 0.0
,

12.0 1.7

11.0 1.3

10.0 ) e = 0.75, f = 0.75 0.8


) e = 0.75, f = 0.0
9.0 ) e = 0.0, f = 0.75 0.4
) e = 0.0, f = 0.0
8.0 0.0
24 16 8 0 8 16 24 24 16 8 0 8 16 24
x, x,
(a) ()
2.22 () ()
,
= 300 . = 1014 2 ,
= 1.46 1011 1

() ()
2.23 = 0.21 ()
= 0.99 () = 300

2.5.2


, ) = 0, = 0.75 ) = = 0
2.22. ,
. (2.16),
69

= 0,

. ,

,
. = 0 .
2.22 ,
,
, ,
.
:
.

2.5.3


, ) = 0.75,
= 0 ) = = 0 2.22.
.
,
.
[72; 115].
,
. ,
,
, .

2.22, .
, ,
,
(. 2.22, ). ,
70

:
.

2.5.4


:
, ,
, . ) = 0.75,
= 0.75 ) = = 0 2.22, ,
20 % , .
. -,
- (
). ,
.
,
.

. ,
,
(. . 2.5.2). ,
,
. ,
( ),
.
, .
2.24,

() ().
,
71

,
.

() ()
2.24 ,
() () = 300 .
= 1014 2 , = 1.46 1011 1

= 300 = 300
12.0 2.5
,

11.3 2.1
,

10.7 1.7

10.0 1.3
) e = 0.75, f = 0.75
9.3 ) e = 0.75, f = 0.0 0.8 ) e = 0.75, f = 0.75
) e = 0.0, f = 0.75 ) e = 0.75, f = 0.0
8.7 ) e = 0.0, f = 0.0 0.4 ) e = 0.0, f = 0.75
) e = 0.0, f = 0.0
8.0 0.0
39 26 13 0 13 26 39 39 26 13 0 13 26 39
x, x,
() ()
2.25 () ()
,
= 300 . = 1015 2 ,
= 1.46 1011 1

,
= 1014 2

72

20 %.

, , 2.25, 2.26,
2.27.
= 300 = 300
14.0 2.5

,
) e = 0.75, f = 0.75
13.0 2.1
) e = 0.75, f = 0.0
,

) e = 0.0, f = 0.75
12.0 1.7 ) e = 0.0, f = 0.0

11.0 1.3

10.0 0.8
) e = 0.75, f = 0.75
) e = 0.75, f = 0.0
9.0 0.4
) e = 0.0, f = 0.75
) e = 0.0, f = 0.0
8.0 0.0
15 10 5 0 5 10 15 15 10 5 0 5 10 15
x, x,
() ()
2.26 () ()
,
= 300 . = 1014 2 ,
= 7.3 1011 1

= 300 = 300
12.0 2.5
,

11.3 2.1
,

10.7 1.7

10.0 1.3

9.3 ) e = 0.75, f = 0.75 0.8


) e = 0.75, f = 0.0 ) e = 0.75, f = 0.75
) e = 0.0, f = 0.75 ) e = 0.75, f = 0.0
8.7 ) e = 0.0, f = 0.0
0.4
) e = 0.0, f = 0.75
) e = 0.0, f = 0.0
8.0 0.0
36 24 12 0 12 24 36 36 24 12 0 12 24 36
x, x,
() ()
2.27 () ()
,
= 300 . = 1015 2 ,
= 7.3 1011 1
73

2.6

, 2.3,
.
,
.

2.6.1

, ,

.

(
):

, 6 0,
() =
(2.51)
, > 0.

4 = 150 ,
max
= 40 , max
= 73 .

= 10

: = 10.1, 10.2, 10.4, 10.6 10.8 .
2.28,
() ()
= 1800 . ,

1 %.
(. 2.28, )
- .
.
( 2.29)
74

= 1800 = 1800
15.0 2.5
= 10.1

,

= 10.2
12.3 2.1
= 10.4

= 10.6
,


9.7 1.7
= 10.8

7.0 1.3

= 10.1
4.3
= 10.2 0.8

= 10.4

1.7 = 10.6 0.4

= 10.8
1.0 0.0
60 35 10 15 40 65 90 60 35 10 15 40 65 90
x, x,
() ()
2.28 () ()

= 1800

,
. ( 2.30)
- .
, ,
,
.
.
= 1800
13.0

12.7
,

12.3

12.0

= 10.1
11.7
= 10.2

= 10.4

11.3 = 10.6

= 10.8
11.0
35 18 2 15 32 48 65
x,
2.29

= 1800 ( 2.28, )
75

30.0
= 10.1

= 10.2
25.0
= 10.4

= 10.6
20.0
= 10.8

L ,
15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0
0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800
t,
2.30

2.6.2



. ,
( 2.31), :

1014 2 , 6 * ,
() = (2.52)
1016 2 , > * .

= * ,
2.31 . ,
.
4
, 2.6.1: = 150 ,
max
= 40 , max
= 73 . = max
-
, 2.31,
.

*
.

76

2.31 ,
() () . ,
,

* = 3.5 . 2.32 ()
()
. , ,
35 .
()
, .
,
> * .
15.5 1.2

,

t = 10
12.4 1.0 t = 35
t = 40
,


9.2 0.8 t = 60
t = 100
t = 10
6.1 t = 35 0.6
t = 40
3.0 t = 60 0.4

t = 100
0.1 0.2

3.2 0.0
20 13 7 0 7 13 20 20 13 7 0 7 13 20
x, x,
() ()
2.32 () ()
,
.
( ) = 3.5
77

,
,
.
, .
,
.
,
, .
13.5 3.0


,
10.7 2.5
,

7.9 t = 200 2.0


t = 400
t = 700

5.1 1.5


t = 1200 t = 200
t = 400

t = 1600
2.3 1.0 t = 800
t = 1200
0.5 0.5 t = 1600

3.3 0.0
80 53 27 0 27 53 80 80 53 27 0 27 53 80
x, x,
() ()
2.33 () ()
,
.
( ) = 10

,
* = 10 ( 2.33).

200 . , ,
.
, (* = 10 ) ,
,
,
. ,
,
, , ,
, . ,
78

, , . . .
,
700 . ,
, .
, ,
( 1200 ) ,
(. 2.33, = 1600 ).

2.6.3

, , 2.6.2,
,
,
. (. 4),
= 0
2.6.2.
(2.15) (2.16) ,
,
. ,

, . ,
2.34, ,

- .
79

11.0 5.5
t = 200

,
t = 400


10.5 4.6


t = 700


t = 1200
,


10.0 3.7 t = 1600

9.5 2.8


t = 200
9.0 t = 400 1.8
t = 700
8.5 t = 1200 0.9
t = 1600
8.0 0.0
53 31 9 14 36 58 80 80 53 27 0 27 53 80
x, x,

(a) ()
2.34 () ()
,
.
( ) = 10 .
= 0

,

.
80

.
1.
(KGD)
,
.

.


.
,


.
2. KGD
.
,
-
.
,

.

. ,
,
.
3.
,
.

.
81


.


.
4.

.

.

,
.
5.
,
.
,

.

. ,

,
.
,

.
82

1. , . . -
[ ] / . //
. 2007. 1. :
http://www.promved.ru/articles/article.phtml?id=1039&nomer=38.

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. . , . . // .
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