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17 SURFACE

INTEGRALS

17.1 Vector Fields (ET Section 16.1)

Preliminary Questions

1. Which of the following is a unit vector field in the plane?

(a) F = y, x

y x

(b) F = ,

x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

y x

(c) F = 2 ,

x + y2 x 2 + y2

SOLUTION

(a) The length of the vector y, x is

y, x = y2 + x 2

This value is not 1 for all points, hence it is not a unit vector field.

(b) We have

2
2

y x y x

, = +

x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

y2 x2 y2 + x 2

= + 2 = =1

x +y

2 2 x +y 2 x 2 + y2

Hence the field is a unit vector field, for (x, y) = (0, 0).

(c) We compute the length of the vector:

2 2

2

y x y x

y + x2 1

=

x 2 + y2 , x 2 + y2 = x 2 + y2

+

x 2 + y2

2 = 2 + y2

x +y

2 2 x

Since the length is not identically 1, the field is not a unit vector field.

2. Sketch an example of a nonconstant vector field in the plane in which each vector is parallel to 1, 1.

SOLUTION The non-constant vector x, x is parallel to the vector 1, 1.

3. Show that the vector field F = z, 0, x is orthogonal to the position vector O P at each point P. Give an example

of another vector field with this property.

SOLUTION The position vector at P = (x, y, z) is x, y, z. We must show that the following dot product is zero:

1056 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Therefore, the vector field F = z, 0, x is orthogonal to the position vector. Another vector field with this property is

F = 0, z, y, since

4. Give an example of a potential function for yz, x z, x y other than (x, y, z) = x yz.

SOLUTION Since any two potential functions of a gradient vector field differ by a constant, a potential function for the

given field other than (x, y, z) = x yz is, for instance, 1 (x, y, z) = x yz + 1.

Exercises

1. Compute and sketch the vector assigned to the points P = (1, 2) and Q = (1, 1) by the vector field F = x 2 , x .

SOLUTION The vector assigned to P = (1, 2) is obtained by substituting x = 1 in F, that is,

Similarly,

F(1, 1) = (1)2 , 1 = 1, 1

F(P) = 1, 1

1

x

1

1

F(Q) = 1, 1

2. Compute and sketch the vector assigned to the points P = (1, 2) and Q = (1, 1) by the vector field F = y, x.

SOLUTION To find the vector assigned to the point P = (1, 2), we substitute x = 1, y = 2 in F = y, x, obtaining

F(P) = 2, 1

y

3

2

F(P) = 2, 1

1

x

3 2 1 1 2 3

1 F(Q) = 1, 1

3. Compute and sketch the vector assigned to the points P = (0, 1, 1) and Q = (2, 1, 0) by the vector field F =

x y, z 2 , x .

SOLUTION To find the vector assigned to the point P = (0, 1, 1), we substitute x = 0, y = 1, z = 1 in F = x y, z 2 , x.

We get

F(P) = 0 1, 12 , 0 = 0, 1, 0

F(Q) = 2 1, 02 , 2 = 2, 0, 2

S E C T I O N 17.1 Vector Fields (ET Section 16.1) 1057

F(Q) = 2, 0, 2 F(P) = 0, 1, 0

er er

4. Compute the vector assigned to the points P = (1, 1, 0) and Q = (2, 1, 2) by the vector fields er , , and 2 .

r r

SOLUTION The unit radial vector is

x y z

er = , ,

r r r

Hence,

er x y z er x y z

= 2, 2, 2 and = , , .

r r r r r2 r3 r3 r3

For P = (1, 1, 0) we have r = 12 + 12 + 02 = 2, and for Q = (2, 1, 2) we have r = 22 + 12 + 22 = 3.

Therefore,

1 1 0 1 1

er (P) = , , = , , 0

2 2 2 2 2

2 1 2

er (Q) = , ,

3 3 3

er 1 1 0 1 1

(P) = , , = , ,0

r 2 2 2 2 2

er 2 1 2

(Q) = , ,

r 9 9 9

er 1 1 0 1 1

(P) = , , = , , 0

r2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

er 2 1 2

(Q) = , ,

r2 27 27 27

In Exercises 513, sketch the following planar vector fields by drawing the vectors attached to points with integer coor-

dinates in the rectangle 3 x, y 3. Instead of drawing the vectors with their true lengths, scale them if necessary to

avoid overlap.

5. F = 1, 0

SOLUTION The constant vector field 1, 0 is shown in the figure:

3

2

1

x

3 2 1 1 2 3

1

2

3

6. F = xi

SOLUTION The vector field F(x, y) = xi = (x, 0) is sketched in the following figure:

1058 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

7. F = 0, x

SOLUTION We sketch the vector field F(x, y) = 0, x:

8. F = yj

SOLUTION The graph of F(x, y) = yj is shown next:

9. F = 1, 1

SOLUTION We sketch the graph of the constant vector field F(x, y) = 1, 1:

10. F = x 2 i + yj

SOLUTION The graph of the vector field F(x, y) = x 2 i + yj is shown in the following figure:

S E C T I O N 17.1 Vector Fields (ET Section 16.1) 1059

x y

11. F = , 2

x + y x + y2

2 2

SOLUTION

y x

12. F = ,

x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

SOLUTION

y

3

2

F(P) = 2, 1

1

x

3 2 1 1 2 3

1 F(Q) = 1, 1

y x

13. F = ,

x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

SOLUTION

In Exercises 1417, match the planar vector field with the corresponding plot in Figure 7.

1060 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

y y

2 2

0 x 0 x

2 2

2 0 2 2 0 2

(A) (B)

y y

2 2

0 x 0 x

2 2

2 0 2 2 0 2

(C) (D)

FIGURE 7

14. F = 2, x

SOLUTION The x coordinate of the vector field 2, x is always 2. This matches only with Plot (D).

15. F = 2x + 2, y

SOLUTION We compute the images of the point (0, 2), for instance, and identify the corresponding graph accordingly:

SOLUTION We compute the images of the point (0, 2), for instance, and identify the corresponding graph accordingly:

17. F = x + y, x y

SOLUTION We compute the images of the point (0, 2), for instance, and identify the corresponding graph accordingly:

In Exercises 1821, match the three-dimensional vector field with the corresponding plot in Figure 8.

(A) (B)

(C) (D)

FIGURE 8

18. F = x, y, z

SOLUTION x, y, z is shown in plot (B). Note that the vectors are pointing away from the origin and are of increasing

magnitude.

S E C T I O N 17.1 Vector Fields (ET Section 16.1) 1061

19. F = x, 0, z

SOLUTION This vector field is shown in (A) (by process of elimination).

x y z

20. F = , ,

x 2 + y2 + z2 x 2 + y2 + z2 x 2 + y2 + z2

SOLUTION The unit radial vector field is shown in plot (D), as these vectors are radial and of uniform length.

21. F = 1, 1, 1

SOLUTION The constant vector field 1, 1, 1 is shown in plot (C).

In Exercises 2225, find a potential function for the vector field F by inspection.

22. F = x, y

SOLUTION We must find a function (x, y) such that x = x and y = y. We choose the following function:

1 2 1 2

(x, y) = x + y .

2 2

23. F = ye x y , xe x y

SOLUTION The function (x, y) = e x y satisfies x = ye x y and y = xe x y , hence is a potential function for the

given vector field.

24. F = yz 2 , x z 2 , 2x yz

SOLUTION We choose a function (x, y, z) such that

= yz 2 , = x z2, = x yz

x y z

2 2

25. F = 2x ze x , 0, e x

2 2 2

SOLUTION The function (x, y, z) = ze x satisfies y = 0, x = 2x ze x and z = e x , hence is a potential

function for the given vector field.

er er

26. Find potential functions for the vector fields F = 3 and G = 4 in R3 .

r r

SOLUTION We use the gradient of r , r = er , and the Chain Rule for Gradients to write

1 2 er

r = r 3 r = r 3 er = 3 = F

2 r

1 er

r 3 = r 4 r = r 4 er = 4 = G

3 r

2r 3r

27. Which of (A) or (B) in Figure 9 is the contour plot of a potential function for the vector field F? Recall that the

gradient vectors are perpendicular to the level curves.

2

2 1 0 1 2

2 2

1 1

0 0

1 1

2 2

2 1 0 1 2 2 1 0 1 2

(A) (B)

FIGURE 9

1062 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

SOLUTION By the equality = F and since the gradient vectors are perpendicular to the level curves, it follows that

the vectors F are perpendicular to the corresponding level curves of . This property is satisfied in (B) and not satisfied

in (A). Therefore (B) is the contour plot of .

28. Which of (A) or (B) in Figure 10 is the contour plot of a potential function of the vector field F?

(A) (B)

FIGURE 10

SOLUTION Since = F, F is perpendicular to the level curves of , as seen in both the contour plots (A) and

(B). The plot of F shows that F has the form F = f (x), 0 for an increasing function f (x). Therefore, x = f (x) is

increasing, implying that the rate of change of with respect to x is increasing. Hence, the density of the vertical lines

is greater in the direction of growing x. We conclude that (A) is the contour plot of .

29. Let = ln r , where r = x 2 + y 2 . Express in terms of the unit radial vector er in R2 .

1/2 1/2

SOLUTION Since r = (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) , we have = ln (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = 12 ln(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ). We compute the

partial derivatives:

1 2x x

= = 2

x 2 x 2 + y2 + z2 r

1 2y y

= = 2

y 2 x 2 + y2 + z2 r

1 2z z

= = 2

z 2 x 2 + y2 + z2 r

Therefore, the gradient of is the following vector:

x y z 1 x y z er

= , , = 2, 2, 2 = , , =

x y z r r r r r r r r

30. Match the force fields (a)(c) with (A)(C) in Figure 11. Note that the vectors (A)(C) indicate direction but are not

drawn to indicate magnitude.

(a) One positive and one negative charge

(b) Two positive charges

(c) Two positive charges and one negative charge

FIGURE 11

SOLUTION

(a) In Figure (B) there are two charges. The force vectors are in opposite directions, indicating that the charges attract

each other. Hence one of the changes is positive and the second is negative.

S E C T I O N 17.1 Vector Fields (ET Section 16.1) 1063

(b) In (C) there are two charges. The force vectors point in outward directions, indicating the charges repel each other.

Therefore, the two charges are positive.

(c) In (A) there are three charges. One of them attracts the other two toward it, hence this is the negative charge whereas

the other two are positive charges.

31. Show that any vector field of the form F = f (x), g(y), h(z) has a potential function. Assume that f , g, and h are

continuous.

SOLUTION Let F(x), G(y), and H (z) be antiderivatives of f (x), g(y), and h(z), respectively. That is, F (x) = f (x),

G (y) = g(y), and H (y) = h(z). We define the function

Then,

= F (x) = f (x), = G (y) = g(y), = H (z) = h(z)

x x z

Therefore, = F, or is a potential function for F.

32. In this exercise, we show that the vector field F in Figure 12 is not a gradient vector field. Suppose that a

potential function did exist.

(a) Argue that the level curves of would have to be vertical lines.

(b) Argue that the level curves would have to grow farther apart as y increases.

(c) Explain why the conclusions of (a) and (b) are incompatible.

x

0.5 1 1.5 2

FIGURE 12

SOLUTION

(a) If is a potential function for F, then = F. Therefore, F is orthogonal to the level curves of . The plot shows

that the vectors F(x, y) are horizontal, hence the level curves of are vertical lines.

(b) As indicated by the graph of the vector field F = F1 , F2 , F2 = 0 and F1 is decreasing as y increases. Since

F = x , it follows that x is decreasing as y increases, or the rate of change of with respect to x is decreasing as y

increases. Therefore, as y increases, the level curves of are getting farther apart.

(c) By (a), the level curves of are vertical lines, hence the distance between any two level curves is constant rather

than increasing with y as concluded in (b).

33. Show that if (x, y) = 0 for all (x, y) in a disk D in R2 , then is constant on D. Hint: Given points P = (a, b)

and Q = (c, d) in D, let R = (c, b) (Figure 13). Use single-variable calculus to show that is constant along the

segments P R and R Q and conclude that (P) = (R).

Q = (c, d)

P = (a, b)

R = (c, b)

Disk D

FIGURE 13

SOLUTION Given any two points P = (a, b) and Q = (c, d) in D, we must show that

(P) = (Q)

We consider the point R = (c, b) and the segments P R and R Q. (We assume that (c, b) is in D; if not, just use

R = (a, d).)

1064 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Q = (c, d)

P = (a, b)

R = (c, b)

D

Since x (x, y) = 0 in D, in particular x (x, b) = 0 for a x c. Therefore, for a x c we have

x x

(x, b) = (u, b) du + (a, b) = 0 du + (a, b) = k + (a, b)

a u a

In particular,

Similarly, since y (x, y) = 0 in D, we have y (c, y) = 0 for b y d. Therefore for b y d we have

y y

(c, y) = (c, v) dv + (c, b) = 0 dv + (c, b) = k + (c, b)

b v b

In particular,

Combining (1) and (2) we obtain the desired equality (P) = (Q). Since P and Q are any two points in D, we

conclude that is constant on D.

Preliminary Questions

1. What is the line integral of the constant function f (x, y, z) = 10 over a curve C of length 5?

SOLUTION Since the length of C is the line integral C 1 ds = 5, we have

10 ds = 10 1 ds = 10 5 = 50

C C

2. Which of the following have a zero line integral over the vertical segment from (0, 0) to (0, 1)?

(a) f (x, y) = x (b) f (x, y) = y

(c) F = x, 0 (d) F = y, 0

(e) F = 0, x (f) F = 0, y

SOLUTION The vertical segment from (0, 0) to (0, 1) has the parametrization

Therefore, c (t) = 0, 1 and c (t) = 1. The line integrals are thus computed by

1

f (x, y) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt (1)

C 0

1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt (2)

C 0

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1065

1

1 2 1 1

f (x, y) ds = t 1 dt = t = = 0

C 0 2 0 2

(c) This vector line integral is computed using (2). Since F (c(t)) = x, 0 = 0, 0, the vector line integral is zero.

(d) By (2) we have

1 1

F ds = t, 0 0, 1 dt = 0 dt = 0

C 0 0

(e) The vector integral is computed using (2). Since F (c(t)) = 0, x = 0, 0, the line integral is zero.

(f) For this vector field we have

1 1 1

t 2 1 1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 0, t 0, 1 dt = t dt = = = 0

C 0 0 0 2 0 2

So, we conclude that (a), (c), (d), and (e) have an integral of zero.

3. State whether true or false. If false, give the correct statement.

(a) The scalar line integral does not depend on how you parametrize the curve.

(b) If you reverse the orientation of the curve, neither the vector nor the scalar line integral changes sign.

SOLUTION

(a) True: It can be shown that any two parametrizations of the curve yield the same value for the scalar line integral,

hence the statement is true.

(b) False: For the definition of the scalar line integral, there is no need to specify a direction along the path, hence

reversing the orientation of the curve does not change the sign of the integral. However, reversing the orientation of the

curve changes the sign of the vector line integral.

4. Let C be a curve of length 5. What is the value of F ds if

C

(a) F(P) is normal to C at all points P on C?

(b) F(P) = T(P) at all points P on C, where T(P) is the unit tangent vector pointing in the forward direction along the

curve?

SOLUTION

(a) The vector line integral is the integral of the tangential component of the vector field along

the curve. Since F(P) is

normal to C at all points P on C, the tangential component is zero, hence the line integral C F ds is zero.

(b) In this case we have

Therefore,

F ds = (F T) ds = 1 ds = Length of C = 5.

C C C

Exercises

1. Let f (x, y, z) = x + yz and let C be the line segment from P = (0, 0, 0) to (6, 2, 2).

(a) Calculate f (c(t)) and ds = c (t) dt for the parametrization c(t) = (6t, 2t, 2t) for 0 t 1.

(b) Evaluate f (x, y, z) ds.

C

SOLUTION

(a) We substitute x = 6t, y = 2t, z = 2t in the function f (x, y, z) = x + yz to find f (c(t)):

f (c(t)) = 6t + (2t)(2t) = 6t + 4t 2

We differentiate the vector c(t) and compute the length of the derivative vector:

d

c (t) = 6t, 2t, 2t = 6, 2, 2 c (t) = 62 + 22 + 22 = 44 = 2 11

dt

Hence,

ds = c (t) dt = 2 11 dt

1066 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1 1

f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = (6t + 4t 2 ) 2 11 dt

C 0 0

2 4 3 1 4 26 11

= 2 11 3t + t = 2 11 3 + =

3 0 3 3

SOLUTION

(a) We compute f (c(t)) by substituting x = 3t, y = z = t in f (x, y, z) = x + yz. We get

f (c(t)) = 3t + t t = 3t + t 2

We differentiate c(t) = (3t, t, t) and compute the length of the derivative vector:

d

c (t) = 3t, t, t = 3, 1, 1 c (t) = 32 + 12 + 12 = 11

dt

Hence,

ds = c (t) dt = 11 dt

2 2

f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = 3t + t 2 11 dt

C 0 0

3 2 2 t3

34 8 26 11

= 11 t + = 11 + =

2 3 0 2 3 3

This answer agrees with the answer to Exercise 1, since the value of the scalar line integral is independent of the choice

of the parametrization of the curve.

3. Let F = y 2 , x 2 and let C be the y = x 1 for 1 x 2, oriented from left to right.

(a) Calculate F(c(t)) and ds = c (t) dt for the parametrization c(t) = (t, t 1 ).

(b) Calculate the dot product F(c(t)) c (t) dt and evaluate F ds.

C

SOLUTION

(a) We calculate F (c(t)) by substituting x = t, y = t 1 in F = y 2 , x 2 . We get

2

F(c(t)) = (t 1 ) , t 2 = t 2 , t 2

We compute c (t):

d 1

c (t) = t, t = 1, t 2 ds = 1, t 2 dt

dt

y

x

1 2

F(c(t)) c (t) = t 2 , t 2 1, t 2 = t 2 1 + t 2 (t 2 ) = t 2 1

2 2 2

1 1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = (t 2 1) dt = t 1 t = 2 (1 1) =

C 1 1 1 2 2

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1067

4. Let F = z 2 , x, y and let C be the path c(t) = 3 + 5t 2 , 3 t 2 , t for 0 t 2.

(a) Calculate F(c(t)) and ds = c (t) dt.

(b) Calculate the dot product F(c(t)) c (t) dt and evaluate F ds.

C

SOLUTION

(a) We compute F (c(t)) by substituting x = 3 + 5t 2 , y = 3 t 2 , z = t in F = z 2 , x, y . We get

F (c(t)) = t 2 , 3 + 5t 2 , 3 t 2

We differentiate c(t):

d

c (t) = 3 + 5t 2 , 3 t 2 , t = 10t, 2t, 1 ds = 10t, 2t, 1 dt

dt

(b) We compute the dot product:

F (c(t)) c (t) dt = t 2 , 3 + 5t 2 , 3 t 2 10t, 2t, 1 dt

= t 2 10t + (3 + 5t 2 )(2t) + (3 t 2 ) 1 dt

= (10t 3 6t 10t 3 + 3 t 2 ) dt = (t 2 6t + 3) dt

2 2 2

t3 26 2

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = (t 2 6t + 3) dt = 3t 2 + 3t = = 8

C 0 0 3 0 3 3

In Exercises 58, calculate the integral of the given scalar function or vector field over the curve c(t) = (cos t, sin t, t)

for 0 t .

5. f (x, y, z) = x 2 + y 2 + z 2

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute c (t). We differentiate c(t):

d

c (t) = cos t, sin t, t = sin t, cos t, 1

dt

Hence,

c (t) = ( sin t)2 + cos2 t + 12 = sin2 t + cos2 t + 1 = 2

ds = c (t) dt = 2 dt

Step 3. Compute the line integral. Using the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals we obtain

2 2 2 2

t 3 3

(x + y + z ) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = (1 + t ) 2 dt = 2 t + = 2 +

C 0 0 3 0 3

6. f (x, y, z) = x y + z

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute c (t). We differentiate c(t):

d

c (t) = cos t, sin t, t = sin t, cos t, 1

dt

Hence,

c (t) = ( sin t)2 + cos2 t + 12 = sin2 t + cos2 t + 1 = 2

ds = c (t) dt = 2 dt

1068 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Step 3. Compute the line integral. Using the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals we obtain

sin2 t t 2 2 2

(x y + z) ds = (cos t sin t + t) 2 dt = 2 + = 2 =

C 0 2 2 0 2 2

7. F = x, y, z

SOLUTION

Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We write out the vectors:

F (c(t)) = x, y, z = cos t, sin t, t

c (t) = sin t, cos t, 1

F (c(t)) c (t) = cos t, sin t, t sin t, cos t, 1 = cos t sin t + sin t cos t + t = t

Step 2. Evaluate the integral. We use the Theorem on Vector Line Integrals to evaluate the integral:

1 2 2

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = t dt = t =

C 0 0 2 0 2

8. F = x y, 2, z 3

SOLUTION

Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We write out the vectors:

c (t) = ( sin t, cos t, 1)

F (c(t)) = cos t sin t, 2, t 3

F (c(t)) c (t) = cos t sin t, 2, t 3 sin t, cos t, 1 = cos t sin2 t + 2 cos t + t 3

Fds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = cos t sin2 t + 2 cos t + t 3 dt

C 0 0

= cos t sin2 t dt + 2 cos t dt + t 3 dt

0 0 0

Since 0 cos t dt = 0 and 0 cos t sin2 t = 0,

t 4 4

F ds = t 3 dt = =

C 0 4 0 4

9. Calculate the total mass of a circular piece of wire of radius 4 cm centered at the origin whose mass density is

(x, y) = x 2 g/cm.

SOLUTION The total mass is the following integral:

M= x 2 ds

C

We use the following parametrization of the wire:

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1069

Hence,

c (t) = 4 sin t, 4 cos t c (t) = (4 sin t)2 + (4 cos t)2 = 4

We compute the line integral using the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals. We get

2 2

M= (c(t)) c (t) dt = (4 cos t)2 4 dt

0 0

2 2

= 64 cos2 t dt = 64

t

+

sin 2t = 64 2 = 64 g

2 4 2

0 0

10. Calculate the total mass of a metal tube in the helical shape c(t) = (cos t, sin t, t 2 ) (distance in centimeters) for

0 t 2 if the mass density is (x, y, z) = z g/cm.

SOLUTION The total mass is the following integral:

M= z ds

C

We have

d

c (t) = cos t, sin t, t 2 = sin t, cos t, 2t

dt

Hence,

c (t) = ( sin t)2 + (cos t)2 + (2t)2 = 1 + 4t 2

Using the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals, we get

2 2 2

M= z ds = (c(t)) c (t) dt = t 2 1 + 4t 2 dt = t 1 + 4t 2 dt

C 0 0 0

1+16 2 1/2

u 3/2 1+16 1

2

M=

u

du = = 1 + 16 2 3/2 1 166.86 g

1 8 12 1 12

11. The values of a function f (x, y, z) and vector field F(x, y, z) are given at six sample points along the path ABC in

Figure 11. Estimate the line integrals of f and F along ABC.

(1, 16 , 0) 3 1, 0, 2

(1, 12 , 0) 3.3 1, 1, 3

(1, 56 , 0) 3.6 2, 1, 5

(1, 1, 16 ) 4.2 3, 2, 4

(1, 1, 12 ) 4.5 3, 3, 3

(1, 1, 56 ) 4.2 5, 3, 3

z

C = (1, 1, 1)

A = (1, 0, 0) y

x B = (1, 1, 0)

FIGURE 11

SOLUTION

C = (1, 1, 1)

P6 = (1, 1, 5/6)

P5 = (1, 1, 1/2) 4/6

A = (1, 0, 0) 2/6 2/6 y

4/6 P = (1, 1, 1/6)

4

x B = (1, 1, 0)

P1 = (1, 1/6, 0) P3 = (1, 5/6, 0)

P2 = (1, 1/2, 0)

1070 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

We write the integrals as sum of integrals and estimate each integral by a Riemann Sum. That is,

3

6

f (x, y, z) ds = f (x, y, z) ds + f (x, y, z) ds f (Pi ) si + f (Pi )si (1)

ABC AB BC i=1 i=4

F ds = F ds + F ds = (F T)ds + (F T)ds

ABC AB BC AB BC

On AB, the unit tangent vector is T = 1, 0, 0, hence F T = F1 . On BC, the unit tangent vector is T = 0, 0, 1, hence

F T = F3 . Therefore,

3

6

F ds = F1 ds + F3 ds F1 (Pi ) si + F3 (Pi ) si (2)

ABC AB BC i=1 i=4

We consider the partitions of AB and BC to three subarcs with equal length si = 13 , therefore (1) and (2) give

1

f (x, y, z) ds ( f (P1 ) + f (P2 ) + f (P3 ) + f (P4 ) + f (P5 ) + f (P6 ))

ABC 3

1

Fds = (F1 (P1 ) + F1 (P2 ) + F1 (P3 ) + F3 (P4 ) + F3 (P5 ) + F3 (P6 ))

ABC 3

We now substitute the values of the functions at the sample points to obtain the following approximations:

1

f (x, y, z) ds (3 + 3.3 + 3.6 + 4.2 + 4.5 + 4.2) = 7.6

ABC 3

1 14 2

F ds (1 + 1 + 2 + 4 + 3 + 3) = =4

ABC 3 3 3

12. Estimate the line integrals of f (x, y) and F(x, y) along the quarter circle (oriented counterclockwise) in Figure 12

using the values at the three sample points along each path.

A 1 1, 2

B 2 1, 3

C 4 2, 4

y

C

A

x

1

2

FIGURE 12

SOLUTION We estimate the line integral of f (x, y) along the quarter circle C by the Riemann sum:

f (x, y)ds f ( A)s 1 + f (B)s 2 + f (C)s 3

C

We consider the partition of C to three arcs with equal length si = 12 . Using the values of f at the sample points, we

get

f (x, y)ds (1 2 + 4) =

C 12 4

To estimate the vector line integral C F ds we use the parametrization

1

C : c(t) = (cos t, sin t), 0 t

2 2

Then,

1

c (t) = ( sin t, cos t)

2

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1071

y

5p

t3 = 12

C t2 = 3p

12

B

p

A t1 = 12

x

The partition points correspond to t1 = 12 2 12 3 12

/2

F T ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt

C 0

We estimate the integral using the Riemann sum, corresponding to the partition of the interval 0 t 2 to three

intervals with equal length t = 6 . We get

F T ds = F (c(t1 )) c (t1 ) + F (c(t2 )) c (t2 ) + F (c(t3 )) c (t3 )

C 6

3 5

= F( A) c + F(B) c + F(C) c

6 12 12 12

1 1 1 5 5

= 1, 2 sin , cos + 1, 3 sin , cos + 2, 4 sin , cos

6 2 12 12 2 4 4 2 12 12

5 5

= sin + 2 cos sin + 3 cos + 2 sin + 4 cos = 0.505

12 12 12 4 4 12 12

13. Figure 13 shows three vector fields. In each case, determine whether the line integral around the circle (oriented

counterclockwise) is positive, negative, or zero.

FIGURE 13

SOLUTION The vector line integral of F is the integral of the tangential component of F along the curve. The positive

direction of a curve is counterclockwise.

T

For the vector field in (A), the line integral around the circle is zero because the contribution of the negative tangential

components from the upper part of the circle is the same as the contribution of the positive tangential components from

the lower part. For the vector in (B) the contribution of the negative tangential component appear to dominate over the

positive contribution, hence the line integral is negative. In (C), the vector field is orthogonal to the unit tangent vector at

each point, hence the line integral is zero.

14. Determine whether the line integrals around the curves (oriented counterclockwise) in Figures 14(A) and (B) are

positive or negative. What is the value of the line integral in Figure 14(C)? Explain.

1072 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

y y y Symmetry

x

x

FIGURE 14

SOLUTION In (A), the dot product of F and the unit tangent vector is negative in the first, second and fourth quadrants

and positive in the third quadrant. It appears that the contribution from the negative tangential components is dominant

over the contribution from the positive tangential components. Therefore the line integral is negative. In (B), the dot

product of F and the unit tangent vector is positive at all points, hence the line integral is positive. We now refer to (C).

Since the curve is symmetric with respect to the given line, we conclude that the contribution of the positive tangential

components are canceled by the contribution of the negative tangential components, therefore the line integral is zero.

In Exercises 1522, compute the line integral of the scalar function over the curve.

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute c (t) We have

d

c (t) = 2t, 3t, 4t = 2, 3, 4 c (t) = 22 + 32 + 42 = 29

dt

Step 2. Write out f (c(t)) We substitute z = 4t in f (x, y, z) = z 2 to obtain:

f (c(t)) = 16t 2

Step 3. Compute the line integral. By the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals we have

2 2

16 3 2 128 29

f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = 16t 2 29 dt = 29 t = 229.8

C 0 0 3 0 3

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute c (t). We differentiate c(t) = (2 + t, 2 t, 2t) and compute the length of the derivative vector:

c (t) = (1, 1, 2) c (t) = 12 + (1)2 + 22 = 6

1 1

7t 2 1

f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt =

(7t + 2) 6 dt = 6 + 2t

C 2 2 2 2

7 28 9 6

= 6 +2 4 =

2 2 2

17. f (x, y) = 1 + 9x y, y = x 3 for 0 x 1

SOLUTION The curve is parametrized by c(t) = t, t 3 for 0 t 1

Step 1. Compute c (t). We have

d 3

c (t) = t, t = 1, 3t 2 c (t) = 1 + 9t 4

dt

Step 2. Write out f (c(t)). We substitute x = t, y = t 3 in f (x, y) = 1 + 9x y to obtain

f (c(t)) = 1 + 9t t 3 = 1 + 9t 4

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1073

Step 3. Compute the line integral. We use the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals to write

1 1 1

f (x, y) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = 1 + 9t 4 1 + 9t 4 dt = 1 + 9t 4 dt

C 0 0 0

9t 5 1

= 14 = 2.8

=t+

5 0 5

y3

18. f (x, y) = 7 , y = 14 x 4 for 1 x 2

x

4

SOLUTION We parametrize the curve by c(t) = t, t4 for 0 t 1.

Step 1. Compute c (t). We have

d t4

c (t) = t, = 1, t 3 c (t) = 1 + t 6

dt 4

4 3

Step 2. Write out f (c(t)). We substitute x = t, y = t4 in f (x, y) = y 7 to obtain:

x

4 3

t

4 t5

f (c(t)) = =

t7 64

Step 3. Compute the line integral. We have

1 1 5

t

f (x, y) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = 1 + t 6 dt

C 0 0 64

We substitute u = 1 + t 6 , du = 6t 5 dt:

2

1 1 2 3/2 2 1

f (x, y) ds = u du = u = (23/2 13/2 ) 0.00317

C 384 1 384 3 1 576

2

19. f (x, y, z) = xe z , piecewise linear path from (0, 0, 1) to (0, 2, 0) to (1, 1, 1).

SOLUTION Let C1 be the segment joining the points (0, 0, 1) and (0, 2, 0) and C2 be the segment joining the points

(0, 2, 0) and (1, 1, 1). We parametrize C1 and C2 by the following parametrization:

C2 : c2 (t) = (t, 2 t, t), 0 t 1

For C = C1 + C1 we have

f (x, y, z) ds = f (x, y, z) ds + f (x, y, z) ds (1)

C C1 C2

The integral over C1 : We have

d

c1 (t) = 0, 2t, 1 t = 0, 2, 1 c1 (t) = 0+4+1= 5

dt

f (c(t)) = xe z = 0 e(1t) = 0

2 2

Hence,

1 1

f (x, y, z) ds = f (c1 (t)) c1 (t) dt = 0 dt = 0 (2)

C1 0 0

d

c2 (t) = t, 2 t, t = 1, 1, 1 c2 (t) = 1+1+1= 3

dt

2 2

f (c2 (t)) = xe z = tet

1074 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Hence,

1

2

f (x, y, z) ds = tet 3 dt (3)

C2 0

1

3 u 3

f (x, y, z) ds = e du = (e 1) 1.488

C2 0 2 2

Hence,

f (x, y, z) ds 1.488

C

20. f (x, y, z) = x 2 z, c(t) = (et , 2t, et ) for 0 t 1

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute c (t). We have

d t

c (t) = e , 2t, et = et , 2, et

dt

Hence,

2 2 2 2

c (t) = et + 2 + et = e2t + 2 + e2t = et + et = et + et

Step 2. Write out f (c(t)). We substitute x = et , y = 2t, z = et in f (x, y, z) = x 2 z to obtain

f (c(t)) = e2t et = et

Step 3. Compute the integral. We use the Theorem on Scalar Line Integral to obtain the following integral:

1 1 1

f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = et et + et dt = e2t + 1 dt

C 0 0 0

1

1 1 2 1 1 2

= e2t + t = e +1 = e +1

2 0 2 2 2

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute c (t).

d t 2 t

c (t) = e , t , t = e , 2t, 1 c (t) = e2t + 4t 2 + 1

dt

Step 2. Write out f (c(t)). We substitute x = et , y = t 2 , z = t in f (x, y, z) = 2x 2 + 8z to obtain:

f (c(t)) = 2e2t + 8t

1 1

f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = (2e2t + 8t) e2t + 4t 2 + 1 dt

C 0 0

We compute the integral using the substitution u = e2t + 4t 2 + 1, du = 2e2t + 8t dt. We get:

e2 +5 2

2 3/2 e +5 2 2 3/2

f (x, y, z) ds = u 1/2 du = u = (e + 5) 23/2

C 2 3 2 3

2 3

22. f (x, y, z) = 3zy1 + 12x z, c(t) = (t, t , t3 ), 0 t 2

2

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute c (t). We have

d 1 1

c (t) = t, t 2 , t 3 = 1, 2t, t 2 c (t) = 1 + 2t 2 + t 4 = 1 + t 2

dt 2 3

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1075

2

1 1 1 1

f (c(t)) = 3 t 3 t 2 1 + 12 t t 3 = t 5 + 4t 4 1

3 2 3 2

Step 3. Compute the integral. Using the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals we obtain

2 2

1 1

f (x, y, z) ds = t 5 + 4t 4 1 (1 + t 2 ) dt = (t 5 + t 7 ) + 4(t 4 + t 6 ) (1 + t 2 ) 124.246

C 0 2 0 2

(The last step can be done by integrating each term, or by simply typing everything into a CAS.)

In Exercises 2335, compute the line integral of the vector field over the oriented curve.

23. F = x 2 , x y , line segment from (0, 0) to (2, 2)

SOLUTION The oriented line segment is parametrized by

Therefore,

F (c(t)) = x 2 , x y = t 2 , t t = t 2 , t 2

d

c (t) = t, t = 1, 1

dt

The integrand is the dot product:

F (c(t)) c (t) = t 2 , t 2 1, 1 = t 2 + t 2 = 2t 2

We now use the Theorem on vector line integral to compute C F ds:

2 2

2t 3 2 16

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 2t 2 dt = = 3

C 0 0 3 0

SOLUTION

3

c(t) = (cos t, sin t), t

2

We compute the integrand:

c (t) = sin t, cos t

1

F (c(t)) c (t) = 4, sin t sin t, cos t = 4 sin t + sin t cos t = 4 sin t + sin 2t

2

The vector line integral is the following integral:

3 /2

3 /2 3 /2

1 1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = sin 2t dt = 4 cos t cos 2t

4 sin t +

C 2 4

3 1 1 1 1

= 4 cos cos 3 4 cos cos 2 = + 4 + = 4.5

2 4 4 4 4

1076 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

25. F = x 2 , x y , circle x 2 + y 2 = 9 oriented clockwise

SOLUTION

x

3

F (c(t)) = x 2 , x y = 9 cos2 t, 9 cos t sin t

F (c(t)) c (t) = 9 cos2 t, 9 cos t sin t 3 sin t, 3 cos t = 27 cos2 t sin t + 27 cos2 t sin t = 0

Hence,

0 0

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 0 dt = 0

C 2 2

26. F = e yx , e2x , piecewise linear path from (1, 1) to (2, 2) to (0, 2)

SOLUTION Let C1 be the linear path from (1, 1) to (2, 2), C2 the linear path from (2, 2) to (0, 2) and

C = C1 + C2

C1 : c1 (t) = (t, t) t is changing from t = 1 to t = 2

C2 : c2 (t) = (t, 2) t is changing from t = 2 to t = 0

C2

(0, 2) (2, 2)

C1

(1, 1)

F ds = F ds + F ds (1)

C C1 C2

The integral over C1 :

F (c1 (t)) = e yx , e2x = ett , e2t = 1, e2t

c1 (t) = 1, 1

F (c1 (t)) c1 (t) = 1, e2t 1, 1 = 1 + e2t

Hence,

2

1 2 1 1 1 1

F ds = 1 + e2t dt = t + e2t = 2 + e4 1 + e2 = 1 + e4 e2 (2)

C1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1077

F (c2 (t)) = e yx , e2x = e2t , e2t

c2 (t) = 1, 0

F (c2 (t)) c2 (t) = e2t , e2t 1, 0 = e2t 1 + e2t 0 = e2t

Hence,

0 0 0

F ds = F (c2 (t)) c2 (t) dt = e2t dt = e2t = e20 + e22 = e2 + 1 (3)

C2 2 2 2

1

1 1 3

F ds = 1 + e4 e2 + e2 + 1 = e4 e2 + 2

C 2 2 2 2

SOLUTION

Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We write the vectors and compute the integrand:

c(t) = 1 + t 1 , t 2

F (c(t)) = x y, x + y = 1 + t 1 t 2 , 1 + t 1 + t 2 = t 2 + t, 1 + t 1 + t 2

d

c (t) = 1 + t 1 , t 2 = t 2 , 2t

dt

The integrand is the dot product:

F (c(t)) c (t) = t 2 + t, 1 + t 1 + t 2 t 2 , 2t = t 2 + t t 2 + 1 + t 1 + t 2 2t

= 1 t 1 + 2t + 2 + 2t 3 = 2t 3 + 2t + 1 t 1

2 2 2

t4

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt =

2t 3 + 2t + 1 t 1 dt = + t 2 + t ln t

C 1 1 2 1

16 1

= + 4 + 2 ln 2 + 1 + 1 ln 1 = 11.5 ln 2

2 2

SOLUTION

Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We have

1

c(t) = t + t 2 , t 3 , 2 + t

3

1 3 2 1 3

F (c(t)) = y + z, x, y = t + 2 + t, t + t , t

3 3

d 1

c (t) = t + t 2 , t 3 , 2 + t = 1 + 2t, t 2 , 1

dt 3

The integrand is the dot product:

1

1 1 1

F (c(t)) c (t) = t 3 + 2 + t, t + t 2 , t 3 1 + 2t, t 2 , 1 = t 3 + 2 + t (1 + 2t) + t + t 2 t 2 + t 3

3 3 3 3

5 4 5 3

= t + t + 2t 2 + 5t + 2

3 3

Step 2. Evaluate the integral. Using the Theorem on vector line integral we get:

2 2

5 4 5 3

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = t + t + 2t 2 + 5t + 2 dt

C 0 0 3 3

1078 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

2

1 5 5 2 5 32 20 16 2

= t + t 4 + t 3 + t 2 + 2t = + + + 10 + 4 = 36

3 12 3 2 0 3 3 3 3

29. F = 3zy 1 , 4x, y , c(t) = (et , et , t) for 1 t 1

SOLUTION

Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We write out the vectors and compute the integrand:

c(t) = et , et , t

F (c(t)) = 3zy 1 , 4x, y = 3tet , 4et , et

c (t) = et , et , 1

F (c(t)) c (t) = 3tet , 4et , et et , et , 1 = 3tet et + 4et et et 1 = 3t + 4e2t et

1 1 1 1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 3t + 4e2t et dt = 0 + 4e2t et dt = 2e2t et

C 1 1 1 1

= 2e2 e 2e2 e1 = 2 e2 e2 e e1 12.157

SOLUTION The oriented line segment from (0, 0, 0) to (1, 4, 4) has the parametrization:

d

c (t) = t, 4t, 4t = 1, 4, 4

dt

The integrand is the dot product:

1 1

13 2 1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 13t dt = t = 6.5

C 0 0 2 0

y x

31. F = , , circle of radius R with center at the origin oriented counterclockwise

x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

SOLUTION

x

R

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1079

y x R sin t R cos t 1

F (c(t)) = 2 , = , = sin t, cos t

x + y2 x 2 + y2 R 2 cos2 t + R 2 sin2 t R 2 cos2 t + R 2 sin2 t R

d

c (t) = R cos t, R sin t = R sin t, R cos t = R sin t, cos t

dt

The integrand is the dot product:

1

F (c(t)) c (t) = sin t, cos t R sin t, cos t = sin2 t + cos2 t = 1

R

Step 2. Evaluate the integral. We obtain the following integral:

2 2

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 1 dt = 2

C 0 0

y x

32. F = , , the square with vertices (1, 1), (1, 1), (1, 1), and (1, 1) in the counterclockwise

x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

direction

SOLUTION

(1, 1) (1, 1)

C1

C4

x

C2

C3

(1, 1) (1, 1)

We parametrize each segment of the boundary of the square C, by the following parametrizations:

C1 : c1 (t) = (t, 1), t varies from t = 1 to t = 1

C2 : c2 (t) = (1, t), t varies from t = 1 to t = 1

C3 : c3 (t) = (t, 1), t varies from t = 1 to t = 1

C4 : c4 (t) = (1, t), t varies from t = 1 to t = 1

4

F ds = F ds (1)

C i=1 Ci

The integral over C1 :

y x 1 t

F (c1 (t)) = 2 , = ,

x + y2 x 2 + y2 t2 + 1 t2 + 1

d

c1 (t) = t, 1 = 1, 0

dt

1 t 1

F (c1 (t)) c1 (t) = 2 , 2 1, 0 = 2

t +1 t +1 t +1

Hence,

1 1 1

dt

F ds = F (c1 (t)) c1 (t) dt = = tan1 t

=2 = (2)

C1 1 1 t + 1

2

1 4 2

y x t 1

F (c2 (t)) = 2 , = ,

x + y2 x 2 + y2 t2 + 1 t2 + 1

1080 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

d

c2 (t) = 1, t = 0, 1

dt

t 1 1

F (c2 (t)) c2 (t) = 2 , 2 0, 1 = 2

t +1 t +1 t +1

Hence,

1 1 1

dt

F ds = F (c2 (t)) c2 (t) dt = = tan1 t

=2 = (3)

C2 1 1 t + 1

2

1 4 2

y x 1 t

F (c3 (t)) = 2 , = ,

x + y2 x 2 + y2 t2 + 1 t2 + 1

d

c3 (t) = t, 1 = 1, 0

dt

1 t 1

F (c3 (t)) c3 (t) = 2 , 2 1, 0 = 2

t +1 t +1 t +1

Hence,

1 1 1

dt

F ds = F (c3 (t)) c3 (t) dt = 1

= tan t = (4)

C3 1 1 t 2 + 1 1 2

y x t 1

F (c4 (t)) = 2 , = ,

x + y2 x 2 + y2 t2 + 1 t2 + 1

d

c4 (t) = 1, t = 0, 1

dt

t 1 1

F (c4 (t)) c4 (t) = 2 , 2 0, 1 = 2

t +1 t +1 t +1

Hence,

1 1 1

dt

F ds = F (c4 (t)) c4 (t) dt = = tan 1 t

= 2 (5)

C4 1 1 1 + t 2

1

F ds = 4 = 2

C 2

33. F = z 2 , x, y , c(t) = (cos t, tan t, t) for 0 t 4

SOLUTION

Step 1. Calculate the integrand. The vectors are:

F (c(t)) = z 2 , x, y = t 2 , cos t, tan t

d 1

c (t) = cos t, tan t, t = sin t, , 1

dt cos2 t

The integrand is the dot product

1

1

F (c(t)) c (t) = t 2 , cos t, tan t sin t, , 1 = t 2 sin t + + tan t

cos2 t cos t

Step 2. Evaluate the integral. The Theorem on vector line integrals gives the following integral:

/4 /4

1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = t 2 sin t + + tan t dt

C 0 0 cos t

/4 /4 /4

1

= t 2 cos t 2t sin t 2 cos t + ln + tan t ln(cos t)

0 cos t 0 0

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1081

2 1 1 1 1

= 2 2 (2) + ln 2 + 1 ln 1 ln ln 1

16 2 4 2 2 2

2 ( 8)

= 2 + 2 + ln 1 + 2 + ln 2 = + ln 2 + 2 + 2 2 1.139

16 2 2 2 16 2

1 1

34. F = , , 1 , c(t) = (t 3 , 2t, t 2 ) for 0 t 1

y3 + 1 z + 1

SOLUTION

Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We have

c(t) = t 3 , 2t, t 2

1 1 1 1 1 1

F (c(t)) = 3 , ,1 = , , 1 = , , 1

y +1 z+1 (2t)3 + 1 t 2 + 1 8t 3 + 1 t 2 + 1

c (t) = 3t 2 , 2, 2t

Hence,

1 1 3t 2 2

F (c(t)) c (t) = , , 1 3t 2 , 2, 2t = 3 + + 2t

8t + 1 t + 1

3 2 8t + 1 t 2 + 1

Step 2. Evaluate the integral. Using the Theorem on vector line integrals we obtain:

1 1 1 1

3t 2 2

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = dt + dt + 2t dt

C 0 0 8t 3 + 1 0 t2 + 1 0

9 1 1 9

du 1

= + 2 tan1 t + t 2 = ln u + 2 tan1 1 tan1 0 + 1

1 8u 0 0 8 1

ln 9 ln 1 ln 3

= +2 0 +1= + +1

8 4 4 2

35. F = z 3 , yz, x , circle of radius 2 in the yz-plane with center at the origin oriented clockwise when viewed from

the positive x-axis

SOLUTION

t is changing from 2 to 0.

Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We write out the vectors and compute the integrand:

F (c(t)) = z 3 , yz, x = 8 sin3 t, 4 cos t sin t, 0

F (c(t)) c (t) = 8 sin3 t, 4 cos t sin t, 0 0, 2 sin t, 2 cos t = 8 cos t sin2 t

1082 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Step 2. Evaluate the integral. We obtain the following vector line integral:

0 0 2

sin3 t 2

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 8 cos t sin2 t dt = 8 sin2 t cos t dt = 8 =0

C 2 2 0 3 0

36. Let f (x, y, z) = x 1 yzand let C be the curve parametrized by c(t) = (ln t, t, t 2 ) for 2 t 4. Use a

computer algebra system to calculate f (x, y, z) ds to four decimal places.

C

SOLUTION Note that c (t) = 1/t, 1, 2t, so c (t) = 1/t 2 + 1 + 4t 2 . Our line integral is

4

f (ln t, t, t 2 ) 1/t 2 + 1 + 4t 2 dt,

2

xy x+y

37. Use a CAS to calculate e ,e ds to four decimal places, where C is the curve y = sin x for

C

0 x , oriented from left to right.

SOLUTION Using the parameterization c(t) = t, sin t, our integral becomes etsin t , et+sin t 1, cos t dt,

0

which is calculated to be 4.5088.

In Exercises 3839, calculate the line integral of F = e z , e xy , e y over the given path.

Q = (1, 1, 1)

(0, 0, 1)

(0, 1, 1)

P = (0, 0, 0)

FIGURE 15

SOLUTION

C3 Q = (1, 1, 1)

R = (0, 0, 1) C2

S = (0, 1, 1)

C1

P = (0, 0, 0)

Let C1 , C2 , C3 denote the oriented segments from P to R, from R to S and S to Q respectively. These paths have the

following parametrizations (see figure):

C2 : c2 (t) = (0, t, 1) 0t 1 c2 (t) = 0, 1, 0

C3 : c3 (t) = (t, 1, 1) 0t 1 c3 (t) = 1, 0, 0

Since C = C1 + C2 + C3 we have

F ds = F ds + F ds + F ds (1)

C C1 C2 C3

1 1 1

F ds = F (c1 (t)) c1 (t) dt = et , e00 , e0 0, 0, 1 dt = 1 dt = 1

C1 0 0 0

1 1 1 1

F ds = F (c2 (t)) c2 (t) dt = e1 , e0t , et 0, 1, 0 dt = e dt = e = 1 e1

t t

C2 0 0 0 0

1 1 1

F ds = F (c3 (t)) c3 (t) dt = e1 , et1 , e1 1, 0, 0 dt = e dt = e

C3 0 0 0

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1083

F ds = 1 + (1 e1 ) + e = e + 2 e1

C

C = (0, 0, 6)

A = (2, 0, 0) B = (0, 4, 0)

y

x

FIGURE 16

SOLUTION

C = (0, 0, 6)

C3 C2

A = (2, 0, 0) B = (0, 4, 0)

C1 y

x

We denote by C1 , C2 , C3 the oriented segments from A to B, from B to C and from C to A. We parametrize these paths

by,

C2 :c2 (t) = (1 t)(0, 4, 0) + t (0, 0, 6) = (0, 4 4t, 6t), 0 t 1 c2 (t) = 0, 4, 6

C3 :c3 (t) = (1 t)(0, 0, 6) + t (2, 0, 0) = (2t, 0, 6 6t), 0 t 1 c3 (t) = 2, 0, 6

Since C = C1 + C2 + C3 we have,

3

F ds = F ds (1)

C i=1 Ci

1

F ds = e0 , e26t , e4t 2, 4, 0 dt = 1, e26t , e4t 2, 4, 0 dt

C1 0

1

26t 2 26t 1 2 2 2 4

= 2 + 4e dt = 2t e = 3e 3e 2

0 3 0

1 1

F ds = e6t , e4+4t , e44t 0, 4, 6 dt = 4e4+4t + 6e44t dt

C2 0 0

1

3 3 5

= e4+4t e44t = e4 + e4

2 0 2 2

1 1

F ds = e66t , e2t , e0 2, 0, 6 dt = 2e66t 6 dt

C3 0 0

1

1 66t 1 19

= e 6t = e6

3 0 3 3

2 2 2 4 3 4 5 1 6 19

F ds = e e 2 + e + e4 + e

C 3 3 2 2 3 3

1 6 3 4 2 2 65 1 4

= e + e + e + e

3 2 3 6 3

1084 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

40. Let C be the path from P to Q in Figure 17 that traces C1 , C2 , and C3 in the orientation indicated. Suppose that

F ds = 5, F ds = 8, F ds = 8

C C1 C3

Determine:

(a) F ds (b) F ds (c) F ds

C3 C2 C1 C3

Q

C2

C3

C1

P

x

FIGURE 17

(d) What is the value of the line integral of F over the path that traverses the loop C2 four times in the clockwise

direction?

SOLUTION

y

C2

C3

C1

P

x

(a) If the orientation of the path is reversed, the line integral changes sign, thus:

F ds = F ds = 8

C3 C3

F ds = F ds + F ds + F ds

C C1 C2 C3

5=8+ F ds + 8

C2

or

F ds = 5 16 = 11

C2

F ds = F ds + F ds = F ds F ds = 8 8 = 16

C1 C3 C1 C3 C1 C3

(d) Using additivity and the integral over the curve with the reversed orientation, the line integral of F over the path that

traverses the loop C2 four times in the clockwise direction is:

4 F ds = 4 F ds = 4 F ds = 4 (11) = 44

C2 C2 C2

In Exercises 4144, let F be the vortex vector field (so-called because it swirls around the origin as shown in Figure 18)

y x

F= 2 ,

x + y2 x 2 + y2

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1085

y x

FIGURE 18 Vector field F = , .

x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

41. Let I = F ds, where C is the circle of radius 2 centered at the origin oriented counterclockwise (Figure 18).

C

(a) Do you expect I to be positive, negative, or zero?

(b) Evaluate I .

(c) Verify that I changes sign when C is oriented in the clockwise direction.

SOLUTION

(a) When the circle is oriented counterclockwise, the dot product of F with the unit tangent vector at each point along

the circle is positive. Therefore, we expect the vector line integral I to be positive.

(b)

x

2

Hence,

2 sin t 2 cos t 1

F (c(t)) = , = sin t, cos t

4 cos2 t + 4 sin2 t 4 cos2 t + 4 sin2 t 2

c (t) = 2 sin t, 2 cos t

1

F (c(t)) c (t) = sin t, cos t 2 sin t, 2 cos t = sin2 t + cos2 t = 1

2

We obtain the following integral:

2 2

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 1 dt = 2

C 0 0

(c) When C is oriented in the clockwise direction, the parameter t is changing from 2 to 0, therefore, the line integral

is,

0 2

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 1 dt = 2

C 2 0

x

2

1086 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

42. Compute F ds, where C R is the circle of radius R centered at the origin oriented counterclockwise. Show that

CR

the result is independent of R.

SOLUTION We parametrize C R by:

y

x

R

y x R sin t R cos t 1

F (c(t)) = 2 , = , = sin t, cos t

x + y2 x 2 + y2 R2 R2 R

d

c (t) = R cos t, R sin t = R sin t, R cos t = R sin t, cos t

dt

The integrand is the dot product:

1

F (c(t)) c (t) = sin t, cos t R sin t, cos t = sin2 t + cos2 t = 1

R

Step 2. Evaluate the integral.

2 2

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 1 dt = 2

C 0 0

43. Calculate F ds, where A is the arc of angle 0 on the circle of radius R centered at the origin oriented counter-

A

clockwise. Note: A begins at (R, 0) and ends at (R cos 0 , R sin 0 ).

SOLUTION We use the following parametrization for A:

c( ) = (R cos , R sin ), 0 0

y

(R cos q 0, R sin q 0 )

q0

x

(R, 0)

Hence,

c ( ) = R sin , R cos

y x R sin R cos

F (c( )) = 2 , = ,

x + y2 x 2 + y2 R 2 cos2 + R 2 sin2 R 2 cos2 + R 2 sin2

R sin R cos sin cos

= , = ,

R2 R2 R R

The integrand is the dot product:

sin cos

F (c( )) c ( ) = , R sin , R cos = sin2 + cos2 = 1

R R

We now compute the line integral using the Theorem on vector line integrals. We get:

0 0

F ds = F (c( )) c ( ) d = 1 d = 00 = 0

A 0 0

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1087

44. Let a > 0, b < c. Show that the integral of F along the segment from P = (a, b) to Q = (a, c) is equal to the angle

P O Q (O is the origin).

SOLUTION Note that the points P and Q are on the vertical line x = a. Now, a nice parametrization of this line would

be c(t) = a, b + (c b)t for t from 0 to 1, with c (t) = 0, c b. We find that:

a(c b)

F (c(t)) c (t) = 2

a + (b + (c b)t)2

and so our integral becomes:

1 1 c

a(c b) du

F (c(t)) c (t) dt = dt = a du

0 0 a + (b + (c b)t)

2 2 b a + u2

2

where the last integral was done with the substitution u = b + (c b)t. This gives us:

1

u c c b

F (c(t)) c (t) dt = tan1 = tan1 tan1

0 a b a a

45. Calculate the line integral of the constant vector field F = 2, 1, 4 along the segment P Q, where:

(a) P = (0, 0, 0), Q = (1, 0, 0)

(b) P = (0, 0, 0), Q = (4, 3, 5)

(c) P = (3, 2, 3), Q = (4, 8, 12)

SOLUTION

(a) The segment P Q, where P = (0, 0, 0) and Q = (1, 0, 0) is parametrized by

1 1 1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 2, 1, 4 1, 0, 0 dt = 2 dt = 2

C 0 0 0

(b) The segment P Q, where P = (0, 0, 0) and Q = (4, 3, 5) has the parametrization,

1 1 1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 2, 1, 4 4, 3, 5 dt = 25 dt = 25

C 0 0 0

(c) The segment P Q, where P = (3, 2, 3) and Q = (4, 8, 12) has the parametrization,

1 1 1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 2, 1, 4 1, 6, 9 dt = 32 dt = 32

C 0 0 0

46. Show that if F is a constant vector field and C is any oriented path from P to Q, then

F ds = F P Q

C

SOLUTION We denote by c(t) = (x(t), y(t), c(t)), t0 t t1 a parametrization of the oriented path from P to Q

(then c (t0 ) = P and c (t1 ) = Q). Let F = a, b, c be a constant vector field. Then,

F (c(t)) c (t) = a, b, c x (t), y (t), z (t) = ax (t) + by (t) + cz (t)

t1 t1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = ax (t) + by (t) + cz (t) dt

C t0 t0

t1 t1 t1 t1 t1

t1

=a x (t) dt + b y (t) dt + c z (t) dt = ax(t)t=t + by(t) + cz(t)

0

t0 t0 t0 t=t0 t=t0

1088 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

= a, b, c x (t1 ) x (t0 ) , y (t1 ) y (t0 ) , z (t1 ) z (t0 )

Since P = x (t0 ) , y (t0 ) , z (t0 ) and Q = x (t1 ) , y (t1 ) , z (t1 ) we conclude that,

F ds = a, b, c P Q = F P Q.

C

(a) Are F ds and F ds equal? If not, which is larger?

AB DC

(b) Which is smaller: the line integral of F over the path ADC or ABC?

y

B C

D

A

x

FIGURE 19

SOLUTION

(a) Since x is constant on AB and DC, F(x, y) = x, x is also constant on these segments.

y

l

B C

l l

A l D

x

a1 a2

Let a1 and a2 denote the constant values of x on the segments AB and DC respectively, and l denote the lengths of these

segments. By Exercise 46 we have

F ds = a1 , a1 0, l = a1 0 + a1 l = a1 l

AB

F ds = a2 , a2 0, l = a2 0 + a2 l = a2 l

DC

Since a1 < a2 we have AB F ds < DC F ds.

(b) We compute the integral over BC. This segment is parametrized by:

Hence,

F (c(t)) c (t) = a1 + lt, a1 + lt l, 0 = a1 l + l 2 t

Thus,

1

l 2 t 2 1 l2

F ds = a1 l + l 2 t dt = a1 lt + = a1 l +

BC 0 2 t=0 2

We see that the line integral does not depend on b, therefore,

F ds = F ds (1)

AD BC

In part (a) we showed that:

F ds < F ds (2)

AB DC

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1089

F ds = F ds + F ds < F ds + F ds = F ds

ABC AB BC DC AD ADC

48. Calculate the work done by a field F = x + y, x y when an object moves from (0, 0) to (1, 1) along each of the

paths y = x 2 and x = y 2 .

SOLUTION We calculate the work done by F = x + y, x y along the path y = x 2 from (0, 0) to (1, 1). We use the

parametrization:

c1 (t) = (t, t 2 ), 0t 1

We have

F (c1 (t)) = t + t 2 , t t 2

F (c(t)) c (t) = t + t 2 , t t 2 1, 2t = t + t 2 + 2t 2 2t 3 = 2t 3 + 3t 2 + t

1 1

1 1 1

W = F ds = F (c1 (t)) c1 (t) dt = 2t 3 + 3t 2 + t dt = t 4 + t 3 + t 2 = 1

C1 0 0 2 2 0

We now compute the work along the path x = y 2 . We parametrize the path by:

c2 (t) = (t 2 , t), 0t 1

Then

F (c2 (t)) = t 2 + t, t 2 t

c2 (t) = 2t, 1

F (c2 (t)) c2 (t) = t 2 + t, t 2 t 2t, 1 = 2t 3 + 2t 2 + t 2 t = 2t 3 + 3t 2 t

1 1

1 1 1 1 1

W = F ds = F (c2 (t)) c2 (t) dt = 2t 3 + 3t 2 t dt = t 4 + t 3 t 2 = + 1 = 1

C2 0 0 2 2 0 2 2

49. Calculate the work done by the force field F = x, y, z along the path (cos t, sin t, t) for 0 t 3 .

SOLUTION The work done by the force field F is the line integral:

W = F ds

C

We compute the integrand:

d

c (t) = cos t, sin t, t = sin t, cos t, 1

dt

F (c(t)) c (t) = cos t, sin t, t sin t, cos t, 1 = cos t sin t + sin t cos t + t = t

3 3

t 2 3 9 2

W = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = t dt = =

0 0 2 0 2

50. Let I = f (x, y, z) ds. Assume that f (x, y, z) m for some number m and all points (x, y, z) on C.

C

Which of the following conclusions is correct? Explain.

(a) I m

(b) I m L, where L is the length of C

1090 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

SOLUTION Since f (c(t)) m for all points on C , also f (c(t)) c (t) mc (t). By properties of integrals we

have

b b b

I = f (c(t)) c (t) dt mc (t) dt = m c (t) dt

a a a

Since L = ab c (t) dt, we get:

I mL

51. As observed in the text, the value of a scalar line integral does not depend on the choice of parametrization. Prove

this directly. Namely, suppose that c1 (t) and c(t) are two parametrizations of C and that c1 (t) = c( (t)), where (t) is

an increasing function. Use the Change of Variables Formula to verify that

d b

f (c1 (t))c1 (t) dt = f (c(t))c (t) dt

c a

SOLUTION We compute the integral ab f (c(t)) c (t) dt using the substitution t = (u), a = (c), b = (d). We

get:

b 1 (b)

f (c1 (t)) c (t) dt = f c (t) c (t) (u) du (1)

a 1 (a)

c (u) (u) = c (u) (u) (2)

d

c (u) = (u)c (u) (3)

du

Combining (2) and (3) gives:

c (u) (u) = d c (u) = d c1 (u) = c (u) (4)

du du 1

b d d

f (c(t)) c (t) dt = f (c1 (u)) c1 (u) du = f (c1 (t)) c1 (t) dt

a c c

52. Suppose we wish to compute the average value of a continuous function f (x, y, z) along a curve C of length L.

Given a large number N , divide C into N consecutive arcs C1 , . . . , C N , each of length L/N , and let Pi be a sample

1

point in Ci (Figure 20). Then the points Pi are somewhat evenly spaced along the curve and the sum f (Pi ) may

N i=1

be considered an approximation to the average value of f along C. We define the average to be the limit (if it exists) as

N :

1

Av( f ) = lim f (Pi )

N N

i=1

Prove that

1

Av( f ) = f (x, y, z) ds 8

L C

L

Hint: Show that f (Pi ) is a Riemann sum approximation to the line integral of f along C.

N i=1

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1091

y

PN

P2 Pi

P1 Ci

Curve C

x

FIGURE 20

N

f (Pi ) Si

i=1

If the consecutive arcs C1 , ..., C2 have equal lengths N

N

L L N

f (Pi ) = f (Pi )

i=1

N N i=1

We let N ,

L N

1 N

f (x, y, z) ds = lim f (Pi ) = L lim f (Pi ) = LAv( f )

C N N N N

i=1 i=1

That is,

1

Av( f ) = f (x, y, z) ds.

L C

53. Use Eq. (8) to calculate the average value of f (x, y) = x y along the segment from P = (2, 1) to Q = (5, 5).

SOLUTION We can parametrize this line segment by

Therefore,

c (t) = 3, 4 c (t) = 9 + 16 = 5

1 1

L= c (t) dt = 5 dt = 5

0 0

Thus, using our values for x and y given above, we find that

1 1

1 1 1 1

Av( f ) = x y dt = (2 + 3t) (1 + 4t) dt = 1 t dt =

L C 5 0 5 0 2 5

54. Use Eq. (8) to calculate the average value of x y along the curve y = x 2 for 0 x 1.

SOLUTION The average value is

1

Av( f ) = x y ds (1)

L c

We parametrize the curve by the parametrization,

c(t) = t, t 2 , 0 t 1.

Hence,

c (t) = 1, 2t c (t) = 1 + 4t 2

1

1 1 1

L= c (t) dt = 1 + 4t 2 dt = t 1 + 4t 2 + ln 2t + 1 + 4t 2

c 0 2 4 0

1092 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

5 1 2 5 + ln 2 + 5

= + ln 2 + 5 =

2 4 4

We compute the line integral in (1):

1 1

x y ds = t t 2 c (t) dt = t 3 1 + 4t 2 dt

c 0 0

4 so we get,

1 5 5

u 1 1/2 du 1

x y ds = t 2 1 + 4t 2 t dt = u = u 3/2 u 1/2 du

c 0 1 4 8 32 1

5

1 2 5/2 2 3/2 1 5/2 1 53/2 1 1

= u u = 5

32 5 3 1 80 48 80 48

55/2 + 1 25 5 + 1

= =

120 120

Combining (1), (2) and (3) gives the following solution:

4 25 5 + 1 25 5 + 1

Av( f ) = = 0.32

2 5 + ln 2 + 5 120 30 2 5 + ln 2 + 5

55. The temperature (in degrees centigrade) at a point P on a circular wire of radius 2 cm centered at the origin is equal

to the square of the distance from P to P0 = (2, 0). Compute the average temperature along the wire.

SOLUTION

P = (x, y)

P0 = (2, 0)

x

T (x, y) = (x 2)2 + y 2

The length of the wire is the length of the circle of radius 2, L = 2 2 = 4 . Therefore, the average temperature along

the wire is,

1 1

Av(T ) = T ds = (x 2)2 + y 2 ds

L C 4 C

To compute the line integral, we parametrize the circle by:

Then,

c(t) = 2 sin t, 2 cos t c (t) = 4 sin2 t + 4 cos2 t = 2

= 4 cos2 + sin2 t + 4 8 cos t = 8(1 cos t)

2 2 2

1 1 4 4 2

Av(T ) = T (c(t)) c (t) dt = 16(1 cos t) dt = t sin t = =8

4 0 4 0 0

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1093

56. Let F = x, 0. Prove that if C is any path from (a, b) to (c, d), then

1

F ds = (c2 a 2 )

C 2

SOLUTION

(c, d)

(a, b)

t1 t1 t1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = x(t), 0 x (t), y (t) dt = x(t)x (t) dt

c t0 t0 t0

t1

1 1 1

F ds = x(t) =

2 x(t1 )2 x(t0 )2 = c2 a 2

c 2 t0 2 2

d 2 1 d 2

f (t) = 2 f (t) f (t) f (t) f (t) = f (t)

dt 2 dt

Applying the Fundamental Theorem of calculus we obtain

t1

1 t1 d 2 1 2

f (t) f (t) dt = f (t) dt = f (t1 ) f 2 (t0 )

t0 2 t0 dt 2

Alternatively we can evaluate the integral f (t) f (t) dt using the substitution u = f (t), du = f (t) dt. We get

1 1

f (t) f (t) dt = u du = u 2 + c = f 2 (t) + c.

2 2

57. Let F = y, x. Prove that if C is any path from (a, b) to (c, d), then

F ds = cd ab

C

SOLUTION

(c, d)

(a, b)

c (t0 ) = (a, b), c (t1 ) = (c, d)

t1 t1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = y(t), x(t) x (t), y (t) dt

c t0 t0

1094 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

t1 t1

d

= y(t)x (t) + x(t)y (t) dt = (x(t)y(t)) dt

t0 t0 dt

The last equality follows from the Product Rule for differentiation. We now use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

to obtain:

t1

F ds = x(t)y(t) = x (t1 ) y (t1 ) x (t0 ) y (t0 ) = cd ab

c t=t0

Preliminary Questions

1. The following statement is false. If F is a gradient vector field, then the line integral of F along every curve is zero.

Which single word must be added to make it true?

SOLUTION The missing word is closed (curve). The line integral of a gradient vector field along every closed curve

is zero.

2. Which of the following statements are true for all vector fields, which are true only for conservative vector fields?

(a) The line integral along a path from P to Q does not depend on which path is chosen.

(b) The line integral over an oriented curve C does not depend on how the C is parametrized.

(c) The line integral around a closed curve is zero.

(d) The line integral changes sign if the orientation is reversed.

(e) The line integral is equal to the difference of a potential function at the two endpoints.

(f) The line integral is equal to the integral of the tangential component along the curve.

(g) The cross partials of the components are equal.

SOLUTION

(a) This statement is true only for conservative vector fields.

(b) This statement is true for all vector fields.

(c) This statement holds only for conservative vector fields.

(d) This is a property of all vector fields.

(e) Only conservative vector fields have a potential function, and the line integral is computed by using the potential

function as stated.

(f) All vector fields line integrals share this property.

(g) The cross-partials of the components of a conservative field are equal. For other fields, the cross-partials of the

components may or may not equal.

3. Let F be a vector field on an open, connected domain D. Which of the following statements are always true, and

which are true under additional hypotheses on D?

(a) If F has a potential function, then F is conservative.

(b) If F is conservative, then the cross partials of F are equal.

(c) If the cross partials of F are equal, then F is conservative.

SOLUTION

(a) This statement is always true, since every gradient vector field is conservative.

(b) If F is conservative on a connected domain D, then F has a potential function D and consequently the cross partials

of F are equal in D.

(c) If the cross partials of F are equal in a simply-connected region D, then F is a gradient vector field in D.

4. Let C, D, and E be the oriented curves in Figure 15 and let F = be a gradient vector field such that F ds = 4.

C

What are the values of the following integrals?

(a) F ds (b) F ds

D E

y

Q

C

D

E

P

x

FIGURE 15

S E C T I O N 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3) 1095

SOLUTION Since F is a gradient vector field the integrals over closed paths are zero. Therefore, by the equivalent

conditions for path independence we have:

(a) D F ds = C F ds = 4

(b) E F ds = C F ds = C F ds = 4

Exercises

1. Let (x, y, z) = x y sin(yz). Evaluate ds, where c is any path from (0, 0, 0) to (1, 1, ).

c

SOLUTION By the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields, we have:

ds = (1, 1, ) (0, 0, 0) = 1 1 sin 0 = 0

c

(a) The line segment from (1, 1, 1) to (1, 2, 2)

(b) A circle in the x z-plane

(c) The upper half of a circle of radius 4 with its center (0, 1, 1) in the yz-plane, oriented clockwise

SOLUTION

(a) Using the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields we have:

F ds = (1, 2, 2) (1, 1, 1) = 1 2 + 22 1 1 + 12 = 4

C

(b) Since every gradient vector field is conservative, the line integral over a closed curve is zero. Therefore the line

integral of F = over the circle is zero.

(c)

z C

(0, 1, 1)

A = (0, 3, 1) B = (0, 5, 1)

y

The initial point of the path is A = (0, 3, 1) and the terminal point is B = (0, 5, 1). Therefore, by the Fundamental

Theorem for Gradient Vectors we obtain:

F ds = (0, 5, 1) (0, 3, 1) = 1 1 = 0

C

In Exercises 38, verify that F = and evaluate the line integral of F over the given path.

3. F = 3, 6y, (x, y, z) = 3x + 3y 2 ; c(t) = (t, 2t 1 ) for 1 t 4

SOLUTION The gradient of = 3x + 3y is:2

= , = 3, 6y = F

x y

Using the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields, we have:

1 1 9

F ds = (c(4)) (c(1)) = 4, (1, 2) = 3 4 + 3 (3 1 + 3 4) =

c 2 4 4

4. F = sin y 2 , 2x y cos y 2 , (x, y) = x sin y 2 ; line segment from (2, 0) to (3, )

SOLUTION The gradient of = x sin y 2 is:

= , = sin y 2 , 2yx cos y 2 = F

x y

We use the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields to compute the integral:

F ds = 3, (2, 0) = 3 sin 2 sin 0 = 0

c

1096 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

5. F = x y 2 , x 2 y , (x, y) = 12 x 2 y 2 ; upper half of the unit circle centered at the origin oriented counterclock-

wise

SOLUTION We compute the gradient of (x, y) = 12 x 2 y 2 :

= , = x y2, x 2 y = F

x y

We now use the Fundamental Theorem of Gradient Vector Fields. The terminal point is Q = (1, 0) and the initial point

is P = (1, 0), therefore:

1 1

F ds = (Q) (P) = (1, 0) (1, 0) = (1)2 02 12 02 = 0

c 2 2

y

x

Q = (1, 0) P = (1, 0)

6. F = y + 2x z, x, x 2 , (x, y, z) = x y + x 2 z; any path from (1, 2, 1) to (3, 1, 0)

SOLUTION We verify that = F:

= , , = y + 2x z, x, x 2 = F

x y z

By the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vectors we get:

F ds = (3, 1, 0) (1, 2, 1) = 3 3 = 0

c

7. F = ye z , xe z , x ye z , (x, y, z) = x ye z ; c(t) = (t 2 , t 3 , t 1) for 1 t 2

SOLUTION We verify that F is the gradient of :

= , , = ye z , xe z , x ye z = F

x y z

We use the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vectors with the initial point c(1) = (1, 1, 0) and terminal point c(2) =

(4, 8, 1), to obtain:

F ds = (4, 8, 1) (1, 1, 0) = 32e 1

c

x z

8. F = , , ln(x y) , (x, y, z) = z ln(x y);

xy yz

ellipse 2x 2 + 3(y 4)2 = 12 in the clockwise direction

SOLUTION We first verify that F = :

z z z z

= , , = , , ln(x y) = , , ln(x y) = F

x y z xy xy xy yx

Since F is a gradient field it is conservative. Therefore, the integrals over closed paths are zero. The ellipse is a closed

path, hence the integral of F over the ellipse is zero.

9. Find a potential function for F = 2x y + 5, x 2 4z, 4y and evaluate

F ds

c

2

SOLUTION We find a potential function (x, y, z) for F, using the following steps.

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . is an antiderivative of F1 = 2x y + 5 when y and z are fixed, therefore,

(x, y, z) = (2x y + 5) d x = x 2 y + 5x + g(y, z) (1)

S E C T I O N 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3) 1097

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . We have,

2

x y + 5x + g(y, z) = x 2 4z

y

x 2 + g y (y, z) = x 2 4z g y (y, z) = 4z

g(y, z) = 4z d y = 4zy + h(z)

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . We have,

2

x y + 5x 4zy + h(z) = 4y

z

4y + h (z) = 4y

h (z) = 0 h(z) = c

(x, y, z) = x 2 y + 5x 4zy + c

To compute the line integral we need one of the potential functions. We choose c = 0 to obtain the function,

(x, y, z) = x 2 y + 5x 4zy

We now use the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields to evaluate the line integral:

F ds = (2) (0) = (4, 0, 1) (0, 0, 1) = 20 0 = 20

c

10. Verify the cross-partials condition and find a potential function for

F = 2x yz 1 + yz, x 2 z 1 + x z, x 2 yz 2 + x y

SOLUTION The cross partials condition is:

F1 F2 F2 F3 F3 F1

= , = , =

y x z y x z

We verify that F satisfies these conditions:

F1

= 2x yz 1 + yz = 2x z 1 + z

y y F1 F2

=

F2 2 1 y x

= x z + x z = 2x z 1 + z

x x

F2 2 1

= x z + x z = x 2 z 2 + x

z z F2 F3

=

F3 2 2 z y

= x yz + x y = x 2 z 2 + x

y y

F3 2 2

= x yz + x y = 2x yz 2 + y

x x F3 F1

=

F1 x z

= 2x yz 1 + yz = 2x yz 2 + y

z z

We now find a potential function on every region contained in one of the regions z > 0 or z < 0.

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . Since is an antiderivative of F1 = 2x yz 1 when y and z are fixed, we have:

(x, y, z) = 2x yz 1 + yz d x = x 2 yz 1 + yzx + g(y, z) (1)

1098 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . Since (x, y, z) = x 2 yz 1 + x zy + g(y, z) we get:

2 1

x yz + x yz + g(y, z) = x 2 z 1 + x z

y

x 2 z 1 + x z + g y (y, z) = x 2 z 1 + x z g y (y, z) = 0

Hence:

g(y, z) = h(z)

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . We have:

2 1

x yz + x yz + h(z) = x 2 yz 2 + x y

z

x 2 yz 2 + x y + h (z) = x 2 yz 2 + x y

h (z) = 0 h(z) = C

(x, y, z) = x 2 yz 1 + x yz + C

11. Find the line integral of F = 2x yz, x 2 z, x 2 y over any path from (0, 0, 0) to (3, 2, 1).

SOLUTION We first show that the cross partials condition is satisfied:

F1

= (2x yz) = 2x z

y y F1 F2

=

F2 2 y x

= x z = 2x z

x x

F2 2

= x z = x2

z z F2 F3

=

F3 2 z y

= x y = x2

y y

F3 2

= x y = 2x y

x x F3 F1

=

F1 x z

= (2x yz) = 2x y

z z

Since the cross partials condition is satisfied at all points, F is conservative. We find a potential function for F.

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . is an antiderivative of F1 = 2x yz when y and z are fixed. Therefore:

(x, y, z) = 2x yz d x = x 2 yz + g(y, z) (1)

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . By (1) we have:

= x 2 yz + g(y, z) = x 2 z

y

x 2 z + g y (y, z) = x 2 z g y (y, z) = 0

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . This condition along with (2) gives:

= x 2 yz + h(z) = x 2 y

z

x 2 y + h (z) = x 2 z

S E C T I O N 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3) 1099

h (z) = 0 h(z) = C

(x, y, z) = x 2 yz + C

Since only one potential function is needed, we choose the one corresponding to C = 0. That is,

(x, y, z) = x 2 yz

Using the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vectors we obtain:

F ds = (3, 2, 1) (0, 0, 0) = 32 2 1 0 = 18

c

In Exercises 1217, determine whether the vector field is conservative and, if so, find a potential function.

12. F = z, 1, x

SOLUTION We check whether the vector field F = z, 1, x satisfies the cross partials condition:

F1

= (z) = 0

y y F1 F2

=

F2 y x

= (1) = 0

x x

F2

= (1) = 0

z z F2 F3

=

F3 z y

= (x) = 0

y y

F3

= (x) = 1

x x F3 F1

=

F1 x z

= (z) = 1

z z

F satisfies the cross partials condition everywhere. Hence, F is conservative. We find a potential function (x, y, z).

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . is an antiderivative of F1 = z when y and z are fixed, therefore:

(x, y, z) = z d x = zx + g(y, z) (1)

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . By (1) we have:

(zx + g(y, z)) = 1

y

g y (y, z) = 1

g(y, z) = 1 d y = y + h(z)

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . Using (2) we get:

(zx + y + h(z)) = x

z

x + h (z) = x

h (z) = 0 h(z) = c

(x, y, z) = zx + y + c.

One of the potential functions is obtained by choosing c = 0:

(x, y, z) = zx + y

1100 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

13. F = 0, x, y

SOLUTION Since Fy1 = y (0) = 0 and Fx2 = x (x) = 1, we have Fy1 = Fx2 . Therefore F does not satisfy the

cross-partial condition, hence F is not conservative.

14. F = y 2 , 2x y + e z , ye z

SOLUTION We examine whether F satisfies the cross partials condition:

F1 2

= y = 2y

y y F1 F2

=

F2 y x

= 2x y + e z = 2y

x x

F2

= 2x y + e z = e z

z z F2 F3

=

F3 z z y

= ye = e z

y y

F3 z

= ye = 0

x x F3 F1

=

F1 2 x z

= y =0

z z

We see that F satisfies the cross partials condition everywhere, hence F is conservative. We find a potential function for

F.

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . is an antiderivative of F1 = y 2 when y and z are fixed. Hence:

(x, y, z) = y 2 d x = y 2 x + g(y, z) (1)

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . By (1) we have:

2

y x + g(y, z) = 2x y + e z

y

2yx + g y (y, z) = 2x y + e z g y (y, z) = e z

g(y, z) = e z d y = e z y + h(z)

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . By (2), we get:

2

y x + e z y + h(z) = ye z

z

e z y + h (z) = ye z h (z) = 0

(x, y, z) = y 2 x + ez y + c

(x, y, z) = y 2 x + ez y.

15. F = y, x, z 3

SOLUTION We examine whether the field F = y, x, z 3 satisfies the cross partials condition.

F1

= (y) = 1

y y F1 F2

=

F2 y x

= (x) = 1

x x

S E C T I O N 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3) 1101

F2

= (x) = 0

z z F2 F3

=

F3 3 z y

= z =0

y y

F3 3

= z =0

x x F3 F1

=

F1 x z

= (y) = 0

z z

Since F satisfies the cross partials condition everywhere, F is conservative. We find a potential function for F.

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . is an antiderivative of F1 = y when y and z are fixed. Therefore:

(x, y, z) = y d x = yx + g(y, z) (1)

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . By (1) we have:

(yx + g(y, z)) = x

y

x + g y (y, z) = x g y (y, z) = 0

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . Using (2) we have:

(yx + g(z)) = z 3

z

1 4

g (z) = z 3 g(z) = z +c

4

Substituting in (2) gives the following general potential function:

1

(x, y, z) = yx + z 4 + c

4

Choosing c = 0 we obtain the potential:

z4

(x, y, z) = yx + .

4

16. F = cos(x z), sin(yz), x y sin z

SOLUTION Since z

F2

= z (sin(yz)) = y cos(yz) and F3 = (x y sin z) = x sin z, we have F2 = F3 . The cross

y y z y

partials condition is not satisfied, therefore the vector field is not conservative.

17. F = cos z, 2y, x sin z

SOLUTION We examine whether F satisfies the cross partials condition:

F1

= (cos z) = 0

y y F1 F2

=

F2 y x

= (2y) = 0

x x

F2

= (2y) = 0

z z F2 F3

=

F3 z y

= (x sin z) = 0

y y

F3

= (x sin z) = sin z

x x F3 F1

=

F1 x z

= (cos z) = sin z

z z

We see that the conditions are satisfied, therefore F is conservative. We find a potential function for F.

1102 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . (x, y, z) is an antiderivative of F1 = cos z when y and z are fixed, therefore:

(x, y, z) = cos z d x = x cos z + g(y, z) (1)

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . Using (1) we get:

(x cos z + g(y, z)) = 2y

y

g y (y, z) = 2y

g(y, z) = 2y d y = y 2 + g(z)

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . By (2) we have

x cos z + y 2 + g(z) = x sin z

z

x sin z + g (z) = x sin z

g (z) = 0 g(z) = c

(x, y, z) = x cos z + y 2 + c

(x, y, z) = x cos z + y 2 .

18. Calculate the work expended when a particle is moved from O to Q along segments O P and P Q in Figure 16 in the

presence of the force field F = x 2 , y 2 . How much work is expended moving in a complete circuit around the square?

R = (0, 1) Q = (1, 1)

x

O P = (1, 0)

FIGURE 16

SOLUTION

R = (0, 1) Q = (1, 1)

x

O P = (1, 0)

Since Fy1 = y (x 2 ) = 0 and Fx2 = x (y 2 ) = 0, we have Fy1 = Fx2 . That is, F satisfies the cross partials condition,

3 3

therefore F is conservative. We choose the function x3 + y3 , such that F is the gradient of the function. The potential

3 3

energy is, thus, = x3 y3 . The work done against F is computed by the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient vectors:

2 2

Work against F = F ds = (Q) (O) = (1, 1) (0) = 0 =

C 3 3

S E C T I O N 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3) 1103

(The negative sign is to be expected, as our force field is actually helping us move along O P and O Q. The line integral

of a conservative field along a closed curve is zero, therefore the integral of F along the complete square is zero, and we

get:

W = F ds = 0

OPQR

1 1

19. Let F = , . Calculate the work against F required to move an object from (1, 1) to (3, 4) along any path in

x y

the first quadrant.

SOLUTION F is a conservative force, since F = with potential energy (x, y) = ln y ln x. The work required

to move an object from (1, 1) to (3, 4) along any path C is equal to the change in potential energy:

Work against F = F ds = (3, 4) (1, 1) = (ln 4 ln 3) (ln 1 ln 1) = ln 4 ln 3

C

20. Let F be the vector field in Figure 17. Let P Q, Q R, and P R be the segments in the figure with the orientations

indicated.

(a) Is F ds positive, negative, or zero?

PR

(b) What is the value of F ds?

QR

SOLUTION

(a)

q

F

Since the angle between F and P R is acute at each point along the segment P R, the dot product of F and the unit tangent

line at each point along the segment is positive. Therefore the line integral P Q F ds is positive.

(b) Since F is in the direction of P Q, the dot product of F and the unit tangent at any point along P Q is:

F T = F

Therefore:

b

F ds = (F T) ds = Fds = F d x

PQ PQ PQ a

21. The vector field F in Figure 17 is horizontal and appears to depend on only the x-coordinate. Suppose that

F = g(x), 0. Prove that

F ds = F ds

PR PQ

b

by showing that both integrals are equal to g(x) d x.

a

P Q

x

a b

FIGURE 17

1104 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

F = g(x), 0

Since Fy1 = y (g(x)) = 0 and Fx2 = 0, we have Fy1 = Fx2 consequently F is conservative. Therefore:

F ds = F ds + F ds (1)

PR PQ QR

The vector field F is orthogonal to Q R, therefore the tangential component of F at each point along Q R is zero. We

conclude that:

F ds = 0

QR

F ds = F ds

PR PQ

Lets try it again, this time using the hint. We compute the integral along P Q, using the parametrization

P Q : c(t) = (t, y0 ), at b

we get:

b b b b

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = g(t), 0 1, 0 dt = g(t) dt = g(x) d x

PQ a a a a

b b b b

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = g(t), 0 1, y dt = g(t) dt = g(x) d x

PR a a a a

22. Let F = x 1 z 2 , y 1 z 2 , 2z log(x y) .

(a) Verify that F = , where (x, y, z) = z 2 log(x y).

(b) Evaluate F ds, where c(t) = et , e2t , t 2 for 1 t 3.

c

(c) Evaluate F ds for any path c from P = ( 12 , 4, 2) to Q = (2, 3, 3) contained in the region x > 0, y > 0, z > 0.

c

(d) Why was it necessary to specify that the path lie in the region where x, y, and z are positive?

SOLUTION

2

yz x z 2

= , , = , , 2z log(x y) = x 1 z 2 , y 1 z 2 , 2z log(x y) = F

x y z xy xy

(b) The path c(t) = et , e2t , t 2 for 1 t 3 does not intersect the planes x = 0 and y = 0, therefore F is defined on c.

By part (a) F = for (x, y, z) = log(x y)z 2 , therefore the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vectors implies that:

F ds = (c(3)) (c(1)) = e3 , e6 , 9 e, e2 , 1

c

= log e9 81 log e3 1 = 9 81 3 1 = 726

(c) If c is contained in the region x > 0, y > 0, z > 0, F is defined on c. Since F = , the Fundamental Theorem for

Gradient Vectors implies that,

1

F ds = (Q) (P) = (2, 3, 3) , 4, 2 = (log 6) 9 (log 2) 4

c 2

= 9 log 2 + 9 log 3 4 log 2 = 5 log 2 + 9 log 3 5.8

S E C T I O N 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3) 1105

(d) The vector field F is not defined on the planes x = 0 and y = 0, hence we must restrict the region to x > 0, y > 0

or x < 0, y < 0 (notice that is defined only for x y > 0).

23. How much energy (in joules) does it take to carry a 2-kg object from sea level along any path to the top of a hill that

is 1,000 m high? Assume that the force of gravity F is constant mg in the vertical direction, where g = 9.8 m/s2 . Hint:

Find a potential function for F.

SOLUTION The force of gravity is F = 0, 0, mg, therefore F = for (x, y, z) = mgz. The work performed

by the gravitational field is the line integral of F over the path. Since F is conservative, the energy is independent of the

path connecting the two points. Using the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields we have:

W = F ds = (z = 1000) (z = 0) = mg 1000 = 2 9.8 103 = 19,600 joules

c

y x

24. Let F = , be the vortex vector field. Determine F ds for each of the paths in Figure 18.

x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2 c

y y y

x

x x

y y

x x

(D)

(E)

FIGURE 18

SOLUTION Since the cross partials of F are equal, F has the property,

F ds = 2 n

c

where c is a closed curve not passing through the origin, and n is the number of times c winds around the origin (n is

negative if n winds in the clockwise direction). We use this property to compute the line integrals of F over the paths in

Figure 18:

(A) The path (A) winds around the origin one time in the counterclockwise direction hence the line integral is 2 1 =

2 .

(B) The point (B) winds around the origin one time in the counterclockwise direction hence the line integral is 2 1 =

2 .

(C) The path (C) does not encounter the origin, hence the line integral is 2 0 = 0. Notice that there exists a simply

connected domain D, not including the origin, so that the path c and the region inside c are in D. Therefore, Theorem 4

applies in D and F is a gradient vector in D. Consequently, the line integral of F over c is zero.

y

D

c

(D) This path winds around the origin one time in the clockwise direction, hence c F ds = 2 (1) = 2 .

(E) The path winds around the origin twice in the counterclockwise direction, hence the line integral is 2 2 = 4 .

1106 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

x y

25. The vector field F = , is defined on the domain D = {(x, y) = (0, 0)}.

x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

(a) Show that F satisfies the cross-partials condition on D.

(b) Show that (x, y) = 12 ln(x 2 + y 2 ) is a potential function for F.

(c) Is D simply connected?

(d) Do these results contradict Theorem 4?

SOLUTION

(a) We compute the partials of F:

F2 y 2x y

= = 2

x x x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

F1 x 2yx

= = 2

y y x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

(b) We compute the gradient of (x, y) = 12 ln x 2 + y 2 :

1 2x 2y x y

= , = , = , =F

x x 2 x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

(c) D is not simply-connected since it has a hole at the origin.

(d) The requirement in Theorem 4 (that the domain be simply connected) is a sufficient condition for a vector field with

equal cross-partials to have a potential function. It is not necessary, since as in our example, even if the domain is not

simply-connected the field may have a gradient function. Moreover, for any closed curve in D, have the same value

after completing one round along c. This is perhaps best seen by noting that = log(r ) in polar coordinates, which will

be independent of . Therefore,

F ds = 0

c

Hence, F is conservative.

PQ

Preliminary Questions

1. What is the surface integral of the function f (x, y, z) = 10 over a surface of total area 5?

SOLUTION Using Surface Integral and Surface Area we have:

f (x, y, z) d S = f ((u, v)) n(u, v) du dv = 10n(u, v) du dv

S D D

= 10 n(u, v) du dv = 10 Area(S) = 10 5 = 50

D

2. What interpretation can we give to the length n of the normal vector for a parametrization (u, v)?

SOLUTION The approximation:

Area Si j n u i j , vi j Area Ri j

tells that n is a distortion factor that indicates how much the area of a small rectangle Ri j is altered under the map .

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1107

j + 0.02

Sij

Rij

j

u

ui ui + 0.01

3. A parametrization maps a rectangle of size 0.01 0.02 in the uv-plane onto a small patch S of a surface. Estimate

Area(S) if Tu Tv = 1, 2, 2 at a sample point in the rectangle.

SOLUTION We use the estimation

Area(S) 1, 2, 2 0.01 0.02 = 12 + 22 + 22 0.0002 = 0.0006

+ 0.02

S

R

u

u u + 0.01

4. A small surface S is divided into three small pieces, each of area 0.2. Estimate f (x, y, z) d S if f (x, y, z) takes

S

the values 0.9, 1, and 1.1 at sample points in these three pieces.

SOLUTION We use the approximation obtained by the Riemann Sum:

f (x, y, z) d S f Pi j Area Si j = 0.9 0.2 + 1 0.2 + 1.1 0.2 = 0.6

S ij

5. A surface S has a parametrization whose domain is the square 0 u, v 2 such that n(u, v) = 5 for all (u, v).

What is Area(S)?

SOLUTION Writing the surface area as a surface integral where D is the square [0, 2] [0, 2] in the uv-plane, we have:

Area(S) = n(u, v) du dv = 5 du dv = 5 1 du dv = 5Area(D) = 5 22 = 20

D D D

6. What is the outward-pointing unit normal to the sphere of radius 3 centered at the origin at P = (2, 2, 1)?

SOLUTION The outward-pointing normal to the sphere of radius R = 3 centered at the origin is the following vector:

cos sin , sin sin , cos (1)

P = (2, 2, 1) 2

2 y

We compute the values in (1) corresponding to P = (2, 2, 1): x = y = 2, z = 1 hence 0 2 and 0 < < 2 . We

get:

2

z 1 1 2 2

cos = = sin = 1 =

3 3 3

x 2 1 1 1

cos = = = sin = 1 =

sin 3 2 2 2 2 2

3

1108 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1

, , = , ,

2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3

Exercises

1. Match the parametrization with the surface in Figure 16.

(a) (u, cos v, sin v) (b) (u, u + v, v)

(c) (u, v 3 , v)

(d) (cos u sin v, 3 cos u sin v, cos v)

(e) (u, u(2 + cos v), u(2 + sin v))

z z z

y x

x y x y

z z

x y

x

y

(iv) (v)

FIGURE 16

SOLUTION (a) = (v), because the y and z coordinates describe a circle with fixed radius.

(b) = (iii), because the coordinates are all linear in u and v.

(c) = (i), because the parametrization gives y = z 3 .

(d) = (iv), an ellipsoid.

(e) = (ii), because the y and z coordinates describe a circle with varying radius.

2. Show that (r, ) = (r cos , r sin , 1 r 2 ) parametrizes the paraboloid z = 1 x 2 y 2 . Describe the grid curves

of this parametrization.

SOLUTION We substitute x = r cos and y = r sin in the right-hand side of the equation of the cone, and verify that

the result is 1 r 2 :

1 x 2 y 2 = 1 (r cos )2 (r sin )2 = 1 r 2 cos2 + sin2 = 1 r 2 1 = 1 r 2 = z

Moreover, for every x, y, z satisfying z = 1 x 2 y 2 there are suitable values of r and so that x = r cos , y = r sin

and z = 1 r 2 . We conclude that (r, ) parametrizes the whole paraboloid z = 1 x 2 y 2 . The grid curves on the

paraboloid through P = (r0 , 0 ) are:

r -grid curve:

-grid curve:

(a) Calculate Tu , Tv , and n(u, v).

(b) Find the area of S = (D), where D = {(u, v) : 0 u 2, 0 v 1}.

(c) Express f (x, y, z) = yz in terms of u and v and evaluate f (x, y, z) d S.

S

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1109

2x y z = 2(2u + 1) (u v) (3u + v) = 4u + 2 u + v 3u v = 2

Moreover, for any x, y, z satisfying 2x y z = z, there are values of u and v such that x = 2u + 1, y = u v, and

z = 3u + v, since the following equations can be solved for u and v:

x = 2u + 1

y =uv x 1 x 1

u= , v= y

z = 3u + v 2 2

2x y z = 2

(a) The tangent vectors Tu and Tv are:

Tu = = (2u + 1, u v, 3u + v) = 2, 1, 3

u u

Tv = = (2u + 1, u v, 3u + v) = 0, 1, 1

v v

The normal vector is the following cross product:

i j k

1 3 2 3 2 1

n(u, v) = Tu Tv = 2 1 3 =

1 i j + k

0 1 1 0 1 0 1

1

= 4i 2j 2k = 4, 2, 2

Area(S) = n(u, v) du dv = 4, 2, 2 du dv = 24 1 du dv

D D D

= 24 Area(D) = 24 2 1 = 4 6

f (u, v) = (u v)(3u + v) = 3u 2 2uv v 2

f (x, y, z) d S = f (u, v) n(u, v) du dv = 3u 2 2uv v 2 4, 2, 2 du dv

S D D

1 2 1 2

= 24 3u 2 2uv v 2 du dv = 24 u 3 u 2 v v 2 u dv

0 0 0 u=0

1 1

2 32 6

= 24 8 4v 2v 2 dv = 24 8v 2v 2 v 3 =

0 3 0 3

surface area of S.

(a) Calculatethe

(b) Evaluate (x y) d S. Hint: Use polar coordinates.

S

SOLUTION The surface S is given by the parametrization:

n(u, v) = 4, 2, 2 n(u, v) = 24.

The surface area for u and v in the domain D = (u, v) : u 2 + v 2 1, u 0, v 0 is the surface integral:

Area(S) = n(u, v) du dv = 24 du dv = 24 1 du dv = 24 Area(D) (1)

D D D

1110 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

x

1

D is the quarter disc u 2 + v 2 1 in the first quadrant, hence it has the area 1

2

4 = 4 . Substituting in (1) gives:

6

Area(S) = 24 = .

4 2

To compute the surface integral of f (x, y, z) = x y, we first express f in terms of the parameters u and v:

f (x, y, z) d S = f ((u, v)) n(u, v) du dv = (u + v + 1) 24 du dv

S D D

We convert the integral to polar coordinates:

u = r cos , v = r sin

0 r 1, 0 .

2

We get:

/2 1 /2 1 2

f (x, y, z) d S = (r cos + r sin + 1) 24 r dr d = 24 r (cos + sin ) + r dr d

S 0 0 0 0

/2 r 3 (cos + sin ) r 2 1 /2 cos + sin 1

= 24 + d = 24 + d

0 3 2 r =0 0 3 2

sin cos /2 2 8 + 3

= 24 + = 24 + =

3 2 0 3 4 6

(a) Calculate Tx , T y , and n(x, y).

(b) Let S be the part of the surface with parameter domain D = {(x, y) : x 2 + y 2 1, x 0, y 0}. Verify the

following formula and evaluate using polar coordinates:

1 dS = 1 + x 2 + y2 d x d y

S D

(c) Verify the following formula and evaluate:

/2 1

z dS = (sin cos )r 3 1 + r 2 dr d

S 0 0

SOLUTION

(a) The tangent vectors are:

Tx = = (x, y, x y) = 1, 0, y

x x

Ty = = (x, y, x y) = 0, 1, x

y y

The normal vector is the cross product:

i j k

0 y 1 y 1 0

n(x, y) = Tx T y = 1 0 y =

1 i j + k

0 x 0 x 0 1

1 x

= yi xj + k = y, x, 1

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1111

1 dS = n(x, y) d x d y = y, x, 1 d x d y = y2 + x 2 + 1 d x d y

S D D D

y

x

0 1

We convert the integral to polar coordinates x = r cos , y = r sin . The new region of integration is:

0 r 1, 0 .

2

We get:

/2 1 /2 1

1 dS = r + 1 r dr d =

2 r + 1 r dr d

2

S 0 0 0 0

/2 2
/2 2 21

u 2 21

= du d = d =

0 1 2 0 3 6

(c) The function z expressed in terms of the parameters x, y is f ((x, y)) = x y. Therefore,

z dS = x y n(x, y) d x d y = x y 1 + x 2 + y2 d x d y

S D D

We compute the double integral by converting it to polar coordinates. We get:

/2 1 /2 1

z dS = (r cos )(r sin ) 1 + r 2 r dr d = (sin cos )r 3 1 + r 2 dr d

S 0 0 0 0

/2 1

= (sin cos ) d r 3 1 + r 2 dr (1)

0 0

1 1 2 du u 5/2 u 3/2 2 2 2+1

r 3 1 + r 2 dr = r 2 1 + r 2 r dr = u 3/2 u 1/2 = =

0 0 1 2 5 3 1 15

Also,

/2 /2

sin 2 cos 2 /2 1

sin cos d = d = =

0 0 2 4 0 2

2+1

1 2 2+1

z dS = =

S 2 15 15

6. A surface S has a parametrization (u, v) whose domain D is the square in Figure 17. Suppose that has the

following normal vectors:

n(C) = 3, 0, 1 , n(D) = 2, 0, 1

Estimate f (x, y, z) d S, where f is a function such that f ((u, v)) = u + v.

S

1112 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

A B

C D

u

1

FIGURE 17

f (x, y, z) d S = uv ( f ( A)n( A) + f (B)n(B) + f (C)n(C) + f (D)n(D)) (1)

S

In the given grid, we have u = v = 12 . We compute the lengths of the normal vectors:

n( A) = 2, 1, 0 = 4 + 1 + 0 = 5

n(B) = 1, 3, 0 = 1 + 9 + 0 = 10

n(C) = 3, 0, 1 = 9 + 0 + 1 = 10

n(D) = 2, 0, 1 = 4 + 0 + 1 = 5

The sample points are A = 14 , 34 , B = 34 , 34 , C = 14 , 14 , D = 34 , 14 , hence the values of f at the sample points

are:

1 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 3 1

f ( A) = + = 1, f (B) = + = , f (C) = + = , f (D) = + =1

4 4 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4

Substituting the values in (1) gives the following estimation:

1 1 3 1 5 + 10

f (x, y, z) d S = 1 5 + 10 + 10 + 1 5 =

S 2 2 2 2 2

In Exercises 710, calculate Tu , Tv , and n(u, v) for the parametrized surface at the given point. Then find the equation

of the tangent plane to the surface at that point.

SOLUTION The tangent vectors are the following vectors,

Tu = = (2u + v, u 4v, 3u) = 2, 1, 3

u u

Tv = = (2u + v, u 4v, 3u) = 1, 4, 0

v v

The normal is the cross product:

i j k

1 3 2 3 2 1

n(u, v) = Tu Tv = 2 1 3 =

4 i j + k

1 0 1 0 1 4

4 0

= 12i + 3j 9k = 3 4, 1, 3

The equation of the plane passing through the point P : (1, 4) = (6, 15, 3) with the normal vector 4, 1, 3 is:

x 6, y + 15, z 3 4, 1, 3 = 0

or

4(x 6) + y + 15 3(z 3) = 0

4x + y 3z = 0

SOLUTION We compute the tangent vectors:

2

Tu = = u v 2 , u + v, u v = 2u, 1, 1

u u

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1113

2

Tv = = u v 2 , u + v, u v = 2v, 1, 1

v v

The normal is the cross product of Tu and Tv . That is:

i j k

1 1 2u 1 2u 1

n(u, v) = Tu Tv = 2u 1 1 = i j + k

2v 1 1 1 1 2v 1 2v 1

We compute the tangency point and the normal n(u, v) at this point:

P = (2, 3) = 22 32 , 2 + 3, 2 3 = (5, 5, 1)

The equation of the plane passing through the point P = (5, 5, 1) with the normal vector 1, 1, 5 is:

x + 5, y 5, z + 1 1, 1, 5 = 0

or

(x + 5) (y 5) + 5(z + 1) = 0

x y + 5z + 5 = 0

SOLUTION We compute the tangent vectors:

T = = (cos sin , sin sin , cos ) = sin sin , cos sin , 0

T = = (cos sin , sin sin , cos ) = cos cos , sin cos , sin

The normal vector is the cross product:

i j k

n( , ) = T T = sin sin cos sin 0

cos cos sin cos sin

= cos sin2 i sin sin2 j + sin2 sin cos cos2 cos sin k

= cos sin2 i sin sin2 j (sin cos )k

2 2

P = , = cos sin , sin sin , cos = 0, ,

2 4 2 4 2 4 4 2 2

1 1 1 1

n , = j k = (j + k) = 0, 1, 1

2 4 2 2 2 2

The equation of the plane orthogonal to the vector 0, 1, 1 and passing through P = 0, 22 , 22 is:

2 2

x, y ,z 0, 1, 1 = 0

2 2

or

2 2

y +z =0

2 2

y+z = 2

1114 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Tr = = r cos , r sin , 1 r 2 = cos , sin , 2r

r r

T = = r cos , r sin , 1 r 2 = r sin , r cos , 0

The normal vector is the cross product of Tr and T . That is,

i j k

n(r, ) = Tr T = cos sin 2r = 2r 2 cos i + 2r 2 sin j + r cos2 + r sin2 k

r sin r cos 0

= 2r 2 cos i + 2r 2 sin j + r k = r 2r cos , 2r sin , 1

We compute the tangency point and the normal vector at this point. We get:

2

1 1 1 1 1 1 3

P = , = cos , sin , 1 = , ,

2 4 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

N , = 2 cos , 2 sin , 1 = , ,1

2 4 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2

The equation of the plane through P, with normal vector 1 , 1 , 1 is:

2 2

1 1 3 1 1

x ,y ,z , ,1 = 0

2 2 2 2 4 2 2

or

1 1 1 1 3

x + y +z =0

2 2 2 2 2 2 4

1 1 5

x+ y+z =

2 2 4

2 2x + 2 2y + 4 = 5

11. Use the normal vector computed in Exercise 8 to estimate the area of the small patch of the surface (u, v) =

(u 2 v 2 , u + v, u v) defined by

2 u 2.1, 3 v 3.2

SOLUTION We denote the rectangle D = {(u, v) : 2 u 2.1, 3 v 3.2}. Using the sample point corresponding

to u = 2, v = 3 we obtain the following estimation for the area of S = (D):

Area(S) n(2, 3)Area(D) = n(2, 3) 0.1 0.2 = 0.02n(2, 3) (1)

In Exercise 8 we found that n(2, 3) = 2 1, 1, 5. Therefore,

n(2, 3) = 2 12 + 12 + 52 = 2 27

Substituting in (1) gives the following estimation:

Area(S) 0.02 2 27 0.2078.

12. Sketch the small patch of the sphere whose spherical coordinates satisfy

0.15 + 0.15, 0.1 + 0.1

2 2 4 4

Use the normal vector computed in Exercise 9 to estimate its area.

SOLUTION The small patch of the sphere is shown in the following figure:

x

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1115

Let D denote the rectangle in the ( , )-plane. Using the sample point corresponding to the parameters = 2 , = 4 ,

we obtain the following estimation for the area of S = (D):

Area(S) = n , Area(D) = n , 0.3 0.2 = n , 0.06 (1)

2 4 2 4 2 4

In Exercise 9 we found that:

1

n , = 0, 1, 1

2 4 2

hence:

1

1

n , = 0+1+1=

2 4 2 2

Substituting in (1) gives the following estimation:

1

Area(S) 0.06 0.0424

2

f

p 1

4

+ 0.1

p

4 D

p

4

0.1

q

O 1 p

2

p p

2

0.15 2

+ 0.15

13. A surface S has a parametrization (u, v) with domain 0 u 2, 0 v 4 such that the following partial

derivatives are constant:

= 2, 0, 1 , = 4, 0, 3

u v

What is the surface area of S?

SOLUTION Since the partial derivatives are constant, the normal vector is also constant. We find it by computing the

cross product:

i j k

n = Tu Tv = = 2 0 1 = 2j = 0, 2, 0 n = 2

u v 4 0 3

We denote the rectangle D = {(u, v) : 0 u 2, 0 v 4}, and use the surface area to compute the area of S =

(D). We obtain:

Area(S) = n du dv = 2 du dv = 2 1 du dv = 2 Area(D) = 2 2 4 = 16

D D D

x 2 y 2 z 2

+ + =1

a b c

is parametrized by

Express the surface area of the ellipsoid as an integral but do not attempt to evaluate it.

SOLUTION We substitute x = a cos sin , y = b sin sin , z = c cos in the equation of the ellipsoid and verify

that the equation is satisfied:

x 2 y 2 z 2

+ + = cos2 sin2 + sin2 sin2 + cos2 = sin2 cos2 + sin2 + cos2

a b c

= sin2 + cos2 = 1

1116 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Also for any x, y, z satisfying the equation of the ellipsoid, then (x/a, y/b, z/c) is a point on the sphere X 2 + Y 2 + Z 2 =

1. Thus, there are values of and such that x = a cos sin , y = b sin sin and z != c cos . Therefore, ( , )

parametrizes the whole ellipsoid. The domain is D = ( , ) : 0 2 , 0 . We compute the tangent and

normal vectors:

T = = (a cos sin , b sin sin , c cos ) = a sin sin , b cos sin , 0

T = = (a cos sin , b sin sin , c cos ) = a cos cos , b sin cos , c sin

The normal vector is the cross product (notice that we are taking the cross product in what seems to be the wrong

order, but since we will just be taking the length of this vector, we dont really care if its the inward or outward pointing

normal, so it doesnt matter if we calculate T T or T T ):

i j k

n( , ) = T T = a sin sin b cos sin 0

a cos cos b sin cos c sin

= bc cos sin2 i ac sin sin2 j ab sin2 sin cos + ab cos2 sin cos k

= bc cos sin2 i ac sin sin2 j (ab sin cos )k

Hence,

1/2

n( , ) = b2 c2 cos2 sin4 + a 2 c2 sin2 sin4 + a 2 b2 sin2 cos2

2 1/2

Area(S) = n d d = b2 c2 cos2 sin4 + a 2 c2 sin2 sin4 + a 2 b2 sin2 cos2 d d

D 0 0

(u, v) = (3 + sin v) cos u, (3 + sin v) sin u, v

(a) Plot S from several different viewpoints. Is S best described as a vase that holds water or a bottomless vase?

(b) Calculate the normal vector n(u, v).

(c) Calculate the surface area of S to four decimal places.

SOLUTION

(a) We show the graph of S here.

44

2

2 0

2

6 0 4

6

4 2 4

4 2

2 0

0

4 4

2 2

0 0

2 2

4 4

(b) We compute the tangent and normal vectors:

Tu = = (3 + sin v)( sin u), (3 + sin v)(cos u), 0

u

Tv = = cos v cos u, cos v sin u, 1

v

The normal vector is the cross product:

i j k

n(u, v) = Tu Tv = (3 + sin v)( sin u) (3 + sin v)(cos u) 0

cos v cos u cos v sin u 1

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1117

= ((3 + sin v) cos u)i + ((3 + sin v) sin u)j ((3 + sin v) cos v)k

Hence,

n(u, v) = (3 + sin v) 1 + cos2 v

2 2

Area(S) = n du dv = (3 + sin v) 1 + cos2 v du dv 144.0181

D 0 0

16. Let S be the surface z = ln(5 x 2 y 2 ) for 0 x, y 1. Using a computer algebra system:

(a) Calculate surface area of S to four decimal places.

the

(b) Calculate x 2 y 3 d S to four decimal places.

S

SOLUTION

2 x 2 + y2

n = 1 + (z x ) + (z y ) =

2 2

5 x 2 y2

Thus, the surface area is

1 1 2

2 x + y2

Area(S) = d x d y 0.3698

0 0 5 x 2 y2

(b) We calculate x 2 y 3 d S as follows:

S

1 1

2 x 2 + y2

x 2 y3 d S = x 2 y3 d x d y 0.0508

S 0 0 5 x 2 y2

17. Use spherical coordinates to compute the surface area of a sphere of radius R.

SOLUTION The sphere of radius R centered at the origin has the following parametrization in spherical coordinates:

n = R 2 sin

2

2

Area(S) = n d d = R 2 sin d d = R2 d sin d

D 0 0 0 0

= 2 R 2 cos = 2 R 2 2 = 4 R 2

0

18. Compute the integral of z over the upper hemisphere of a sphere of radius R centered at the origin.

SOLUTION The upper hemisphere has the following parametrization in spherical coordinates:

( , ) = (R cos sin , R sin sin , R cos ), 0 2 , 0

2

The length of the normal vector is:

n = R 2 sin

The function z expressed in terms of the parameters is z = R cos , therefore we obtain the following surface integral,

2 /2 2 /2 3

R

z dS = R cos R 2 sin d d = sin 2 d d

S 0 0 0 0 2

/2

2 R 3 /2 R3 cos 2 3 1 + 1 = R3

= d sin 2 d = 2 = R

0 2 0 2 2 2

0

1118 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

19. Compute the integral of x 2 over the octant of the unit sphere centered at the origin, where x, y, z 0.

SOLUTION The octant of the unit sphere centered at the origin, where x, y, z 0 has the following parametrization in

spherical coordinates:

( , ) = (cos sin , sin sin , cos ), 0 , 0

2 2

The length of the normal vector is:

n = sin

The function x 2 expressed in terms of the parameters is cos2 sin2 . Using the theorem on computing surface integrals

we obtain,

/2 /2 /2 /2

x2 d S = cos2 sin2 (sin ) d d = cos2 sin3 d d

S 0 0 0 0

/2

/2 /2 sin 2 sin2 cos 2 /2

= cos2 d sin3 d = + cos

2 4 3 3

0 0 =0 =0

2

= =

4 3 6

(r, ) = (r cos , r sin , R 2 r 2 )

for 0 2 , 0 r R. Compute the surface area of the hemisphere using this parametrization.

SOLUTION We first substitute x = r cos , y = r sin , z = R 2 r 2 in the equation of the sphere and verify that it

is satisfied:

2

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = (r cos )2 + (r sin )2 + R 2 r 2 = r 2 cos2 + r 2 sin2 + R 2 r 2

= r 2 cos2 + sin2 + R 2 r 2 = r 2 + R 2 r 2 = R 2

The inequality z 0 is also satisfied since R 2 r 2 0. Moreover, for any x, y and z 0 satisfying x 2 + y 2 + z 2 =

R 2 , there are values of the parameters r , such that x = r cos , y = r sin and z = R 2 r 2 . That is: the following

equations can be solved for r and in terms of x, y, z:

x = r cos

y y

y = r sin = tan1 = tan1

x x

z = R2 r 2 r 2 = x 2 + y 2 = R2 z2 r = R2 z2

x 2 + y 2 + z2 = R2

We conclude that (r, ) parametrizes the whole hemisphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 , z 0. To compute the surface area

of the hemisphere S, we first must find the tangent vectors and the normal vector. That is,

r

Tr = = r cos , r sin , R 2 r 2 = cos , sin ,

r r R2 r 2

T = = r cos , r sin , R 2 r 2 = r sin , r cos , 0

The normal vector is the cross product:

i j k

cos r

n = Tr T = sin

R r

2 2

r sin r cos 0

r 2 cos r 2 sin

= i+ j + r cos2 + r sin2 k

R2 r 2 R2 r 2

r 2 cos r 2 sin

= i+ j + rk

R2 r 2 R2 r 2

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1119

r 4 cos2 r 4 sin2 r4 r4 rR

n = + 2 +r =

2 cos + sin + r =

2 2 2 + r2 =

R r

2 2 R r 2 R r

2 2 R r

2 2

R2 r 2

We now compute the surface area as the following surface integral:

2 R

rR

Area(S) = n dr d = dr d

D 0 0 R2 r 2

R

2 R r r

= R d dr = 2 R dr

0 0 R2 r 2 0 R2 r 2

0

1

Area(S) = 2 R dt = 2 R 2

R 2t 1/2

2

In Exercises 2132, calculate f (x, y, z) d S for the given surface and function.

S

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have:

Tu = = (u cos v, u sin v, u) = cos v, sin v, 1

u u

Tv = = (u cos v, u sin v, u) = u sin v, u cos v, 0

v v

The normal vector is the cross product:

i j k

n = Tu Tv = cos v sin v 1

u sin v u cos v 0

= (u cos v)i (u sin v)j + u cos2 v + u sin2 v k

n = (u cos v)2 + (u sin v)2 + u 2 = u 2 cos2 v + sin2 v + 1 = u 2 2 = 2|u| = 2u

Step 2. Calculate the surface integral. We express the function f (x, y, z) = z x 2 + y 2 in terms of the parameters u,

v:

f (, (u, v)) = u u 2 cos2 v + u 2 sin2 v = u u 2 = u 3

1 1 1 1

f (x, y, z) d S = f (, (u, v)) n du dv = u3 2u du dv

S 0 0 0 0

1

1 1 u 5 2

= 2 dv u 4 du = 2 =

0 0 5 5

0

22. (r, ) = (r cos , r sin , ), 0 r 1, 0 2 ; f (x, y, z) = x 2 + y2

SOLUTION

1120 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Tr = = (r cos , r sin , ) = cos , sin , 0

r r

T = = (r cos , r sin , ) = r sin , r cos , 1

The normal vector is their cross product:

i j k

n = Tr T = cos sin 0 = (sin )i (cos )j + r cos2 + r sin2 k

r sin r cos 1

n = sin2 + cos2 + r 2 = 1 + r 2

Step 2. Calculate the surface integral. The surface integral is computed by the following double integral:

2 1

f (x, y, z) d S = f ((r, )) n dr d = r 2 cos2 + r 2 sin2 1 + r 2 dr d

S D 0 0

2 1
1

2 1

= r 1 + r dr d =

2 1 d r 1 + r dr = 2

2 r 1 + r 2 dr

0 0 0 0 0

2 2 2 2 1

1 1/2

f (x, y, z) d S = 2 t dt =

S 1 2 3

23. x 2 + y 2 = 4, 0 z 4; f (x, y, z) = ez

SOLUTION The cylinder has the following parametrization in cylindrical coordinates:

Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. The tangent vectors are the partial derivatives:

T = = (2 cos , 2 sin , z) = 2 sin , 2 cos , 0

Tz = (2 cos , 2 sin , z) = 0, 0, 1

z

The normal vector is their cross product:

i j k

n( , z) = T Tz = 2 sin 2 cos 0 = (2 cos )i + (2 sin )j = 2 cos , 2 sin , 0

0 0 1

n( , z) = (2 cos )2 + (2 sin )2 + 0 = 4 cos2 + sin2 = 4 = 2

Step 2. Calculate the surface integral. The surface integral equals the following double integral:

2 4

f (x, y, z) d S = f (( , z)) n d dz = ez 2 d dz

S D 0 0

2 4 4

= 2 d ez dz = 4 ez = 4 1 e4

0 0 0

24. z = 4 x 2 y 2 , z 0; f (x, y, z) = z

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1121

f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, y, g(x, y)) 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y (1)

S D

f (x, y, g(x, y)) = z = 4 x 2 y 2 = 4 x 2 + y 2

1 + gx2 + g 2y = 1 + (2x)2 + (2y)2 = 1 + 4 x 2 + y 2

z = 4 x 2 y2 0 x 2 + y2 4

y

x

2

f (x, y, z) d S = 4 x 2 + y2 1 + 4 x 2 + y2 d x d y

S D

We convert the integral to polar coordinates, x = r cos and y = r sin . We get:

2 2

f (x, y, z) d S = 4 r2 1 + 4r 2 r dr d

S 0 0

2

2

= 2 4r 1 + 4r 2 dr r 3 1 + 4r 2 dr (2)

0 0

We compute the integrals using the (somewhat unusual) substitution u = 1 + 4r 2 , du = 4r

u dr . We get:

2

2 u 3 17

17 17 17 1

4r 1 + 4r 2 dr = u du = =

0 1 3 1 3

2 2 17 2 17 4

u 1 u u u2

r 3 1 + 4r 2 dr = r 2 1 + 4r 2 r dr = u du = du

0 0 1 4 4 1 16

5 3 17

1 u u 391 17 + 1

= =

16 5 3 120

u=1

17 17 1 391 17 + 1 289 17 41

f (x, y, z) d S = 2 = 60.244

S 3 120 60

SOLUTION We use the formula for the surface integral over a graph:

f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, y, g(x, y)) 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y (1)

S D

f (x, y, g(x, y)) = 4 x 2 y 2 x 2 + y 2 = 4 x 2 + y 2 x 2 + y2

1122 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1 + gx2 + g 2y = 1 + (2x)2 + (2y)2 = 1 + 4 x 2 + y 2

D : z = 4 x 2 y2 0 x 2 + y2 4

y

2

D

x

2 0 2

By (1) we obtain:

f (x, y, z) d S = 4 (x 2 + y 2 ) (x 2 + y 2 ) 1 + 4(x 2 + y 2 ) d x d y

S D

We convert the integral to polar coordinates x = r cos , y = r sin to obtain:

2 2

f (x, y, z) d S = 4 r 2 r 2 1 + 4r 2 r dr d

S 0 0

2

2

= 2 4r 3 1 + 4r 2 dr r 5 1 + 4r 2 dr (2)

0 0

We compute the integrals using the (somewhat unusual) substitution u = 1 + 4r 2 , du = 4r

u dr . This gives:

2 2

17 u 2 1

4r 3 1 + 4r 2 dr = r 2 1 + 4r 2 4r dr = u 2 du

0 0 1 4

17 4

u u2 1 u5 u 3 17 391 17 + 1

= du = =

1 4 4 5 3 1 30

2

2 2 u2 1 17

17 u2 1

r 5 1 + 4r 2 dr = r 4 1 + 4r 2 r dr = du = u 6 2u 4 + u 2 du

0 0 1 16 4 64 1

17

1 u7 2u 5 u 3 7769 17 1

= + =

64 7 5 3 840

1

391 17 + 1 7769 17 1 3179 17 + 29

f (x, y, z) d S = 2 = 98.26

S 30 840 420

26. y = 9 z 2 , 0 x z 3; f (x, y, z) = 1

SOLUTION We use the formula for the surface integral over a graph y = g(x, z):

f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, g(x, z), z) 1 + gx2 + gz2 d x dz (1)

S D

1 + gx2 + gz2 = 1 + 4z 2

The domain of integration D is the triangle in the x z-plane shown in the figure.

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1123

D

z=x

x

O

By (1) we get:

3 z

f (x, y, z) d S = 1 + 4z 2 d x dz = 1 + 4z 2 d x dz

S D 0 0

3 z 3

= 1 + 4z 2 x dz = 1 + 4z 2 z dz

0 x=0 0

3 37 1/2

u 37 37 1

f (x, y, z) d S = 1 + 4z 2 z dz = du = 18.672

S 0 1 8 12

27. y = 9 z 2 , 0 x, z 3; f (x, y, z) = z

SOLUTION We use the formula for the surface integral over a graph y = g(x, z):

f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, g(x, z), z) 1 + gx2 + gz2 d x dz (1)

S D

1 + gx2 + gz2 = 1 + 4z 2

f (x, g(x, z), z) = z

The domain of integration is the square [0, 3] [0, 3] in the x z-plane. By (1) we get:

3 3
3

3 3

f (x, y, z) d S = z 1 + 4z 2 dz d x = 1 dx z 1 + 4z 2 dz = 3 z 1 + 4z 2 dz

S 0 0 0 0 0

3 37 1/2

u 37 37 1

f (x, y, z) d S = 3 z 1 + 4z 2 dz = 3 du = 56

S 0 1 8 4

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have:

Tu = = u, v 3 , u + v = 1, 0, 1

u u

Tv = = u, v 3 , u + v = 0, 3v 2 , 1

v v

The normal vector is their cross product:

i j k

n = Tu Tv = 1 0 1 = 3v 2 i j + 3v 2 k = 3v 2 , 1, 3v 2

0 3v 2 1

n = 9v 4 + 1 + 9v 4 = 1 + 18v 4

Step 2. Calculate the surface integral. We express f (x, y, z) = y in terms of the parameters:

f ((u, v)) = v 3

1124 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1 1 1 1

f (x, y, z) d S = f ((u, v)) n dv du = v 3 1 + 18v 4 dv du

S 0 0 0 0

1

1 1

= du v 3 1 + 18v 4 dv = v 3 1 + 18v 4 dv

0 0 0

1 19 1/2

3 t 19 19 1

f (x, y, z) d S = 1 + 18v v dv =

4 dt = 0.758

S 0 1 72 108

SOLUTION We let z = g(x, y) = 1 x y and use the formula for the surface integral over the graph of z = g(x, y),

where D is the parameter domain in the x y-plane. That is:

f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, y, g(x, y)) 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y (1)

S D

We have, gx = 1 and g y = 1 therefore:

1 + gx2 + g 2y = 1 + (1)2 + (1)2 = 3

The domain of integration is the triangle D in the x y-plane shown in the figure.

z

x+y=1

y D

x x

S: x + y + z = 1, x 0, y 0, z 0 0 1

By (1) we get:

1 1y 1y

1 x2

f (x, y, z) d S = (1 x y) 3 d x d y = 3 x yx dy

S 0 0 0 2 x=0

1 2 (1 y)2 3 1

= 3 (1 y) dy = 1 2y + y 2 d y

0 2 2 0

3 y 3 1 3

= y y2 + =

2 3 0 6

SOLUTION Let z = g(x, y) = x y. The projection of the surface onto the x y-plane is:

D : x 2 + y2 1

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1125

We use the surface integral over a graph to write the surface integral as the following double integral:

f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, y, g(x, y)) 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y (1)

S D

D

x

1

We have:

gx = 1, g y = 1 1 + gx2 + g 2y = 1 + (1)2 + (1)2 = 3

f (x, y, z) d S = x 2 x y 3 dx dy

S D

We convert the double integral to polar coordinates x = r cos , y = r sin :

2 1

f (x, y, z) d S = r 2 cos2 (r cos )(r sin ) 3r dr d

S 0 0

2 1 3 sin 2 2 r 4 sin 2 1

= 3 r cos2 + dr d = 3 cos2 + d

0 0 2 0 4 2 r =0

3 2 2 sin 2 3 sin 2 cos 2 2

= cos d = +

4 0 2 4 2 4 4 0

3 1 1 3

= + =

4 4 4 4

SOLUTION We let z = g(x, y) = x 1/3 and use the formula for the surface integral over a graph:

f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, y, g(x, y)) 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y (1)

S D

where D is the square [0, 1] [0, 1] in the x y-plane. We compute the integrand in (1):

1 2/3 1

gx = x , gy = 0 1 + gx + g y = 1 + x 4/3

2 2

3 9

1126 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1 1 1

1 4/3 1

f (x, y, z) d S = x 1+ x dx dy = x 1 + x 4/3 d x

S 0 0 9 0 9

1 4/3 1

1+ x = 1 + tan2 =

9 cos

8/3 d = 1 cos d

2 1 9 1 2

x 5/3 d x = d x dx = x

9 cos2 2 cos2 18 sin4

Hence:

1 4/3 1 cos

1+ x x dx = d

9 18 sin4

We obtain the following integral, which we compute by substituting u = sin , du = cos d :

10

1

()

tan1

1

3

3

tan1 1 sin tan1 1 = 1

3 1 cos 1 3 10 1

f (x, y, z) d S = d = du

S /2 18 sin

4 18 1 u4

1 1 1/( 10) 1

= 3 = 10 10 1 0.567

54 u 1 54

32. Part of the unit sphere centered at the origin, where x 0 and |y| x; f (x, y, z) = x

SOLUTION We parametrize the surface as follows:

( , ) = (cos sin , sin sin , cos ), , 0

4 4

y

x

y=

p

q= 4

x

p 1

q = 4

y=

x

f ( , ) = x = cos sin

/4

f (x, y, z) d S = f ( , ) n d d = (cos sin ) sin d d

S D 0 /4

/4 /4

= cos sin2 d d = sin2 d cos d

0 /4 0 /4

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1127

sin 2 /4

= sin = = 2=

2 4 =0 4 2 2

33. Let S be the sphere of radius R centered at the origin. Explain the following equalities using symmetry:

(a) x dS = y dS = z dS = 0

S S S

(b) x2 d S = y2 d S = z2 d S

S S S

4

Then show, by adding the three integrals in part (b), that x 2 d S = R4 .

S 3

SOLUTION

(a) Since the sphere is symmetric with respect to the yz-plane, the surface integrals of x over the hemispheres on the

two sides of the plane cancel each other and the result is zero. The two other integrals are zero due to the symmetry of

the sphere with respect to the x z and x y-planes.

(b)

Since the sphere is symmetric with respect to the x y, x z and yz-planes,

2 interchanging x and y in2 the integral for

x 2 d S does not change the value of the integral and the result is y d S. The equality for

S S S z d S is explained

similarly.

On the sphere, we have x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 so, using properties of integrals, the integral for surface area, and the

surface area of the sphere of radius R we obtain:

x2 d S + y2 d S + z2 d S = x 2 + y 2 + z2 d S = R2 1 dS

S S S S S

= R 2 Area(S) = R 2 4 R 2 = 4 R 4

Combining with (b) we conclude that the value of each of the integrals is 43 R 4 . That is:

4

x2 d S = y2 d S = z2 d S = R4 .

S S S 3

34. Calculate (x y + e z ) d S, where S is the triangle in Figure 18 with vertices (0, 0, 3), (1, 0, 2), and (0, 4, 1). Hint:

S

Find the equation of the plane containing the triangle.

(0, 0, 3)

(1, 0, 2)

(0, 4, 1)

1

x 4 y

FIGURE 18

SOLUTION We find the equation of the plane through the points A = (0, 0, 3), B = (0, 4, 1) and C = (1, 0, 2).

A = (0, 0, 3)

C = (1, 0, 2)

B = (0, 4, 1)

y

4

x 1

i j k

AB AC = 0, 4, 2 1, 0, 1 = 0 4 2 = 4i 2j 4k = 2 2, 1, 2

1 0 1

The equation of the plane passing through A = (0, 0, 3) and perpendicular to the vector 2, 1, 2 is:

x 0, y 0, z 3 2, 1, 2 = 0

2x + y + 2(z 3) = 0

1128 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

2x + y + 2z = 6

or

1

z = g(x, y) = x y+3

2

We compute the surface integral of f (x, y, z) = x y + e z over the triangle ABC using the formula for the surface integral

over a graph. The parameter domain D is the projection of the triangle ABC onto the x y-plane (see figure).

y

(0, 4)

2

y = 4x + 4

x

O (1, 0) 2

We have:

f (x, y, z) d S = f x, y, g(x, y) 1 + gx2 + gz2 d x d y (1)

S D

1 1 2 3

gx = 1, g y = 1 + gx2 + gz2 = 1 + (1)2 + =

2 2 2

y

f x, y, g(x, y, z) = x y + e z = x y + ex 2 +3

1 4x+4 3 1 4x+4

3x y 2

f (x, y, z) d S = x y + exy/2+3 d y d x = 3exy/2+3 dx

S 0 0 2 0 4 y=0

1

3x(4x + 4)2 x(4x+4)/2+3 x+3

= 3e + 3e dx

0 4

1 1

= 12x 3 24x 2 + 12x 3e x+1 + 3ex+3 4 3 2

d x = 3x 8x + 6x 3e x+1 3e x+3

0 0

35. Find the area of the portion of the plane 2x + 3y + 4z = 28 lying above the rectangle 1 x 3, 2 y 5 in the

x y-plane.

SOLUTION We rewrite the equation of the plane as:

x 3

z = g(x, y) = y+7 (1)

2 4

The domain of the parameters is the rectangle D = [1, 3] [2, 5] in the x y-plane. Using the integral for surface area and

the surface integral over a graph we have:

Area(S) = 1 dS = 1 + gx2 + gz2 d x d y (2)

S D

y

5

x

0 1 3

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1129

By (1) we have:

1 3 2 2 1 9 29

gx = , g y = 1 + g x + gz = 1 + + =

2 4 4 16 4

We substitute in (2) to obtain:

29 29 29 29 3 29

Area(S) = dx dy = 1 dx dy = Area(D) = 32=

D 4 4 D 4 4 2

36. What is the area of the portion of the plane 2x + 3y + 4z = 28 lying above the domain D in the x y-plane in Figure

19 if Area(D) = 5?

FIGURE 19

x 3

z = g(x, y) = y+7

2 4

Hence:

1 2 3 2 29

1 + gx2 + g 2y = 1+ + =

2 4 4

We use the integral for surface area and the surface integral over a graph to write:

29

Area(S) = 1 dS = 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y =

dx dy

S D D 4

29 29 29 5 29

= 1 dx dy = Area(D) = 5= 6.73

4 D 4 4 4

37. Compute the integral of f (x, y, z) = z 2 (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )1 over the cap of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4 defined by

z 1.

SOLUTION We use spherical coordinates to parametrize the cap S.

D : 0 2 , 0 0

The angle 0 is determined by cos 0 = 12 , that is, 0 = 3 . The length of the normal vector in spherical coordinates is:

1

We express the function f (x, y, z) = z 2 x 2 + y 2 + z 2 in terms of the parameters:

f ( , ) = (2 cos )2 41 = cos2

2 /3

f (x, y, z) d S = f ( , ) n d d = cos2 4 sin d d

S D 0 0

2 /3 cos /3

= 4 d cos2 sin d = 8

0 0 3 0

1 1 1 7 7

= 8 = 8 =

8 6 3 24 3

1130 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

38. Calculate f (x, y, z) = z(x 2 + y 2 ) d S, where S is the hemisphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 , z 0.

S

SOLUTION We parametrize the hemisphere, using spherical coordinates, by

( , ) = (R cos sin , R sin sin , R cos ), 0 2 , 0

2

For this parametrization, the length of the normal vector is:

n = R 2 sin

We express the function f (x, y, z) = z x 2 + y 2 in terms of the parameters:

f ( , ) = R cos R 2 cos2 sin2 + R 2 sin2 sin2

= R cos R 2 sin2 cos2 + sin2 = R 3 sin2 cos

2 /2

f (x, y, z) d S = f ( , ) n d d = R 3 sin2 cos R 2 sin d d

S D 0 0

/2

2 /2

= R5 d sin3 cos d = 2 R 5 sin3 cos d

0 0 0

1 1

5 3 5 u 4 R5

f (x, y, z) d S = 2 R u du = 2 R =

S 0 4 2

0

39. Let S be the portion of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9, where 1 x 2 + y 2 4 and z 0 (Figure 20). Find a

parametrization of S in polar coordinates and use it to compute:

(a) The area of S (b) z 1 d S

S

1 2

y

FIGURE 20

SOLUTION

D

x

1 2 3

D : 0 2 , 0 1

1 1

sin 0 = 0 = sin1

3 3

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1131

2 2

sin 1 = 1 = sin1

3 3

z

f1

f0

x

y

2 sin1 (2/3)

2 sin1 (2/3)

Area(S) = n d d = 9 sin d d = 9 d sin d

D 0 sin1 (1/3) 0 sin1 (1/3)

1 =sin1 (2/3)

5 8

= 18 cos 1

= 18 + = 6 8 5 11.166

0 =sin (1/3) 3 3

3

2

3

1

f1 f0

5 8

sec

f ( , ) = (3 cos )1 =

3

Using the surface integral as a double integral we obtain:

2 1 2 1

sec

z 1 d S = f ( , ) n d d = 9 sin d d = 3 tan d d

S D 0 0 3 0 0

1 =sin1 (2/3)

2 1

= 3 d tan d = 6 ln(sec )

0 0 1 0 =sin (1/3)

3 3 8

= 6 ln ln = 6 ln = 3 ln 1.6 4.43

5 8 5

40. Find the surface area of the part of the cone x 2 + y 2 = z 2 between the planes z = 2 and z = 5.

SOLUTION

y

x

D : 0 v 2 , 2 u 5

1132 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Tu = = (u cos v, u sin v, u) = cos v, sin v, 1

u u

Tv = = (u cos v, u sin v, u) = u sin v, u cos v, 0

v v

The normal vector is their cross product:

i j k

n = Tu Tv = cos v sin v 1 = (u cos v)i (u sin v)j + u cos2 v + u sin2 v k

u sin v u cos v 0

n = u cos v + u sin v + u = u 2 cos2 v + sin2 v + u 2 = 2u 2 = u 2

2 2 2 2 2

Step 2. Calculate the surface area. Using the formula for the surface area as a double integral gives:

2 5

2 5

Area(S) = n du dv = 2u du dv = 2 dv u du

D 0 2 0 2

u 2 5 25 4

= 2 2 = 2 2 = 21 2 93.3

2 2 2

41. Find the surface area of the portion S of the cone z 2 = x 2 + y 2 , where z 0, contained within the cylinder

y 2 + z 2 1.

SOLUTION We rewrite the equation of the cone as x = z 2 y 2 . The projection of the cone onto the yz-plane is

obtained by setting x = 0 in the equation of the cone, that is,

x = 0 = z 2 y 2 z = y

Since on S, z 0, we get z = |y|. We conclude that the projection of the upper part of the cone x 2 + y 2 = z 2 onto the

yz-plane is the region between the lines z = y and z = y on the upper part of the yz-plane. Therefore, the projection

D of S onto the yz-plane is the region shown in the figure:

z

y2 + z2 =1 z= 1 y2

z = y z=y

y

1 1

2 2

Area(S) = dS

S

We compute the integral using a surface integral over a graph. Since x = g(y, z) = z 2 y 2 we have,

z y

gz = , gy =

z2 y2 z2 y2

Hence, (notice that z 0 on S):

z2 y2 2z 2 z 2

1 + g 2y + gz2 = 1+ 2 + 2 = =

z y 2 z y2 z2 y2 z2 y2

We obtain the following integral:

z 2

Area(S) = 1 + g 2y + gz2 d y dz = dz d y

D D z2 y2

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1133

1/(2) 1y 2

1/( 2) 1y 2

z 2 z dz

Area(S) = 2 dz d y = 2 2 dy (1)

0 y z2 y2 0 y z2 y2

We compute the inner integral using the substitution u = z 2 y 2 , du = uz dz. We get:

1y 2 1y 2 12y 2

z dz u du

= = du = 1 2y 2

y z2 y2 0 u 0

We substitute in (1) and compute the resulting integral using the substitution t = 2y. We get:

1/( 2) 1 dt

1

Area(S) = 1 2y 2 d y = 2 2 1 t2 = 2 1 t 2 dt = 2 =

0 0 2 0 4 2

42. Find the integral of e2x+yz over the following faces of the cube of side 2 in Figure 21.

(a) The top face (b) The face PQRS

2

Q

O R

P

y

2

x S

FIGURE 21

SOLUTION

(a) The top face is the part of the plane z = g(x, y) = 2 lying over the domain D = [0, 2] [0, 2] in the x y-plane. We

compute the surface integral using the formula for the surface integral over a graph. That is,

f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, y, g(x, y)) 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y (1)

S S

1 + gx2 + g 2y = 1+0+0=1

2 2

2 2

f (x, y, z) d S = e2x+2y 1 d x d y = e2x d x e2y d y

S 0 0 0 0

2 2

2

1 2x 2 1 4 e4 1

= e = e 1 = 718.2

2 x=0 2 4

(b) The face P Q RS is the part of the plane y = g(x, z) = 2 lying over the domain D = [0, 2] [0, 2] in the x z-plane.

We use the surface integral over a graph to write:

f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, g(x, z), z) 1 + gx2 + gz2 d x dz (2)

S S

1 + gx2 + gz2 = 1 + 0 + 0 = 1

Substituting in (2) we obtain an integral that is equal to the integral computed in part (a). That is,

2

2 2 e4 1

f (x, y, z) d S = e2x+2z d x dz = 718.2

S 0 0 4

1134 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

43. Prove a famous result of Archimedes: The surface area of the portion of the sphere of radius r between two horizontal

planes z = a and z = b is equal to the surface area of the corresponding portion of the circumscribed cylinder (Figure

22).

b

a

FIGURE 22

SOLUTION We compute the area of the portion of the sphere between the planes a and b. The portion S1 of the sphere

has the parametrization,

where,

D1 : 0 2 , 0 1

If we assume 0 < a < b, then the angles 0 and 1 are determined by,

b b

cos 0 = 0 = cos1

r r

a 1 a

cos 1 = 1 = cos

r r

b r a r

f1

f0

The length of the normal vector is n = r 2 sin . We obtain the following integral:

2 1 2 2

Area (S1 ) = nd d = r 2 sin d d = r 2d sin d

D1 0 0 0 1

cos1 a

r a b

= 2 r 2 cos = 2 r 2 + = 2 r (b a)

=cos1 br r r

The area of the part S2 of the cylinder of radius r between the planes z = a and z = b is:

Area (S2 ) = 2 r (b a)

44. Surfaces of Revolution Let S be the surface formed by revolving the region underneath the graph z = g(y) in the

yz-plane for c y d about the z-axis (Figure 23). Assume that c 0.

(a) Show that the circle generated by rotating a point (0, a, b) about the z-axis is parametrized by

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1135

for c y d, 0 2 .

(c) Show that

d

Area(S) = 2 y 1 + g (y)2 d y 13

c

z z

(0, y, g(y))

b

(0, a, b)

a y y

x

(a cos , a sin , 0) x (y cos , y sin , g(y))

FIGURE 23

SOLUTION

(a) The circle generated by rotating a point (0, a, b) about the z-axis is a circle of radius a centered at the point (0, 0, b)

on the z-axis. Therefore it is parametrized by,

(b) An arbitrary point (x, y, g(y)) on the surface S lies on the circle generated by rotating the point (0, y, g(y)) about

the z-axis. Using part (a), a parametrization of this circle is:

(c) To compute the area of S we first find the tangent and normal vectors. We have:

Ty = = (y cos , y sin , g(y)) = cos , sin , g (y)

y y

T = = (y cos , y sin , g(y)) = y sin , y cos , 0

The normal vector is their cross product:

i j k

n = T y T = cos sin g (y)

y sin y cos 0

= y cos g (y) i y sin g (y) j + y cos2 + y sin2 k

= y cos g (y), sin g (y), 1

n = |y| cos2 g (y)2 + sin2 g (y)2 + 1 = |y| g (y)2 cos2 + sin2 + 1 = |y| 1 + g (y)2

2 d

Area(S) = 1 dS = n d y d = |y| 1 + g (y)2 d y d

D D 0 c

d

2 d

= 1 d

|y| 1 + g (y) d y = 2

2 |y| 1 + g (y)2 d y

0 c c

45. Use Eq. (13) to compute the surface area of z = 4 y 2 for 0 y 2 rotated about the z-axis.

1136 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

SOLUTION Since g(y) = 4 y 2 , we have g (y) = 2y. By Eq. (13) we obtain the following integral,

2 2

Area(S) = 2 |y| 1 + (2y)2 d y = 2 y 1 + 4y 2 d y

0 0

17

du 2 u 3/2 17

Area(S) = 2 u 1/2 = 2 = 17 17 1 36.18

1 8 3 8 1 6

46. Describe the upper half of the cone x 2 + y 2 = z 2 for 0 z d as a surface of revolution (Figure 2) and use

Eq. (13) to compute its surface area.

SOLUTION We find the graph z = g(y) in the (yz)-plane that when revolved about the z-axis describes the upper part

of the cone. Substituting x = 0 in the equation of the cone we have,

02 + y 2 = z 2 z = y

The generating curve is z = g(y) = y for 0 y d. Therefore g (y) = 1 and Eq. (13) gives:

d d

d y 2 d

Area(S) = 2 |y| 1 + g (y)2 d y = 2 y 1 + 12 d y = 2 2 y d y = 2 2 = 2 d 2

0 0 0 2 0

z=y

y

d

47. Area of a Torus Let T be the torus obtained by rotating the circle in the yz-plane of radius a centered at (0, b, 0)

about the z-axis (Figure 24). We assume that b > a > 0.

(a) Use Eq. (13) to show that

b+a

ay

Area(T) = 4 dy

ba a (b y)2

2

z z

ba

b+a

b y

y

x x

FIGURE 24 The torus obtained by rotating a circle of radius a.

(b) Show that Area(T) = 4 2 ab. Hint: Rewrite the integral using substitution.

SOLUTION

(a) Using symmetry, the area of the surface obtained by rotating the upper part of the circle is half the area of the torus.

z

ba

b+a

b

y

x

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1137

The rotated graph is z = g(y) = a 2 (y b)2 , b a y b + a. So, we have,

2(y b) yb

g (y) = =

2 a 2 (y b)2 a 2 (y b)2

(y b)2 a 2 (y b)2 + (y b)2 a

1 + g (y)2 = 1 + = =

a (y b)

2 2 a (y b)

2 2

a 2 (y b)2

We now use symmetry and Eq. (13) to obtain the following area of the torus (we assume that b a > 0, hence y > 0):

b+a b+a

ay

Area (T) = 2 2 |y| 1 + g (y)2 d y = 4 dy (1)

ba ba a 2 (y b)2

a , du = a d y. We get:

b+a 1 1 2 1 1

ay a 2 u + ab a u + ab a2 u ab

dy = a du = du = du + du

ba a 2 (y b) 2 1 a a u

2 2 2 1 1u 2 1 1u 2 1 1 u2

The first integral is zero since the integrand is an odd function. We get:

b+a 1 1

ay ab

dy = 2 du = 2ab sin1 u = 2ab 0 = ab

ba 1 u2 2

a 2 (y b)2 0 0

Area (T) = 4 ab = 4 2 ab

48. Pappuss Theorem Also called Guldins Rule, Pappuss Theorem states that the area of a surface of revolution S

is equal to the length L of the generating curve times the distance traversed by the center of mass. Use Eq. (13) to prove

Pappuss Theorem. If C is the graph z = g(y) for c y d, then the center of mass is defined as the point (y, z) with

1 1

y= y ds, z= z ds

L C L C

SOLUTION We may assume that the generating curve z = g(y) lies in the region y 0 (otherwise we translate the

axes so that this condition is satisfied). The curve z = g(y), c y d is parametrized by:

Hence,

c (y) = 1, g (y) c (y) = 1 + g (y)2

d d

y ds = yc (y) d y = y 1 + g (y)2 d y (1)

C c c

The center of mass (y, z) of the generating curve traverses a circle of radius y. Therefore the distance traversed by the

center of mass is 2 y. The length L of the generating curve, times the distance traversed by the center of mass, is:

1

L 2 y = L 2 y ds = 2 y ds

L C C

Combining with (1) we get:

d

L 2 y = 2 y 1 + g (y)2 d y

c

Since y 0, the right hand-side is the area of the surface of revolution S, as stated in Eq. (13). Therefore we get:

L 2 y = Area(S)

49. Compute the surface area of the torus in Exercise 47 using Pappuss Theorem.

1138 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

SOLUTION The generating curve is the circle of radius a in the (y, z)-plane centered at the point (0, b, 0). The length

of the generating curve is L = a.

z

2b

L = 2b

ba

b b+a

y

The center of mass of the circle is at the center (y, z) = (b, 0), and it traverses a circle of radius b centered at the origin.

Therefore, the center of mass makes a distance of 2 b. Using Pappus Theorem, the area of the torus is:

L 2 a = 2 a 2 b = 4 2 ab.

50. Potential due to a Uniform Sphere Let S be a hollow sphere of radius R with center at the origin with

a uniform mass distribution of total mass m [since S has surface area 4 R 2 , the mass density is = m/(4 R 2 )]. The

gravitational potential (P) due to S at a point P = (a, b, c) is equal to

dS

G

S (x a) + (y b)2 + (z c)2

2

(a) Use symmetry to conclude that the potential depends only on the distance r from P to the center of the sphere.

Therefore, it suffices to compute (P) for a point P = (0, 0, r ) on the z-axis (with r = R).

(b) Use spherical coordinates to show that (0, 0, r ) is equal to

Gm 2 sin d d

4 0 0 R + r 2 2Rr cos

2

mG

(0, 0, r ) = |R + r | |R r |

2Rr

(d) Verify formula (11) for .

SOLUTION

(a) The gravitational potential due to S at a point P = (a, b, c) is given by:

dS

(P) = G

S (x a)2 + (y b)2 + (z c)2

Due to the symmetry of the sphere, the sum of the distances of a point P = (a, b, c) from the points Q = (x, y, z) on

the

sphere is equal for all the points P located at the same distance r from the center of the sphere. That is, the integral

d S depends only on r . Since is constant, the integral for (P) also depends only on r . Thus, we might as

S |QP|

well assume that P is on the z-axis at the point (0, 0, r ), with r being a 2 + b2 + c2 .

(b) For a = b = 0, and c = r we have,

dS

(0, 0, r ) = G (1)

S x 2 + y 2 + (z r )2

n = R 2 sin

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1139

2 2 m R 2 sin d d

n d d

4 R

2

(0, 0, r ) = G = G

0 0 R 2 2Rr cos + r 2 0 0 R 2 2Rr cos + r 2

Gm 2 sin d d

=

4 0 0 R 2 2Rr cos + r 2

(c) We compute the double integral for (0, 0, r ). Since the integrand does not depend on , we have,

Gm sin d Gm sin d

(0, 0, r ) = 2 =

4 0 R 2 + r 2 2Rr cos 2 0 R 2 + r 2 2Rr cos

We compute the integral using the substitution u = R 2 + r 2 2Rr cos , du = 2Rr sin d . We obtain:

(R+r )2

Gm (R+r ) 2Rr Gm (R+r ) 1/2

2 du 2

Gm

(0, 0, r ) = = u du = 2u 1/2

2 (Rr )2 u 4Rr (Rr )2 4Rr u=(Rr )2

Gm 1/2 1/2 Gm

= (R + r )2 (R r )2 = (|R + r | |R r |)

2Rr 2Rr

(d) For r > R:

|R + r | |R r | = R + r (r R) = 2R

Thus,

Gm Gm

(0, 0, r ) = 2R = .

2Rr r

Similarly, for r < R we obtain,

Gm Gm

(0, 0, r ) = 2r = .

2Rr R

51. Calculate the gravitational potential for a hemisphere of radius R with uniform mass distribution.

SOLUTION In Exercise 50(b) we expressed the potential for a sphere of radius R. To find the potential for a hemi-

sphere of radius R, we need only to modify the limits of the angle to 0 2 . This gives the following integral:

/2

Gm /2 2 sin d d Gm sin d

(0, 0, r ) = (r ) = = 2

4 0 0 R + r 2Rr cos

2 2 4 0 R + r 2 2Rr cos

2

Gm /2 sin d

=

4 0 R + r 2 2Rr cos

2

We compute the integral using the substitution u = R 2 + r 2 2Rr cos , du = 2Rr sin d . We obtain:

2 2 du 2 2 R 2 +r 2

Gm R +r 2Rr Gm R +r 1/2 Gm

(r ) = = u du = 2u 1/2

2 (Rr )2 u 4Rr (Rr )2 4Rr u=(Rr )2

Gm 1/2 1/2 Gm

= R2 + r 2 (R r )2 = R 2 + r 2 |R r |

2Rr 2Rr

52. The surface of a cylinder of radius R and length L has a uniform mass distribution (the top and bottom of the

cylinder are excluded). Use Eq. (10) to find the gravitational potential at a point P located along the axis of the cylinder.

SOLUTION By Eq. (10) the gravitational potential at a point P = (0, 0, c) along the axis of the cylinder is:

dS

(0, 0, c) = G

S x 2 + y 2 + (z c)2

1140 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

z

P = (0, 0, c)

y

R

T = = R sin , R cos , 0

Tz = = 0, 0, 1

z

Hence,

i j k

n = T Tz = R sin R cos 0 = (R cos )i + (R sin )j = R cos , sin , 0

0 0 1

Hence,

n = R cos2 + sin2 = R

x 2 + y 2 + (z c)2 = R 2 cos2 + R 2 sin2 + (z c)2 = R 2 + (z c)2

2 L 2 L 2 L

n dz d R dz d dz d

(0, 0, c) = G = G = G R

0 0 R + (z c)

2 2 0 0 R + (z c)

2 2 0 0 R + (z c)2

2

L L

dz

= G R 2 = 2G R ln z c + (z c) + R

2 2

0 R 2 + (z c)2 z=0

= 2G R ln L c + (L c)2 + R 2 ln c + c2 + R 2

L c+ (L c)2 + R 2

= 2G R ln

c + c2 + R 2

53. Let S be the part of the graph z = g(x, y) lying over a domain D in the x y-plane. Let = (x, y) be the angle

between the normal to S and the vertical. Prove the formula

dA

Area(S) =

D | cos |

SOLUTION

z

n

f = f(x, y)

S

(x, y, g(x, y))

D y

x

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1141

Area(S) = 1 dS = 1 + gx2 + g 2y d A (1)

S D

In parametrizing the surface by (x, y) = (x, y, g(x, y)), (x, y) = D, we have:

Tx = = 1, 0, gx

x

Ty = = 0, 1, g y

y

Hence,

i j k

n = Tx T y = 1 0 gx = gx i g y j + k = gx , g y , 1

0 1 gy

n = gx2 + g 2y + 1

k n

There are two adjacent angles between the normal n and the vertical, and the cosines of these angles are opposite numbers.

Therefore we take the absolute value of cos to obtain a positive value for Area(S). Using the Formula for the cosine of

the angle between two vectors we get:

|n k| | gx , g y , 1 0, 0, 1 | 1

| cos | = = =

nk 2

1+g +g 1 2 1 + g2 + g2

x y x y

dA

Area(S) =

D | cos |

Preliminary Questions

1. Let F be a vector field and (u, v) a parametrization of a surface S, and set n = Tu Tv . Which of the following

is the normal component of F?

(a) F n (b) F en

SOLUTION The normal component of F is F en rather than F n.

2. The vector surface integral F dS is equal to the scalar surface integral of the function (choose the correct

S

answer):

(a) F

(b) F n, where n is a normal vector

(c) F en , where en is the unit normal vector

SOLUTION The vector surface integral

S F

dS is defined as the scalar surface integral of the normal component of

F on the oriented surface. That is, S F dS = S (F en ) d S as stated in (c).

3. F dS is zero if (choose the correct answer):

S

(a) F is tangent to S at every point.

(b) F is perpendicular to S at every point.

SOLUTION Since S F dS is equal to the scalar surface integral of the normal component of F on S, this integral is

zero when the normal component is zero at every point, that is, when F is tangent to S at every point as stated in (a).

1142 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

4. If F(P) = en (P) at each point on S, then F dS is equal to (choose the correct answer):

S

(a) Zero (b) Area(S) (c) Neither

SOLUTION If F(P) = en (P) at each point on S, then,:

F dS = (en en ) d S = en 2 d S = 1 d S = Area(S)

S S S S

5. Let S be the disk x 2 + y 2 1 in the x y-plane oriented with normal in the positive z-direction. Determine F dS

S

for each of the following vector constant fields:

(a) F = 1, 0, 0

(b) F = 0, 0, 1

(c) F = 1, 1, 1

SOLUTION The unit normal vector to the oriented disk is en = 0, 0, 1.

Since F en = 1, 0, 0 0, 0, 1 = 0, F is perpendicular to the unit normal vector at every point on S, therefore

(a)

S F dS = 0.

(b) Since F = en at every point on S, we have:

F dS = (en en ) d S = en 2 d S = 1 d S = Area(S) =

S S S S

F dS = (F en ) d S = 1, 1, 1 0, 0, 1 d S = 1 d S = Area(S) =

S S S S

6. Estimate F dS, where S is a tiny oriented surface of area 0.05 and the value of F at a sample point in S is a

S

vector of length 2 making an angle 4 with the normal to the surface.

SOLUTION

en F

S

4

P

Since S is a tiny surface, we may assume that the dot product F en on S is equal to the dot product at the sample point.

This gives the following approximation:

F dS = (F en ) dS (F(P) en (P)) dS = F(P) en (P) 1dS = F(P) en Area(S)

S S S S

That is,

F dS F(P) en (P)Area(S) (1)

S

1

F(P) en (P) = F(P)en (P) cos =21 = 2

4 2

Combining with (1) gives the following estimation:

F dS 0.05 2 0.0707.

S

7. A small surface S is divided into three pieces of area 0.2. Estimate F dS if F is a unit vector field making

S

angles of 85, 90, and 95 with the normal at sample points in these three pieces.

SOLUTION

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1143

F en

en F en

F

P1 P3

P2

S1 S3

S2

F dS = F (P1 ) en (P1 ) Area (S1 ) + F (P2 ) en (P2 ) Area (S2 ) + F (P3 ) en (P3 ) Area (S3 )

S

= 0.2 (F (P1 ) en (P1 ) + F (P2 ) en (P2 ) + F (P3 ) en (P3 ))

We compute the dot product. Since F and en are unit vectors, we have:

F (P2 ) en (P2 ) = cos 90 = 0

F (P3 ) en (P3 ) = cos 95 0.0872

F dS 0.2(0.0872 + 0 0.0872) = 0.

S

Exercises

1. Let F = y, z, x and let S be the oriented surface parametrized by (u, v) = (u 2 v, u + v, v 2 ) for 0 u 2,

1 v 1. Calculate:

(a) n and F n as functions of u and v

(b) The normal component of F to the surface at P = (3, 3, 1) = (2, 1)

(c) F dS

S

SOLUTION

(a) The tangent vectors are,

2

Tu = = u v, u + v, v 2 = 2u, 1, 0

u u

2

Tv = = u v, u + v, v 2 = 1, 1, 2v

v v

The normal vector is their cross product:

i j k

n = Tu Tv = 2u 1 0 = (2v)i (4uv)j + (2u + 1)k = 2v, 4uv, 2u + 1

1 1 2v

F ((u, v)) = y, z, x = u + v, v 2 , u 2 v

F ((u, v)) n(u, v) = u + v, v 2 , u 2 v 2v, 4uv, 2u + 1

= 2v(u + v) 4uv v 2 + (2u + 1) u 2 v

= 2u 3 4uv 3 + 2v 2 + u 2 v

F(P) = 3, 1, 3

n(P) = 2 1, 4 2 1, 2 2 + 1 = 2, 8, 5

n(P) 2, 8, 5 1

en (P) = = = 2, 8, 5

n(P) 4 + 64 + 25 93

1144 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1 1 13

F(P) en (P) = 3, 1, 3 2, 8, 5 = (6 8 + 15) =

93 93 93

(c) Using the definition of the vector surface integral and the dot product in part (a), we have:

2 1

F dS = F (u, v) n(u, v) du dv = 2u 3 4uv 3 + 2v 2 + u 2 v dv du

S D 0 1

2

2 1 1

= 2u 3 v uv 4 + v 3 + u 2 v v 2 du

0 3 2 v=1

2

2 1 2 1

= 2u 3 u +

+ u2 2u 3 u u 2 du

0 3 2 3 2

2

3 2 4 4 2 3 4u 2

= 4u + 2u + du = u + u + = 24

0 3 3 3 0

2. Compute the surface integral of the vector field F = x, y, x + y over the portion S of the paraboloid z = x 2 + y 2

lying over the disk x 2 + y 2 1.

SOLUTION

Step 1. Find a parametrization. We use x and y as parameters and parametrize the surface by,

(x, y) = x, y, x 2 + y 2

with the parameter domain D = (x, y) : x 2 + y 2 1 .

Step 2. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have,

Tx = = x, y, x 2 + y 2 = 1, 0, 2x

x x

Ty = = x, y, x 2 + y 2 = 0, 1, 2y

y y

i j k

n = Tx T y = 1 0 2x = (2x)i (2y)j + k = 2x, 2y, 1

0 1 2y

Step 4. Compute the surface integral. Using the definition of vector surface integral gives:

F dS = F ((x, y)) n(x, y) d x d y = 2 x 2 + y 2 + x + y d x d y

S D D

We compute the double integral by converting it to polar coordinates. We get:

2 1 2 1

F dS = 2r 2 + r (cos + sin ) r dr d = 2r 3 + r 2 (cos + sin ) dr d

S 0 0 0 0

2 1 2

1 r3 1 1

= r 4 + (cos + sin ) d = + (cos + sin ) d

0 2 3 r =0 0 2 3

2 & ' & '

1 1 1

= + (sin cos ) = + (0 1) (0 1) =

2 3 0 3 3

3. Let S be the square in the x y-plane shown in Figure 13, oriented with the normal pointing in the positive z-direction.

Estimate

F dS

S

where F is a vector field whose values at the labeled points are

F(C) = 3, 3, 3, F(D) = 0, 1, 8

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1145

SOLUTION The unit normal vector to S is en = 0, 0, 1. We estimate the vector surface integral S F dS using the

division and sample points given in Figure 12.

y

A B

C D

x

1

1

F dS (F( A) en + F(B) en + F(C) en + F(D) en )

S 4

1

= (2, 6, 4 0, 0, 1 + 1, 1, 7 0, 0, 1 + 3, 3, 3 0, 0, 1 + 0, 1, 8 0, 0, 1)

4

1

= (4 + 7 3 + 8) =4

4

4. Suppose that S is a surface in R3 with a parametrization whose domain D is the square in Figure 13. The values

of a function f , a vector field F, and the normal vector n = Tu Tv at (P) are given for the four sample points in D

in the following table. Estimate the surface integrals of f and F over S.

Point

P in D f F n

A 3 2, 6, 4 1, 1, 1

B 1 1, 1, 7 1, 1, 0

C 2 3, 3, 3 1, 0, 1

D 5 0, 1, 8 2, 1, 0

A B

C D

x

1

FIGURE 13

SOLUTION The area of each subrectangle is 14 . We estimate the surface integral of f over S by the following sum:

1

f (x, y, z) d S = ( f ( A)n( A) + f (B)n(B) + f (C)n(C) + f (D)n(D)) (1)

S 4

We use the given data to compute the length of the normal vectors:

n( A) = 1, 1, 1 = 3

n(B) = 1, 1, 0 = 2

n(C) = 1, 0, 1 = 2

n(D) = 2, 1, 0 = 5

1 3 3+3 2+5 5

f (x, y, z) d S = 3 3 + 1 2 + 2 2 + 5 5 = 5.155

S 4 4

We now estimate the vector surface integral S F dS by the following sum:

1

F dS = (F( A) n + F(B) n + F(C) n + F(D) n)

S 4

1146 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1

= (2, 6, 4 1, 1, 1 + 1, 1, 7 1, 1, 0 + 3, 3, 3 1, 0, 1 + 0, 1, 8 2, 1, 0)

4

1 21

= (12 + 2 + 6 + 1) =

4 4

In Exercises 517, compute the surface integral over the given oriented surface.

0 x, y 1, upward-pointing normal

SOLUTION We rewrite the equation of the plane as z = 1 3x + 4y, and parametrize the plane by:

Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.

Tx = = (x, y, 1 3x + 4y) = 1, 0, 3

x x

Ty = = (x, y, 1 3x + 4y) = 0, 1, 4

y y

i j k

Tx T y = 1 0 3 = 3i 4j + k = 3, 4, 1

0 1 4

Since the plane is oriented with upward pointing normal, the normal vector n is:

n = 3, 4, 1

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

1 1

F dS = F ((x, y)) n(x, y) d x d y = (13x 13y 4) d x d y

S D 0 0

1 1 1

13x 2 13 5y 13y 2 1

= 13yx 4x dy = 13y 4 d y = = 4

0 2 x=0 0 2 2 2 0

6. F = e z , z, x , (r, s) = (r s, r + s, r ),

0 r 1, 0 s 1, oriented by Tr Ts

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have:

Tr = = (r s, r + s, r ) = s, 1, 1

r r

Ts = = (r s, r + s, r ) = r, 1, 0

s s

i j k

n = Tr Ts = s 1 1 = i + r j + (s r )k = 1, r, s r

r 1 0

F (r, s) = e z , z, x = er , r, r s

F (r, s) n(r, s) = er , r, r s 1, r, s r = er + r 2 + r s(s r ) = er + r 2 (1 s) + r s 2

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1147

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

1 1

F dS = F ((r, s)) n(r, s) dr ds = er + r 2 (1 s) + r s 2 dr ds

S D 0 0

1 1

r 3 (1 s) r 2 s 2 1

1s s2

= er + + ds = e + + + 1 ds

0 3 2 r =0 0 3 2

2

s s2 s 3 1 1 1 4

= (1 e)s + + = 1 e + + = e 1.385

3 6 0 6 6 3

7. F = 0, 3, x 2 , hemisphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9,

z 0, outward-pointing normal

SOLUTION We parametrize the hemisphere S by:

( , ) = (3 cos sin , 3 sin sin , 3 cos ), 0 2 , 0

2

Step 1. Compute the normal vector. As seen in the text, the normal vector that points to the outside of the hemisphere is:

n = T T = sin cos sin , sin sin , cos

For 0 2 we have sin cos 0, therefore n points to the outside of the hemisphere.

Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We express the vector field in terms of the parameters:

F ( , ) = 0, 3, x 2 = 0, 3, 9 cos2 sin2

Hence:

F ( , ) n( , ) = 0, 3, 9 cos2 sin2 sin cos sin , sin sin , cos

= sin 3 sin sin + 9 cos2 sin2 cos

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

F dS = F ( , ) n( , ) d d

S D

/2 2

= 3 sin sin2 + 9 cos2 sin3 cos d d

0 0

/2 2 /2 2

= 3 sin sin2 d d + 9 cos2 sin3 cos d d

0 0 0 0

/2 2 /2 2

= sin2 d 3 sin d + 9 sin3 cos d cos2 d

0 0 0 0

4 /2 2

sin 2 /2

9 sin sin 2

= 3 cos | =0 +

2

+

2 4 =0 4 2 4 =0

=0

9 9

=0+ =

4 4

1148 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1 3

8. F = x, y, z, part of sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, where z , inward-pointing normal

2 2

SOLUTION

y

x

D : 0 2 , 0 1

3

2

1

f0

3

cos 0 = 0 =

2 6

1

cos 1 = 1 =

2 3

1

2 1

f1

Step 1. Determine the normal vector. The normal vector pointing to the outside of the sphere is:

n = T T = sin cos sin , sin sin , cos

(Notice that for 6 3 , sin cos > 0, therefore the z-component is positive and the normal points to the outside

of the sphere).

Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We express F in terms of the parameters:

F ( , ) = x, y, z = (cos sin , sin sin , cos )

Hence:

F ( , ) n( , ) = cos sin , sin sin , cos sin cos sin , sin sin , cos

= sin cos2 sin2 + sin2 sin2 + cos2

= sin 1 = sin

2 /3 /3

F dS = F ( , ) n( , ) d d = sin d d = 2 sin d

S D 0 /6 /6

/3

1 3

= 2 ( cos ) = 2 cos + cos = 2 + = 3 1 2.3

= /6 3 6 2 2

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1149

9. F = e z , z, x , z = 9 x 2 y 2 , z 0, upward-pointing normal

SOLUTION

Step 1. Find a parametrization. We use x and y as parameters and parametrize the surface by:

(x, y) = x, y, 9 x 2 y 2

D = (x, y) : x 2 + y 2 9

Tx = = x, y, 9 x 2 y 2 = 1, 0, 2x

x x

Ty = = x, y, 9 x 2 y 2 = 0, 1, 2y

y y

We compute the cross product of the tangent vectors:

i j k

Tx T y = 1 0 2x = (2x)i + (2y)j + k = 2x, 2y, 1

0 1 2y

Since the z-component is positive, the vector points upward, and we have:

n = 2x, 2y, 1

Step 3. Evaluate the dot product F n. We first express the vector field in terms of the parameters x and y, by setting

z = 9 x 2 y 2 . We get:

F ((x, y)) = e z , z, x = e9x y , 9 x 2 y 2 , x

2 2

F ((x, y)) n(x, y) = e9x y , 9 x 2 y 2 , x 2x, 2y, 1 = 2xe9x y + 2y(9 x 2 y 2 ) + x

2 2 2 2

y

x

3

2xe9(x +y ) + 2y 9 (x 2 + y 2 ) + x d x d y

2 2

F dS = F ((x, y)) n(x, y) d x d y =

S D D

We convert the integral to polar coordinates to obtain:

3 2

2

F dS = 2r cos e9r + 2r sin (9 r 2 ) + r cos r d dr

S 0 0

3 2 3

2r 2 e9r + r 2 sin 2r 2 (9 r 2 ) cos

2

= dr = 0 dr = 0

0 =0 0

10. F = sin y, sin z, yz, rectangle 0 y 2, 0 z 3 in the (y, z)-plane, normal pointing in negative x-direction

SOLUTION

1150 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

z

n

3

2

x y

The surface is the plane x = 0 over the rectangle 0 y 2, 0 z 3 in the (y, z)-plane, hence it is parametrized by:

Ty = = (0, y, z) = 0, 1, 0 = j

y y

Tz = = (0, y, z) = 0, 0, 1 = k

z z

T y Tz = j k = i = 1, 0, 0

Since the normal points to the negative x-direction, the x-component must be negative. Hence:

n = 1, 0, 0

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

2 2 3

F dS = F ((y, z)) n d y dz = int03 ( sin y) d y dz = sin y dz d y

S D 0 0 0

2 2

=3 ( sin y) d y = 3 cos y = 3(cos 2 1) 4.25

0 0

SOLUTION

n

S

1 y

1

x

y

x

0 1

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1151

Tx = = (x, y, 1 x y) = 1, 0, 1

x x

Ty = = (x, y, 1 y) = 0, 1, 1

y y

i j k

Tx T y = 1 0 1 = i + j + k = 1, 1, 1

0 1 1

Since the normal points downward, the z-component must be negative, hence:

n = 1, 1, 1

y

0x1y

x

0 1

F ((x, y)) n = y 2 , 2, x 1, 1, 1 = y 2 2 + x

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

1 1y

1

x 2 1y

F dS = F ((x, y)) n d x d y = y 2 2 + x d x d y = y 2 x 2x + dy

S D 0 0 0 2 x=0

1
1

2 (1 y)2 3 2 (y 1)2

= y (1 y) 2(1 y) + dy = y y + 2(y 1) + dy

0 2 0 2

y4 y3 (y 1)3 1 1 1 1 11

= + (y 1)2 + = 1 =

4 3 6 0 4 3 6 12

12. F = x, y, e z , cylinder x 2 + y 2 = 4, 1 z 5, outward-pointing normal

SOLUTION We parametrize the surface by

( , z) = (2 cos , 2 sin , z)

D : 0 2 , 1 z 5

T Tz = 2 cos , 2 sin , 0

z

y

x

1152 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

This vector is horizontal and points out of the cylinder (this can be verified by setting = 0; the vector 2, 0, 0 points

out of the cylinder). Therefore:

n = 2 cos , 2 sin , 0

F (( , z)) n( , z) = 2 cos , 2 sin , e z 2 cos , 2 sin , 0 = 4 cos2 + 4 sin2 = 4

z

1

q

2p

F dS = F (( , z)) n( , z) dz d = 4 dz d = 4Area(D) = 4 4 2 = 32

S D D

13. F = x z, yz, z 1 , disk of radius 3 at height 4 parallel to the x y-plane, upward-pointing normal

SOLUTION

z

n

3

4

( , r ) = (r cos , r sin , 4)

D = {( , r ) : 0 2 , 0 r 3}

T = = (r cos , r sin , 4) = r sin , r cos , 0

Tr = = (r cos , r sin , 4) = cos , sin , 0

r r

i j k

T Tr = r sin r cos 0 = r sin2 r cos2 k = r k = 0, 0, r

cos sin 0

Since the orientation of S is with an upward pointing normal, the z-coordinate of n must be positive. Hence:

n = 0, 0, r

Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We first express F in terms of the parameters:

1

F (( , r )) = x z, yz, z 1 = r cos 4, r sin 4, 41 = 4r cos , 4r sin ,

4

We now compute the dot product:

1 r

F (( , r )) n( , r ) = 4r cos , 4r sin , 0, 0, r =

4 4

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1153

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

2 3 3

r r r 2 3 9

F dS = F (( , r )) n( , r ) dr d = dr d = 2 dr = 2 =

S D 0 0 4 0 4 8 0 4

SOLUTION We parametrize the surface S by:

( , t) = (t cos , t sin , t)

D = {( , t) : 0 2 , 0 t 2}

y

x

2

T Tt = t cos , t sin , t

Since the normal is pointing downward, the z-coordinate must be negative. Therefore the normal is:

n = t cos , t sin , t

We express F in terms of the parameters and then compute the dot product F n. We obtain:

F (( , t)) = x y, y, 0 = (t cos )(t sin ), t sin , 0 = t 2 cos sin , t sin , 0

F (( , t)) n( , t) = t sin t cos , 1, 0 t cos , sin , 1 = t 2 sin t cos2 + sin

2 2

F dS = F (( , t)) n( , t) dt d = t 3 cos2 sin + t 2 sin2 dt d

S D 0 0

2 2 2 2

= t 3 dt cos2 sin d + t 2 dt sin2 d

0 0 0 0

4 2 3 2 3 2

t cos + t sin 2 2 8 8

= =40+ =

4 3 3 2 4 =0 3 3

t=0 =0 t=0

15. F = 0, 0, e y+z , boundary of unit cube 0 x, y, z 1, outward-pointing normal

SOLUTION

F

D

G

O

A y

C

x

B

1154 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

S4 = Face OC D E S5 = Face BC DG S6 = Face O AF E

On S1

1 (x, y) = (x, y, 0)

F (1 (x, y)) n1 = 0, 0, e y 0, 0, 1 = e y

On S2

2 (x, y) = (x, y, 1)

F (2 (x, y)) n2 = 0, 0, e y+1 0, 0, 1 = e y+1

1 1 1 1

F dS = F dS + F dS = e y d x d y + e y+1 d x d y

S S1 S2 0 0 0 0

1 1 1

= e y+1 e y d x d y = e y+1 e y d y

0 0 0

1 1

= e (e 1) d y = (e 1)e = (e 1)2

y y

0 0

16. F = 0, 0, z 2 , (u, v) = (u cos v, u sin v, v), 0 u 1, 0 v 2 , upward-pointing normal

SOLUTION For this parametrization it holds that (see Example 3 in Section 17.4):

Tu Tv = sin v, cos v, u

n = sin v, cos v, u

F ((u, v)) = 0, 0, z 2 = 0, 0, v 2

F ((u, v)) n(u, v) = 0, 0, v 2 sin v, cos v, u = v 2 u

2 1

2 1

F dS = F ((u, v)) n(u, v) du dv = v 2 u du dv = v 2 dv u du

S D 0 0 0 0

v 3 2 u 2 1 8 3 1 4 3

= = =

3 v=0 2 u=0 3 2 3

SOLUTION

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1155

Tu = = u 3 v, u + v, v 2 = 3u 2 , 1, 0

u u

Tv = = u 3 v, u + v, v 2 = 1, 1, 2v

v v

i j k

Tu Tv = 3u 2 1 0 = (2v)i 6u 2 v j + 3u 2 + 1 k = 2v, 6u 2 v, 3u 2 + 1

1 1 2v

n = 2v, 6u 2 v, 3u 2 1

Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We first express F in terms of the parameters:

F ((u, v)) = y, z, 0 = u + v, v 2 , 0

F ((u, v)) n(u, v) = u + v, v 2 , 0 2v, 6u 2 v, 3u 2 1

= 2v(u + v) + 6u 2 v v 2 + 0 = 2vu 2v 2 + 6u 2 v 3

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

3 2

F dS = F ((u, v)) n(u, v) du dv = 2uv 2v 2 + 6u 2 v 3 du dv

S D 0 0

3 2 3 3

4

= u 2 v 2v 2 u + 2u 3 v 3 dv = 16v 3 4v 2 4v dv = 4v 4 v 3 2v 2 = 270

0 u=0 0 3 0

18. Let S be the oriented half-cylinder in Figure 14. In (a)(f), determine whether F dS is positive, neg-

S

ative, or zero. Explain your reasoning.

(a) F = i (b) F = j

(c) F = k (d) F = yi

(e) F = yj (f) F = xj

x

FIGURE 14

SOLUTION

1156 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

n 1

1 y

S is parametrized by:

( , z) = (cos , sin , z), 0 z 3,

2 2

Hence,

T = = sin , cos , 0

Tz = = 0, 0, 1

z

i j k

T Tz = sin cos 0 = (cos )i + (sin )j = cos , sin , 0

0 0 1

The normal to S is pointing in the outward direction, hence the x-coordinate of n is positive. Since 2 2 , we

have cos 0, hence,

n = cos , sin , 0

F dS > 0.

S

The part of the surface integral for 2 0 is cancelled by the part for 0 2 , therefore the surface integral is

zero.

(c) The normal vector n is horizontal at each point on S, therefore it is orthogonal to the field F = k. We conclude that

the surface integral is zero.

(d) We compute the dot product:

The surface integral over the part of S where 2 0 is cancelled by the integral over the part where 0 2 ,

hence the surface integral over S is zero.

(e) We have,

(f) We compute the dot product:

The surface integral is zero by the same reasoning given in part (d).

19. Let er be the unit radial vector and r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 . Calculate the integral of F = er er over:

(a) The upper-hemisphere of x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9, outward-pointing normal

(b) The octant x, y, z 0 of the unit sphere centered at the origin

SOLUTION

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1157

D = ( , ) : 0 < 2 , 0 <

2

The outward pointing normal is (see Eq. (4) in sec. 17.4):

n = 9 sin er

2 /2

F dS = (F n) d d = 9e3 sin d d

S D 0 0

/2 /2

= 18 e3 sin d = 18 e3 cos = 18 e3

0 0

D = ( , ) : 0 < , 0 <

2 2

The outward pointing normal is (as seen above):

n = 1 sin er

/2 /2

F dS = (F n) d d = e1 sin d d

S D 0 0

/2

1 /2 1

= e sin d = e cos = e1

2 0 2 0 2

er

20. Show that the flux of F = 2 through a sphere centered at the origin does not depend on the radius of the sphere.

r

SOLUTION We parametrize the sphere of radius R centered at the origin by,

n = R 2 sin er

er er

F n = 2 R 2 sin er = 2 R 2 sin er = (sin )er er = sin

r R

hence,

2

F dS = (F n) d d = (sin )d d

S D 0 0

= 2 sin d = 2 cos 0 = 4

0

We see that the surface integral of F does not depend on the radius R of the sphere.

1158 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

er

21. The electric field due to a point charge located at the origin is E = k 2 , where k is a constant. Calculate the flux of

r

E through the disk D of radius 2 parallel to the x y-plane with center (0, 0, 3).

SOLUTION Let r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 and r = x 2 + y 2 . We parametrize the disc by:

= cos , sin , 0

Tr =

r

T = = r sin , r cos , 0

i j k

n = Tr T = cos sin 0 = 0, 0, r

r sin r cos 0

Now,

er k r zk r

E n = k 2 0, 0, r = 3 x, y, z 0, 0, 1 = 3

r r r

Since on the disk z = 3, we get:

r

E n = 3k 3 and r = r 2 + 9

r

so E n = 3k r 3 .

r 2 +9

2 3 3

3k r r

E dS = 3/2 d r d = 6 k d r

D 0 0 r 2 + 9 0 r 2 + 9 3/2

Substituting u = r 2 + 9 we get:

1 1

E dS = 6 k = 2 2 k

P 3 18

x 2 y 2 z 2

22. Let S be the ellipsoid + = 1. Calculate the flux of F = z, 1, 0 over the portion of S where

+

4 3 2

x, y, z 0 with upward-pointing normal. Hint: Parametrize S using a modified form of spherical coordinates ( , ).

SOLUTION We parametrize the ellipsoid by a modified form of spherical coordinates. That is,

( )

3

D = ( , ) : < , <

2 2

x

4

D

One can easily verify that (u, v) satisfies the equation of the ellipsoid.

Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have,

T = = 4 sin sin , 3 cos sin , 0

T = = 4 cos cos , 3 sin cos , 2 sin

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1159

i j k

T T = 4 sin sin 3 cos sin 0

4 cos cos 3 sin cos 2 sin

= 6 cos sin2 i 8 sin sin2 j 12 sin2 cos sin + 12 cos2 cos sin k

= 6 cos sin2 , 8 sin sin2 , 12 cos sin

In D, 2 < hence cos sin 0. The outward pointing normal on this portion of the ellipse is pointing

downwards, hence the z-coordinate is negative. Therefore,

n = 6 cos sin2 , 8 sin sin2 , 12 cos sin = 2 sin 3 cos sin , 4 sin sin , 6 cos

Step 2. Compute the dot product F n. We first express F in terms of the parameters:

F ( , ) = z, 1, 0 = 2 cos , 1, 0

Hence,

F ( , ) n( , ) = 2 sin (6 cos sin cos + 4 sin sin )

Step 3. Calculate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

3 /2

F dS = F ( , ) n( , ) d d = 12 sin2 cos cos + 8 sin2 sin d d

S D /2

3 /2 3 /2

= 12 cos d sin2 cos d 8 sin d sin2 d

/2 /2

3 /2
3

3 /2

sin sin 2

= 12 sin

+ 8 cos

= 3 = /2 = 2 4 = /2

1

= 12 +8 = 4 + 2 2.283

3 2 4

23. Let v = x, 0, z be the velocity field (in ft/s) of a fluid in R3 . Calculate the flow rate (in ft3 /s) through the upper

hemisphere of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 (z 0).

SOLUTION We use the spherical coordinates:

0 < 2 , 0

2

The normal vector is (see Eq. (4) in Section 17.4):

n = T T = sin cos sin , sin sin , cos

v = x, 0, z = cos sin , 0, cos

Hence,

v n = cos sin , 0, cos sin cos sin , sin sin , cos = sin cos2 sin2 + cos2

The flow rate of the fluid through the upper hemisphere S is equal to the flux of the velocity vector through S. That is,

/2 2

v dS = cos2 sin3 + sin cos2 d d

S 0 0

/2

2 /2

= cos2 d sin3 d + 2 sin cos2 d

0 0 0

1 2 3

= 0 + 2 = ft /s

3 3

1160 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

24. Calculate the flow rate through the upper hemisphere of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 (z 0) for v as in Exercise

23.

SOLUTION We use the parametrization,

where,

0 < 2 , 0

2

The normal vector is (see Eq. (4) in Section 17.4):

n = T T = R 2 sin cos sin , sin sin , cos

v = x 2 + y 2 , 0, z 2 = R 2 cos2 sin2 + R 2 sin2 sin2 , 0, R 2 cos = R 2 sin2 , 0, cos

Hence,

v n = R 4 sin sin3 cos + cos2 = R 4 sin4 cos + R 4 cos2 sin

The flow rate through the upper hemisphere S is equal to the flux of the velocity vector across S. That is,

/2 2

v dS = R 4 sin4 cos + R 4 cos2 sin d d

S 0 0

2
/2

/2

= R4 cos d sin4 d + R 4 2 cos2 sin d

0 0 0

4 /2

= 2 R 4 0 + 1 = R ft3 /s

4

cos

= 0 + 2 R 2

4 4 2

=0

25. Calculate the flow rate of a fluid with velocity field v = x, y, x 2 y (in ft/s) through the portion of the ellipse

x 2 y 2

+ = 1 in the x y-plane, where x, y 0, oriented with the normal in the positive z-direction.

2 3

SOLUTION We use the following parametrization for the surface (see remark at the end of the solution):

: x = 2r cos , y = 3r sin , z = 0

0 , 0r 1 (1)

2

z

3 y

2

x

Tr = = (2r cos , 3r sin , 0) = 2 cos , 3 sin , 0

r r

T = = (2r cos , 3r sin , 0) = 2r sin , 3r cos , 0

i j k

Tr T = 2 cos 3 sin 0 = 6r cos2 + 6r sin2 k = 6r k

2r sin 3r cos 0

Since the normal points to the positive z-direction, the normal vector is,

n = 6r k = 0, 0, 6r

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1161

Step 2. Compute the dot product v n. We write the velocity vector in terms of the parameters:

v = x, y, x 2 y = 2r cos , 3r sin , 4r 2 cos2 3r sin

= 2r cos , 3r sin , 12r 3 cos2 sin

Hence,

Step 3. Compute the flux. The flow rate of the fluid is the flux of the velocity vector through S. That is,

/2 1 1 /2

v dS = 72r 4 cos2 sin dr d = 72r 4 dr cos2 sin d

S 0 0 0 0

72 5 1 cos3 /2 72 1 24

= r = 0 + = = 4.8 ft3 /s

5 0 3 =0 5 3 5

Remark: We explain why (1) parametrizes the given portion of the ellipse. At any point (x, y) which satisfies (1) we

have,

x 2 y 3

+ = r 2 cos2 + r 2 sin2 = r 2 1

2 3

2 2

Therefore (x, y) is inside the ellipse x2 + 2y = 1. The limits of determine the part of the region inside the ellipse

in the first quadrant.

In Exercises 2627, let T be the triangular region with vertices (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), and (0, 0, 1) oriented with upward-

pointing normal vector (Figure 15). Assume distances are in meters.

(a) The flow rate through T

(b) The flow rate through the projection of T onto the x y-plane [the triangle with vertices (0, 0, 0), (1, 0, 0), and

(0, 1, 0)]

SOLUTION

z y

(0, 0, 1)

(0, 1, 0)

(0, 1, 0) D

(1, 0, 0) y

T

x

x (0, 0, 0) (1, 0, 0)

The equation of the plane through the three vertices is x + y + z = 1, hence the upward pointing normal vector is:

n = 1, 1, 1

1 1 1

en = , ,

3 3 3

We compute the dot product v en :

1 1 1 2

v en = 0, 0, 2 , , =

3 3 3 3

The flow rate through T is equal to the flux of v through T . That is,

2 2 2

v dS = (v en ) d S = dS = 1 d S = Area(S)

S S S 3 3 S 3

2

2 3

The area of the equilateral triangle T is = 3

4 2 . Therefore,

2 3

v dS = =1

S 3 2

1162 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Let D denote the projection of T onto the x y-plane. Then the upward pointing normal is n = 0, 0, 1. We compute the

dot product v n:

v n = 0, 0, 2 0, 0, 1 = 2

The flow rate through D is equal to the flux of v through D. That is,

11

v dS = (v n) d S = 2 dS = 2 1 d S = 2 Area(D) = 2 =1

D D D D 2

(0, 0, 1)

v = 2k

(0, 1, 0)

y

(1, 0, 0)

x

FIGURE 15

SOLUTION We compute the flow rate through T . Since the unit normal vector is en = 1 , 1 , 1 we have,

3 3 3

1 1 1 1

v en = 0, 1, 0 , , =

3 3 3 3

Therefore, the flow rate through T is the following flux:

1 3 1 1

v dS = (v en ) d S = d S = Area(S)/ 3 = =

S S S 3 2 3 2

The upward pointing normal to the projection D of T onto the x y-plane is n = 0, 0, 1. Since v = 0, 1, 0 is

orthogonal to n, the flux of v through D is zero.

28. Prove that if S is the part of a graph z = g(x, y) lying over a domain D in the x y-plane, then

g g

F dS = F1 F2 + F3 d x d y

S D x y

SOLUTION

Step 1. Find a parametrization. We parametrize the surface by

g

Tx = = (x, y, g(x, y)) = 1, 0,

x x x

g

Ty = = (x, y, g(x, y)) = 0, 1,

y y y

i j k

g g g g

g

n = Tx T y = 1 0 x = i j + k = , ,1

x x x y

0 1 g y

g g g g

F n = F1 , F2 , F3 , , 1 = F1 F2 + F3

x y x y

Step 4. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

g g

F dS = (F n) d x d y = F1 F2 + F3 d x d y

S D D x y

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1163

In Exercises 2930, a varying current i(t) flows through a long straight wire in the x y-plane as in Example 5. The

i

current produces a magnetic field B whose magnitude at a distance r from the wire is B = 0 T, where 0 =

2 r

4 107 T-m/A. Furthermore, B points into the page at points P in the x y-plane.

29. Assume that i(t) = t (12 t) A (t in seconds). Calculate the flux (t), at time t, of B through a rectangle of

dimensions L H = 3 2 m, whose top and bottom edges are parallel to the wire and whose bottom edge is located

d = 0.5 m above the wire (similar to Figure 11). Then use Faradays Law to determine the voltage drop around the

rectangular loop (the boundary of the rectangle) at time t.

SOLUTION

y

L=3m Loop C

Rectangle R

H=2m

P = (x, y)

0.5 m

x

Wire

We choose the coordinate system as shown in the figure. Therefore the rectangle R is the region:

Since the magnetic field points into the page and R is oriented with normal vector pointing out of the page (as in Example

5) we have B = Bk and n = en = k. Hence:

i

B n = B (k) k = B = 0

2 r

i

The distance from P = (x, y) in R to the wire is r = y, hence, B n = 20 y . We now compute the flux (t) of B

through the rectangle R, by evaluating the following double integral:

3 2.5

i i 3 2.5 1

(t) = B dS = B n dy dx = 0 dy dx = 0 dy dx

R R 0 0.5 2 y 2 0 0.5 y

3 i 2.5 d y 3 i 3 i 2.5

= 0 = 0 (ln 2.5 ln 0.5) = 0 ln

2 0.5 y 2 2 0.5

3 4 107 ln 5

= t (12 t) = 9.65 107 t (12 t) T/m2

2

We now use Faradays Law to determine the voltage drop around the boundary C of the rectangle. By Faradays Law,

the voltage drop around C, when C is oriented according to the orientation of R and the Right Hand Rule (that is,

counterclockwise) is,

d d

E dS = = 9.65 107 t (12 t) = 9.65 107 2(6 t) = 1.93 106 (6 t) volts

C dt dt

C

R

30. Assume that i = 10e0.1t A (t in seconds). Calculate the flux (t), at time t, of B through the isosceles triangle of

base 12 cm and height 6 cm, whose bottom edge is 3 cm from the wire, as in Figure 16. Assume the triangle is oriented

with normal vector pointing out of the page. Use Faradays Law to determine the voltage drop around the triangular loop

(the boundary of the triangle) at time t.

Triangular wire 6

P

B

Volt meter 3

12

i B

B

FIGURE 16

1164 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

i

SOLUTION The magnetic field is B = 20r k and the unit normal on the triangle points out of the page, hence n =

en = k.

y

Triangular 9

wire

Loop C

R

3 P = (x, y)

x

i 6 6

0 i 0 i

Bn= kk=

2 y 2 y

The flux (t) of B through R is the following integral:

0 i 1

(t) = B n dx dy = dx dy

R 2 R y

y

9 y=9x

0x9y

3 (6, 3)

x

6

0 i 9 9y 1 0 i 9 x 9y 0 i 9 9 y

(t) = dx dy = dy = dy

3 0 y 3 y x=0 3 y

9

0 i 9 9 0 i 0 i

= 1 dy = 9 ln y y = ((9 ln 9 9) (9 ln 3 3))

3 y y=3

0 i 4 107

= (9 ln 3 6) = (9 ln 3 6)i = 1.56 106 i = 1.56 105 e0.1t

Using Faradays Law, the voltage drop around the triangular loop C (oriented counterclockwise):

d d

E dS = = 1.56 105 e0.1t = 1.56 106 e0.1t Volts

C dt dt

er

31. A point mass m is located at the origin. Let Q be the flux of the gravitational field F = Gm 2 through the cylinder

r

x 2 + y 2 = R 2 for a z b, including the top and bottom (Figure 17). Show that Q = 4 Gm if a < 0 < b (m lies

inside the cylinder) and Q = 0 if 0 < a < b (m lies outside the cylinder).

b R

m

y

x a

FIGURE 17

SOLUTION Let the surface be oriented with normal vector pointing outward.

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1165

n z

b R

m

y

n

x a

We denote by S1 , S2 and S3 the cylinder, the top and the bottom respectively. These surfaces are parametrized by:

S1 :

S2 :

S3 :

Q= F dS = F dS + F dS + F dS (1)

S S1 S2 S3

Let us assume that a < 0. We compute the integrals over each part of the surface S separately.

S1 : On S1 , we have:

er Gm

F (1 ( , z)) = Gm 2 = 3/2 R cos , R sin , z

r R2 + z2

Hence,

Gm Gm R 2

F (1 ( , z)) n( , z) = 3/2 R cos , R sin , z R cos , sin , 0 = 3/2

R2 + z2 R2 + z2

2 b b

Gm R 2 2 dz

F dS = 3/2 dz d = 2 Gm R 3/2

S1 0 a R +z

2 2 a R + z2

2

tan1 b tan1 b

R cos t R

F dS = 2 Gm R 2 dt = 2 Gm sin t

1 a R 2

S1 tan R t=tan1 Ra

b a

= 2 Gm (2)

b2 + R 2 a2 + R2

b2 + R2

b

a

R

(

sin tan1

b

R

= ) b

b2 + R2

1166 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

S2 :

er Gm

F (2 ( , r )) = Gm 2 = 3/2 r cos , r sin , b

r r + b2

2

Hence,

Gm Gmbr

F (2 ( , r )) n( , r ) = 3/2 r cos , r sin , b 0, 0, r = 3/2

r 2 + b2 r 2 + b2

2 R R

Gmbr r dr

F dS = 3/2 dr d = 2 Gmb 3/2

S2 0 0 r +b

2 2 0 r + b2

2

R 2 +b2 2 2

dt 1 R +b 1 1

F dS = Gmb = 2 Gmb = 2 Gmb (3)

S2 b2 t 3/2 t t=b2 b2 + R 2 b

S3 :

er Gm

F (3 ( , r )) = Gm 2 = 3/2 r cos , r sin , a

r r + a2

2

Gm Gmar

F (3 ( , r )) n( , r ) = 3/2 r cos , r sin , a 0, 0, r = 3/2

r 2 + a2 r 2 + a2

Hence, by the same computation as for S2 we get (notice that since a < 0, we have a 2 = a):

2 R 2 2

Gmar 1 R +a

F dS = 3/2 dr d = 2 Gma

S3 0 0 r 2 + a2 t t=a 2

1 1 1 1

= 2 Gma = 2 Gma + (4)

R2 + a2 a2 R2 + a2 a

b a 1 1 1 1

Q = 2 Gm + 2 Gmb 2 Gma +

b2 + R 2 a2 + R2 b2 + R 2 b R2 + a2 a

= 2 Gm 2 Gm = 4 Gm

If 0 < a < b the only difference is in the integral in (4). In this case a = a therefore,

1 1 1 1

F dS = 2 Gma = 2 Gma .

S3 R2 + a2 a2 R2 + a2 a

b a 1 1 1 1

Q = 2 Gm + 2 Gmb 2 Gma

b2 + R 2 a2 + R2 b2 + R 2 b R2 + a2 a

= 2 Gm + 2 Gm = 0

u u u

(u, v) = 1 + v cos cos u, 1 + v cos sin u, v sin

2 2 2

for 0 u 2 , 12 v 12 .

(a) Plot S and confirm visually that S is a Mobius strip.

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1167

(b) The intersection of S with the x y-plane is the unit circle (u, 0) = (cos u, sin u, 0). Verify that the normal vector

along this circle is

u u u

n(u, 0) = cos u sin , sin u sin , cos

2 2 2

(c) As u varies from 0 to 2 , the point (u, 0) moves once around the unit circle, beginning and ending at (0, 0) =

(2 , 0) = (1, 0, 0). Verify that n(u, 0) is a unit vector which varies continuously but that n(2 , 0) = n(0, 0). This

shows that S is not orientable, that is, it is not possible to choose a nonzero normal vector at each point on S in a

continuously varying manner (if it were possible, the unit normal vector returns to itself rather than its negative when

carried around the circle).

SOLUTION

(a) We use a computer algebra system to graph the plot of S, and it is indeed a Mobius strip.

(b) To find the normal vector along the unit circle, we use our computer to first find the cross product n n

u v and

simplify, we get the very ugly expression

u u

n n 1 3u

n(u, v) = = v cos + 2 cos u + v cos sin ,

u v 2 2 2 2

u

1 3u

v + 2 cos + 2v cos(u) 2 cos v cos(2u) ,

4 2 2

u u

cos 1 + v cos

2 2

(Different computer algebra systems may produce different simplifications.) When we replace v with 0 and simplify, we

find that:

u 1 u 3u u

n(u, 0) = cos u sin , cos cos , cos

2 2 2 2 2

This is almost, but not quite, what we want. Lets examine that middle term a bit more.

1 u 3u 1 u u u 1 u u

cos cos = cos (cos u cos sin u sin ) = cos (1 cos u) + sin u sin

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 u u u 1 u u u

= cos 2 sin2 + sin u sin = sin 2 sin cos + sin u

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 u u

= sin (sin u + sin u) = sin u sin

2 2 2

which is what we expect. Thus, we see that

u u u

n(u, 0) = cos u sin , sin u sin , cos

2 2 2

(c) To verify that n(u, 0) is a unit vector, we note that

u 2 u 2 u 2

n(u, 0) = cos u sin + sin u sin + cos

2 2 2

u u u u u

= cos2 u sin2 + sin2 u sin2 + cos2 = sin2 + cos2 = 1 = 1

2 2 2 2 2

It is clear that n(u, 0) varies continuously with u, as each of its three components are non-constant continuous functions

of u. Finally, we note that n(0, 0) = 0, 0, 1 but n(2 , 0) = 0, 0, 1, so indeed n(2 , 0) = n(0, 0).

33. It is not possible to integrate a vector field over S because S is not orientable. However, it is possible to

integrate functions over S. Using a computer algebra system:

(a) Verify that

3 u 1

n(u, v)2 = 1 + v 2 + 2v cos + v 2 cos u

4 2 2

(b) Compute the surface area of S to four decimal places.

(c) Compute (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) d S to four decimal places.

S

SOLUTION

1168 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

u u

n n 1 3u

n(u, v) = = v cos + 2 cos u + v cos sin ,

u v 2 2 2 2

1 3u

v + 2 cos(u/2) + 2v cos(u) 2 cos v cos(2u) ,

4 2

u u

cos 1 + v cos

2 2

and after taking the norm of this, we find that

3 u 1

n(u, v)2 = 1 + v 2 + 2v cos + v 2 cos u

4 2 2

(b) We calculate the area of S as follows:

1/2 2

3 u 1

A(S) = n(u, v) du dv = 1 + v 2 + 2v cos + v 2 cos u du dv 6.3533

1/2 0 4 2 2

(c) We proceed as follows. Since

u 2 u 2 u 2

x 2 + y2 + z2 = 1 + v cos cos u + 1 + v cos sin u + v sin

2 2 2

and

3 u 1

n(u, v) = 1 + v 2 + 2v cos + v 2 cos u

4 2 2

S (x + y + z ) d S

2 2 2 = S (x

then, substituting these expressions into the double integral 2 + y2 +

1 1

z 2 )n(u, v) dudv, and integrating over 0 u 2 , 2 v 2 , we find that

(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) d S 7.4003

S

1. Compute the vector assigned to the point P = (3, 5) by the vector field:

(a) F = x y, y x

(b) F = 4,

8

(c) F = 3x+y , log2 (x + y)

SOLUTION

(a) Substituting x = 3, y = 5 in F = x y, y x we obtain:

F = 3 5, 5 (3) = 15, 8

(b) The constant vector field F = 4, 8 assigns the vector 4, 8 to all the vectors. Thus:

F(3, 5) = 4, 8

x+y

(c) Substituting x = 3, y = 5 in F = 3 , log2 (x + y) we obtain

F = 33+5 , log2 (3 + 5) = 32 , log2 (2) = 9, 1

2. Find a vector field F in the plane such that F(x, y) = 1 and F(x, y) is orthogonal to G(x, y) = x, y for all x, y.

SOLUTION The vector field y, x is orthogonal to G(x, y) = x, y since the dot product of the two vectors is zero.

y, x x, y = yx x y = 0

y, x y, x y x

F(x, y) = = = ,

y, x x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

y 2 + (x)2

However, this is only for (x, y) = (0, 0)! We can assign any unit vector for F(0, 0), as since G(0, 0) = 0, 0, then

anything is perpendicular to G(0, 0). So, lets define F to be as above for (x, y) = (0, 0), and lets define F(0, 0) to be,

say, 1, 0. Now we have a vector field F such that F(x, y) is always a unit vector and always perpendicular to G(x, y).

Chapter Review Exercises 1169

3. F(x, y) = y, 1

SOLUTION Notice that the vector field is constant along horizontal lines.

y

F = y, 1

4. F(x, y) = 4, 1

SOLUTION F is the constant field 4, 1 shown in the figure.

y

F = 4, 1

5. , where (x, y) = x 2 y

SOLUTION The gradient of (x, y) = x 2 y is the following vector:

F(x, y) = , = 2x, 1

x y

This vector is sketched in the following figure:

y

j = 2x, 1

4y x

6. F(x, y) = ,

x 2 + 16y 2 x 2 + 16y 2

Hint: Show that F is a unit vector field tangent to the family of ellipses x 2 + 4y 2 = c2 .

SOLUTION First, F is a unit vector since:

2
2

4y x 16y 2 x2

F(x, y)2 = + = 2 +

x 2 + 16y 2 x 2 + 16y 2 x + 16y 2 x 2 + 16y 2

16y 2 + x 2

= 2 =1 F(x, y) = 1

x + 16y 2

Next, we show that F is tangent to the ellipses x 2 + 4y 2 = c2 . We find dd xy using implicit differentiation of x 2 + 4y 2 = c2 :

dy dy x

2x + 8y =0 =

dx dx 4y

1170 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Therefore the vector 4y, x is tangent to the ellipses. Since F(x, y) is a scalar multiple of this vector, i.e, F(x, y) =

1 4y, x, F is parallel to 4y, x hence F is tangent to the ellipses x 2 + 4y 2 = c2 . We find that F can be

x 2 +16y 2

sketched by first sketching ellipses in the family x 2 + 4y 2 = c2 , and then sketching the unit tangents at points on the

ellipses. The field F(x, y) is shown in the figure:

In Exercises 714, determine whether or not the vector field is conservative and, if so, find a potential function.

7. F(x, y, z) = sin x, e y , z

SOLUTION We examine the cross partials of F. Since F1 = sin x, F2 = e y , F3 = z we have:

F1 F2 F3

=0 =0 =0

y z x F1 F2 F2 F3 F3 F1

= , = , =

F2 F3 F1 y x z y x z

=0 =0 =0

x y z

Since the cross partials are equal, F is conservative. We denote the potential field by (x, y, z). So we have:

x = sin x y = e y z = z

By integrating we get:

(x, y, z) = sin x d x = cos x + C(y, z)

y = C y = e y C(y, z) = e y + D(z)

(x, y, z) = cos x + e y + D(z)

z2

z = Dz = z D(z) =

2

2

We conclude that (x, y, z) = cos x + e y + z2 . Indeed:

= , , = sin x, e y , z = F

x y z

8. F(x, y, z) = 2, 4, e z

SOLUTION We examine the cross partials of F. We have, F1 = 2, F2 = 4, F3 = e z hence:

F1

=0

y F1 F2

=

F2 y x

=0

x

F2

=0

z F2 F3

=

F3 z y

=0

y

F3

=0

x F3 F1

=

F1 x z

=0

z

Since the cross-partials are equal, F is conservative. We denote the potential field by (x, y, z). We have:

x = 2 y = 4 z = e z

Chapter Review Exercises 1171

By integrating we get:

(x, y, z) = 2 d x = 2x + C(y, z)

y = C y = 4 C(y, z) = 4y + D(z)

(x, y, z) = 2x + 4y + D(z)

z = Dz = e z D = ez

We conclude that (x, y, z) = 2x + 4y + e z . We verify:

= , , = 2, 4, e z = F

x y z

9. F(x, y, z) = x yz, 12 x 2 z, 2z 2 y

SOLUTION No. We show that the cross partials for x and z are not equal. Since the equality of the cross partials is a

necessary condition for a field to be a gradient vector field, we conclude that F is not a gradient field. We have:

F1

= (x yz) = x y

z z F1 F3

=

F3 z x

= (2z 2 y) = 0

x x

Therefore the cross partials condition is not satisfied, hence F is not a gradient vector field.

10. F(x, y, z) = x y 2 z, x 2 yz, 12 x 2 y 2

SOLUTION Yes. We find by guessing that (x, y) = 12 x 2 y 2 z is a potential function for F. Indeed,

1

= , , = x y 2 z, x 2 yz, x 2 y 2 = F

x y z 2

The potential function is determined up to an additive constant, therefore the functions 12 x 2 y 2 z + C are potential func-

tions for F as well.

y 1

11. F(x, y, z) = , tan x, 2z

1 + x2

SOLUTION We examine the cross partials of F. Since F1 =

y 1 x, F = 2z we have:

2 , F2 = tan

1+x 3

F1 1

=

y 1 + x2 F1 F2

=

F2 1 y x

=

x 1 + x2

F2

=0

z F2 F3

=

F3 z y

=0

y

F3

=0

x F3 F1

=

F1 x z

=0

z

Since the cross partials are equal, F is conservative. We denote the potential field by (x, y, z). We have:

y

x = , y = tan1 (x), z = 2z

1 + x2

By integrating we get:

y

(x, y, z) = d x = y tan1 (x) + c(y, z)

1 + x2

y = tan1 (x) + c y (y, z) = tan1 (x) c y (y, z) = 0 c(y, z) = c(z)

Hence (x, y, z) = y tan1 (x) + c(z). z = c (z) = 2z c(z) = z 2 . We conclude that (x, y, z) = y tan1 (x) + z 2 .

Indeed:

y 1

= , , = , tan x, 2z = F

x y z 1 + x2

1172 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

12. F(x, y) = x 2 y, y 2 x

SOLUTION If F is conservative, the cross partials must be equal. We compute the cross partials:

F1 2

= x y = x2

y y

F2 2

= y x = y2

x x

Since the cross-partials are not equal, F is not conservative.

13. F(x, y, z) = xe2x , ye2z , ze2y

SOLUTION We have:

F3 2y

= ze = 2ze2y

y y

F2 2z

= ye = 2ye2y

z z

Since Fy3 = z

F2

, the cross-partials condition is not satisfied , hence F is not conservative.

4 3 4 3

14. F(x, y) = y x , x y

SOLUTION YES. We examine the cross-partials of F:

F1 4 3

= y x = 4y 3 x 3

y y

F2 4 3

= y x = 4y 3 x 3

x x

Since the cross-partials are equal, F is conservative. We compute the potential function (x, y) of F.

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . Since is an antiderivative of F1 = y 4 x 3 when y is fixed, we have:

x4

(x, y) = y 4 x 3 d x = y 4 + g(y) (1)

4

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . Differentiating with respect to y gives:

x4

4y 3 + g (y) = F2 = x 4 y 3

4

y 3 x 4 + g (y) = x 4 x 3

g (y) = 0 g(y) = c

1 4 4

(x, y) = x y +c

4

15. Calculate ds, where (x, y, z) = x 4 y 3 z 2 and c(t) = (t 2 , 1 + t, t 1 ) for 1 t 3.

c

SOLUTION The initial point P and the terminal point Q are the following points:

P = c(1) = 12 , 1 + 1, 11 = (1, 2, 1)

1

Q = c(3) = 32 , 1 + 3, 31 = 9, 4,

3

Using the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields we obtain:

2

1

ds = (Q) (P) = 94 43 14 23 12 = 46,648

c 3

16. Find a gradient vector field of the form F = g(y), h(x) such that F(0, 0) = 1, 1, where g(y) and h(x) are

differentiable functions. Determine all such vector fields.

Chapter Review Exercises 1173

SOLUTION We need to find the scalar functions (x, y) such that F = . That is:

= g(y) (1)

x

= h(x) (2)

y

Integrating (1) with respect to x, treating y as a constant, we get:

We differentiate (x, y) with respect to y and equate with (2). This gives:

= xg (y) + f (y) = h(x)

y

This equation can hold only when g (y) and f (y) are constants. That is, g (y) = c1 and f (y) = c2 , yielding g(y) =

c1 y + d1 and f (y) = c2 y + d2 . Substituting in (3) gives:

(x, y) = x(c1 y + d1 ) + c2 y + d2

Or

(x, y) = d1 x + c2 y + c1 x y + d2 = d1 + c1 y, c2 + c1 x

We conclude that F = g(y), h(x) are gradient vector fields if and only if g(y) = a + by and h(x) = c + bx for any

constants a, b, c. That is:

F = a + by, c + bx

Therefore, all the gradient field of the form F = g(y), h(x) such that F(0, 0) = 1, 1 are:

F = 1 + by, 1 + bx

In Exercises 1720, compute the line integral f (x, y) ds for the given function and path or curve.

C

17. f (x, y) = x y, the path c(t) = (t, 2t 1) for 0 t 1

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute ds = c (t) dt. We differentiate c(t) = (t, 2t 1) and compute the length of the derivative vector:

c (t) = 1, 2 c (t) = 12 + 22 = 5

Hence,

ds = c (t) dt = 5 dt

Step 2. Write out f (c(t)) and evaluate the line integral. We have:

f (c(t)) = x y = t (2t 1) = 2t 2 t

1 1

2 3 1 2 1 2 1 5

f (x, y) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = 2

2t t 5 dt = 5

t t = 5 =

0 0 3 2 0 3 2 6

C

SOLUTION

x

1174 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

( ) = (cos , sin ), 0

d

c ( ) =cos , sin = sin , cos

d

c ( ) = ( sin )2 + cos2 = 1

Hence:

ds = c ( ) d = d

f (x, y) ds = f (c( )) c ( ) dt = (cos sin ) d

C 0 0

= sin + cos = (0 1) (0 + 1) = 2

0

y

19. f (x, y, z) = e x , the path c(t) = ln t, 2t, 12 t 2 for 1 t 2

2 2z

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute ds = c (t) dt. We have:

d 1 1

c (t) = ln t, 2t, t 2 = , 2, t

dt 2 t

2 2

1 2 1 1 1

c (t) = + 2 +t =2

2

+ 2 + t 2 = + t = +t

t t t t

Hence:

1

ds = c (t) dt = t + dt

t

Step 2. Write out f (c(t)) and evaluate the integral.

y 2t 1

f (c(t)) = e x = eln t 1 = t

2 2z 2 2 2 t2 t

We use the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals to compute the line integral:

2 2

1 1

f (x, y) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = t t+ dt

1 1 t t

C

2 2

1 t3 1 8 1 1 11

= t2 2 dt = + = + +1 =

1 t 3 t 3 2 3 6

1

SOLUTION We have:

d

c (t) = cos t, sin t, t = sin t, cos t, 1

dt

c (t) = ( sin t)2 + cos2 t + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2

Chapter Review Exercises 1175

3 3

f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = (cos t + 2 sin t + t) 2 dt

C 1 1

3 t2

= 2 sin t 2 cos t +

2 1

9 1

= 2 sin 3 2 cos 3 + sin(1) 2 cos(1) +

2 2

= 2(sin 3 2 cos 3 + sin 1 + 2 cos 1 + 4) 11.375

21. Find the total mass of an L-shaped rod consisting of the segments (2t, 2) and (2, 2 2t) for 0 t 1 (length in

centimeters) with mass density (x, y) = x 2 y g/cm.

SOLUTION

A = (0, 2) B = (2, 2)

x

C = (2, 0)

M= x 2 y ds + x 2 y ds (1)

AB BC

and

and

Using these values, the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals and (1) we get:

1 1 1

16t 3 1

2 = 40 = 13 1

M= 8t 2 2 dt + (8 8t) 2 dt = + 16t 8t

0 0 3 0 0 3 3

22. Calculate F = , where (x, y, z) = x ye z , and compute F ds, where

C

(a) C is any curve from (1, 1, 0) to (3, e, 1).

(b) C is the boundary of the square 0 x, y 1 oriented counterclockwise.

SOLUTION The gradient of (x, y, z) = x ye z is the following vector:

F= , , = ye z , xe z , x ye z

x y z

(a) By the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields, we have:

F ds = ds = (3, e, 1) (1, 1, 0) = 3 e e1 1 1e0 = 3 1 = 2

C C

(b) Since F is the gradient of a function, F is conservative. That is, the line integral of F over any closed curve is zero.

Therefore, the line integral C F ds is zero, where C is the boundary of a square.

1176 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

23. Calculate y 3 d x + x 2 y d y, where C1 is the oriented curve in Figure 1(A).

C1

y y

3 3 C2

C1

x x

3 3

(A) (B)

FIGURE 1

SOLUTION We compute the line integral as the sum of the line integrals over the segments AO, O B and the circular

arc BA.

y

A

3

B

x

0 3

The vector field is F = y 3 , x 2 y . We have:

F ds = F ds + F ds + F ds (1)

C1 AO OB arc B A

The line integral over AO. The segment AO is parametrized by c(t) = (0, t), 3 t 0 . Hence:

F (c(t)) = y 3 , x 2 y = t 3 , 0

c (t) = 0, 1

F (c(t)) c (t) = t 3 , 0 0, 1 = 0

Therefore:

0

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 0 (2)

AO 3

The line integral over O B. We parametrize the segment O B by c(t) = (t, 0), 0 t 3 . Hence:

F (c(t)) = y 3 , x 2 y = 0, 0

c (t) = 1, 0

F (c(t)) c (t) = 0

Therefore:

3

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 0 (3)

OB 0

The line integral over the circular arc B A. We parametrize the circular arc by c(t) = (3 cos t, 3 sin t), 0 t .

2

Then c (t) = 3 sin t, 3 cos t and F (c(t)) = y 3 , x 2 y = 27 sin3 t, 27 cos2 t sin t . We compute the dot product:

F (c(t)) c (t) = 27 sin3 t, cos2 t sin t 3 sin t, 3 cos t = 81 sin4 t + cos3 t sin t

/2

F ds = 81 sin4 t + cos3 t sin t dt

arc B A 0

/2

sin3 t cos t cos4 t

3 t sin 2t

= 81

4 4 2 4 4

t=0

Chapter Review Exercises 1177

3 1 243 1

= 81 + = + 20 (4)

44 4 16 4

Combining (1), (2), (3), and (4) gives:

243

F ds = 0 + 0 + 20.25 27.463

C1 16

24. Let F(x, y) = 9y y 3 , e y (x 2 3x) and let C2 be the oriented curve in Figure 1(B).

(a) Show that F is not conservative.

(b) Show that F ds = 0 without explicitly computing the integral. Hint: Consider the direction of F along the edges

C2

of the square.

SOLUTION

(a) We show that the cross-partials of F(x, y) = 9y y 3 , e y x 2 3x are not equal.

C = (0, 3) B = (3, 3)

C2

x

0 A = (3, 0)

We have F1 = 9y y 3 and F2 = e y x 2 3x , therefore:

F1

= 9 3y 2

y

F2

= e y (2x 3)

x

The cross-partials are not equal, hence F is not conservative.

(b) On O A, y = 0 hence

F = F(x, 0) = 0, x 2 3x .

Therefore the tangential component of F along the segment O A is zero, resulting in O A F ds = 0. On AB, x = 3

hence

F(3, y) = 9y y 3 , e y 32 3 3 = 9y y 3 , 0 .

We see that F is orthogonal to the segment AB, resulting in AB F ds = 0. On BC, y = 3 hence

F(x, 3) = 9 3 33 , e 3 x 2 3x = 0, e 3 x 2 3x .

We see that F is orthogonal to the segment BC, therefore BC F ds = 0. Finally, on C O we have x = 0, hence

F(0, y) = 9y y 3 , 0 . It follows that F is orthogonal to the segment C O, therefore the tangential component of F

along C O is zero. We conclude that C O F ds = 0. Combining these integrals we conclude that:

F ds = F ds + F ds + F ds + F ds = 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0

C2 OA AB BC CO

In Exercises 2528, compute the line integral F ds. for the given vector field and path.

c

2y x

25. F(x, y) = , ,

x 2 + 4y 2 x 2 + 4y 2

the path c(t) = cos t, 12 sin t for 0 t 2

SOLUTION

1178 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1

c(t) = cos t, sin t

2

2y x 2 12 sin t cos t

F (c(t)) = 2 , = ,

x + 4y 2 x 2 + 4y 2 cos2 t + 4 14 sin2 t cos2 t + 4 14 sin2 t

sin t cos t

= , = sin t, cos t

cos2 t + sin2 t cos2 t + sin2 t

1

c (t) = sin t, cos t

2

The integral is the dot product:

1 1 1 1

F (c(t)) c (t) = sin t, cos t sin t, cos t = sin2 t + cos2 t = cos 2t sin2 t

2 2 2 2

Step 2. Evaluate the line integral.

2 2

1 1 2 sin 2t t sin 2t 2

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = cos 2t sin t dt = + =

0 0 2 2 4 4 8 0 2

C

26. F(x, y) = 2x y, x 2 + y 2 , the part of the unit circle in the first quadrant oriented counterclockwise.

SOLUTION

c( ) = (cos , sin ), 0

2

Step 1. Calculate the integrand F (c( )) c ( ).

c ( ) = sin , cos

F (c( )) = 2x y, x 2 + y 2 = 2 cos sin , cos2 + sin2 = 2 cos sin , 1

Step 2. Evaluate the line integral. The vector line integral is:

/2 /2

F ds = F (c( )) c ( ) d = 2 cos sin2 + cos d

0 0

C

/2 /2 /2

2 sin3 /2

2 1

= 2 sin2 cos d + cos d = + sin = +1=

0 0 3 0 0 3 3

27. F(x, y) = x 2 y, y 2 z, z 2 x , the path c(t) = et , e2t , e3t for 0 t <

SOLUTION

Step 1. Calculate the integrand F (c(t)) c (t).

c(t) = et , e2t , e3t

c (t) = et , 2e2t , 3e3t

F (c(t)) = x 2 y, y 2 z, z 2 x = e2t e2t , e4t e3t , e6t et = e4t , e7t , e7t

Chapter Review Exercises 1179

F (c(t)) c (t) = e4t , e7t , e7t et , 2e2t , 3e3t = e5t 2e9t 3e10t

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = e5t 2e9t 3e10t dt

0 0

C

1 5R 2 9R 3 1 2 3 13 13

= lim e + e + e10R + + =0 =

R 5 9 10 5 9 10 18 18

28. F = , where (x, y, z) = 4x 2 ln(1 + y 4 + z 2 ), the path c(t) = t 3 , ln(1 + t 2 ), et for 0 t 1

SOLUTION We use the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Field to write:

ds = (c(1)) (c(0)) (1)

c

c(1) = 13 , ln 1 + 12 , e1 = (1, ln 2, e)

c(0) = 03 , ln 1 + 02 , e0 = (0, 0, 1)

Hence:

(c(1)) = 4 12 ln 1 + ln4 2 + e2 = 4 ln 1 + e2 + ln4 2 8.616

(c(0)) = 0

Combining with (1) gives:

ds = 8.616

c

29. Consider the line integrals F ds for the vector fields F and paths c in Figure 2. Which two of the line integrals

c

appear to have a value of zero? Which of the other two is negative?

y y

x x

(A) (B)

y y

Q

P

P Q

x x

(C) (D)

FIGURE 2

SOLUTION In (A), the line integral around the ellipse appears to be positive, because the negative tangential compo-

nents from the lower part of the curve appears to be smaller than the positive contribution of the tangential components

from the upper part.

In (B), the line integral around the ellipse appears to be zero, since F is orthogonal to the ellipse at all points except

for two points where the tangential components of F cancel each other.

In (C), F is orthogonal to the path, hence the tangential component is zero at all points on the curve. Therefore the

line integral C F ds is zero.

In (D), the direction of F is opposite to the direction of the curve. Therefore the dot product F T is negative at each

point along the curve, resulting in a negative line integral.

1180 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

30. Calculate the work required to move an object from P = (1, 1, 1) to Q = (3, 4, 2) against the force field

F(x, y, z) = 12r 4 x, y, z (distance in meters, force in Newtons), where r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 . Hint: Find a potential

function for F.

SOLUTION The work performed against F is given by the line integral:

W = F ds (1)

PQ

12 6

We notice that F = 2 x, y, z is the gradient of the function (x, y, z) = 2 2 2 since:

x 2 +y 2 +z 2 x +y +z

6 (2x) 6 (2y) 6 (2z)

= , , = 2 , 2 , 2

x y z x 2 + y2 + z2 x 2 + y2 + z2 x 2 + y2 + z2

12

= 2 x, y, z = F

x 2 + y2 + z2

We now use the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient vector Field to compute the line integral (1):

W = F ds = ds = (Q) (P) = (3, 4, 2) (1, 1, 1)

PQ PQ

6 6 52

= = 1.79

9 + 16 + 4 1 + 1 + 1 29

(u, v) = (u + av, bu + v, 2u c)

SOLUTION We substitute x = u + av, y = bu + v and z = 2u c in the equation of the plane 3x 4y + z = 5, to

obtain:

or

This equation must be satisfied for all u and v, therefore the following must hold:

5

5 4b = 0 b=

4

4

3a 4 = 0 a =

3

5+c =0 c = 5

4 5

(u, v) = u + v, u + v, 2u + 5

3 4

We compute the tangent vectors Tu and Tv :

5 4

Tu = = 1, , 2 ; Tv = = , 1, 0

u 4 v 3

The normal vector is their cross product:

i j k 5 1 5

2 1 2

n = Tu Tv = 1 5 2 = 4 i 4 j+ 4 4 k

4 1 0 0 3 1

4 1 0 3

3

8 5 8 2

= 2i + j + 1 k = 2, ,

3 3 3 3

32. Calculate the integral of f (x, y, z) = e zy over the portion of the plane 6x + 4y + z = 24, where x, y, z 0.

Chapter Review Exercises 1181

The parameter domain D is determined by the inequalities x 0, y 0, z 0. We identify this domain and sketch it

by writing the corresponding inequalities for x and y:

x 0 x 0

y0 y0

24 6x 4y 0 3x + 2y 12

3x + 2y = 12

D

x

4

Tx = = x, y, 24 6x 4y = 1, 0, 6

x x

Ty = = x, y, 24 6x 4y = 0, 1, 4

y y

n = Tx T y = (i 6k) (j 4k) = k + 4j + 6i = 6, 4, 1

n = 62 + 42 + 12 = 53

Step 2. Calculate the surface integral. We express f (x, y, z) = e zy in terms of the parameters x and y:

Then:

4 6 3x

2

f (x, y, z) d S = f ((x, y)) n d x d y = e246x5y 53 d y d x

S D 0 0

6 3x

4 1 246x5y 2 53 4 246x5 6 3x2 246x

= 53 e dx = e e dx

0 5 5 0 y=0

53 4 3x 2 6+ 3x

1 246x 4 53

= e6+ 2 e246x

e 2 + e

dx =

5 0 3 6 x=0 5

53 2 1 2 6 1 24 53 5 1 24 2 6

= + e + e = e e

5 3 6 3 6 5 6 6 3

v v

(u, v) = 2u sin , 2u cos , 3v

2 2

for 0 u 1 and 0 v 2 .

(a) Calculate the tangent vectors Tu and Tv , and normal vector n(u, v) at P = (1, 3 ).

(b) Find the equation of the tangent plane at P.

(c) Compute the surface area of S.

SOLUTION

(a) The tangent vectors are the partial derivatives:

v v v v

Tu = = 2u sin , 2u cos , 3v = 2 sin , 2 cos , 0

u u 2 2 2 2

1182 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

v v v v

Tv = = 2u sin , 2u cos , 3v = u cos , u sin , 3

v v 2 2 2 2

The normal vector is their cross-product:

i j k

v v 2 cos v2 0 2 sin v 0 2 sin v 2 cos v2

n = Tu Tv = 2 sin 2 2 cos 2 0 = v i 2

v

j + 2

u cos v k

u cos v u sin v 3 u sin 2 3 u cos 2 3

2 u sin v2

2 2

v v v v

= 6 cos i 6 sin j + 2u sin2 2u cos2 k

2 2 2 2

v v v v

= 6 cos i 6 sin j 2uk = 6 cos , 6 sin , 2u

2 2 2 2

At the point P = 1, 3 , u = 1 and v = 3 . The tangents and the normal vector at this point are,

Tu 1, = 2 sin , 2 cos , 0 = 1, 3, 0

3 6 6

3 1

Tv 1, = 1 cos , 1 sin , 3 = , ,3

3 6 6 2 2

n 1, = 6 cos , 6 sin , 2 1 = 3 3, 3, 2

3 6 6

(b) A normal to the plane is n 1, 3 = 3 3, 3, 2 found in part (a). We find the tangency point:

P = 1, = 2 1 sin , 2 1 cos , 3 = 1, 3,

3 6 6 3

The equation of the tangent plane is, thus,

x 1, y 3, z 3 3, 3, 2 = 0

or

3 3(x 1) 3 y 3 2(z ) = 0

3 3x 3y 2z + 2 = 0

v v

n = 6 cos , 6 sin , 2u

2 2

We compute the length of n:

v v

n = 36 cos2 + 36 sin2 + 4u 2 = 36 + 4u 2 = 2 9 + u 2

2 2

Using the Integral for the Surface Area we get:

2 1 1

Area(S) = n(u, v) du dv = 2 9 + u 2 du dv = 4 9 + u 2 du

D 0 0 0

u 2 9 1

1 9 9

= 4 u + 9 + ln u + 9 + u 2 = 4 10 + ln 1 + 10 ln 3

2 2 u=0 2 2 2

1 + 10

= 2 10 + 18 ln 1 + 10 18 ln 3 = 2 10 + 18 ln 38.4

3

for 1 v 1, 1 u 1. Express the surface area as a double integral and use a computer algebra system to

compute the area numerically.

SOLUTION The surface is shown in the following plot:

Chapter Review Exercises 1183

y

x

We compute the area of the surface, using the Integral for the surface Area. We find the tangent and normal vectors:

=

Tu = u + 4v, 2u v, 5uv = 1, 2, 5v

u u

Tv = = u + 4v, 2u v, 5uv = 4, 1, 5u

v v

i j k

2 5v 1 5v 2

n = Tu Tv = 1 2 5v = i j + 1 k

1 5u 4 5u 4 1

4 1 5u

n = (10u + 5v)2 + (5u + 20v)2 + (9)2

= 100u 2 + 100uv + 25v 2 + 25u 2 200uv + 400v 2 + 81

= 125u 2 100uv + 425v 2 + 81

1 1

Area(S) = n(u, v) du dv = 125u 2 100uv + 425v 2 + 81 du dv = 62.911

D 1 1

Evaluate the integral numerically using a CAS.

SOLUTION We use the Surface Integral over a graph. Let g(x, y) = 10 x 2 y 2 . Then g x = 2x, g y = 2y hence

1 + gx 2 + g y 2 = 1 + 4x 2 + 4y 2 . The area at the surface is the following integral which we compute using a CAS:

3 1

Area(S) = 1 + gx 2 + g y 2 d x d y = 1 + 4x 2 + 4y 2 d x d y 41.8525

D 3 1

36. Evaluate x 2 y d S, where S is the surface z =

3x + y 2 , 1 x 1, 0 y 1.

S

SOLUTION We use the Surface Integral over a Graph with g(x, y) = 3x + y 2 . The partial derivatives are g x = 3

and g y = 2y. Therefore

2

2 2

1 + gx + g y = 1 + 3 + (2y)2 = 4 + 4y 2 = 2 1 + y 2

1 1

1 1

x2 y d S = x2 y 2 2

1 + gx + g y d x d y = 2

x y 2 1 + y dx dy =

2 2

x dx 1 + y 2y d y

2

S D 0 1 1 0

x 3 1 1 2 1

= 1 + y 2 2y d y = 1 + y 2 2y d y

3 x=1 0 3 0

2

2 2 1/2 2 2 4 3/2 4

x2 y d S = u du = u 3/2 = 2 1 = 2 21

S 3 1 3 3 1 9 9

1184 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

37. Calculate x 2 + y 2 ez d S, where S is the cylinder with equation x 2 + y 2 = 9 for 0 z 10.

S

SOLUTION We parametrize the cylinder S by,

( , z) = (3 cos , 3 sin , z)

0 2 , 0 z 10.

T = = 3 cos , 3 sin , z = 3 sin , 3 cos , 0

Tz = = 3 cos , 3 sin , z = 0, 0, 1

The normal vector is their cross product:

i j k

3 cos 0 3 sin 0 3 sin 3 cos

n = T Tz = 3 sin 3 cos 0 =

i

j +

k

0 1 0 1 0 0

0 0 1

= (3 cos )i + (3 sin )j = 3 cos , sin , 0

n = 3 cos2 + sin2 + 0 = 3

We now express the function f (x, y, z) = x 2 + y 2 ez in terms of the parameters:

f ( , z) = x 2 + y 2 ez = 9 cos2 + 9 sin2 ez = 9ez

10 2 10

10

x 2 + y 2 ez d S = 9ez 3 d dz = 27 2 ez dz = 54 ez

S 0 0 0 z=0

= 54 e10 + 1 54

2 2 2

Let S be the upper hemisphere x + y + z = 1, z 0. For each of the functions (a)(d), determine whether

38.

f d S is positive, zero, or negative (without evaluating the integral). Explain your reasoning.

S

(a) f (x, y, z) = y 3 (b) f (x, y, z) = z 3

(c) f (x, y, z) = x yz (d) f (x, y, z) = z 2 2

SOLUTION

(a) Since f (x, y, z) = y 3 is an odd function of y, and the upper hemisphere is symmetric with respect to the (x, z)-

plane, the surface integrals over the parts where y 0 and y 0 cancel each other. Therefore the surface integral is

zero.

(b) The function f (x, y, z) = z 3 is non-negative on S, hence the surface integral is positive.

(c) Since f (x, y, z) = x yz = f (x, y, z) and since the upper hemisphere is symmetric with respect to (y, z)-plane,

the surface integrals over the parts of S where x 0 and x 0 cancel each other to obtain a zero surface integral.

(d) On S we have z 2 = 1 x 2 y 2 1, hence z 2 2 < 0. That is, f (x, y, z) = z 2 2 is negative on S, therefore

the surface integral is negative.

39. Let S be a small patch of surface with a parametrization (u, v) for 0 u, v 0.1 such that the normal vector

n(u, v) for (u, v) = (0, 0) is n = 2, 2, 4. Use Eq. (1) in Section 17.4 to estimate the surface area of S.

SOLUTION

n(0, 0)

S

0.1

P = (0, 0)

R

u x

(0, 0) 0.1

Chapter Review Exercises 1185

We use Eq. (1) in section 17.4 with u i j , vi j = (0, 0), Ri j = R = [0, 0.1] [0, 0.1] in the (u, v)-plane and Si j =

S = (R), in the (x, y)-plane to obtain the following estimation for the area of S:

That is:

Area(S) 2, 2, 4 0.12 = 22 + (2)2 + 42 (0.1)2 = 0.02 6 0.049

40. Let S be the upper hemisphere of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9 and let (r, ) = (r cos , r sin , 9 r 2 ) be its

parametrization by cylindrical coordinates (Figure 3).

(a) Calculate the normal vector n = Tr T at the point (2, 3 ).

(b) Use Eq. (1) in Section 17.4 to estimate the surface area of (R), where R is the small domain defined by

2 r 2.1, + 0.05

3 3

(P0 )

3

r 3 y

3

x

( 3)

P0 = 2,

FIGURE 3

SOLUTION

(a) We first find the tangent vectors at the given point:

T = = r cos , r sin , 9 r 2 = r sin , r cos , 0

T 2, = 2 sin , 2 cos , 0 = 3, 1, 0

3 3 3

r

Tr = = r cos , r sin , 9 r = cos , sin ,

2

r r 9 r2

2 1 3 2

Tr 2, = cos , sin , = , ,

3 3 3 9 22 2 2 5

The normal vector is the cross product:

i j

k

3 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 3

n = Tr T = 12 2 = i + j + + k = , ,2

2 5 5 5 2 2 5 5

3 1 0

(b) We use Eq. (1) with the sample point (u, v) = 2, 3 .

y

n 2,( )3

+ 0.05 S

3

R

P = (R)

3

r x

2 2.1

In part (a) we found that the normal to (R) at this point is n = 2 , 2 3 , 2 . Therefore, n = 45 + 12 6

5 + 4 = 5.

5 5

We get:

6 0.03

Area((R)) n 2, Area(R) = 0.1 0.05 = 0.0134

3 5 5

1186 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

In Exercises 4146, compute F dS for the given oriented surface or parametrized surface.

S

41. F(x, y, z) = y, x 2 y, e x z , x 2 + y 2 = 9, 3 z 3,

outward-pointing normal

SOLUTION The part of the cylinder is parametrized by:

z

3 3

y

3

x

T = = 3 cos , 3 sin , z = 3 sin , 3 cos , 0

Tz = = 3 cos , 3 sin , z = 0, 0, 1

z z

We compute the cross product:

n = 3 cos , 3 sin , 0

Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We write F(x, y, z) = y, x 2 y, e x z in terms of the parameters by substituting

x = 3 cos , y = 3 sin . We get:

F (( , z)) = 3 sin , 9 cos2 3 sin , e3z cos = 3 sin , 27 cos2 sin , e3z cos

Hence:

F (( , z)) n = 3 sin , 27 cos2 sin , e3z cos 3 cos , 3 sin , 0

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral (we use the trigono-

metric identities sin cos = sin22 and sin2 2 = 12 (1 cos 4 )):

2 3 2 3

F dS = F (( , z)) n( , z) dz d = 9 sin cos + 81 cos2 sin2 d

S 0 3 0 3

2 2

9 sin 2 6 9 2 6 81 2

=6 sin 2 + 81 d = sin 2 d + (1 cos 4 ) d

0 2 2 2 0 8 0

2 2

cos 2

=

54

+ 243 sin 4 = 243 2 = 243 381.7

2 2 4 4 4 2

0 0

42. F(x, y, z) = y, z, x, (u, v) = (u + 3v, v 2u, 2v + 5), 0 u, v 1, upward-pointing normal

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.

Tu = = u + 3v, v 2u, 2v + 5 = 1, 2, 0

u u

Tv = = u + 3v, v 2u, 2v + 5 = 3, 1, 2

v v

Chapter Review Exercises 1187

i j k

2 0 1 0 1 2

Tu Tv = 1 2 0 =

1 i j + k = 4i 2j + 7k = 4, 2, 7

3 2 3 2 3 1

1 2

Since the normal is pointing upward, the z-component is positive. Therefore the normal vector is n = 4, 2, 7.

Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We write F in terms of the parameters. Since

x = u + 3v, y = v 2u, z = 2v + 5 , we have:

= 4(2u v) 2(2v + 5) + 7(u 3v) = 15 21v 10

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

1 1

F ds = F ((u, v)) n du dv = (15u 21v 10) du dv

S D 0 0

1 1

15u 2 1 35

= 21vu 10u u=0 dv = 21v dv

0 2 0 2

35v 21v 2 1 35 21

= = = 28

2 2 0 2 2

43. F(x, y, z) = x 2 , y 2 , x 2 + y 2 , x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4, z 0, outward-pointing normal

SOLUTION The upper hemisphere is parametrized by:

( , ) = (2 cos sin , 2 sin sin , 2 cos ), 0 2 , 0

2

As seen in section 17.4, since 0 2 then the outward-pointing normal is:

n = 4 sin cos sin , sin sin , cos

F ( , ) = x 2 , y 2 , x 2 + y 2 = 4 cos2 sin2 , 4 sin2 sin2 , 4 sin2 cos2 + sin2

= 4 cos2 sin2 , 4 sin2 sin2 , 4 sin2

F ( , ) n( , ) = 4 sin 4 cos3 sin3 + 4 sin3 sin3 + 4 sin2 cos

= 16 cos3 sin4 + sin3 sin4 + sin3 cos

F ds = F ( , ) n( , ) d d

S D

/2 2

= 16 cos3 sin4 + sin3 sin4 + sin3 cos d d

0 0

2 /2

= 16 cos3 d sin4 d

0 0

/2

2 /2

+ 16 sin3 d sin4 d + 32 sin3 cos v d

0 0 0

Since 02 cos3 d = 02 sin3 d = 0, we get:

/2

sin4 /2 10

F ds = 32 sin3 cos d = 32 = 32 = 8

S 0 4 =0 4

1188 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

44. F(x, y, z) = z, 0, z 2 , (u, v) = (v cosh u, v sinh u, v), 0 u, v 1, upward-pointing normal

SOLUTION

Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.

Tu = = v cosh(u), v sinh(u), v = v sinh(u), v cosh(u), 0

u u

Tv = = v cosh(u), v sinh(u), v = cosh(u), sinh(u), 1

v v

i j k

Tu Tv = v sinh(u) v cosh(u) 0

cosh(u) sinh(u) 1

v cosh(u) 0 v sinh(u) 0 v sinh(u) v cosh(u)

= i j + k

sinh(u) 1 cosh(u) 1 cosh(u) sinh(u)

= (v cosh(u)) i (v sinh(u)) j + vsinh2 (u) vcosh2 (u) k

= v cosh(u), v sinh(u), v

Since the normal points upward, the z-component is positive. Therefore the normal vector is, (notice that v 0):

n = v cosh(u), v sinh(u), v

F ((u, v)) = z, 0, z 2 = v, 0, v 2

Hence:

F ((u, v)) n(u, v) = v, 0, v 2 v cosh(u), v sinh(u), v = v 2 cosh(u) + v 3

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

1 1

F ds = F ((u, v)) n du dv = v 2 cosh(u) + v 3 du dv

S D 0 0

1 1 1 1
1

1 1

= v 2 cosh(u) du dv + v 3 du dv = v 2 dv cosh(u) du + v 3 dv

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1

v 3 1 v 4 1 1 1

= v=0 sinh(u) + sinh(1) + 0.1417

3 u=0 4 v=0 3 4

45. F(x, y, z) = 0, 0, x ze x y , z = x y, 0 x, y 1,

upward-pointing normal

SOLUTION We parametrize the surface by:

(x, y) = (x, y, x y)

D = {(x, y) : 0 x 1, 0 y 1}

Tx = = x, y, x y = 1, 0, y

x x

Ty = = x, y, x y = 0, 1, x

y y

i j k

0 y y 1 0

Tx T y = 1 0 y = i 1 j + k = yi xj + k = y, x, 1

1 x 0 x 0 1

0 1 x

Since the normal points upwards, the z-coordinate is positive. Therefore the normal vector is:

n = y, x, 1

Chapter Review Exercises 1189

F ((x, y)) = 0, 0, x ze x y = 0, 0, x(x y)e x y = 0, 0, x 2 ye x y

Hence:

F ((x, y)) n(x, y) = 0, 0, x 2 ye x y y, x, 1 = x 2 ye x y

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

F ds = F ((x, y)) n(x, y) d x d y

S D

1 1 1

1

= x 2 ye x y d y d x = x2 ye x y d y dx (1)

0 0 0 0

1 1 1

y x y 1 1 xy ex 1 ex 1

ye x y d y = e y=0 e dy = 2 e x y = 2 ex 1

0 x 0 x x x y=0 x x

1 1 1

x x x

F ds = xe e 1 d x = xe x d x e 1 dx

0 0 0

S

1 1

1

= xe x d x e x x = xe x d x (e 2)

0 0 0

1

F d S = xe e (e 2) = 1 (e 2) = 3 e

x x

S 0

upward-pointing normal

SOLUTION We use modified spherical coordinates to parametrize the ellipsoid:

1 1

( , ) = cos sin , sin sin , cos

3 2

where the parameter domain is:

D = ( , ) : 0 2 , 0

2

Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.

1 1

T = = sin sin , cos sin , 0

3 2

1 1

T = = cos cos , sin cos , sin

3 2

i j k

sin sin cos sin

1 1 0

T T = 3 2

1

cos cos sin cos sin

1

3 2

1 1 1 1

= cos sin2 i sin sin2 j sin2 sin cos + cos2 sin cos k

2 3 6 6

1 1 1

= cos sin2 i sin sin2 j sin cos k

2 3 6

Since the normal points upward, the z-component is positive. For 0 2 , sin cos 0 therefore the normal vector

is:

1 1 1

n = cos sin2 , sin sin2 , sin cos

2 3 6

1190 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1 1 1 1

F ( , ) = 0, 0, cos cos sin , sin sin , sin cos = sin cos2

2 2

2 3 6 6

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

2 /2

1

F ds = F ( , ) n( , ) d d = sin cos2 d d

S D 0 0 6

/2

2 2 2 cos3 /2 2 0 + 1 2 2

= cos sin d = =0 = = =

6 0 6 3 6 3 3 6 3 3

x 2 + y 2 = R2 , 0zH

SOLUTION The total change on the surface S is S d S. We parametrize the surface by,

( , z) = (R cos , R sin , H z)

0 2 , 0 z 1.

T = = R cos , R sin , H z = R sin , R cos , 0

Tz = = R cos , R sin , H z = 0, 0, H

z z

The normal vector is their cross product:

i j k

n = T Tz = R sin R cos 0

0 0 H

R cos 0 0 R sin R cos

= i R sin j +

0 H 0 H 0 0 k

n = R H cos2 + sin2 = R H

2 1

dS = (( , z)) n( , z) dz d = K H 2 z 2 cos2 H R dz d

S D 0 0

1 2 K H 3 Rz 3 1 sin 2 2

= K H 3 Rz 2 dz cos2 d = +

0 0 3 0 2 4 0

K H3R

= = K H3R

3 3

48. Find the flow rate of a fluid with velocity field v = 2x, y, x y m/s across the part of the cylinder x 2 + y 2 = 9

where x, y 0, and 0 z 4 (distance in meters).

SOLUTION The flow rate of a fluid with velocity field v through the part S of the cylinder is the surface integral:

Chapter Review Exercises 1191

3 3 y

v dS (1)

S

We parametrize S by,

( , z) = (3 cos , 3 sin , z), 0 , 0 z 4.

2

y

x

0 3

0

2

T = = 3 cos , 3 sin , z = 3 sin , 3 cos , 0 = (3 sin ) i + (3 cos )j

Tz = = 3 cos , 3 sin , z = 0, 0, 1 = k

z z

n = T Tz = ((3 sin )i + (3 cos )j) k = (3 sin )j + (3 cos )i = 3 cos , 3 sin , 0

= 18 cos2 + 9 sin2 = 9 cos2 + sin2 + 9 cos2 = 9 cos2 + 9

Step 3. Evaluate the flux of v. The flux of v in (1) is equal to the following double integral (we use the equality cos2 =

1 + 1 cos 2 ):

2 2

4 /2

v dS = v (( , z)) n d dz = 9 cos2 + 9 d dz

S D 0 0

/2 /2

=4 9 cos2 + 9 d = 36 cos2 + 1 d

0 0

/2 /2

3 1 3 1

= 36 + cos 2 d = 36 + sin 2 = 27

0 2 2 2 4 =0

x2

49. With v as in Exercise 48, calculate the flow rate across the part of the elliptic cylinder + y 2 = 1 where x, y 0,

4

and 0 z 4.

SOLUTION The flow rate of a fluid with velocity field v = 2x, y, x y through the elliptic cylinder S is the surface

integral:

v dS (1)

S

1192 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1 y

2

( , z) = (2 cos , sin , z), 0 , 0z4

2

y

x

0 /2

T = = 2 cos , sin , z = 2 sin , cos , 0

Tz = = 2 cos , sin , z = 0, 0, 1

z z

i j k

n = T Tz = 2 sin cos 0 = (cos )i + (2 sin )j = cos , 2 sin , 0

0 0 1

v (( , z)) n = 4 cos , sin , 2 cos sin cos , 2 sin , 0 = 4 cos2 + 2 sin2

= 2 cos2 + 2 cos2 + sin2 = 2 cos2 + 2

Step 3. Evaluate the flux of v. The flux of v in (1) is equal to the following double integral (we use the equality 2 cos2 =

1 + cos 2 in our calculation):

4 /2

v dS = v (( , z)) n d dz = 2 cos2 + 2 d dz

S D 0 0

/2 /2

sin 2 /2

=4 2

2 cos + 2 d = 4 (3 + cos 2 ) d = 4 3 + = 6

0 0 2 =0

50. Calculate the flux of the vector field E(x, y, z) = x, 0, z through the part of the ellipsoid

4x 2 + 9y 2 + z 2 = 36

(r, ) = 3r cos , 2r sin , 6 1 r 2

SOLUTION The flux of the vector field E through the part S of the ellipsoid is the surface integral:

E dS (1)

S

We use the following parametrization for S:

( , r ) = 3r cos , 2r sin , 6 1 r 2

* +

3

D = ( , r ) : 0 2 , 0 r

2

Chapter Review Exercises 1193

We justify this parametrization. First, we verify that x = 3r cos , y = 2r sin and z = 6 1 r 2 satisfy the equation

of the ellipsoid 4x 2 + 9y 2 + z 2 = 36.

2

4x 2 + 9y 2 + z 2 = 4(3r cos )2 + 9(2r sin )2 + 6 1 r 2 = 36r 2 cos2 + 36r 2 sin2 + 36 1 r 2

= 36r 2 cos2 + sin2 + 36 36r 2 = 36r 2 + 36 36r 2 = 36

Next, the part z 3 of the ellipsoid corresponds to the values of r such that 6 1 r 2 3. We solve for r 0:

1 2 1 2 3 3

6 1r 3

2 1r 2 1r r 0r

2 4 4 2

Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.

T = = 3r cos , 2r sin , 6 1 r 2 = 3r sin , 2r cos , 0

6r

Tr = = 3r cos , 2r sin , 6 1 r 2 = 3 cos , 2 sin ,

r r 1 r2

The outward pointing normal is:

6r

n = T Tr = ((3r sin )i (2r cos )j) (3 cos )i + (2 sin )j k

1 r2

18r 2 sin 12r 2 cos 12r 2 cos 18r 2 sin

= 6r sin2 k + j + 6r cos2 k + i= i+ j + 6r k

1 r2 1 r2 1 r2 1 r2

Step 2. Compute the dot product E n.

12r 2 cos 18r 2 sin 36r 3 cos2

E (( , r )) n = 3r cos , 0, 6 1 r 2 , , 6r = + 36r 1 r 2

1 r2 1 r2 1 r2

Step 3. Evaluate the flux of E. The flux of E in (1) is equal to the following double integral:

2 3/2

36r 3 cos2

E dS = E (( , r )) n dr d = + 36r 1 r 2 dr d

S D 0 0 1 r2

2 3/2 36r 3 2 3/2

= 2

cos d dr + 1 d 36r 1 r dr

2

0 0 1 r2 0 0

3/2 3/2

36r 3

= dr + 72 r 1 r 2 dr (2)

0 1 r2 0

We evaluate the second integral using the substitution u = 1 r 2 , du = r udr . We get:

3/2 1/2 1

u 3 1 7

r 1 r 2 dr = (u 2 ) du = u 2 du = = (3)

0 1 1/2 3 1/2 24

We evaluate the first integral in (2) using the same substitution u = 1 r 2 . Then r 2 = 1 u 2 , r dr = u du .

We obtain:

3/2 3/2 1/2 36 1 u 2 (u du)

36r 3 36r 2 r dr

dr = =

0 1 r2 0 1 r2 1 u

1

u 3 1

= 2

36 1 u du = 36 u = 7.5 (4)

1/2 3 u=1/2

7

E dS = 7.5 + 72 = 28.5 89.54

S 24

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