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Sesaot MHPP is operating with 2 units turbines. Manufacture was designed head
water in 24 m. Turbine has efficiency 90.5% and generator has efficiency 93%.
The specificatons of turbine and generator of Sesaot MHEPP (from manufacture) can
be seen as follow:
Model : HLA551-WJ-66
Runner diameter : 0.66 m
Design Water head : 24 m
Turbine output : 532 KW
Design flow : 2.50 m3/s
Hydraulic turbine efficiency : 90.5%
Rated speed : 600 r/min
Runaway rotational speed : 1.137 r/min
Permission aspiration highly : HS6.8 -/900 (stainless steel leaf blade) m
Axial hydraulic thrust : 3.38 tons
The generator is horizontal type three phase synchronous generator, uses
opening type ventilate.
Model : SFW500-10/990
Rated Capacity : 625 KVA/500KW
Rated Voltage : 400 V
Rated Current : 902.1 A
Rated Frequency : 50HZ
Rated Power Factor : 0.8 (lag)
Rated Speed : 600 r/min
Direction Of Rotation : from the ring header end for clockwise
Rated Excitation Voltage : 57.86V
Rated Excitation Current : 156.6 A
Resonance (Sign Value)
o Straight Axle Synchronous Reactance Xd : 1.425
o Straight Axle Transient Reactance Xd : 0.1534
o Straight Axle Ultra Transient Reactance Xd : 0.1174
Radial Bearing
o Model : 150 radial direction place type bearing
o Quantity : 1pcs
o Cooling Water Volume : 5 t/h
o Cooling Water Temperature : 280C
o Cooling Water Hydraulic Pressure : 0.15~0.2Mpa
o Lubricant Tank Oil Mass : 40L (Each Bearing)
Radial Thrust Bearing
o Model : 220 radial direction thrust block bearing
o Quantity : 1pcs
o Cooling Water Volume : 6 t/h
o Cooling Water Temperature : 280C
o Cooling Water Hydraulic Pressure : 0.15~0.2Mpa
o Lubricant Tank Oil Mass : 60L (Each Bearing)
Braking system
o Brake Model : 60 braking system
o Quantity : 2pcs
o Brake Material : High performance Morocco baffle
o Braking Pressure : 0.7 Mpa
Unit weight of generator:
o Stator : 2.400 Kg
o Rotor : 2.500 Kg
o Gross Weight : 8.800 Kg
Noise measurement at 1 M from outer shelf of generator shall not more than
Generator reliable target:
o Availability factor : 99%
o Overhaul time interval : 5 years
Type : YWT-600
Capacity : 600 Kg.M
Range of Adjustment for Closing Time : 2 ~ 30 seconds
Range of Adjustment for Opening Time : 2 ~ 30 seconds
Normal Closing/Opening Time : 4 seconds
Operating Oil Pressure : 2.5 Mpa
Power Supply
o AC : 220V
o DC : 220V
PID Regulator Parameter Setting Range
o Proportional gain Kp : 0.5 ~ 20
o Integral gain KI : 0.05 ~ 10
o Differential gain KD :0~5
Permanent Speed Drop : 0 ~ 10

From parameter and specification above, the annual energy production can be
calculate as follows:
Discharge uses was calculated by AWLR. Assumption self consume is 15 kWh or
131.4 MWh, usually used for lighting in powerhouse, pump, etc. Losses transformer is
around 1% and downtime is 2%. It can be happen due to blackout accumulative in a
year. From the table above, known that energy output from transformator is expected
to be around 2,541.76 MWh and installed capacity 2 x 500 kW.


Average energy production in 3 years ago (2013 2015) is around 1,841.48 MWh.
Addressed in energy projection that the downtime is a big issue in the energy
production. Here is the target of production energy in Sesaot MHEPP.

From the table, known that each year energy production is decreasing. It can be happened
due to high downtime in Sesaot MHPP.

Using actual data, Head net = 22.88 m, turbine efficiency = 86% and generator efficiency
93% energy production can be calculated as follow:
Sesaot MHEPP expected to produce energy around 2,454.11 MWh. This projection is not
much different with energy production in the first year operation, 2,444.0 MWh. Downtime
was assumed as PLN faults 72 hours in a month, so it cause loss energy 386.34 MWH
(12%). Considering current conditions, downtime in Sesaot MHEPP is very high.

No Faults Duration Energy

1 Do not operation due to water availability 1 month* 311.86 MWh
2 Mechanical and enelctrical maintenance 29 days 301.46 MWh
3 PLN faults 72 hours in a month 374.23 MWh
4 Sediment removal 8 hours every 2 months 20.79 MWh
5 Blade turbine maintenance 24 hour in a month 124.74 MWh
TOTAL 1018.74 MWh
Note: *in August average discharge is 0.4 m3/s while minimum discharge for turbine is 0.75 m3/s )

From downtime projection, known that downtime in Sesaot MHEPP is around 34%. Using
projection downtime above, energy calculation becomes:
From energy projection above, known that energy production is 1,830.03 MWh. This
projection is not far from average energy production in 2013-2016 that is 1,841.48 MWh.

To get higher energy production, improvements need to be done. Here is list of Sesaot
MHEPP improvements:


Power generated always below target
Discharge design 5 m3/s but actual discharge Used actual head and actual discharge design (AWLR)

is less that that (see energy projection) and focus on increasing energy production with fixing
Design head is 24 m but actual design is the broken electrical and mechanical equipments
22.88 m
Trashrack improvement
High downtime
Cooling system improvement
Turbine-generator maintenance Buy 2 units new bearing for turbine and
Debrish and sediment removal
Blackout from PLN system
Buy governor control and rewiring
Discharge below minimal
Socialization of conserve the forest
There is no misalignment of turbine-generator -
Bearing Keep spare bearing (@ Rp.250.000.000,-
Replacement is too often (2 times in a year)
Overheat and overspeed need 2 units, total Rp.500.000.000)
Guide vane can be opened in 81% for turbine Cooling system improvement
(Rp. 250.000.000,-)
#1 and 50% for turbine #2
Sparks during operation Replace the brush (Rp. 180.500.000,-)
Garbage and Debrish are entering turbine
Improving trashrack
Trashrack problem
Rewiring the control of governor
Governor works do not optimal
Buy new control (Rp. 100.000.000,-)
Neutral Grounding Resistor (NGR) as
protection for transformer or generator during
earth faults (@ Rp. 225.000.000,- need 2
units, total Rp. 450.000.000,-)
Load Break Switch (LBS) is disconnect switch
that has been designed to provide making or
breaking of specified currents. Installed on the

Electrical equipment do not meet PLN Standard pole (Rp. 120.000.000,-)

Lightning Arester (LA) as protection during
lightning, the component that has been
damaged: battery changer and Circuit
Breaker (1 set Rp. 40.000.000,-)
20 kV switchgear used in Sesaot MHPP is
SF6 type, replace with ACB/VCB ( 1 cubicle
Another protections

Improvement 1
Improvemnet 1 is expect to reduce downtime due to mechanical problems. This
improvement can increase energy production 311.86 MWh or 11% from total energy.
Improvement 2
Improvement 2 is expect to reduce downtime due to sediment removal. The
alternative is trashtack improvement as explained in civil aspect. This improvement
can increase energy production 92.56 MWh or 3% from total energy.
Improvement 3
Improvement 3 is expected to reduce downtime due to mechanical and sediment
problems. This improvement can increase energy production 332.65 MWh. After
doing the improvements above, here is the projection of energy production:
Energy production expected to becomes 2,156.93 MWh. Downtime is around 22% (683.53
MWh) due to PLN faults (373.23 MWH) and water availability (311.86 MWh).

Energy Production MWh

Ideal Energy Production* 2,454.11
Actual Energy Production** 1,830.03
* Expected energy production using actual data ( H = 22.88 m; T = 86%; G = 93%)
** Actual energy production (considering downtime 33%)

Here is the improvement energy:

Energy Production MWh
Improvement 1 (electrical and mechanical improvement) 301.46
Improvement 2 (trashrack improvement) 10.4
Improvement 3 (electrical, mechanical and trashrack improvement) 311.86

After improvements, downtime can decrease to 22% and energy production can increase
around 18% or 326.9 MWh from actual energy production.
Comparation between Energy Production
Energy Production (MWh)






Ideal Actual Improvement