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Quantum particle for the one dimensional finite potential well

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Finite potential well

Quantum mechanics - Tutorial

Finite potential well

Task:

Determine the energy levels and the normalized wave functions of a particle in the one-dimensional finite asymmetrical potential well:

(

V x

)

V ,

1

0,

  V ,

2

Hamiltonian (energy operator)

for

for

for

x 0

0  

x

x

a

H

P

2

x

2 m

a

,

(

V x

)

in the coordinates representation:

H 

2 2 d  V x ( ) 2 2 m dx
2
2
d
V x
(
)
2
2 m dx

Solve the time-independent Schrӧdinger equation:

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Finite potential well

V

1

,

H

V a

2

,

0.

E

( x )

E

E

( x )

Solve the time-independent Schrӧdinger equation:

H

E

( x ) E

E

( x )

Step 1: Determine the analytical form of the wave function.

Step 2: Impose the continuity conditions. Determine the energy.

Step 3: Impose the normalization relation. Obtain the final form of the wave function.

Step 1: Determine the analytical form of the wave function.

The stationary Schrodinger equation on each domain:

2

d

2

2 m dx

2

2

d

2

2 m dx

d

2

2

2

2 m dx

2

(

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(

E V

1

)

E

 0



0

(0

E V

2

)



0

 

(

x

0)

reg.

I

x

a

)

reg.

II

(

x

a

)

reg.

III

Finite potential well

Introduce the notations: 2 m ( V E  ) k 1  1 2
Introduce the notations:
2
m
(
V E
)
k 1 
1
2
2 mE
E 
min(
k 
2
2
2
m
(
V
E
)
k
2
3 
2

V V

,

1

2

)

,

.

The associated general solutions in each region (independent solutions) are:

2

d

I

dx

2

d

2

II

dx

2

d

2

III

dx

2

k   0

I

2

1

2

2

k

  0

II

k

2

3

III

0

I

I

I

(

x

)

III

( x )  A e  k x k x 1  B e
(
x
)
A e
 k x
k x
1
B e
1
,
1
1
 ik x
ik x
A e
2
B e
2
2
2
'
'
A
sin(
k x
)
B
cos(
2
2
2
(
x )
A e
 k x
B e
k x
3
3
,
3
3

x 0

k x

2

)

0  

x

a

A

sin(

k x

2

)

x a

Since in the regions I and III the solutions decay and growth exponentially and since the physical requirement imposes a finite wave function

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A

1

0

B

3

0

Finite potential well

Step 2: Impose the continuity conditions. Determine the energy.

Obs.: If at x=0 the potential has only a finite jump then the first order derivative of

the wave function is continuous:

Assume that V(0 )

-

V(0

)

d

2

dx

2

2 m

2

(

V

(

x

)

d

 

dx

(

)

lim (

0

d

dx

(

d

dx

)

E

)

(

x

)

0

0

d

2

dx

2

dx

2 m

2

0

0

(

V

(

x

)

(

)

d

dx

(

0

2

m

V

(

)

(

x dx

)

2

x

0

lim 2

F(0)

0

))

0

2

m

2

0

0

E

q e d

.

.

.

(

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Finite potential well

E

)

x dx

)

(

x dx

)

Step 2: Impose the continuity conditions. Determine the energy.

 

I

I I

(0

(

a

0)

0)



I I

(0

0),



III

(

a

0),

 

I

I I

'(0

'(

a

0)

0)



I I

'(0

0),



III

'(

a

0).

The difference between the right derivatives and the left derivatives should be zero if the discontinuity of the potential is finite.

The conditions of continuity of the wave function

( x )

and of the

derivative

d

dx

can be written conveniently as conditions of the

1 d  x ( ) continuity of logarithmic derivative .  x ( )
1
d  x
(
)
continuity of logarithmic derivative
.
 x
(
)
dx
k
k
1  cot
  
sin
2
k
2 mV
1
2
k
k
3
cot(
k a 
)
 k a
sin(
 
)
2
2
2
k
2
mV
2
2

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Finite potential well

sin

sin(

k

2

 k  2    2 mV 1  k a  
 k
2
2 mV
1
 k
a 
)

2
2
mV
2
 k arcsin 2  2 mV 1  k a    2
 k
arcsin
2
2 mV
1
k a
 
2

n

1

 k arcsin 2  n 2 mV 2
 k
arcsin
2
n
2 mV
2

2

From this system of equations the task is to find energy.

k

2

which provides the value of the

Taking into account that the values of the function arcsin lie between 0 and

eliminating

discrete spectrum:

and

2

we arrive to the transcendental equation whose solutions form the

k a n

2

arcsin

 k 2 2 mV 1
k
2
2
mV
1

arcsin

 k 2 2 mV 2
 k
2
2 mV
2

,

n

1,2,

The solutions can be obtained by a graphical method from the intersection points of

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y k a

2

y

n

arcsin

 k 2 2 mV 1
 k
2
2 mV
1

Finite potential well

arcsin

 k 2 2 mV 2
 k
2
2 mV
2

.

 k 2 2 mV 1  1 
k
2
2
mV
1
1 
 k 2 2 mV 2
 k
2
2 mV
2

,

k a n

2

arcsin

arcsin

1,2,

n

The maximumvalue:

k

2

arcsin 1,2,    n  The maximumvalue:  k 2 2 m min( V

2

m

min(

V

1

,

V

2

)

k

2 max

 The maximumvalue:  k 2 2 m min( V 1 , V 2 ) k

2

m min(

V

1

,

V

2

)

 

k

2 max

 

2

2

m

min(

V

1

,

V

2

k

2max

 

)

 
  2 m min( , V V 1 2 )  

2

m

min(

,

V V

1

2

)

The condition for the existence of at least one level:

k

2 max

a  

2

arcsin

The condition for the existence of n levels:

a

1

k 2max

n

2

arcsin

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Finite potential well

Step 3: Impose the normalization relation. Obtain the final form of the wave function.

relation . Obtain the final form of the wave function.   3  ( 

3

(

r

,

t

)

2

3

d r

1



(

x

)

2

dx 1

(

r t

,

)

2

D

(

r t

,

)

3

d r

the probability to find the particle located in the volume element d

2

d

3 r the probability to find the particle inside the region D

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Finite potential well

3

r