Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 139

# LINE AND

17 SURFACE
INTEGRALS
17.1 Vector Fields (ET Section 16.1)
Preliminary Questions
1. Which of the following is a unit vector field in the plane?
(a) F = y, x
 
y x
(b) F =  ,
x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2
 
y x
(c) F = 2 ,
x + y2 x 2 + y2
SOLUTION
(a) The length of the vector y, x is

y, x = y2 + x 2

This value is not 1 for all points, hence it is not a unit vector field.
(b) We have


2 2
 

 y x  y x
  , =  + 
 x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2  x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2
 
y2 x2 y2 + x 2
= + 2 = =1
x +y
2 2 x +y 2 x 2 + y2

Hence the field is a unit vector field, for (x, y)  = (0, 0).
(c) We compute the length of the vector:
  
  2  2
2
 y x  y x
y + x2 1
  = 
 x 2 + y2 , x 2 + y2  = x 2 + y2
+
x 2 + y2
2 = 2 + y2
x +y
2 2 x

Since the length is not identically 1, the field is not a unit vector field.
2. Sketch an example of a nonconstant vector field in the plane in which each vector is parallel to 1, 1.
SOLUTION The non-constant vector x, x is parallel to the vector 1, 1.

3. Show that the vector field F = z, 0, x is orthogonal to the position vector O P at each point P. Give an example
of another vector field with this property.
SOLUTION The position vector at P = (x, y, z) is x, y, z. We must show that the following dot product is zero:

## x, y, z z, 0, x = x (z) + y 0 + z x = 0

1056 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Therefore, the vector field F = z, 0, x is orthogonal to the position vector. Another vector field with this property is
F = 0, z, y, since

## 0, z, y x, y, z = 0 x + (z) y + y z = 0

4. Give an example of a potential function for yz, x z, x y other than (x, y, z) = x yz.
SOLUTION Since any two potential functions of a gradient vector field differ by a constant, a potential function for the
given field other than (x, y, z) = x yz is, for instance, 1 (x, y, z) = x yz + 1.

Exercises  
1. Compute and sketch the vector assigned to the points P = (1, 2) and Q = (1, 1) by the vector field F = x 2 , x .
SOLUTION The vector assigned to P = (1, 2) is obtained by substituting x = 1 in F, that is,

## F(1, 2) = 12 , 1 = 1, 1

Similarly,
 
F(1, 1) = (1)2 , 1 = 1, 1

F(P) = 1, 1
1

x
1
1
F(Q) = 1, 1

2. Compute and sketch the vector assigned to the points P = (1, 2) and Q = (1, 1) by the vector field F = y, x.
SOLUTION To find the vector assigned to the point P = (1, 2), we substitute x = 1, y = 2 in F = y, x, obtaining

F(P) = 2, 1

## F(Q) = (1), 1 = 1, 1

y
3

2
F(P) = 2, 1
1

x
3 2 1 1 2 3
1 F(Q) = 1, 1

 3. Compute  and sketch the vector assigned to the points P = (0, 1, 1) and Q = (2, 1, 0) by the vector field F =
x y, z 2 , x .
SOLUTION To find the vector assigned to the point P = (0, 1, 1), we substitute x = 0, y = 1, z = 1 in F = x y, z 2 , x.
We get

F(P) = 0 1, 12 , 0 = 0, 1, 0

## Similarly, F(Q) is obtained by substituting x = 2, y = 1, z = 0 in F. That is,

F(Q) = 2 1, 02 , 2 = 2, 0, 2
S E C T I O N 17.1 Vector Fields (ET Section 16.1) 1057

F(Q) = 2, 0, 2 F(P) = 0, 1, 0

er er
4. Compute the vector assigned to the points P = (1, 1, 0) and Q = (2, 1, 2) by the vector fields er , , and 2 .
r r
SOLUTION The unit radial vector is
x y z
er = , ,
r r r
Hence,
   
er x y z er x y z
= 2, 2, 2 and = , , .
r r r r r2 r3 r3 r3
 
For P = (1, 1, 0) we have r = 12 + 12 + 02 = 2, and for Q = (2, 1, 2) we have r = 22 + 12 + 22 = 3.
Therefore,
   
1 1 0 1 1
er (P) = , , = , , 0
2 2 2 2 2
 
2 1 2
er (Q) = , ,
3 3 3
   
er 1 1 0 1 1
(P) = , , = , ,0
r 2 2 2 2 2
 
er 2 1 2
(Q) = , ,
r 9 9 9
   
er 1 1 0 1 1
(P) = , , = , , 0
r2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
er 2 1 2
(Q) = , ,
r2 27 27 27

In Exercises 513, sketch the following planar vector fields by drawing the vectors attached to points with integer coor-
dinates in the rectangle 3 x, y 3. Instead of drawing the vectors with their true lengths, scale them if necessary to
avoid overlap.

5. F = 1, 0
SOLUTION The constant vector field 1, 0 is shown in the figure:

3
2
1
x
3 2 1 1 2 3
1
2
3

6. F = xi
SOLUTION The vector field F(x, y) = xi = (x, 0) is sketched in the following figure:
1058 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

7. F = 0, x
SOLUTION We sketch the vector field F(x, y) = 0, x:

8. F = yj
SOLUTION The graph of F(x, y) = yj is shown next:

9. F = 1, 1
SOLUTION We sketch the graph of the constant vector field F(x, y) = 1, 1:

10. F = x 2 i + yj
SOLUTION The graph of the vector field F(x, y) = x 2 i + yj is shown in the following figure:
S E C T I O N 17.1 Vector Fields (ET Section 16.1) 1059

 
x y
11. F = , 2
x + y x + y2
2 2

SOLUTION

 
y x
12. F = ,
x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2
SOLUTION

y
3

2
F(P) = 2, 1
1

x
3 2 1 1 2 3
1 F(Q) = 1, 1

 
y x
13. F = ,
x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2
SOLUTION

In Exercises 1417, match the planar vector field with the corresponding plot in Figure 7.
1060 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

y y

2 2

0 x 0 x

2 2

2 0 2 2 0 2
(A) (B)
y y

2 2

0 x 0 x

2 2

2 0 2 2 0 2
(C) (D)
FIGURE 7

14. F = 2, x
SOLUTION The x coordinate of the vector field 2, x is always 2. This matches only with Plot (D).
15. F = 2x + 2, y
SOLUTION We compute the images of the point (0, 2), for instance, and identify the corresponding graph accordingly:

## 16. F = y, cos x

SOLUTION We compute the images of the point (0, 2), for instance, and identify the corresponding graph accordingly:

## F(x, y) = y, cos x F(0, 2) = 2, 1 Plot(B)

17. F = x + y, x y
SOLUTION We compute the images of the point (0, 2), for instance, and identify the corresponding graph accordingly:

## F(x, y) = x + y, x y F(0, 2) = 2, 2 Plot(A)

In Exercises 1821, match the three-dimensional vector field with the corresponding plot in Figure 8.

(A) (B)

(C) (D)
FIGURE 8

18. F = x, y, z
SOLUTION x, y, z is shown in plot (B). Note that the vectors are pointing away from the origin and are of increasing
magnitude.
S E C T I O N 17.1 Vector Fields (ET Section 16.1) 1061

19. F = x, 0, z
SOLUTION This vector field is shown in (A) (by process of elimination).
 
x y z
20. F =  , ,
x 2 + y2 + z2 x 2 + y2 + z2 x 2 + y2 + z2
SOLUTION The unit radial vector field is shown in plot (D), as these vectors are radial and of uniform length.
21. F = 1, 1, 1
SOLUTION The constant vector field 1, 1, 1 is shown in plot (C).

In Exercises 2225, find a potential function for the vector field F by inspection.

22. F = x, y

SOLUTION We must find a function (x, y) such that x = x and y = y. We choose the following function:

1 2 1 2
(x, y) = x + y .
2 2
 
23. F = ye x y , xe x y

SOLUTION The function (x, y) = e x y satisfies x = ye x y and y = xe x y , hence is a potential function for the
given vector field.
 
24. F = yz 2 , x z 2 , 2x yz
SOLUTION We choose a function (x, y, z) such that

= yz 2 , = x z2, = x yz
x y z

## The function (x, y, z) = x yz 2 is a potential function for the given field.

 2 2
25. F = 2x ze x , 0, e x
2 2 2
SOLUTION The function (x, y, z) = ze x satisfies y = 0, x = 2x ze x and z = e x , hence is a potential
function for the given vector field.
er er
26. Find potential functions for the vector fields F = 3 and G = 4 in R3 .
r r
SOLUTION We use the gradient of r , r = er , and the Chain Rule for Gradients to write
 
1 2 er
r = r 3 r = r 3 er = 3 = F
2 r
 
1 er
r 3 = r 4 r = r 4 er = 4 = G
3 r

## Therefore 1 (r ) = 12 and 2 (r ) = 13 are potential functions for F and G, respectively.

2r 3r
27. Which of (A) or (B) in Figure 9 is the contour plot of a potential function for the vector field F? Recall that the
gradient vectors are perpendicular to the level curves.

2
2 1 0 1 2

2 2

1 1

0 0

1 1

2 2
2 1 0 1 2 2 1 0 1 2
(A) (B)
FIGURE 9
1062 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

SOLUTION By the equality = F and since the gradient vectors are perpendicular to the level curves, it follows that
the vectors F are perpendicular to the corresponding level curves of . This property is satisfied in (B) and not satisfied
in (A). Therefore (B) is the contour plot of .
28. Which of (A) or (B) in Figure 10 is the contour plot of a potential function of the vector field F?

(A) (B)
FIGURE 10

SOLUTION Since = F, F is perpendicular to the level curves of , as seen in both the contour plots (A) and

(B). The plot of F shows that F has the form F =  f (x), 0 for an increasing function f (x). Therefore, x = f (x) is
increasing, implying that the rate of change of with respect to x is increasing. Hence, the density of the vertical lines
is greater in the direction of growing x. We conclude that (A) is the contour plot of .

29. Let = ln r , where r = x 2 + y 2 . Express in terms of the unit radial vector er in R2 .
1/2 1/2
SOLUTION Since r = (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) , we have = ln (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = 12 ln(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ). We compute the
partial derivatives:
1 2x x
= = 2
x 2 x 2 + y2 + z2 r
1 2y y
= = 2
y 2 x 2 + y2 + z2 r
1 2z z
= = 2
z 2 x 2 + y2 + z2 r
Therefore, the gradient of is the following vector:
   
x y z 1  x y z  er
= , , = 2, 2, 2 = , , =
x y z r r r r r r r r

30. Match the force fields (a)(c) with (A)(C) in Figure 11. Note that the vectors (A)(C) indicate direction but are not
drawn to indicate magnitude.
(a) One positive and one negative charge
(b) Two positive charges
(c) Two positive charges and one negative charge

## (A) (B) (C)

FIGURE 11

SOLUTION
(a) In Figure (B) there are two charges. The force vectors are in opposite directions, indicating that the charges attract
each other. Hence one of the changes is positive and the second is negative.
S E C T I O N 17.1 Vector Fields (ET Section 16.1) 1063

(b) In (C) there are two charges. The force vectors point in outward directions, indicating the charges repel each other.
Therefore, the two charges are positive.
(c) In (A) there are three charges. One of them attracts the other two toward it, hence this is the negative charge whereas
the other two are positive charges.

## Further Insights and Challenges

31. Show that any vector field of the form F =  f (x), g(y), h(z) has a potential function. Assume that f , g, and h are
continuous.
SOLUTION Let F(x), G(y), and H (z) be antiderivatives of f (x), g(y), and h(z), respectively. That is, F (x) = f (x),
G (y) = g(y), and H (y) = h(z). We define the function

## (x, y, z) = F(x) + G(y) + H (z)

Then,

= F (x) = f (x), = G (y) = g(y), = H (z) = h(z)
x x z
Therefore, = F, or is a potential function for F.

32. In this exercise, we show that the vector field F in Figure 12 is not a gradient vector field. Suppose that a
potential function did exist.
(a) Argue that the level curves of would have to be vertical lines.
(b) Argue that the level curves would have to grow farther apart as y increases.
(c) Explain why the conclusions of (a) and (b) are incompatible.

x
0.5 1 1.5 2
FIGURE 12

SOLUTION
(a) If is a potential function for F, then = F. Therefore, F is orthogonal to the level curves of . The plot shows
that the vectors F(x, y) are horizontal, hence the level curves of are vertical lines.
(b) As indicated by the graph of the vector field F = F1 , F2 , F2 = 0 and F1 is decreasing as y increases. Since

F = x , it follows that x is decreasing as y increases, or the rate of change of with respect to x is decreasing as y
increases. Therefore, as y increases, the level curves of are getting farther apart.
(c) By (a), the level curves of are vertical lines, hence the distance between any two level curves is constant rather
than increasing with y as concluded in (b).
33. Show that if (x, y) = 0 for all (x, y) in a disk D in R2 , then is constant on D. Hint: Given points P = (a, b)
and Q = (c, d) in D, let R = (c, b) (Figure 13). Use single-variable calculus to show that is constant along the
segments P R and R Q and conclude that (P) = (R).

Q = (c, d)

P = (a, b)
R = (c, b)
Disk D

FIGURE 13

SOLUTION Given any two points P = (a, b) and Q = (c, d) in D, we must show that

(P) = (Q)

We consider the point R = (c, b) and the segments P R and R Q. (We assume that (c, b) is in D; if not, just use
R = (a, d).)
1064 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Q = (c, d)

P = (a, b)
R = (c, b)
D

Since x (x, y) = 0 in D, in particular x (x, b) = 0 for a x c. Therefore, for a x c we have
 x  x

(x, b) = (u, b) du + (a, b) = 0 du + (a, b) = k + (a, b)
a u a

In particular,

## (c, b) = (a, b) (R) = (P) (1)

Similarly, since y (x, y) = 0 in D, we have y (c, y) = 0 for b y d. Therefore for b y d we have
 y  y

(c, y) = (c, v) dv + (c, b) = 0 dv + (c, b) = k + (c, b)
b v b

In particular,

## (c, d) = (c, b) (Q) = (R) (2)

Combining (1) and (2) we obtain the desired equality (P) = (Q). Since P and Q are any two points in D, we
conclude that is constant on D.

## 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2)

Preliminary Questions
1. What is the line integral of the constant function f (x, y, z) = 10 over a curve C of length 5?

SOLUTION Since the length of C is the line integral C 1 ds = 5, we have
 
10 ds = 10 1 ds = 10 5 = 50
C C

2. Which of the following have a zero line integral over the vertical segment from (0, 0) to (0, 1)?
(a) f (x, y) = x (b) f (x, y) = y
(c) F = x, 0 (d) F = y, 0
(e) F = 0, x (f) F = 0, y
SOLUTION The vertical segment from (0, 0) to (0, 1) has the parametrization

## c(t) = (0, t), 0t 1

Therefore, c (t) = 0, 1 and c (t) = 1. The line integrals are thus computed by
  1
f (x, y) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt (1)
C 0
  1
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt (2)
C 0

## (a) We have f (c(t)) = x = 0. Therefore by (1) the line integral is zero.

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1065

## (b) By (1), the line integral is

  1 
1 2 1 1
f (x, y) ds = t 1 dt = t  = = 0
C 0 2 0 2

(c) This vector line integral is computed using (2). Since F (c(t)) = x, 0 = 0, 0, the vector line integral is zero.
(d) By (2) we have
  1  1
F ds = t, 0 0, 1 dt = 0 dt = 0
C 0 0

(e) The vector integral is computed using (2). Since F (c(t)) = 0, x = 0, 0, the line integral is zero.
(f) For this vector field we have
  1  1  1 
t 2 1 1
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 0, t 0, 1 dt = t dt =  =  = 0
C 0 0 0 2 0 2

So, we conclude that (a), (c), (d), and (e) have an integral of zero.
3. State whether true or false. If false, give the correct statement.
(a) The scalar line integral does not depend on how you parametrize the curve.
(b) If you reverse the orientation of the curve, neither the vector nor the scalar line integral changes sign.
SOLUTION
(a) True: It can be shown that any two parametrizations of the curve yield the same value for the scalar line integral,
hence the statement is true.
(b) False: For the definition of the scalar line integral, there is no need to specify a direction along the path, hence
reversing the orientation of the curve does not change the sign of the integral. However, reversing the orientation of the
curve changes the sign of the vector line integral.

4. Let C be a curve of length 5. What is the value of F ds if
C
(a) F(P) is normal to C at all points P on C?
(b) F(P) = T(P) at all points P on C, where T(P) is the unit tangent vector pointing in the forward direction along the
curve?
SOLUTION
(a) The vector line integral is the integral of the tangential component of the vector field along
 the curve. Since F(P) is
normal to C at all points P on C, the tangential component is zero, hence the line integral C F ds is zero.
(b) In this case we have

## F(P) T(P) = T(P) T(P) = T(P)2 = 1

Therefore,
  
F ds = (F T) ds = 1 ds = Length of C = 5.
C C C

Exercises
1. Let f (x, y, z) = x + yz and let C be the line segment from P = (0, 0, 0) to (6, 2, 2).
(a) Calculate f (c(t)) and ds = c (t) dt for the parametrization c(t) = (6t, 2t, 2t) for 0 t 1.

(b) Evaluate f (x, y, z) ds.
C
SOLUTION
(a) We substitute x = 6t, y = 2t, z = 2t in the function f (x, y, z) = x + yz to find f (c(t)):

f (c(t)) = 6t + (2t)(2t) = 6t + 4t 2

We differentiate the vector c(t) and compute the length of the derivative vector:
d 
c (t) = 6t, 2t, 2t = 6, 2, 2 c (t) = 62 + 22 + 22 = 44 = 2 11
dt
Hence,

ds = c (t) dt = 2 11 dt
1066 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## (b) Computing the scalar line integral, we obtain

  1  1
f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = (6t + 4t 2 ) 2 11 dt
C 0 0
  
2 4 3 1 4 26 11
= 2 11 3t + t  = 2 11 3 + =
3 0 3 3

## 2. Repeat Exercise 1 with the parametrization c(t) = (3t, t, t) for 0 t 2.

SOLUTION
(a) We compute f (c(t)) by substituting x = 3t, y = z = t in f (x, y, z) = x + yz. We get

f (c(t)) = 3t + t t = 3t + t 2

We differentiate c(t) = (3t, t, t) and compute the length of the derivative vector:
d 
c (t) = 3t, t, t = 3, 1, 1 c (t) = 32 + 12 + 12 = 11
dt
Hence,

ds = c (t) dt = 11 dt

## (b) Computing the scalar line integral, we obtain

  2  2 
f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = 3t + t 2 11 dt
C 0 0

 
3 2 2 t3
34 8 26 11
= 11 t +  = 11 + =
2 3 0 2 3 3

This answer agrees with the answer to Exercise 1, since the value of the scalar line integral is independent of the choice
of the parametrization of the curve.
 
3. Let F = y 2 , x 2 and let C be the y = x 1 for 1 x 2, oriented from left to right.
(a) Calculate F(c(t)) and ds = c (t) dt for the parametrization c(t) = (t, t 1 ).

(b) Calculate the dot product F(c(t)) c (t) dt and evaluate F ds.
C
SOLUTION
 
(a) We calculate F (c(t)) by substituting x = t, y = t 1 in F = y 2 , x 2 . We get

 2   
F(c(t)) = (t 1 ) , t 2 = t 2 , t 2

We compute c (t):
d  1     
c (t) = t, t = 1, t 2 ds = 1, t 2 dt
dt
y

x
1 2

## (b) We compute the dot product:

   
F(c(t)) c (t) = t 2 , t 2 1, t 2 = t 2 1 + t 2 (t 2 ) = t 2 1

## Computing the vector line integral, we obtain

  2  2 2  
 1 1
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = (t 2 1) dt = t 1 t  = 2 (1 1) =
C 1 1 1 2 2
S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1067

   
4. Let F = z 2 , x, y and let C be the path c(t) = 3 + 5t 2 , 3 t 2 , t for 0 t 2.
(a) Calculate F(c(t)) and ds = c (t) dt.

(b) Calculate the dot product F(c(t)) c (t) dt and evaluate F ds.
C
SOLUTION
 
(a) We compute F (c(t)) by substituting x = 3 + 5t 2 , y = 3 t 2 , z = t in F = z 2 , x, y . We get
 
F (c(t)) = t 2 , 3 + 5t 2 , 3 t 2

We differentiate c(t):
d  
c (t) = 3 + 5t 2 , 3 t 2 , t = 10t, 2t, 1 ds = 10t, 2t, 1 dt
dt
(b) We compute the dot product:
 
F (c(t)) c (t) dt = t 2 , 3 + 5t 2 , 3 t 2 10t, 2t, 1 dt
 
= t 2 10t + (3 + 5t 2 )(2t) + (3 t 2 ) 1 dt

= (10t 3 6t 10t 3 + 3 t 2 ) dt = (t 2 6t + 3) dt

## Computing the vector line integral gives

  2  2 2
t3  26 2
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = (t 2 6t + 3) dt = 3t 2 + 3t  = = 8
C 0 0 3 0 3 3

In Exercises 58, calculate the integral of the given scalar function or vector field over the curve c(t) = (cos t, sin t, t)
for 0 t .

5. f (x, y, z) = x 2 + y 2 + z 2
SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute c (t). We differentiate c(t):
d
c (t) = cos t, sin t, t =  sin t, cos t, 1
dt
Hence,
 
c (t) = ( sin t)2 + cos2 t + 12 = sin2 t + cos2 t + 1 = 2

ds = c (t) dt = 2 dt

## f (c(t)) = cos2 t + sin2 t + t 2 = 1 + t 2

Step 3. Compute the line integral. Using the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals we obtain
   
2 2 2 2
t 3  3
(x + y + z ) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = (1 + t ) 2 dt = 2 t + = 2 +
C 0 0 3 0 3

6. f (x, y, z) = x y + z
SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute c (t). We differentiate c(t):
d
c (t) = cos t, sin t, t =  sin t, cos t, 1
dt
Hence,
 
c (t) = ( sin t)2 + cos2 t + 12 = sin2 t + cos2 t + 1 = 2

ds = c (t) dt = 2 dt
1068 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## f (c(t)) = cos t sin t + t

Step 3. Compute the line integral. Using the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals we obtain
  
sin2 t t 2  2 2
(x y + z) ds = (cos t sin t + t) 2 dt = 2 +  = 2 =
C 0 2 2 0 2 2

7. F = x, y, z
SOLUTION
Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We write out the vectors:

## c(t) = (cos t, sin t, t)

F (c(t)) = x, y, z = cos t, sin t, t
c (t) =  sin t, cos t, 1

## The integrand is the dot product:

F (c(t)) c (t) = cos t, sin t, t  sin t, cos t, 1 = cos t sin t + sin t cos t + t = t

Step 2. Evaluate the integral. We use the Theorem on Vector Line Integrals to evaluate the integral:
   
1 2  2
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = t dt = t  =
C 0 0 2 0 2

 
8. F = x y, 2, z 3
SOLUTION
Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We write out the vectors:

## c(t) = (cos t, sin t, t)

c (t) = ( sin t, cos t, 1)
 
F (c(t)) = cos t sin t, 2, t 3

## The integrand is the dot product:

 
F (c(t)) c (t) = cos t sin t, 2, t 3  sin t, cos t, 1 = cos t sin2 t + 2 cos t + t 3

## Step 2. Evaluate the integral. We have

    
Fds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = cos t sin2 t + 2 cos t + t 3 dt
C 0 0
  
= cos t sin2 t dt + 2 cos t dt + t 3 dt
0 0 0
 
Since 0 cos t dt = 0 and 0 cos t sin2 t = 0,
  
t 4  4
F ds = t 3 dt =  =
C 0 4 0 4

9. Calculate the total mass of a circular piece of wire of radius 4 cm centered at the origin whose mass density is
(x, y) = x 2 g/cm.
SOLUTION The total mass is the following integral:

M= x 2 ds
C
We use the following parametrization of the wire:

## c(t) = (4 cos t, 4 sin t), 0 t 2

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1069

Hence,

c (t) = 4 sin t, 4 cos t c (t) = (4 sin t)2 + (4 cos t)2 = 4
We compute the line integral using the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals. We get
 2  2
M= (c(t)) c (t) dt = (4 cos t)2 4 dt
0 0
 2   2

= 64 cos2 t dt = 64
t
+
sin 2t  = 64 2 = 64 g
2 4  2
0 0

10. Calculate the total mass of a metal tube in the helical shape c(t) = (cos t, sin t, t 2 ) (distance in centimeters) for

0 t 2 if the mass density is (x, y, z) = z g/cm.
SOLUTION The total mass is the following integral:


M= z ds
C
We have
d  
c (t) = cos t, sin t, t 2 =  sin t, cos t, 2t
dt
Hence,

c (t) = ( sin t)2 + (cos t)2 + (2t)2 = 1 + 4t 2
Using the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals, we get
  2  2    2 

M= z ds = (c(t)) c (t) dt = t 2 1 + 4t 2 dt = t 1 + 4t 2 dt
C 0 0 0

## We compute the integral using the substitution u = 1 + 4t 2 , du = 8t dt. This gives

 1+16 2 1/2   
u 3/2 1+16 1  
2

M=
u
du = = 1 + 16 2 3/2 1 166.86 g
1 8 12 1 12

11. The values of a function f (x, y, z) and vector field F(x, y, z) are given at six sample points along the path ABC in
Figure 11. Estimate the line integrals of f and F along ABC.

## Point f (x, y, z) F(x, y, z)

(1, 16 , 0) 3 1, 0, 2
(1, 12 , 0) 3.3 1, 1, 3
(1, 56 , 0) 3.6 2, 1, 5
(1, 1, 16 ) 4.2 3, 2, 4
(1, 1, 12 ) 4.5 3, 3, 3
(1, 1, 56 ) 4.2 5, 3, 3
z

C = (1, 1, 1)

A = (1, 0, 0) y

x B = (1, 1, 0)
FIGURE 11
SOLUTION

C = (1, 1, 1)
P6 = (1, 1, 5/6)
P5 = (1, 1, 1/2) 4/6
A = (1, 0, 0) 2/6 2/6 y
4/6 P = (1, 1, 1/6)
4
x B = (1, 1, 0)
P1 = (1, 1/6, 0) P3 = (1, 5/6, 0)
P2 = (1, 1/2, 0)
1070 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

We write the integrals as sum of integrals and estimate each integral by a Riemann Sum. That is,
  
3
6
f (x, y, z) ds = f (x, y, z) ds + f (x, y, z) ds f (Pi ) si + f (Pi )si (1)
ABC AB BC i=1 i=4
    
F ds = F ds + F ds = (F T)ds + (F T)ds
ABC AB BC AB BC

On AB, the unit tangent vector is T = 1, 0, 0, hence F T = F1 . On BC, the unit tangent vector is T = 0, 0, 1, hence
F T = F3 . Therefore,
  
3
6
F ds = F1 ds + F3 ds F1 (Pi ) si + F3 (Pi ) si (2)
ABC AB BC i=1 i=4

We consider the partitions of AB and BC to three subarcs with equal length si = 13 , therefore (1) and (2) give

1
f (x, y, z) ds ( f (P1 ) + f (P2 ) + f (P3 ) + f (P4 ) + f (P5 ) + f (P6 ))
ABC 3

1
Fds = (F1 (P1 ) + F1 (P2 ) + F1 (P3 ) + F3 (P4 ) + F3 (P5 ) + F3 (P6 ))
ABC 3
We now substitute the values of the functions at the sample points to obtain the following approximations:

1
f (x, y, z) ds (3 + 3.3 + 3.6 + 4.2 + 4.5 + 4.2) = 7.6
ABC 3

1 14 2
F ds (1 + 1 + 2 + 4 + 3 + 3) = =4
ABC 3 3 3

12. Estimate the line integrals of f (x, y) and F(x, y) along the quarter circle (oriented counterclockwise) in Figure 12
using the values at the three sample points along each path.

## Point f (x, y) F(x, y)

A 1 1, 2
B 2 1, 3
C 4 2, 4

y
C

A
x
1
2

FIGURE 12
SOLUTION We estimate the line integral of f (x, y) along the quarter circle C by the Riemann sum:

f (x, y)ds f ( A)s 1 + f (B)s 2 + f (C)s 3
C

We consider the partition of C to three arcs with equal length si = 12 . Using the values of f at the sample points, we
get


f (x, y)ds (1 2 + 4) =
C 12 4

To estimate the vector line integral C F ds we use the parametrization

1
C : c(t) = (cos t, sin t), 0 t
2 2
Then,
1
c (t) = ( sin t, cos t)
2
S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1071

y
5p
t3 = 12
C t2 = 3p
12
B

p
A t1 = 12
x

## , t = 3 , t = 5 . By the theorem on vector line integrals, we have

The partition points correspond to t1 = 12 2 12 3 12
  /2
F T ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt
C 0

We estimate the integral using the Riemann sum, corresponding to the partition of the interval 0 t 2 to three
intervals with equal length t = 6 . We get

 
F T ds = F (c(t1 )) c (t1 ) + F (c(t2 )) c (t2 ) + F (c(t3 )) c (t3 )
C 6
     
3 5
= F( A) c + F(B) c + F(C) c
6 12 12 12
     
1 1  1 5 5
= 1, 2 sin , cos + 1, 3 sin , cos + 2, 4 sin , cos
6 2 12 12 2 4 4 2 12 12
 
5 5
= sin + 2 cos sin + 3 cos + 2 sin + 4 cos = 0.505
12 12 12 4 4 12 12

13. Figure 13 shows three vector fields. In each case, determine whether the line integral around the circle (oriented
counterclockwise) is positive, negative, or zero.

## (A) (B) (C)

FIGURE 13
SOLUTION The vector line integral of F is the integral of the tangential component of F along the curve. The positive
direction of a curve is counterclockwise.
T

For the vector field in (A), the line integral around the circle is zero because the contribution of the negative tangential
components from the upper part of the circle is the same as the contribution of the positive tangential components from
the lower part. For the vector in (B) the contribution of the negative tangential component appear to dominate over the
positive contribution, hence the line integral is negative. In (C), the vector field is orthogonal to the unit tangent vector at
each point, hence the line integral is zero.
14. Determine whether the line integrals around the curves (oriented counterclockwise) in Figures 14(A) and (B) are
positive or negative. What is the value of the line integral in Figure 14(C)? Explain.
1072 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

y y y Symmetry

x
x

## (A) (B) (C)

FIGURE 14

SOLUTION In (A), the dot product of F and the unit tangent vector is negative in the first, second and fourth quadrants
and positive in the third quadrant. It appears that the contribution from the negative tangential components is dominant
over the contribution from the positive tangential components. Therefore the line integral is negative. In (B), the dot
product of F and the unit tangent vector is positive at all points, hence the line integral is positive. We now refer to (C).
Since the curve is symmetric with respect to the given line, we conclude that the contribution of the positive tangential
components are canceled by the contribution of the negative tangential components, therefore the line integral is zero.

In Exercises 1522, compute the line integral of the scalar function over the curve.

## 15. f (x, y, z) = z 2 , c(t) = (2t, 3t, 4t) for 0 t 2

SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute c (t) We have
d 
c (t) = 2t, 3t, 4t = 2, 3, 4 c (t) = 22 + 32 + 42 = 29
dt
Step 2. Write out f (c(t)) We substitute z = 4t in f (x, y, z) = z 2 to obtain:

f (c(t)) = 16t 2

Step 3. Compute the line integral. By the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals we have
  2  2 
16 3 2 128 29
f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = 16t 2 29 dt = 29 t  = 229.8
C 0 0 3 0 3

## 16. f (x, y, z) = 3x 2y + z, c(t) = (2 + t, 2 t, 2t) for 2 t 1

SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute c (t). We differentiate c(t) = (2 + t, 2 t, 2t) and compute the length of the derivative vector:

c (t) = (1, 1, 2) c (t) = 12 + (1)2 + 22 = 6

## Step 3. Compute the line integral. We have

  1  1 
7t 2 1
f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt =
(7t + 2) 6 dt = 6 + 2t 
C 2 2 2 2
   
7 28 9 6
= 6 +2 4 =
2 2 2

17. f (x, y) = 1 + 9x y, y = x 3 for 0 x 1
 
SOLUTION The curve is parametrized by c(t) = t, t 3 for 0 t 1
Step 1. Compute c (t). We have
d  3   
c (t) = t, t = 1, 3t 2 c (t) = 1 + 9t 4
dt

Step 2. Write out f (c(t)). We substitute x = t, y = t 3 in f (x, y) = 1 + 9x y to obtain
 
f (c(t)) = 1 + 9t t 3 = 1 + 9t 4
S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1073

Step 3. Compute the line integral. We use the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals to write
  1  1   1 
f (x, y) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = 1 + 9t 4 1 + 9t 4 dt = 1 + 9t 4 dt
C 0 0 0

9t 5 1
 = 14 = 2.8
=t+
5 0 5

y3
18. f (x, y) = 7 , y = 14 x 4 for 1 x 2
x
 4
SOLUTION We parametrize the curve by c(t) = t, t4 for 0 t 1.
Step 1. Compute c (t). We have
 
d t4   

c (t) = t, = 1, t 3 c (t) = 1 + t 6
dt 4

4 3
Step 2. Write out f (c(t)). We substitute x = t, y = t4 in f (x, y) = y 7 to obtain:
x
 4 3
t
4 t5
f (c(t)) = =
t7 64
Step 3. Compute the line integral. We have
  1  1 5
t
f (x, y) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = 1 + t 6 dt
C 0 0 64

We substitute u = 1 + t 6 , du = 6t 5 dt:
  2 
1 1 2 3/2 2 1
f (x, y) ds = u du = u  = (23/2 13/2 ) 0.00317
C 384 1 384 3 1 576

2
19. f (x, y, z) = xe z , piecewise linear path from (0, 0, 1) to (0, 2, 0) to (1, 1, 1).
SOLUTION Let C1 be the segment joining the points (0, 0, 1) and (0, 2, 0) and C2 be the segment joining the points
(0, 2, 0) and (1, 1, 1). We parametrize C1 and C2 by the following parametrization:

## C1 : c1 (t) = (0, 2t, 1 t), 0 t 1

C2 : c2 (t) = (t, 2 t, t), 0 t 1

For C = C1 + C1 we have
  
f (x, y, z) ds = f (x, y, z) ds + f (x, y, z) ds (1)
C C1 C2

## We compute the integrals on the right hand side.

The integral over C1 : We have

d
c 1 (t) = 0, 2t, 1 t = 0, 2, 1 c 1 (t) = 0+4+1= 5
dt
f (c(t)) = xe z = 0 e(1t) = 0
2 2

Hence,
  1  1
f (x, y, z) ds = f (c1 (t)) c 1 (t) dt = 0 dt = 0 (2)
C1 0 0

## The integral over C2 : We have

d
c 2 (t) = t, 2 t, t = 1, 1, 1 c 2 (t) = 1+1+1= 3
dt
2 2
f (c2 (t)) = xe z = tet
1074 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Hence,
  1
2
f (x, y, z) ds = tet 3 dt (3)
C2 0

## Using the substitution u = t 2 we find that

  1
3 u 3
f (x, y, z) ds = e du = (e 1) 1.488
C2 0 2 2

Hence,

f (x, y, z) ds 1.488
C

20. f (x, y, z) = x 2 z, c(t) = (et , 2t, et ) for 0 t 1
SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute c (t). We have
d  t   
c (t) = e , 2t, et = et , 2, et
dt
Hence,

 2  2  2   2
c (t) = et + 2 + et = e2t + 2 + e2t = et + et = et + et

Step 2. Write out f (c(t)). We substitute x = et , y = 2t, z = et in f (x, y, z) = x 2 z to obtain

f (c(t)) = e2t et = et

Step 3. Compute the integral. We use the Theorem on Scalar Line Integral to obtain the following integral:
  1  1  1 
 
f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = et et + et dt = e2t + 1 dt
C 0 0 0
1    
1  1 2 1 1 2 
= e2t + t  = e +1 = e +1
2 0 2 2 2

## 21. f (x, y, z) = 2x 2 + 8z, c(t) = (et , t 2 , t), 0t 1

SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute c (t).
d  t 2   t  
c (t) = e , t , t = e , 2t, 1 c (t) = e2t + 4t 2 + 1
dt
Step 2. Write out f (c(t)). We substitute x = et , y = t 2 , z = t in f (x, y, z) = 2x 2 + 8z to obtain:

f (c(t)) = 2e2t + 8t

## Step 3. Compute the line integral. We have

  1  1 
f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = (2e2t + 8t) e2t + 4t 2 + 1 dt
C 0 0

We compute the integral using the substitution u = e2t + 4t 2 + 1, du = 2e2t + 8t dt. We get:
  e2 +5 2
2 3/2 e +5 2 2 3/2

f (x, y, z) ds = u 1/2 du = u  = (e + 5) 23/2
C 2 3 2 3

2 3
22. f (x, y, z) = 3zy1 + 12x z, c(t) = (t, t , t3 ), 0 t 2
2
SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute c (t). We have
    
d 1 1
c (t) = t, t 2 , t 3 = 1, 2t, t 2 c (t) = 1 + 2t 2 + t 4 = 1 + t 2
dt 2 3
S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1075

## Step 2. Write out f (c(t)). We substitute x = t, y = 1 t 2 , z = 13 t 3 in f (x, y, z) = 3zy 1 + 12x z to obtain:

2

1 1 1 1
f (c(t)) = 3 t 3 t 2 1 + 12 t t 3 = t 5 + 4t 4 1
3 2 3 2
Step 3. Compute the integral. Using the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals we obtain
  2   2
1 1
f (x, y, z) ds = t 5 + 4t 4 1 (1 + t 2 ) dt = (t 5 + t 7 ) + 4(t 4 + t 6 ) (1 + t 2 ) 124.246
C 0 2 0 2
(The last step can be done by integrating each term, or by simply typing everything into a CAS.)

In Exercises 2335, compute the line integral of the vector field over the oriented curve.
 
23. F = x 2 , x y , line segment from (0, 0) to (2, 2)
SOLUTION The oriented line segment is parametrized by

## c(t) = (t, t), t varies from 0 to 2.

Therefore,
     
F (c(t)) = x 2 , x y = t 2 , t t = t 2 , t 2

d
c (t) = t, t = 1, 1
dt
The integrand is the dot product:
 
F (c(t)) c (t) = t 2 , t 2 1, 1 = t 2 + t 2 = 2t 2

We now use the Theorem on vector line integral to compute C F ds:
  2  2 
2t 3 2 16
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 2t 2 dt =  = 3
C 0 0 3 0

SOLUTION

## The oriented path is parametrized by:

3
c(t) = (cos t, sin t), t
2
We compute the integrand:

## F (c(t)) = 4, sin t

c (t) =  sin t, cos t
1
F (c(t)) c (t) = 4, sin t  sin t, cos t = 4 sin t + sin t cos t = 4 sin t + sin 2t
2
The vector line integral is the following integral:
  3 /2 
 3 /2  3 /2
1 1 
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = sin 2t dt = 4 cos t cos 2t 
4 sin t +
C 2 4
   
3 1 1 1 1
= 4 cos cos 3 4 cos cos 2 = + 4 + = 4.5
2 4 4 4 4
1076 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

 
25. F = x 2 , x y , circle x 2 + y 2 = 9 oriented clockwise
SOLUTION

x
3

## We compute the integrand:

   
F (c(t)) = x 2 , x y = 9 cos2 t, 9 cos t sin t

## c (t) = 3 sin t, 3 cos t

 
F (c(t)) c (t) = 9 cos2 t, 9 cos t sin t 3 sin t, 3 cos t = 27 cos2 t sin t + 27 cos2 t sin t = 0

Hence,
  0  0
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 0 dt = 0
C 2 2

 
26. F = e yx , e2x , piecewise linear path from (1, 1) to (2, 2) to (0, 2)
SOLUTION Let C1 be the linear path from (1, 1) to (2, 2), C2 the linear path from (2, 2) to (0, 2) and

C = C1 + C2

## We use the following parametrizations:

C1 : c1 (t) = (t, t) t is changing from t = 1 to t = 2
C2 : c2 (t) = (t, 2) t is changing from t = 2 to t = 0

C2
(0, 2) (2, 2)

C1
(1, 1)

## By properties of line integrals,

  
F ds = F ds + F ds (1)
C C1 C2

## We compute each integral on the right-hand side:

The integral over C1 :
     
F (c1 (t)) = e yx , e2x = ett , e2t = 1, e2t

c 1 (t) = 1, 1
 
F (c1 (t)) c 1 (t) = 1, e2t 1, 1 = 1 + e2t

Hence,
  2      
1 2 1 1 1 1
F ds = 1 + e2t dt = t + e2t  = 2 + e4 1 + e2 = 1 + e4 e2 (2)
C1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2
S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1077

## The integral over C2 :

   
F (c2 (t)) = e yx , e2x = e2t , e2t

c 2 (t) = 1, 0
 
F (c2 (t)) c 2 (t) = e2t , e2t 1, 0 = e2t 1 + e2t 0 = e2t

Hence,
  0  0 0

F ds = F (c2 (t)) c 2 (t) dt = e2t dt = e2t  = e20 + e22 = e2 + 1 (3)
C2 2 2 2

## We combine (1), (2), and (3) to obtain the following solution:

     1
1 1 3
F ds = 1 + e4 e2 + e2 + 1 = e4 e2 + 2
C 2 2 2 2

## 27. F = x y, x + y, c(t) = (1 + t 1 , t 2 ) for 1 t 2

SOLUTION
Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We write the vectors and compute the integrand:
 
c(t) = 1 + t 1 , t 2
    
F (c(t)) = x y, x + y = 1 + t 1 t 2 , 1 + t 1 + t 2 = t 2 + t, 1 + t 1 + t 2

d    
c (t) = 1 + t 1 , t 2 = t 2 , 2t
dt
The integrand is the dot product:
        
F (c(t)) c (t) = t 2 + t, 1 + t 1 + t 2 t 2 , 2t = t 2 + t t 2 + 1 + t 1 + t 2 2t

= 1 t 1 + 2t + 2 + 2t 3 = 2t 3 + 2t + 1 t 1

## Step 2. Evaluate the integral. The vector line integral is

  2  2  2
t4 
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt =
2t 3 + 2t + 1 t 1 dt = + t 2 + t ln t 
C 1 1 2 1
   
16 1
= + 4 + 2 ln 2 + 1 + 1 ln 1 = 11.5 ln 2
2 2

## 28. F = y + z, x, y, c(t) = (t + t 2 , 13 t 3 , 2 + t) for 0 t 2

SOLUTION
Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We have
 
1
c(t) = t + t 2 , t 3 , 2 + t
3
 
1 3 2 1 3
F (c(t)) = y + z, x, y = t + 2 + t, t + t , t
3 3
   
d 1
c (t) = t + t 2 , t 3 , 2 + t = 1 + 2t, t 2 , 1
dt 3
The integrand is the dot product:
    1   
1 1 1
F (c(t)) c (t) = t 3 + 2 + t, t + t 2 , t 3 1 + 2t, t 2 , 1 = t 3 + 2 + t (1 + 2t) + t + t 2 t 2 + t 3
3 3 3 3
5 4 5 3
= t + t + 2t 2 + 5t + 2
3 3
Step 2. Evaluate the integral. Using the Theorem on vector line integral we get:
  2  2 
5 4 5 3
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = t + t + 2t 2 + 5t + 2 dt
C 0 0 3 3
1078 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

2
1 5 5 2 5  32 20 16 2
= t + t 4 + t 3 + t 2 + 2t  = + + + 10 + 4 = 36
3 12 3 2 0 3 3 3 3

 
29. F = 3zy 1 , 4x, y , c(t) = (et , et , t) for 1 t 1
SOLUTION
Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We write out the vectors and compute the integrand:
 
c(t) = et , et , t
   
F (c(t)) = 3zy 1 , 4x, y = 3tet , 4et , et
 
c (t) = et , et , 1

## The integrand is the dot product:

   
F (c(t)) c (t) = 3tet , 4et , et et , et , 1 = 3tet et + 4et et et 1 = 3t + 4e2t et

## Step 2. Evaluate the integral. The vector line integral is:

  1  1    1   1

F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 3t + 4e2t et dt = 0 + 4e2t et dt = 2e2t et 
C 1 1 1 1
       
= 2e2 e 2e2 e1 = 2 e2 e2 e e1 12.157

## 30. F = x y, y z, z, line segment from (0, 0, 0) to (1, 4, 4)

SOLUTION The oriented line segment from (0, 0, 0) to (1, 4, 4) has the parametrization:

## F (c(t)) = x y, y z, z = t 4t, 4t 4t, 4t = 3t, 0, 4t

d
c (t) = t, 4t, 4t = 1, 4, 4
dt
The integrand is the dot product:

## Step 2. Evaluate the integral. The vector line integral is:

  1  1 
13 2 1
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 13t dt = t = 6.5
C 0 0 2 0
 
y x
31. F = , , circle of radius R with center at the origin oriented counterclockwise
x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2
SOLUTION

x
R

## c(t) = R cos t, R sin t , 0 t 2

S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1079

## Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We have

   
y x R sin t R cos t 1
F (c(t)) = 2 , = , =  sin t, cos t
x + y2 x 2 + y2 R 2 cos2 t + R 2 sin2 t R 2 cos2 t + R 2 sin2 t R
d
c (t) = R cos t, R sin t = R sin t, R cos t = R  sin t, cos t
dt
The integrand is the dot product:
1
F (c(t)) c (t) =  sin t, cos t R  sin t, cos t = sin2 t + cos2 t = 1
R
Step 2. Evaluate the integral. We obtain the following integral:
  2  2
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 1 dt = 2
C 0 0
 
y x
32. F = , , the square with vertices (1, 1), (1, 1), (1, 1), and (1, 1) in the counterclockwise
x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2
direction
SOLUTION

(1, 1) (1, 1)

C1
C4
x

C2
C3

(1, 1) (1, 1)

We parametrize each segment of the boundary of the square C, by the following parametrizations:
C1 : c1 (t) = (t, 1), t varies from t = 1 to t = 1
C2 : c2 (t) = (1, t), t varies from t = 1 to t = 1
C3 : c3 (t) = (t, 1), t varies from t = 1 to t = 1
C4 : c4 (t) = (1, t), t varies from t = 1 to t = 1

 4 

F ds = F ds (1)
C i=1 Ci

## We evaluate each line integral separately.

The integral over C1 :
   
y x 1 t
F (c1 (t)) = 2 , = ,
x + y2 x 2 + y2 t2 + 1 t2 + 1
d
c 1 (t) = t, 1 = 1, 0
dt
 
1 t 1
F (c1 (t)) c 1 (t) = 2 , 2 1, 0 = 2
t +1 t +1 t +1
Hence,
  1  1 1
dt 
F ds = F (c1 (t)) c 1 (t) dt = = tan1 t 
 =2 = (2)
C1 1 1 t + 1
2
1 4 2

## The integral over C2 :

   
y x t 1
F (c2 (t)) = 2 , = ,
x + y2 x 2 + y2 t2 + 1 t2 + 1
1080 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

d
c 2 (t) = 1, t = 0, 1
dt
 
t 1 1
F (c2 (t)) c 2 (t) = 2 , 2 0, 1 = 2
t +1 t +1 t +1
Hence,
  1  1 1
dt 
F ds = F (c2 (t)) c 2 (t) dt = = tan1 t 
 =2 = (3)
C2 1 1 t + 1
2
1 4 2

## The integral over C3 :

   
y x 1 t
F (c3 (t)) = 2 , = ,
x + y2 x 2 + y2 t2 + 1 t2 + 1
d
c 3 (t) = t, 1 = 1, 0
dt
 
1 t 1
F (c3 (t)) c 3 (t) = 2 , 2 1, 0 = 2
t +1 t +1 t +1
Hence,
  1  1 1
dt 
F ds = F (c3 (t)) c 3 (t) dt = 1
= tan t  = (4)
C3 1 1 t 2 + 1 1 2

## The integral over C4 :

   
y x t 1
F (c4 (t)) = 2 , = ,
x + y2 x 2 + y2 t2 + 1 t2 + 1
d
c 4 (t) = 1, t = 0, 1
dt
 
t 1 1
F (c4 (t)) c 4 (t) = 2 , 2 0, 1 = 2
t +1 t +1 t +1
Hence,
  1  1 1
dt 
F ds = F (c4 (t)) c 4 (t) dt = = tan 1 t 
 = 2 (5)
C4 1 1 1 + t 2
1

## Combining (1)(5), we obtain the following solution:



F ds = 4 = 2
C 2
 
33. F = z 2 , x, y , c(t) = (cos t, tan t, t) for 0 t 4

SOLUTION
Step 1. Calculate the integrand. The vectors are:

## c(t) = (cos t, tan t, t)

   
F (c(t)) = z 2 , x, y = t 2 , cos t, tan t
 
d 1
c (t) = cos t, tan t, t = sin t, , 1
dt cos2 t
The integrand is the dot product
   1

1
F (c(t)) c (t) = t 2 , cos t, tan t sin t, , 1 = t 2 sin t + + tan t
cos2 t cos t
Step 2. Evaluate the integral. The Theorem on vector line integrals gives the following integral:
  /4  /4  
1
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = t 2 sin t + + tan t dt
C 0 0 cos t
 /4    /4  /4
 1  
= t 2 cos t 2t sin t 2 cos t  + ln + tan t  ln(cos t)
0 cos t 0 0
S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1081

2 1 1 1      1

= 2 2 (2) + ln 2 + 1 ln 1 ln ln 1
16 2 4 2 2 2

2   ( 8)  
= 2 + 2 + ln 1 + 2 + ln 2 = + ln 2 + 2 + 2 2 1.139
16 2 2 2 16 2
 
1 1
34. F = , , 1 , c(t) = (t 3 , 2t, t 2 ) for 0 t 1
y3 + 1 z + 1
SOLUTION
Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We have
 
c(t) = t 3 , 2t, t 2
     
1 1 1 1 1 1
F (c(t)) = 3 , ,1 = , , 1 = , , 1
y +1 z+1 (2t)3 + 1 t 2 + 1 8t 3 + 1 t 2 + 1
 
c (t) = 3t 2 , 2, 2t

Hence,
   
1 1 3t 2 2
F (c(t)) c (t) = , , 1 3t 2 , 2, 2t = 3 + + 2t
8t + 1 t + 1
3 2 8t + 1 t 2 + 1
Step 2. Evaluate the integral. Using the Theorem on vector line integrals we obtain:
  1  1  1  1
3t 2 2
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = dt + dt + 2t dt
C 0 0 8t 3 + 1 0 t2 + 1 0
 9 1 1 9  
du   1 
= + 2 tan1 t  + t 2  = ln u  + 2 tan1 1 tan1 0 + 1
1 8u 0 0 8 1
ln 9 ln 1   ln 3
= +2 0 +1= + +1
8 4 4 2
 
35. F = z 3 , yz, x , circle of radius 2 in the yz-plane with center at the origin oriented clockwise when viewed from
the positive x-axis
SOLUTION

## c(t) = (0, 2 cos t, 2 sin t)

t is changing from 2 to 0.
Step 1. Calculate the integrand. We write out the vectors and compute the integrand:

## c(t) = (0, 2 cos t, 2 sin t)

   
F (c(t)) = z 3 , yz, x = 8 sin3 t, 4 cos t sin t, 0

## The integrand is the dot product:

 
F (c(t)) c (t) = 8 sin3 t, 4 cos t sin t, 0 0, 2 sin t, 2 cos t = 8 cos t sin2 t
1082 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Step 2. Evaluate the integral. We obtain the following vector line integral:
  0  0  2 
sin3 t 2
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 8 cos t sin2 t dt = 8 sin2 t cos t dt = 8 =0
C 2 2 0 3 0

36. Let f (x, y, z) = x 1 yzand let C be the curve parametrized by c(t) = (ln t, t, t 2 ) for 2 t 4. Use a
computer algebra system to calculate f (x, y, z) ds to four decimal places.
C

SOLUTION Note that c (t) = 1/t, 1, 2t, so c (t) = 1/t 2 + 1 + 4t 2 . Our line integral is
 4 
f (ln t, t, t 2 ) 1/t 2 + 1 + 4t 2 dt,
2

## which we calculate to be 339.5587.


 xy x+y 
37. Use a CAS to calculate e ,e ds to four decimal places, where C is the curve y = sin x for
C
0 x , oriented from left to right.
  
SOLUTION Using the parameterization c(t) = t, sin t, our integral becomes etsin t , et+sin t 1, cos t dt,
0
which is calculated to be 4.5088.
 
In Exercises 3839, calculate the line integral of F = e z , e xy , e y over the given path.

## 38. The path from P to Q in Figure 15

Q = (1, 1, 1)
(0, 0, 1)

(0, 1, 1)

P = (0, 0, 0)

FIGURE 15

SOLUTION

C3 Q = (1, 1, 1)
R = (0, 0, 1) C2

S = (0, 1, 1)
C1

P = (0, 0, 0)

Let C1 , C2 , C3 denote the oriented segments from P to R, from R to S and S to Q respectively. These paths have the
following parametrizations (see figure):

## C1 : c1 (t) = (0, 0, t) 0t 1 c 1 (t) = 0, 0, 1

C2 : c2 (t) = (0, t, 1) 0t 1 c 2 (t) = 0, 1, 0
C3 : c3 (t) = (t, 1, 1) 0t 1 c 3 (t) = 1, 0, 0

Since C = C1 + C2 + C3 we have
   
F ds = F ds + F ds + F ds (1)
C C1 C2 C3

## We compute each integral on the right hand side separately.

  1  1   1
F ds = F (c1 (t)) c 1 (t) dt = et , e00 , e0 0, 0, 1 dt = 1 dt = 1
C1 0 0 0
  1  1   1 1

F ds = F (c2 (t)) c 2 (t) dt = e1 , e0t , et 0, 1, 0 dt = e dt = e  = 1 e1
t t
C2 0 0 0 0
  1  1   1
F ds = F (c3 (t)) c 3 (t) dt = e1 , et1 , e1 1, 0, 0 dt = e dt = e
C3 0 0 0
S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1083

## Substituting these integrals in (1) gives


F ds = 1 + (1 e1 ) + e = e + 2 e1
C

## 39. The path ABC in Figure 16

C = (0, 0, 6)

A = (2, 0, 0) B = (0, 4, 0)
y
x
FIGURE 16

SOLUTION

C = (0, 0, 6)

C3 C2

A = (2, 0, 0) B = (0, 4, 0)
C1 y
x

We denote by C1 , C2 , C3 the oriented segments from A to B, from B to C and from C to A. We parametrize these paths
by,

## C1 :c1 (t) = (1 t)(2, 0, 0) + t (0, 4, 0) = (2 2t, 4t, 0), 0 t 1 c 1 (t) = 2, 4, 0

C2 :c2 (t) = (1 t)(0, 4, 0) + t (0, 0, 6) = (0, 4 4t, 6t), 0 t 1 c 2 (t) = 0, 4, 6
C3 :c3 (t) = (1 t)(0, 0, 6) + t (2, 0, 0) = (2t, 0, 6 6t), 0 t 1 c 3 (t) = 2, 0, 6

Since C = C1 + C2 + C3 we have,
 3 

F ds = F ds (1)
C i=1 Ci

## We compute the integrals on the right-hand side:

     1 
F ds = e0 , e26t , e4t 2, 4, 0 dt = 1, e26t , e4t 2, 4, 0 dt
C1 0
 1  
26t 2 26t 1 2 2 2 4
= 2 + 4e dt = 2t e  = 3e 3e 2
0 3 0
  1   1 
F ds = e6t , e4+4t , e44t 0, 4, 6 dt = 4e4+4t + 6e44t dt
C2 0 0
1
3  3 5
= e4+4t e44t  = e4 + e4
2 0 2 2
  1   1 
F ds = e66t , e2t , e0 2, 0, 6 dt = 2e66t 6 dt
C3 0 0
1
1 66t  1 19
= e 6t  = e6
3 0 3 3

## We substitute these values in (1) to obtain the solution:

      
2 2 2 4 3 4 5 1 6 19
F ds = e e 2 + e + e4 + e
C 3 3 2 2 3 3
1 6 3 4 2 2 65 1 4
= e + e + e + e
3 2 3 6 3
1084 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

40. Let C be the path from P to Q in Figure 17 that traces C1 , C2 , and C3 in the orientation indicated. Suppose that
  
F ds = 5, F ds = 8, F ds = 8
C C1 C3

Determine:
  
(a) F ds (b) F ds (c) F ds
C3 C2 C1 C3

Q
C2
C3

C1
P
x
FIGURE 17

(d) What is the value of the line integral of F over the path that traverses the loop C2 four times in the clockwise
direction?
SOLUTION

y
C2

C3

C1
P
x

(a) If the orientation of the path is reversed, the line integral changes sign, thus:
 
F ds = F ds = 8
C3 C3

## (b) By additivity of line integrals, we have

   
F ds = F ds + F ds + F ds
C C1 C2 C3


5=8+ F ds + 8
C2
or

F ds = 5 16 = 11
C2

## (c) Using properties of line integrals gives

    
F ds = F ds + F ds = F ds F ds = 8 8 = 16
C1 C3 C1 C3 C1 C3

(d) Using additivity and the integral over the curve with the reversed orientation, the line integral of F over the path that
traverses the loop C2 four times in the clockwise direction is:
    
4 F ds = 4 F ds = 4 F ds = 4 (11) = 44
C2 C2 C2

In Exercises 4144, let F be the vortex vector field (so-called because it swirls around the origin as shown in Figure 18)
 
y x
F= 2 ,
x + y2 x 2 + y2
S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1085

 
y x
FIGURE 18 Vector field F = , .
x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

41. Let I = F ds, where C is the circle of radius 2 centered at the origin oriented counterclockwise (Figure 18).
C
(a) Do you expect I to be positive, negative, or zero?
(b) Evaluate I .
(c) Verify that I changes sign when C is oriented in the clockwise direction.
SOLUTION
(a) When the circle is oriented counterclockwise, the dot product of F with the unit tangent vector at each point along
the circle is positive. Therefore, we expect the vector line integral I to be positive.
(b)

x
2

## c(t) = (2 cos t, 2 sin t), 0 t 2

Hence,
 
2 sin t 2 cos t 1
F (c(t)) = , =  sin t, cos t
4 cos2 t + 4 sin2 t 4 cos2 t + 4 sin2 t 2
c (t) = 2 sin t, 2 cos t

## Therefore, the integrand is the dot product,

1
F (c(t)) c (t) =  sin t, cos t 2 sin t, 2 cos t = sin2 t + cos2 t = 1
2
We obtain the following integral:
  2  2
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 1 dt = 2
C 0 0

(c) When C is oriented in the clockwise direction, the parameter t is changing from 2 to 0, therefore, the line integral
is,
  0  2
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 1 dt = 2
C 2 0

x
2
1086 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

42. Compute F ds, where C R is the circle of radius R centered at the origin oriented counterclockwise. Show that
CR
the result is independent of R.
SOLUTION We parametrize C R by:

y

x
R

## Step 1. Calculate the integrand:

   
y x R sin t R cos t 1
F (c(t)) = 2 , = , =  sin t, cos t
x + y2 x 2 + y2 R2 R2 R
d
c (t) = R cos t, R sin t = R sin t, R cos t = R  sin t, cos t
dt
The integrand is the dot product:
1
F (c(t)) c (t) =  sin t, cos t R  sin t, cos t = sin2 t + cos2 t = 1
R
Step 2. Evaluate the integral.
  2  2
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 1 dt = 2
C 0 0

43. Calculate F ds, where A is the arc of angle 0 on the circle of radius R centered at the origin oriented counter-
A
clockwise. Note: A begins at (R, 0) and ends at (R cos 0 , R sin 0 ).
SOLUTION We use the following parametrization for A:

c( ) = (R cos , R sin ), 0 0
y
(R cos q 0, R sin q 0 )

q0
x
(R, 0)

Hence,

c ( ) = R sin , R cos 
   
y x R sin R cos
F (c( )) = 2 , = ,
x + y2 x 2 + y2 R 2 cos2 + R 2 sin2 R 2 cos2 + R 2 sin2
   
R sin R cos sin cos
= , = ,
R2 R2 R R
The integrand is the dot product:
 
sin cos
F (c( )) c ( ) = , R sin , R cos  = sin2 + cos2 = 1
R R
We now compute the line integral using the Theorem on vector line integrals. We get:
  0  0

F ds = F (c( )) c ( ) d = 1 d = 00 = 0
A 0 0
S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1087

44. Let a > 0, b < c. Show that the integral of F along the segment from P = (a, b) to Q = (a, c) is equal to the angle
 P O Q (O is the origin).

SOLUTION Note that the points P and Q are on the vertical line x = a. Now, a nice parametrization of this line would
be c(t) = a, b + (c b)t for t from 0 to 1, with c (t) = 0, c b. We find that:
a(c b)
F (c(t)) c (t) = 2
a + (b + (c b)t)2
and so our integral becomes:
 1  1  c
a(c b) du
F (c(t)) c (t) dt = dt = a du
0 0 a + (b + (c b)t)
2 2 b a + u2
2

where the last integral was done with the substitution u = b + (c b)t. This gives us:
 1 
u c c b
F (c(t)) c (t) dt = tan1  = tan1 tan1
0 a b a a

## Of course, tan1 ac tan1 ab is just the angle  P O Q.

45. Calculate the line integral of the constant vector field F = 2, 1, 4 along the segment P Q, where:
(a) P = (0, 0, 0), Q = (1, 0, 0)
(b) P = (0, 0, 0), Q = (4, 3, 5)
(c) P = (3, 2, 3), Q = (4, 8, 12)
SOLUTION
(a) The segment P Q, where P = (0, 0, 0) and Q = (1, 0, 0) is parametrized by

## Therefore, c (t) = 1, 0, 0 and we obtain the integral,

  1  1  1
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 2, 1, 4 1, 0, 0 dt = 2 dt = 2
C 0 0 0

(b) The segment P Q, where P = (0, 0, 0) and Q = (4, 3, 5) has the parametrization,

## Therefore, c (t) = 4, 3, 5 and we obtain the following integral:

  1  1  1
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 2, 1, 4 4, 3, 5 dt = 25 dt = 25
C 0 0 0

(c) The segment P Q, where P = (3, 2, 3) and Q = (4, 8, 12) has the parametrization,

## Therefore, c (t) = 1, 6, 9 and we obtain the line integral

  1  1  1
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 2, 1, 4 1, 6, 9 dt = 32 dt = 32
C 0 0 0

46. Show that if F is a constant vector field and C is any oriented path from P to Q, then


F ds = F P Q
C

SOLUTION We denote by c(t) = (x(t), y(t), c(t)), t0 t t1 a parametrization of the oriented path from P to Q
(then c (t0 ) = P and c (t1 ) = Q). Let F = a, b, c be a constant vector field. Then,
 
F (c(t)) c (t) = a, b, c x (t), y (t), z (t) = ax (t) + by (t) + cz (t)

## The vector line integral is, thus,

  t1  t1
 
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = ax (t) + by (t) + cz (t) dt
C t0 t0
 t1  t1  t1 t1 t1
t1  
=a x (t) dt + b y (t) dt + c z (t) dt = ax(t)t=t + by(t) + cz(t)
0
t0 t0 t0 t=t0 t=t0
1088 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## = a (x (t1 ) x (t0 )) + b (y (t1 ) y (t0 )) + c (z (t1 ) z (t0 ))

= a, b, c x (t1 ) x (t0 ) , y (t1 ) y (t0 ) , z (t1 ) z (t0 )

Since P = x (t0 ) , y (t0 ) , z (t0 ) and Q = x (t1 ) , y (t1 ) , z (t1 ) we conclude that,


F ds = a, b, c P Q = F P Q.
C

## 47. Figure 19 shows the vector field F(x, y) = x, x.

 
(a) Are F ds and F ds equal? If not, which is larger?
AB DC
(b) Which is smaller: the line integral of F over the path ADC or ABC?
y

B C

D
A

x
FIGURE 19
SOLUTION
(a) Since x is constant on AB and DC, F(x, y) = x, x is also constant on these segments.
y

l
B C

l l

A l D

x
a1 a2

Let a1 and a2 denote the constant values of x on the segments AB and DC respectively, and l denote the lengths of these
segments. By Exercise 46 we have

F ds = a1 , a1  0, l = a1 0 + a1 l = a1 l
AB

F ds = a2 , a2  0, l = a2 0 + a2 l = a2 l
DC
 
Since a1 < a2 we have AB F ds < DC F ds.
(b) We compute the integral over BC. This segment is parametrized by:

Hence,

## F (c(t)) = x, x = a1 + lt, a1 + lt , c (t) = l, 0

F (c(t)) c (t) = a1 + lt, a1 + lt l, 0 = a1 l + l 2 t

Thus,
  1  
l 2 t 2 1 l2
F ds = a1 l + l 2 t dt = a1 lt +  = a1 l +
BC 0 2 t=0 2
We see that the line integral does not depend on b, therefore,
 
F ds = F ds (1)
In part (a) we showed that:
 
F ds < F ds (2)
AB DC
S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1089

## Combining (1) and (2) gives:

     
F ds = F ds + F ds < F ds + F ds = F ds

48. Calculate the work done by a field F = x + y, x y when an object moves from (0, 0) to (1, 1) along each of the
paths y = x 2 and x = y 2 .
SOLUTION We calculate the work done by F = x + y, x y along the path y = x 2 from (0, 0) to (1, 1). We use the
parametrization:

c1 (t) = (t, t 2 ), 0t 1

We have
 
F (c1 (t)) = t + t 2 , t t 2

## c 1 (t) = 1, 2t

 
F (c(t)) c (t) = t + t 2 , t t 2 1, 2t = t + t 2 + 2t 2 2t 3 = 2t 3 + 3t 2 + t

## The work is the following line integral:

  1  1  
1 1 1
W = F ds = F (c1 (t)) c 1 (t) dt = 2t 3 + 3t 2 + t dt = t 4 + t 3 + t 2  = 1
C1 0 0 2 2 0

We now compute the work along the path x = y 2 . We parametrize the path by:

c2 (t) = (t 2 , t), 0t 1

Then
 
F (c2 (t)) = t 2 + t, t 2 t

c 2 (t) = 2t, 1
 
F (c2 (t)) c 2 (t) = t 2 + t, t 2 t 2t, 1 = 2t 3 + 2t 2 + t 2 t = 2t 3 + 3t 2 t

## The work is the line integral

  1  1  
1 1 1 1 1
W = F ds = F (c2 (t)) c 2 (t) dt = 2t 3 + 3t 2 t dt = t 4 + t 3 t 2  = + 1 = 1
C2 0 0 2 2 0 2 2

## We obtain the same work along the two paths.

49. Calculate the work done by the force field F = x, y, z along the path (cos t, sin t, t) for 0 t 3 .
SOLUTION The work done by the force field F is the line integral:

W = F ds
C
We compute the integrand:

## F (c(t)) = x, y, z = cos t, sin t, t

d
c (t) = cos t, sin t, t =  sin t, cos t, 1
dt
F (c(t)) c (t) = cos t, sin t, t  sin t, cos t, 1 = cos t sin t + sin t cos t + t = t

## We obtain the following integral:

 3  3 
t 2 3 9 2
W = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = t dt =  =
0 0 2 0 2

50. Let I = f (x, y, z) ds. Assume that f (x, y, z) m for some number m and all points (x, y, z) on C.
C
Which of the following conclusions is correct? Explain.
(a) I m
(b) I m L, where L is the length of C
1090 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

SOLUTION Since f (c(t)) m for all points on C , also f (c(t)) c (t) mc (t). By properties of integrals we
have
 b  b  b
I = f (c(t)) c (t) dt mc (t) dt = m c (t) dt
a a a

Since L = ab c (t) dt, we get:

I mL

## Further Insights and Challenges

51. As observed in the text, the value of a scalar line integral does not depend on the choice of parametrization. Prove
this directly. Namely, suppose that c1 (t) and c(t) are two parametrizations of C and that c1 (t) = c( (t)), where (t) is
an increasing function. Use the Change of Variables Formula to verify that
 d  b
f (c1 (t))c 1 (t) dt = f (c(t))c (t) dt
c a

## where a = (c) and b = (d).


SOLUTION We compute the integral ab f (c(t)) c (t) dt using the substitution t = (u), a = (c), b = (d). We
get:
 b  1 (b)
    
f (c1 (t)) c (t) dt = f c (t) c (t)  (u) du (1)
a 1 (a)

## Since is an increasing function, (u) > 0 for all u, therefore:

      
c (u)  (u) = c (u) (u) (2)

## By the Chain Rule for vector valued functions, we have,

d    
c (u) = (u)c (u) (3)
du
Combining (2) and (3) gives:
   
       
c (u)  (u) =  d c (u)  =  d c1 (u) = c (u) (4)
 du   du  1

## We substitute (4) in (1) to obtain:

 b  d  d
f (c(t)) c (t) dt = f (c1 (u)) c 1 (u) du = f (c1 (t)) c 1 (t) dt
a c c

## The last step is simply replacing the dummy variable of integration u by t.

52. Suppose we wish to compute the average value of a continuous function f (x, y, z) along a curve C of length L.
Given a large number N , divide C into N consecutive arcs C1 , . . . , C N , each of length L/N , and let Pi be a sample
1
point in Ci (Figure 20). Then the points Pi are somewhat evenly spaced along the curve and the sum f (Pi ) may
N i=1
be considered an approximation to the average value of f along C. We define the average to be the limit (if it exists) as
N :
1
Av( f ) = lim f (Pi )
N N
i=1

Prove that

1
Av( f ) = f (x, y, z) ds 8
L C
L
Hint: Show that f (Pi ) is a Riemann sum approximation to the line integral of f along C.
N i=1
S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1091

y
PN

P2 Pi
P1 Ci

Curve C
x
FIGURE 20

N
f (Pi ) Si
i=1

## L , the corresponding Riemann sum is,

If the consecutive arcs C1 , ..., C2 have equal lengths N

N
L L N
f (Pi ) = f (Pi )
i=1
N N i=1

We let N ,

L N
1 N
f (x, y, z) ds = lim f (Pi ) = L lim f (Pi ) = LAv( f )
C N N N N
i=1 i=1

That is,

1
Av( f ) = f (x, y, z) ds.
L C

53. Use Eq. (8) to calculate the average value of f (x, y) = x y along the segment from P = (2, 1) to Q = (5, 5).
SOLUTION We can parametrize this line segment by

## c(t) = (2 + 3t, 1 + 4t), 0t 1

Therefore,

c (t) = 3, 4 c (t) = 9 + 16 = 5

## We compute the length of the curve,

 1  1
L= c (t) dt = 5 dt = 5
0 0

Thus, using our values for x and y given above, we find that
  1  1
1 1 1 1
Av( f ) = x y dt = (2 + 3t) (1 + 4t) dt = 1 t dt =
L C 5 0 5 0 2 5

54. Use Eq. (8) to calculate the average value of x y along the curve y = x 2 for 0 x 1.
SOLUTION The average value is

1
Av( f ) = x y ds (1)
L c
We parametrize the curve by the parametrization,
 
c(t) = t, t 2 , 0 t 1.

Hence,

c (t) = 1, 2t c (t) = 1 + 4t 2

## We first must calculate the length of the path. That is,

  1
1  1    1
L= c (t) dt = 1 + 4t 2 dt = t 1 + 4t 2 + ln 2t + 1 + 4t 2 
c 0 2 4 0
1092 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

 

5 1   2 5 + ln 2 + 5
= + ln 2 + 5 =
2 4 4
We compute the line integral in (1):
  1  1 
x y ds = t t 2 c (t) dt = t 3 1 + 4t 2 dt
c 0 0

## We compute the integral using the substitution u = 1 + 4t 2 , du = 8t dt. Then t 2 = u1

4 so we get,
  1   5  5 
u 1 1/2 du 1
x y ds = t 2 1 + 4t 2 t dt = u = u 3/2 u 1/2 du
c 0 1 4 8 32 1
  5    
1 2 5/2 2 3/2  1 5/2 1 53/2 1 1
= u u  = 5
32 5 3 1 80 48 80 48

55/2 + 1 25 5 + 1
= =
120 120
Combining (1), (2) and (3) gives the following solution:

4 25 5 + 1 25 5 + 1
Av( f ) =   =    0.32
2 5 + ln 2 + 5 120 30 2 5 + ln 2 + 5

55. The temperature (in degrees centigrade) at a point P on a circular wire of radius 2 cm centered at the origin is equal
to the square of the distance from P to P0 = (2, 0). Compute the average temperature along the wire.
SOLUTION

P = (x, y)

P0 = (2, 0)
x

## The temperature at a point P(x, y) on the wire is given by the function,

T (x, y) = (x 2)2 + y 2

The length of the wire is the length of the circle of radius 2, L = 2 2 = 4 . Therefore, the average temperature along
the wire is,
   
1 1
Av(T ) = T ds = (x 2)2 + y 2 ds
L C 4 C
To compute the line integral, we parametrize the circle by:

## c(t) = (2 cos t, 2 sin t), 0 t 2 .

Then,

c(t) = 2 sin t, 2 cos t c (t) = 4 sin2 t + 4 cos2 t = 2

## T (c(t)) = (x 2)2 + y 2 = (2 cos t 2)2 + (2 sin t)2 = 4 cos2 t 8 cos t + 4 + 4 sin2 t

 
= 4 cos2 + sin2 t + 4 8 cos t = 8(1 cos t)

## We obtain the integral,

 2  2  2
1 1 4  4 2
Av(T ) = T (c(t)) c (t) dt = 16(1 cos t) dt = t sin t  = =8
4 0 4 0 0
S E C T I O N 17.2 Line Integrals (ET Section 16.2) 1093

56. Let F = x, 0. Prove that if C is any path from (a, b) to (c, d), then

1
F ds = (c2 a 2 )
C 2

SOLUTION

(c, d)

(a, b)

## By the Theorem on vector line integrals we have,

  t1  t1  t1
 
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = x(t), 0 x (t), y (t) dt = x(t)x (t) dt
c t0 t0 t0

## We use the hint to compute the integral, obtaining

 t1
1  1  1 
F ds = x(t)  =
2 x(t1 )2 x(t0 )2 = c2 a 2
c 2 t0 2 2

## Proof of the hint: By the Chain Rule for differentiation we have

d 2 1 d 2
f (t) = 2 f (t) f (t) f (t) f (t) = f (t)
dt 2 dt
Applying the Fundamental Theorem of calculus we obtain
 t1 
1 t1 d  2  1 2 
f (t) f (t) dt = f (t) dt = f (t1 ) f 2 (t0 )
t0 2 t0 dt 2

Alternatively we can evaluate the integral f (t) f (t) dt using the substitution u = f (t), du = f (t) dt. We get
 
1 1
f (t) f (t) dt = u du = u 2 + c = f 2 (t) + c.
2 2

57. Let F = y, x. Prove that if C is any path from (a, b) to (c, d), then

F ds = cd ab
C

SOLUTION

(c, d)

(a, b)

## c(t) = (x(t), y(t)) , t 0 t t1

c (t0 ) = (a, b), c (t1 ) = (c, d)

## By the Theorem on vector line integrals we have

  t1  t1
 
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = y(t), x(t) x (t), y (t) dt
c t0 t0
1094 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

 t1  t1
  d
= y(t)x (t) + x(t)y (t) dt = (x(t)y(t)) dt
t0 t0 dt

The last equality follows from the Product Rule for differentiation. We now use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
to obtain:
 t1

F ds = x(t)y(t) = x (t1 ) y (t1 ) x (t0 ) y (t0 ) = cd ab
c t=t0

## 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3)

Preliminary Questions
1. The following statement is false. If F is a gradient vector field, then the line integral of F along every curve is zero.
Which single word must be added to make it true?
SOLUTION The missing word is closed (curve). The line integral of a gradient vector field along every closed curve
is zero.
2. Which of the following statements are true for all vector fields, which are true only for conservative vector fields?
(a) The line integral along a path from P to Q does not depend on which path is chosen.
(b) The line integral over an oriented curve C does not depend on how the C is parametrized.
(c) The line integral around a closed curve is zero.
(d) The line integral changes sign if the orientation is reversed.
(e) The line integral is equal to the difference of a potential function at the two endpoints.
(f) The line integral is equal to the integral of the tangential component along the curve.
(g) The cross partials of the components are equal.
SOLUTION
(a) This statement is true only for conservative vector fields.
(b) This statement is true for all vector fields.
(c) This statement holds only for conservative vector fields.
(d) This is a property of all vector fields.
(e) Only conservative vector fields have a potential function, and the line integral is computed by using the potential
function as stated.
(g) The cross-partials of the components of a conservative field are equal. For other fields, the cross-partials of the
components may or may not equal.
3. Let F be a vector field on an open, connected domain D. Which of the following statements are always true, and
which are true under additional hypotheses on D?
(a) If F has a potential function, then F is conservative.
(b) If F is conservative, then the cross partials of F are equal.
(c) If the cross partials of F are equal, then F is conservative.
SOLUTION
(a) This statement is always true, since every gradient vector field is conservative.
(b) If F is conservative on a connected domain D, then F has a potential function D and consequently the cross partials
of F are equal in D.
(c) If the cross partials of F are equal in a simply-connected region D, then F is a gradient vector field in D.

4. Let C, D, and E be the oriented curves in Figure 15 and let F = be a gradient vector field such that F ds = 4.
C
What are the values of the following integrals?
 
(a) F ds (b) F ds
D E

y
Q
C
D

E
P
x
FIGURE 15
S E C T I O N 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3) 1095

SOLUTION Since F is a gradient vector field the integrals over closed paths are zero. Therefore, by the equivalent
conditions for path independence we have:
 
(a)  D F ds =  C F ds = 4 
(b) E F ds = C F ds = C F ds = 4

Exercises 
1. Let (x, y, z) = x y sin(yz). Evaluate ds, where c is any path from (0, 0, 0) to (1, 1, ).
c
SOLUTION By the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields, we have:

ds = (1, 1, ) (0, 0, 0) = 1 1 sin 0 = 0
c

## 2. Let F be the gradient of (x, y, z) = x y + z 2 . Compute the line integral of F along:

(a) The line segment from (1, 1, 1) to (1, 2, 2)
(b) A circle in the x z-plane
(c) The upper half of a circle of radius 4 with its center (0, 1, 1) in the yz-plane, oriented clockwise
SOLUTION
(a) Using the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields we have:
    
F ds = (1, 2, 2) (1, 1, 1) = 1 2 + 22 1 1 + 12 = 4
C
(b) Since every gradient vector field is conservative, the line integral over a closed curve is zero. Therefore the line
integral of F = over the circle is zero.
(c)
z C

(0, 1, 1)
A = (0, 3, 1) B = (0, 5, 1)
y

The initial point of the path is A = (0, 3, 1) and the terminal point is B = (0, 5, 1). Therefore, by the Fundamental
Theorem for Gradient Vectors we obtain:

F ds = (0, 5, 1) (0, 3, 1) = 1 1 = 0
C

In Exercises 38, verify that F = and evaluate the line integral of F over the given path.
3. F = 3, 6y, (x, y, z) = 3x + 3y 2 ; c(t) = (t, 2t 1 ) for 1 t 4
SOLUTION The gradient of = 3x + 3y is:2
 

= , = 3, 6y = F
x y
Using the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields, we have:
    
1 1 9
F ds = (c(4)) (c(1)) = 4, (1, 2) = 3 4 + 3 (3 1 + 3 4) =
c 2 4 4
 
4. F = sin y 2 , 2x y cos y 2 , (x, y) = x sin y 2 ; line segment from (2, 0) to (3, )
SOLUTION The gradient of = x sin y 2 is:
   

= , = sin y 2 , 2yx cos y 2 = F
x y
We use the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields to compute the integral:

 
F ds = 3, (2, 0) = 3 sin 2 sin 0 = 0
c
1096 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

 
5. F = x y 2 , x 2 y , (x, y) = 12 x 2 y 2 ; upper half of the unit circle centered at the origin oriented counterclock-
wise
SOLUTION We compute the gradient of (x, y) = 12 x 2 y 2 :
   

= , = x y2, x 2 y = F
x y
We now use the Fundamental Theorem of Gradient Vector Fields. The terminal point is Q = (1, 0) and the initial point
is P = (1, 0), therefore:

1 1
F ds = (Q) (P) = (1, 0) (1, 0) = (1)2 02 12 02 = 0
c 2 2
y

x
Q = (1, 0) P = (1, 0)

 
6. F = y + 2x z, x, x 2 , (x, y, z) = x y + x 2 z; any path from (1, 2, 1) to (3, 1, 0)
SOLUTION We verify that = F:
   

= , , = y + 2x z, x, x 2 = F
x y z
By the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vectors we get:

F ds = (3, 1, 0) (1, 2, 1) = 3 3 = 0
c

 
7. F = ye z , xe z , x ye z , (x, y, z) = x ye z ; c(t) = (t 2 , t 3 , t 1) for 1 t 2
SOLUTION We verify that F is the gradient of :
 
 
= , , = ye z , xe z , x ye z = F
x y z
We use the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vectors with the initial point c(1) = (1, 1, 0) and terminal point c(2) =
(4, 8, 1), to obtain:

F ds = (4, 8, 1) (1, 1, 0) = 32e 1
c
 
x z
8. F = , , ln(x y) , (x, y, z) = z ln(x y);
xy yz
ellipse 2x 2 + 3(y 4)2 = 12 in the clockwise direction
SOLUTION We first verify that F = :
     
z z z z
= , , = , , ln(x y) = , , ln(x y) = F
x y z xy xy xy yx
Since F is a gradient field it is conservative. Therefore, the integrals over closed paths are zero. The ellipse is a closed
path, hence the integral of F over the ellipse is zero.
 
9. Find a potential function for F = 2x y + 5, x 2 4z, 4y and evaluate

F ds
c

## where c(t) = (t 2 , sin( t), et 2t ) for 0 t 2.

2

SOLUTION We find a potential function (x, y, z) for F, using the following steps.

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . is an antiderivative of F1 = 2x y + 5 when y and z are fixed, therefore,

(x, y, z) = (2x y + 5) d x = x 2 y + 5x + g(y, z) (1)
S E C T I O N 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3) 1097

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . We have,

 2 
x y + 5x + g(y, z) = x 2 4z
y
x 2 + g y (y, z) = x 2 4z g y (y, z) = 4z

## We integrate with respect to y, holding z fixed:


g(y, z) = 4z d y = 4zy + h(z)

## (x, y, z) = x 2 y + 5x 4zy + h(z) (2)

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . We have,

 2 
x y + 5x 4zy + h(z) = 4y
z
4y + h (z) = 4y
h (z) = 0 h(z) = c

## Substituting in (2) we obtain the general potential function:

(x, y, z) = x 2 y + 5x 4zy + c

To compute the line integral we need one of the potential functions. We choose c = 0 to obtain the function,

(x, y, z) = x 2 y + 5x 4zy

We now use the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields to evaluate the line integral:

  
F ds = (2) (0) = (4, 0, 1) (0, 0, 1) = 20 0 = 20
c

10. Verify the cross-partials condition and find a potential function for
 
F = 2x yz 1 + yz, x 2 z 1 + x z, x 2 yz 2 + x y

## on the domain {z  = 0}.

SOLUTION The cross partials condition is:

F1 F2 F2 F3 F3 F1
= , = , =
y x z y x z
We verify that F satisfies these conditions:
F1  
= 2x yz 1 + yz = 2x z 1 + z
y y F1 F2
=
F2  2 1  y x
= x z + x z = 2x z 1 + z
x x
F2  2 1 
= x z + x z = x 2 z 2 + x
z z F2 F3
=
F3  2 2  z y
= x yz + x y = x 2 z 2 + x
y y
F3  2 2 
= x yz + x y = 2x yz 2 + y
x x F3 F1
=
F1   x z
= 2x yz 1 + yz = 2x yz 2 + y
z z
We now find a potential function on every region contained in one of the regions z > 0 or z < 0.

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . Since is an antiderivative of F1 = 2x yz 1 when y and z are fixed, we have:
  
(x, y, z) = 2x yz 1 + yz d x = x 2 yz 1 + yzx + g(y, z) (1)
1098 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . Since (x, y, z) = x 2 yz 1 + x zy + g(y, z) we get:

 2 1 
x yz + x yz + g(y, z) = x 2 z 1 + x z
y
x 2 z 1 + x z + g y (y, z) = x 2 z 1 + x z g y (y, z) = 0

Hence:

g(y, z) = h(z)

## (x, y, z) = x 2 yz 1 + x yz + h(z) (2)

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . We have:

 2 1 
x yz + x yz + h(z) = x 2 yz 2 + x y
z
x 2 yz 2 + x y + h (z) = x 2 yz 2 + x y
h (z) = 0 h(z) = C

## Substituting in (2) we obtain the following general potential function:

(x, y, z) = x 2 yz 1 + x yz + C
 
11. Find the line integral of F = 2x yz, x 2 z, x 2 y over any path from (0, 0, 0) to (3, 2, 1).
SOLUTION We first show that the cross partials condition is satisfied:

F1
= (2x yz) = 2x z
y y F1 F2
=
F2  2  y x
= x z = 2x z
x x
F2  2 
= x z = x2
z z F2 F3
=
F3  2  z y
= x y = x2
y y
F3  2 
= x y = 2x y
x x F3 F1
=
F1 x z
= (2x yz) = 2x y
z z
Since the cross partials condition is satisfied at all points, F is conservative. We find a potential function for F.

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . is an antiderivative of F1 = 2x yz when y and z are fixed. Therefore:

(x, y, z) = 2x yz d x = x 2 yz + g(y, z) (1)

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . By (1) we have:

 
= x 2 yz + g(y, z) = x 2 z
y
x 2 z + g y (y, z) = x 2 z g y (y, z) = 0

## (x, y, z) = x 2 yz + h(z) (2)

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . This condition along with (2) gives:

 
= x 2 yz + h(z) = x 2 y
z
x 2 y + h (z) = x 2 z
S E C T I O N 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3) 1099

h (z) = 0 h(z) = C

## Substituting in (2) we get

(x, y, z) = x 2 yz + C
Since only one potential function is needed, we choose the one corresponding to C = 0. That is,

(x, y, z) = x 2 yz
Using the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vectors we obtain:

F ds = (3, 2, 1) (0, 0, 0) = 32 2 1 0 = 18
c

In Exercises 1217, determine whether the vector field is conservative and, if so, find a potential function.
12. F = z, 1, x
SOLUTION We check whether the vector field F = z, 1, x satisfies the cross partials condition:
F1
= (z) = 0
y y F1 F2
=
F2 y x
= (1) = 0
x x
F2
= (1) = 0
z z F2 F3
=
F3 z y
= (x) = 0
y y
F3
= (x) = 1
x x F3 F1
=
F1 x z
= (z) = 1
z z
F satisfies the cross partials condition everywhere. Hence, F is conservative. We find a potential function (x, y, z).

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . is an antiderivative of F1 = z when y and z are fixed, therefore:

(x, y, z) = z d x = zx + g(y, z) (1)

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . By (1) we have:

(zx + g(y, z)) = 1
y
g y (y, z) = 1

## Integrating with respect to y, while holding z fixed, gives:


g(y, z) = 1 d y = y + h(z)

## (x, y, z) = zx + y + h(z) (2)

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . Using (2) we get:

(zx + y + h(z)) = x
z
x + h (z) = x
h (z) = 0 h(z) = c

## Substituting in (2) gives the following potential functions:

(x, y, z) = zx + y + c.
One of the potential functions is obtained by choosing c = 0:

(x, y, z) = zx + y
1100 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

13. F = 0, x, y
SOLUTION Since Fy1 = y (0) = 0 and Fx2 = x (x) = 1, we have Fy1  = Fx2 . Therefore F does not satisfy the
cross-partial condition, hence F is not conservative.
 
14. F = y 2 , 2x y + e z , ye z
SOLUTION We examine whether F satisfies the cross partials condition:

F1  2
= y = 2y
y y F1 F2
=
F2   y x
= 2x y + e z = 2y
x x
F2  
= 2x y + e z = e z
z z F2 F3
=
F3  z z y
= ye = e z
y y
F3  z
= ye = 0
x x F3 F1
=
F1  2 x z
= y =0
z z
We see that F satisfies the cross partials condition everywhere, hence F is conservative. We find a potential function for
F.

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . is an antiderivative of F1 = y 2 when y and z are fixed. Hence:

(x, y, z) = y 2 d x = y 2 x + g(y, z) (1)

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . By (1) we have:

 2 
y x + g(y, z) = 2x y + e z
y
2yx + g y (y, z) = 2x y + e z g y (y, z) = e z

## We integrate with respect to y, holding z fixed:


g(y, z) = e z d y = e z y + h(z)

## (x, y, z) = y 2 x + ez y + h(z) (2)

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . By (2), we get:

 2 
y x + e z y + h(z) = ye z
z
e z y + h (z) = ye z h (z) = 0

## Therefore h(z) = c. Substituting in (2) we get:

(x, y, z) = y 2 x + ez y + c

## The potential function corresponding to c = 0 is:

(x, y, z) = y 2 x + ez y.
 
15. F = y, x, z 3
 
SOLUTION We examine whether the field F = y, x, z 3 satisfies the cross partials condition.

F1
= (y) = 1
y y F1 F2
=
F2 y x
= (x) = 1
x x
S E C T I O N 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3) 1101

F2
= (x) = 0
z z F2 F3
=
F3  3 z y
= z =0
y y
F3  3
= z =0
x x F3 F1
=
F1 x z
= (y) = 0
z z
Since F satisfies the cross partials condition everywhere, F is conservative. We find a potential function for F.

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . is an antiderivative of F1 = y when y and z are fixed. Therefore:

(x, y, z) = y d x = yx + g(y, z) (1)

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . By (1) we have:

(yx + g(y, z)) = x
y
x + g y (y, z) = x g y (y, z) = 0

## (x, y, z) = yx + g(z) (2)

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . Using (2) we have:

(yx + g(z)) = z 3
z
1 4
g (z) = z 3 g(z) = z +c
4
Substituting in (2) gives the following general potential function:
1
(x, y, z) = yx + z 4 + c
4
Choosing c = 0 we obtain the potential:

z4
(x, y, z) = yx + .
4
 
16. F = cos(x z), sin(yz), x y sin z

SOLUTION Since z
F2
= z (sin(yz)) = y cos(yz) and F3 = (x y sin z) = x sin z, we have F2  = F3 . The cross
y y z y
partials condition is not satisfied, therefore the vector field is not conservative.
 
17. F = cos z, 2y, x sin z
SOLUTION We examine whether F satisfies the cross partials condition:

F1
= (cos z) = 0
y y F1 F2
=
F2 y x
= (2y) = 0
x x
F2
= (2y) = 0
z z F2 F3
=
F3 z y
= (x sin z) = 0
y y
F3
= (x sin z) = sin z
x x F3 F1
=
F1 x z
= (cos z) = sin z
z z
We see that the conditions are satisfied, therefore F is conservative. We find a potential function for F.
1102 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . (x, y, z) is an antiderivative of F1 = cos z when y and z are fixed, therefore:

(x, y, z) = cos z d x = x cos z + g(y, z) (1)

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . Using (1) we get:

(x cos z + g(y, z)) = 2y
y
g y (y, z) = 2y

## We integrate with respect to y, holding z fixed:


g(y, z) = 2y d y = y 2 + g(z)

## (x, y, z) = x cos z + y 2 + g(z) (2)

Step 3. Use the condition z = F3 . By (2) we have

 
x cos z + y 2 + g(z) = x sin z
z
x sin z + g (z) = x sin z
g (z) = 0 g(z) = c

## Substituting in (2) we obtain the general potential function:

(x, y, z) = x cos z + y 2 + c

## Choosing c = 0 gives the potential function:

(x, y, z) = x cos z + y 2 .

18. Calculate the work expended when a particle is moved from O to Q along segments O P and P Q in Figure 16 in the
presence of the force field F = x 2 , y 2 . How much work is expended moving in a complete circuit around the square?

R = (0, 1) Q = (1, 1)

x
O P = (1, 0)

FIGURE 16

SOLUTION

R = (0, 1) Q = (1, 1)

x
O P = (1, 0)

Since Fy1 = y (x 2 ) = 0 and Fx2 = x (y 2 ) = 0, we have Fy1 = Fx2 . That is, F satisfies the cross partials condition,
3 3
therefore F is conservative. We choose the function x3 + y3 , such that F is the gradient of the function. The potential
3 3
energy is, thus, = x3 y3 . The work done against F is computed by the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient vectors:

2 2
Work against F = F ds = (Q) (O) = (1, 1) (0) = 0 =
C 3 3
S E C T I O N 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3) 1103

(The negative sign is to be expected, as our force field is actually helping us move along O P and O Q. The line integral
of a conservative field along a closed curve is zero, therefore the integral of F along the complete square is zero, and we
get:

W = F ds = 0
OPQR

 
1 1
19. Let F = , . Calculate the work against F required to move an object from (1, 1) to (3, 4) along any path in
x y
SOLUTION F is a conservative force, since F = with potential energy (x, y) = ln y ln x. The work required
to move an object from (1, 1) to (3, 4) along any path C is equal to the change in potential energy:

Work against F = F ds = (3, 4) (1, 1) = (ln 4 ln 3) (ln 1 ln 1) = ln 4 ln 3
C

20. Let F be the vector field in Figure 17. Let P Q, Q R, and P R be the segments in the figure with the orientations
indicated.

(a) Is F ds positive, negative, or zero?
PR 
(b) What is the value of F ds?
QR
SOLUTION
(a)

q
F

Since the angle between F and P R is acute at each point along the segment P R, the dot product of F and the unit tangent
line at each point along the segment is positive. Therefore the line integral P Q F ds is positive.

(b) Since F is in the direction of P Q, the dot product of F and the unit tangent at any point along P Q is:

F T = F

Therefore:
    b
F ds = (F T) ds = Fds = F d x
PQ PQ PQ a

## (In this last integral, y is equal to some constant value y0 .)

21. The vector field F in Figure 17 is horizontal and appears to depend on only the x-coordinate. Suppose that
F = g(x), 0. Prove that
 
F ds = F ds
PR PQ
 b
by showing that both integrals are equal to g(x) d x.
a

P Q
x
a b
FIGURE 17
1104 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## SOLUTION The vector field F has the form:

F = g(x), 0

Since Fy1 = y (g(x)) = 0 and Fx2 = 0, we have Fy1 = Fx2 consequently F is conservative. Therefore:
  
F ds = F ds + F ds (1)
PR PQ QR

The vector field F is orthogonal to Q R, therefore the tangential component of F at each point along Q R is zero. We
conclude that:

F ds = 0
QR

## Substituting in (1) we get:

 
F ds = F ds
PR PQ

Lets try it again, this time using the hint. We compute the integral along P Q, using the parametrization

P Q : c(t) = (t, y0 ), at b

we get:
  b  b  b  b
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = g(t), 0 1, 0 dt = g(t) dt = g(x) d x
PQ a a a a

## we get the same thing:

  b  b  b  b
 
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = g(t), 0 1, y dt = g(t) dt = g(x) d x
PR a a a a

## We see, again, that these are equal.

 
22. Let F = x 1 z 2 , y 1 z 2 , 2z log(x y) .
(a) Verify that F = , where (x, y, z) = z 2 log(x y).

 
(b) Evaluate F ds, where c(t) = et , e2t , t 2 for 1 t 3.
 c
(c) Evaluate F ds for any path c from P = ( 12 , 4, 2) to Q = (2, 3, 3) contained in the region x > 0, y > 0, z > 0.
c
(d) Why was it necessary to specify that the path lie in the region where x, y, and z are positive?
SOLUTION

## (a) We compute the gradient of (x, y, z) = log(x y)z 2 :

   2 
 
yz x z 2
= , , = , , 2z log(x y) = x 1 z 2 , y 1 z 2 , 2z log(x y) = F
x y z xy xy
 
(b) The path c(t) = et , e2t , t 2 for 1 t 3 does not intersect the planes x = 0 and y = 0, therefore F is defined on c.
By part (a) F = for (x, y, z) = log(x y)z 2 , therefore the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vectors implies that:
    
F ds = (c(3)) (c(1)) = e3 , e6 , 9 e, e2 , 1
c
   
= log e9 81 log e3 1 = 9 81 3 1 = 726

(c) If c is contained in the region x > 0, y > 0, z > 0, F is defined on c. Since F = , the Fundamental Theorem for
  
1
F ds = (Q) (P) = (2, 3, 3) , 4, 2 = (log 6) 9 (log 2) 4
c 2
= 9 log 2 + 9 log 3 4 log 2 = 5 log 2 + 9 log 3 5.8
S E C T I O N 17.3 Conservative Vector Fields (ET Section 16.3) 1105

(d) The vector field F is not defined on the planes x = 0 and y = 0, hence we must restrict the region to x > 0, y > 0
or x < 0, y < 0 (notice that is defined only for x y > 0).
23. How much energy (in joules) does it take to carry a 2-kg object from sea level along any path to the top of a hill that
is 1,000 m high? Assume that the force of gravity F is constant mg in the vertical direction, where g = 9.8 m/s2 . Hint:
Find a potential function for F.
SOLUTION The force of gravity is F = 0, 0, mg, therefore F = for (x, y, z) = mgz. The work performed
by the gravitational field is the line integral of F over the path. Since F is conservative, the energy is independent of the
path connecting the two points. Using the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields we have:

W = F ds = (z = 1000) (z = 0) = mg 1000 = 2 9.8 103 = 19,600 joules
c
  
y x
24. Let F = , be the vortex vector field. Determine F ds for each of the paths in Figure 18.
x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2 c

y y y

x
x x

## (A) (B) (C)

y y

x x

(D)
(E)
FIGURE 18

SOLUTION Since the cross partials of F are equal, F has the property,

F ds = 2 n
c

where c is a closed curve not passing through the origin, and n is the number of times c winds around the origin (n is
negative if n winds in the clockwise direction). We use this property to compute the line integrals of F over the paths in
Figure 18:
(A) The path (A) winds around the origin one time in the counterclockwise direction hence the line integral is 2 1 =
2 .
(B) The point (B) winds around the origin one time in the counterclockwise direction hence the line integral is 2 1 =
2 .
(C) The path (C) does not encounter the origin, hence the line integral is 2 0 = 0. Notice that there exists a simply
connected domain D, not including the origin, so that the path c and the region inside c are in D. Therefore, Theorem 4
applies in D and F is a gradient vector in D. Consequently, the line integral of F over c is zero.
y

D
c


(D) This path winds around the origin one time in the clockwise direction, hence c F ds = 2 (1) = 2 .
(E) The path winds around the origin twice in the counterclockwise direction, hence the line integral is 2 2 = 4 .
1106 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## Further Insights and Challenges 

x y
25. The vector field F = , is defined on the domain D = {(x, y)  = (0, 0)}.
x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2
(a) Show that F satisfies the cross-partials condition on D.
(b) Show that (x, y) = 12 ln(x 2 + y 2 ) is a potential function for F.
(c) Is D simply connected?
(d) Do these results contradict Theorem 4?
SOLUTION
(a) We compute the partials of F:
 
F2 y 2x y
= =  2
x x x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2
 
F1 x 2yx
= =  2
y y x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2

## The cross partials are equal in D.

 
(b) We compute the gradient of (x, y) = 12 ln x 2 + y 2 :
     
1 2x 2y x y
= , = , = , =F
x x 2 x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2
(c) D is not simply-connected since it has a hole at the origin.
(d) The requirement in Theorem 4 (that the domain be simply connected) is a sufficient condition for a vector field with
equal cross-partials to have a potential function. It is not necessary, since as in our example, even if the domain is not
simply-connected the field may have a gradient function. Moreover, for any closed curve in D, have the same value
after completing one round along c. This is perhaps best seen by noting that = log(r ) in polar coordinates, which will
be independent of . Therefore,

F ds = 0
c

Hence, F is conservative.
PQ

## 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4)

Preliminary Questions
1. What is the surface integral of the function f (x, y, z) = 10 over a surface of total area 5?
SOLUTION Using Surface Integral and Surface Area we have:
  
f (x, y, z) d S = f ((u, v)) n(u, v) du dv = 10n(u, v) du dv
S D D

= 10 n(u, v) du dv = 10 Area(S) = 10 5 = 50
D

2. What interpretation can we give to the length n of the normal vector for a parametrization (u, v)?
SOLUTION The approximation:
     
Area Si j n u i j , vi j Area Ri j

tells that n is a distortion factor that indicates how much the area of a small rectangle Ri j is altered under the map .
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1107

j + 0.02
Sij
Rij

j
u
ui ui + 0.01

3. A parametrization maps a rectangle of size 0.01 0.02 in the uv-plane onto a small patch S of a surface. Estimate
Area(S) if Tu Tv = 1, 2, 2 at a sample point in the rectangle.
SOLUTION We use the estimation

## where n(u, v) = Tu Tv at a sample point in R. We get:


Area(S)  1, 2, 2  0.01 0.02 = 12 + 22 + 22 0.0002 = 0.0006

+ 0.02
S
R

u
u u + 0.01


4. A small surface S is divided into three small pieces, each of area 0.2. Estimate f (x, y, z) d S if f (x, y, z) takes
S
the values 0.9, 1, and 1.1 at sample points in these three pieces.
SOLUTION We use the approximation obtained by the Riemann Sum:
     
f (x, y, z) d S f Pi j Area Si j = 0.9 0.2 + 1 0.2 + 1.1 0.2 = 0.6
S ij

5. A surface S has a parametrization whose domain is the square 0 u, v 2 such that n(u, v) = 5 for all (u, v).
What is Area(S)?
SOLUTION Writing the surface area as a surface integral where D is the square [0, 2] [0, 2] in the uv-plane, we have:
  
Area(S) = n(u, v) du dv = 5 du dv = 5 1 du dv = 5Area(D) = 5 22 = 20
D D D

6. What is the outward-pointing unit normal to the sphere of radius 3 centered at the origin at P = (2, 2, 1)?
SOLUTION The outward-pointing normal to the sphere of radius R = 3 centered at the origin is the following vector:
 
cos sin , sin sin , cos (1)

P = (2, 2, 1) 2
2 y

We compute the values in (1) corresponding to P = (2, 2, 1): x = y = 2, z = 1 hence 0 2 and 0 < < 2 . We
get:

 2
z 1 1 2 2
cos = = sin = 1 =
3 3 3

x 2 1 1 1
cos = = = sin = 1 =
sin 3 2 2 2 2 2
3
1108 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## Substituting in (1) we get the following unit normal:

   
1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1
, , = , ,
2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3

Exercises
1. Match the parametrization with the surface in Figure 16.
(a) (u, cos v, sin v) (b) (u, u + v, v)
(c) (u, v 3 , v)
(d) (cos u sin v, 3 cos u sin v, cos v)
(e) (u, u(2 + cos v), u(2 + sin v))

z z z

y x
x y x y

## (i) (ii) (iii)

z z

x y
x
y

(iv) (v)
FIGURE 16

SOLUTION (a) = (v), because the y and z coordinates describe a circle with fixed radius.
(b) = (iii), because the coordinates are all linear in u and v.
(c) = (i), because the parametrization gives y = z 3 .
(d) = (iv), an ellipsoid.
(e) = (ii), because the y and z coordinates describe a circle with varying radius.
2. Show that (r, ) = (r cos , r sin , 1 r 2 ) parametrizes the paraboloid z = 1 x 2 y 2 . Describe the grid curves
of this parametrization.
SOLUTION We substitute x = r cos and y = r sin in the right-hand side of the equation of the cone, and verify that
the result is 1 r 2 :
 
1 x 2 y 2 = 1 (r cos )2 (r sin )2 = 1 r 2 cos2 + sin2 = 1 r 2 1 = 1 r 2 = z

Moreover, for every x, y, z satisfying z = 1 x 2 y 2 there are suitable values of r and so that x = r cos , y = r sin
and z = 1 r 2 . We conclude that (r, ) parametrizes the whole paraboloid z = 1 x 2 y 2 . The grid curves on the
paraboloid through P = (r0 , 0 ) are:
r -grid curve:

-grid curve:

## 3. Show that (u, v) = (2u + 1, u v, 3u + v) parametrizes the plane 2x y z = 2. Then:

(a) Calculate Tu , Tv , and n(u, v).
(b) Find the area of S = (D), where D = {(u, v) : 0 u 2, 0 v 1}.

(c) Express f (x, y, z) = yz in terms of u and v and evaluate f (x, y, z) d S.
S
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1109

## SOLUTION We show that x = 2u + 1, y = u v, and z = 3u + v satisfy the equation of the plane,

2x y z = 2(2u + 1) (u v) (3u + v) = 4u + 2 u + v 3u v = 2

Moreover, for any x, y, z satisfying 2x y z = z, there are values of u and v such that x = 2u + 1, y = u v, and
z = 3u + v, since the following equations can be solved for u and v:

x = 2u + 1
y =uv x 1 x 1
u= , v= y
z = 3u + v 2 2
2x y z = 2

## We conclude that (u, v) parametrizes the whole plane 2x y z = 2.

(a) The tangent vectors Tu and Tv are:

Tu = = (2u + 1, u v, 3u + v) = 2, 1, 3
u u

Tv = = (2u + 1, u v, 3u + v) = 0, 1, 1
v v
The normal vector is the following cross product:
 
 i j k       
   1 3   2 3   2 1 
n(u, v) = Tu Tv =  2 1 3 =
  1 i  j +  k
 0 1  1  0 1  0 1 
1
= 4i 2j 2k = 4, 2, 2

## (b) That area of S = (D) is the following surface integral:

  
Area(S) = n(u, v) du dv =  4, 2, 2  du dv = 24 1 du dv
D D D

= 24 Area(D) = 24 2 1 = 4 6

## (c) We express f (x, y, z) = yz in terms of the parameters u and v:

 
f (u, v) = (u v)(3u + v) = 3u 2 2uv v 2

## Using the Theorem on Surface Integrals we have:

    
 
f (x, y, z) d S = f (u, v) n(u, v) du dv = 3u 2 2uv v 2  4, 2, 2  du dv
S D D
 1 2   1  2
= 24 3u 2 2uv v 2 du dv = 24 u 3 u 2 v v 2 u  dv
0 0 0 u=0
 1    1
2  32 6
= 24 8 4v 2v 2 dv = 24 8v 2v 2 v 3  =
0 3 0 3

## 4. Let S = (D), where D = {(u, v) : u 2 + v 2 1, u 0, v 0} and  is as defined in Exercise 3.

 surface area of S.
(a) Calculatethe
(b) Evaluate (x y) d S. Hint: Use polar coordinates.
S
SOLUTION The surface S is given by the parametrization:

## In Exercise 3 we computed the normal vector:

n(u, v) = 4, 2, 2 n(u, v) = 24.

The surface area for u and v in the domain D = (u, v) : u 2 + v 2 1, u 0, v 0 is the surface integral:
  
Area(S) = n(u, v) du dv = 24 du dv = 24 1 du dv = 24 Area(D) (1)
D D D
1110 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

x
1

D is the quarter disc u 2 + v 2 1 in the first quadrant, hence it has the area 1
2
4 = 4 . Substituting in (1) gives:

6
Area(S) = 24 = .
4 2
To compute the surface integral of f (x, y, z) = x y, we first express f in terms of the parameters u and v:

## We now use the Theorem on surface integrals to compute the integral:

  
f (x, y, z) d S = f ((u, v)) n(u, v) du dv = (u + v + 1) 24 du dv
S D D
We convert the integral to polar coordinates:

u = r cos , v = r sin

## Then, the region of integration is:

0 r 1, 0 .
2
We get:
  /2  1  /2  1  2 
f (x, y, z) d S = (r cos + r sin + 1) 24 r dr d = 24 r (cos + sin ) + r dr d
S 0 0 0 0
  
 /2 r 3 (cos + sin ) r 2 1  /2 cos + sin 1
= 24 +  d = 24 + d
0 3 2 r =0 0 3 2
   
sin cos  /2 2 8 + 3
= 24 + = 24 + =
3 2 0 3 4 6

## 5. Let (x, z) = (x, y, x y).

(a) Calculate Tx , T y , and n(x, y).
(b) Let S be the part of the surface with parameter domain D = {(x, y) : x 2 + y 2 1, x 0, y 0}. Verify the
following formula and evaluate using polar coordinates:
  
1 dS = 1 + x 2 + y2 d x d y
S D
(c) Verify the following formula and evaluate:
  /2  1 
z dS = (sin cos )r 3 1 + r 2 dr d
S 0 0

SOLUTION
(a) The tangent vectors are:

Tx = = (x, y, x y) = 1, 0, y
x x

Ty = = (x, y, x y) = 0, 1, x
y y
The normal vector is the cross product:
 
 i j k       
   0 y   1 y   1 0 
n(x, y) = Tx T y =  1 0 y =
  1 i  j +  k
 0  x   0 x   0 1 
1 x
= yi xj + k = y, x, 1
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1111

## (b) Using the Theorem on evaluating surface integrals we have:

    
1 dS = n(x, y) d x d y =  y, x, 1  d x d y = y2 + x 2 + 1 d x d y
S D D D
y

x
0 1

We convert the integral to polar coordinates x = r cos , y = r sin . The new region of integration is:

0 r 1, 0 .
2
We get:
  /2  1   /2  1 
1 dS = r + 1 r dr d =
2 r + 1 r dr d
2
S 0 0 0 0
 
 /2  2  /2 2 21
u 2 21
= du d = d =
0 1 2 0 3 6

(c) The function z expressed in terms of the parameters x, y is f ((x, y)) = x y. Therefore,
   
z dS = x y n(x, y) d x d y = x y 1 + x 2 + y2 d x d y
S D D
We compute the double integral by converting it to polar coordinates. We get:
  /2  1   /2  1 
z dS = (r cos )(r sin ) 1 + r 2 r dr d = (sin cos )r 3 1 + r 2 dr d
S 0 0 0 0
 
/2 1 
= (sin cos ) d r 3 1 + r 2 dr (1)
0 0

## We compute each integral in (1). Using the substitution u = 1 + r 2 , du = 2r dr we get:

 
 1   1   2  du u 5/2 u 3/2 2 2 2+1
r 3 1 + r 2 dr = r 2 1 + r 2 r dr = u 3/2 u 1/2 =  =
0 0 1 2 5 3 1 15

Also,
 /2  /2 
sin 2 cos 2  /2 1
sin cos d = d =  =
0 0 2 4 0 2

## We substitute the integrals in (1) to obtain the following solution:

 
 2+1
1 2 2+1
z dS = =
S 2 15 15

6. A surface S has a parametrization (u, v) whose domain D is the square in Figure 17. Suppose that  has the
following normal vectors:

## n( A) = 2, 10 , n(B) = 1, 3, 0

n(C) = 3, 0, 1 , n(D) = 2, 0, 1

Estimate f (x, y, z) d S, where f is a function such that f ((u, v)) = u + v.
S
1112 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

A B

C D
u
1
FIGURE 17

## SOLUTION We estimate the surface integral by the following Riemann sum:


f (x, y, z) d S = uv ( f ( A)n( A) + f (B)n(B) + f (C)n(C) + f (D)n(D)) (1)
S

In the given grid, we have u = v = 12 . We compute the lengths of the normal vectors:

n( A) =  2, 1, 0  = 4 + 1 + 0 = 5

n(B) =  1, 3, 0  = 1 + 9 + 0 = 10

n(C) =  3, 0, 1  = 9 + 0 + 1 = 10

n(D) =  2, 0, 1  = 4 + 0 + 1 = 5
       
The sample points are A = 14 , 34 , B = 34 , 34 , C = 14 , 14 , D = 34 , 14 , hence the values of f at the sample points
are:
1 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 3 1
f ( A) = + = 1, f (B) = + = , f (C) = + = , f (D) = + =1
4 4 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4
Substituting the values in (1) gives the following estimation:
  
1 1 3 1 5 + 10
f (x, y, z) d S = 1 5 + 10 + 10 + 1 5 =
S 2 2 2 2 2

In Exercises 710, calculate Tu , Tv , and n(u, v) for the parametrized surface at the given point. Then find the equation
of the tangent plane to the surface at that point.

## 7. (u, v) = (2u + v, u 4v, 3u); u = 1, v=4

SOLUTION The tangent vectors are the following vectors,


Tu = = (2u + v, u 4v, 3u) = 2, 1, 3
u u

Tv = = (2u + v, u 4v, 3u) = 1, 4, 0
v v
The normal is the cross product:
 
 i j k       
   1 3   2 3   2 1 
n(u, v) = Tu Tv =  2 1 3 =
  4 i  j +  k
 1  0   1 0   1 4 
4 0
= 12i + 3j 9k = 3 4, 1, 3

The equation of the plane passing through the point P : (1, 4) = (6, 15, 3) with the normal vector 4, 1, 3 is:

x 6, y + 15, z 3 4, 1, 3 = 0

or

4(x 6) + y + 15 3(z 3) = 0
4x + y 3z = 0

## 8. (u, v) = (u 2 v 2 , u + v, u v); u = 2, v=3

SOLUTION We compute the tangent vectors:

  2 
Tu = = u v 2 , u + v, u v = 2u, 1, 1
u u
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1113

  2 
Tv = = u v 2 , u + v, u v = 2v, 1, 1
v v
The normal is the cross product of Tu and Tv . That is:
 
 i j k       
 1 1   2u 1   2u 1 
n(u, v) = Tu Tv =  2u 1 1  =  i  j +  k
 2v 1 1  1 1   2v 1   2v 1 

## = 2i 2(v u)j + 2(u + v)k = 2 1, u v, v + u

We compute the tangency point and the normal n(u, v) at this point:
 
P = (2, 3) = 22 32 , 2 + 3, 2 3 = (5, 5, 1)

## n(2, 3) = 2 1, 2 3, 3 + 2 = 2 1, 1, 5

The equation of the plane passing through the point P = (5, 5, 1) with the normal vector 1, 1, 5 is:

x + 5, y 5, z + 1 1, 1, 5 = 0

or

(x + 5) (y 5) + 5(z + 1) = 0
x y + 5z + 5 = 0

## 9. ( , ) = (cos sin , sin sin , cos ); = 2 , = 4

SOLUTION We compute the tangent vectors:

  
T = = (cos sin , sin sin , cos ) = sin sin , cos sin , 0

  
T = = (cos sin , sin sin , cos ) = cos cos , sin cos , sin

The normal vector is the cross product:
 
 i j k 
 
n( , ) = T T =  sin sin cos sin 0 

 cos cos sin cos sin 
     
= cos sin2 i sin sin2 j + sin2 sin cos cos2 cos sin k
   
= cos sin2 i sin sin2 j (sin cos )k

## The tangency point and the normal at this point are,

    2 2
P = , = cos sin , sin sin , cos = 0, ,
2 4 2 4 2 4 4 2 2
  1 1 1 1
n , = j k = (j + k) = 0, 1, 1
2 4 2 2 2 2
 
The equation of the plane orthogonal to the vector 0, 1, 1 and passing through P = 0, 22 , 22 is:
 
2 2
x, y ,z 0, 1, 1 = 0
2 2

or

2 2
y +z =0
2 2

y+z = 2

## 10. (r, ) = (r cos , r sin , 1 r 2 ); r = 12 , = 4

1114 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## SOLUTION The tangent vectors are:

  
Tr = = r cos , r sin , 1 r 2 = cos , sin , 2r 
r r
  
T = = r cos , r sin , 1 r 2 = r sin , r cos , 0

The normal vector is the cross product of Tr and T . That is,
 
 i j k       

n(r, ) = Tr T =  cos sin 2r  = 2r 2 cos i + 2r 2 sin j + r cos2 + r sin2 k
 r sin r cos 0 
   
= 2r 2 cos i + 2r 2 sin j + r k = r 2r cos , 2r sin , 1

We compute the tangency point and the normal vector at this point. We get:
   2  
1 1 1 1 1 1 3
P = , = cos , sin , 1 = , ,
2 4 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4
     
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
N , = 2 cos , 2 sin , 1 = , ,1
2 4 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2
 
The equation of the plane through P, with normal vector 1 , 1 , 1 is:
2 2
   
1 1 3 1 1
x ,y ,z , ,1 = 0
2 2 2 2 4 2 2
or
   
1 1 1 1 3
x + y +z =0
2 2 2 2 2 2 4
1 1 5
x+ y+z =
2 2 4

2 2x + 2 2y + 4 = 5

11. Use the normal vector computed in Exercise 8 to estimate the area of the small patch of the surface (u, v) =
(u 2 v 2 , u + v, u v) defined by
2 u 2.1, 3 v 3.2
SOLUTION We denote the rectangle D = {(u, v) : 2 u 2.1, 3 v 3.2}. Using the sample point corresponding
to u = 2, v = 3 we obtain the following estimation for the area of S = (D):
Area(S) n(2, 3)Area(D) = n(2, 3) 0.1 0.2 = 0.02n(2, 3) (1)
In Exercise 8 we found that n(2, 3) = 2 1, 1, 5. Therefore,

n(2, 3) = 2 12 + 12 + 52 = 2 27
Substituting in (1) gives the following estimation:

Area(S) 0.02 2 27 0.2078.

12. Sketch the small patch of the sphere whose spherical coordinates satisfy

0.15 + 0.15, 0.1 + 0.1
2 2 4 4
Use the normal vector computed in Exercise 9 to estimate its area.
SOLUTION The small patch of the sphere is shown in the following figure:

x
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1115

Let D denote the rectangle in the ( , )-plane. Using the sample point corresponding to the parameters = 2 , = 4 ,
we obtain the following estimation for the area of S = (D):
        
     
Area(S) = n ,  Area(D) = n ,  0.3 0.2 = n ,  0.06 (1)
2 4 2 4 2 4
In Exercise 9 we found that:
  1
n , = 0, 1, 1
2 4 2
hence:
   1
  1
n , = 0+1+1=
2 4 2 2
Substituting in (1) gives the following estimation:
1
Area(S) 0.06 0.0424
2
f

p 1
4
+ 0.1
p
4 D
p
4
0.1

q
O 1 p
2
p p
2
0.15 2
+ 0.15

13. A surface S has a parametrization (u, v) with domain 0 u 2, 0 v 4 such that the following partial
derivatives are constant:
 
= 2, 0, 1 , = 4, 0, 3
u v
What is the surface area of S?
SOLUTION Since the partial derivatives are constant, the normal vector is also constant. We find it by computing the
cross product:
 
 i j k 
   
n = Tu Tv = =  2 0 1  = 2j = 0, 2, 0 n = 2
u v  4 0 3 

We denote the rectangle D = {(u, v) : 0 u 2, 0 v 4}, and use the surface area to compute the area of S =
(D). We obtain:
  
Area(S) = n du dv = 2 du dv = 2 1 du dv = 2 Area(D) = 2 2 4 = 16
D D D

## 14. Show that the ellipsoid

 x 2  y 2  z 2
+ + =1
a b c
is parametrized by

## ( , ) = (a cos sin , b sin sin , c cos )

Express the surface area of the ellipsoid as an integral but do not attempt to evaluate it.
SOLUTION We substitute x = a cos sin , y = b sin sin , z = c cos in the equation of the ellipsoid and verify
that the equation is satisfied:
 x 2  y 2  z 2  
+ + = cos2 sin2 + sin2 sin2 + cos2 = sin2 cos2 + sin2 + cos2
a b c
= sin2 + cos2 = 1
1116 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Also for any x, y, z satisfying the equation of the ellipsoid, then (x/a, y/b, z/c) is a point on the sphere X 2 + Y 2 + Z 2 =
1. Thus, there are values of and such that x = a cos sin , y = b sin sin and z != c cos . Therefore, ( , )
parametrizes the whole ellipsoid. The domain is D = ( , ) : 0 2 , 0 . We compute the tangent and
normal vectors:
  
T = = (a cos sin , b sin sin , c cos ) = a sin sin , b cos sin , 0

  
T = = (a cos sin , b sin sin , c cos ) = a cos cos , b sin cos , c sin

The normal vector is the cross product (notice that we are taking the cross product in what seems to be the wrong
order, but since we will just be taking the length of this vector, we dont really care if its the inward or outward pointing
normal, so it doesnt matter if we calculate T T or T T ):
 
 i j k 
 

n( , ) = T T =  a sin sin b cos sin 0 

 a cos cos b sin cos c sin 
     
= bc cos sin2 i ac sin sin2 j ab sin2 sin cos + ab cos2 sin cos k
   
= bc cos sin2 i ac sin sin2 j (ab sin cos )k

Hence,
 1/2
n( , ) = b2 c2 cos2 sin4 + a 2 c2 sin2 sin4 + a 2 b2 sin2 cos2

## We obtain the following area:

   2  1/2
Area(S) = n d d = b2 c2 cos2 sin4 + a 2 c2 sin2 sin4 + a 2 b2 sin2 cos2 d d
D 0 0

## 15. Let S be the surface with parametrization

 
(u, v) = (3 + sin v) cos u, (3 + sin v) sin u, v

## for 0 u, v 2 . Using a computer algebra system:

(a) Plot S from several different viewpoints. Is S best described as a vase that holds water or a bottomless vase?
(b) Calculate the normal vector n(u, v).
(c) Calculate the surface area of S to four decimal places.
SOLUTION
(a) We show the graph of S here.

44
2
2 0
2
6 0 4
6
4 2 4
4 2
2 0

0
4 4
2 2
0 0
2 2
4 4

## Note that it is best described as a bottomless vase.

(b) We compute the tangent and normal vectors:

Tu = = (3 + sin v)( sin u), (3 + sin v)(cos u), 0
u

Tv = = cos v cos u, cos v sin u, 1
v
The normal vector is the cross product:
 
 i j k 
 
n(u, v) = Tu Tv =  (3 + sin v)( sin u) (3 + sin v)(cos u) 0 

 cos v cos u cos v sin u 1 
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1117

= ((3 + sin v) cos u)i + ((3 + sin v) sin u)j ((3 + sin v) cos v)k

Hence,

n(u, v) = (3 + sin v) 1 + cos2 v

## We obtain the following area:

  2  2 
Area(S) = n du dv = (3 + sin v) 1 + cos2 v du dv 144.0181
D 0 0

16. Let S be the surface z = ln(5 x 2 y 2 ) for 0 x, y 1. Using a computer algebra system:
(a) Calculate   surface area of S to four decimal places.
the
(b) Calculate x 2 y 3 d S to four decimal places.
S
SOLUTION

## (a) Using that z x = 2x/(5 x 2 y 2 ) and z y = 2y/(5 x 2 y 2 ), we calculate n to be

 
2 x 2 + y2
n = 1 + (z x ) + (z y ) =
2 2
5 x 2 y2
Thus, the surface area is
 1 1  2
2 x + y2
Area(S) = d x d y 0.3698
0 0 5 x 2 y2

(b) We calculate x 2 y 3 d S as follows:
S
  1 1 
2 x 2 + y2
x 2 y3 d S = x 2 y3 d x d y 0.0508
S 0 0 5 x 2 y2

17. Use spherical coordinates to compute the surface area of a sphere of radius R.
SOLUTION The sphere of radius R centered at the origin has the following parametrization in spherical coordinates:

n = R 2 sin

## Using the integral for surface area gives:

  2    
2
Area(S) = n d d = R 2 sin d d = R2 d sin d
D 0 0 0 0
  

= 2 R 2 cos  = 2 R 2 2 = 4 R 2
0

18. Compute the integral of z over the upper hemisphere of a sphere of radius R centered at the origin.
SOLUTION The upper hemisphere has the following parametrization in spherical coordinates:

( , ) = (R cos sin , R sin sin , R cos ), 0 2 , 0
2
The length of the normal vector is:

n = R 2 sin

The function z expressed in terms of the parameters is z = R cos , therefore we obtain the following surface integral,
  2  /2  2  /2 3
R
z dS = R cos R 2 sin d d = sin 2 d d
S 0 0 0 0 2
    /2  
2 R 3 /2 R3 cos 2  3 1 + 1 = R3
= d sin 2 d = 2  = R
0 2 0 2 2  2
0
1118 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

19. Compute the integral of x 2 over the octant of the unit sphere centered at the origin, where x, y, z 0.
SOLUTION The octant of the unit sphere centered at the origin, where x, y, z 0 has the following parametrization in
spherical coordinates:

( , ) = (cos sin , sin sin , cos ), 0 , 0
2 2
The length of the normal vector is:

n = sin

The function x 2 expressed in terms of the parameters is cos2 sin2 . Using the theorem on computing surface integrals
we obtain,
  /2  /2    /2  /2
x2 d S = cos2 sin2 (sin ) d d = cos2 sin3 d d
S 0 0 0 0
     /2 
/2 /2 sin 2  sin2 cos 2  /2
= cos2 d sin3 d = +  cos 
2 4  3 3
0 0 =0 =0

2
= =
4 3 6

## 20. Show that the hemisphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 , z 0 is parametrized by


(r, ) = (r cos , r sin , R 2 r 2 )

for 0 2 , 0 r R. Compute the surface area of the hemisphere using this parametrization.

SOLUTION We first substitute x = r cos , y = r sin , z = R 2 r 2 in the equation of the sphere and verify that it
is satisfied:
 2
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = (r cos )2 + (r sin )2 + R 2 r 2 = r 2 cos2 + r 2 sin2 + R 2 r 2
 
= r 2 cos2 + sin2 + R 2 r 2 = r 2 + R 2 r 2 = R 2

The inequality z 0 is also satisfied since R 2 r 2 0. Moreover, for any x, y and  z 0 satisfying x 2 + y 2 + z 2 =
R 2 , there are values of the parameters r , such that x = r cos , y = r sin and z = R 2 r 2 . That is: the following
equations can be solved for r and in terms of x, y, z:

x = r cos
y y
y = r sin = tan1 = tan1
 x x

z = R2 r 2 r 2 = x 2 + y 2 = R2 z2 r = R2 z2
x 2 + y 2 + z2 = R2

We conclude that (r, ) parametrizes the whole hemisphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 , z 0. To compute the surface area
of the hemisphere S, we first must find the tangent vectors and the normal vector. That is,
 
    r
Tr = = r cos , r sin , R 2 r 2 = cos , sin , 
r r R2 r 2
   
T = = r cos , r sin , R 2 r 2 = r sin , r cos , 0

The normal vector is the cross product:
 
 i j k 
 
 cos r 
n = Tr T =  sin
R r 

 2 2
 r sin r cos 0 

r 2 cos r 2 sin  
=  i+  j + r cos2 + r sin2 k
R2 r 2 R2 r 2

r 2 cos r 2 sin
=  i+  j + rk
R2 r 2 R2 r 2
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1119

## The length of the normal vector is thus

  
r 4 cos2 r 4 sin2 r4   r4 rR
n = + 2 +r =
2 cos + sin + r =
2 2 2 + r2 = 
R r
2 2 R r 2 R r
2 2 R r
2 2
R2 r 2
We now compute the surface area as the following surface integral:
  2  R
rR
Area(S) = n dr d =  dr d
D 0 0 R2 r 2
   R
2 R r r
= R d  dr = 2 R  dr
0 0 R2 r 2 0 R2 r 2

## We compute the integral using the substitution t = R 2 r 2 , dt = 2r dr . We get:

 0
1
Area(S) = 2 R dt = 2 R 2
R 2t 1/2
2


In Exercises 2132, calculate f (x, y, z) d S for the given surface and function.
S

## 21. (u, v) = (u cos v, u sin v, u), 0 u, v 1; f (x, y, z) = z(x 2 + y 2 )

SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have:

Tu = = (u cos v, u sin v, u) = cos v, sin v, 1
u u

Tv = = (u cos v, u sin v, u) = u sin v, u cos v, 0
v v
The normal vector is the cross product:
 
 i j k 
 
n = Tu Tv =  cos v sin v 1 

 u sin v u cos v 0 
 
= (u cos v)i (u sin v)j + u cos2 v + u sin2 v k

## We compute the length of n:

    
n = (u cos v)2 + (u sin v)2 + u 2 = u 2 cos2 v + sin2 v + 1 = u 2 2 = 2|u| = 2u

## Notice that in the region of integration u 0, therefore |u| = u.

 
Step 2. Calculate the surface integral. We express the function f (x, y, z) = z x 2 + y 2 in terms of the parameters u,
v:
 
f (, (u, v)) = u u 2 cos2 v + u 2 sin2 v = u u 2 = u 3

## We obtain the following integral:

  1 1  1 1
f (x, y, z) d S = f (, (u, v)) n du dv = u3 2u du dv
S 0 0 0 0
  1
1 1 u 5  2
= 2 dv u 4 du = 2  =
0 0 5 5
0


22. (r, ) = (r cos , r sin , ), 0 r 1, 0 2 ; f (x, y, z) = x 2 + y2
SOLUTION
1120 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have:


Tr = = (r cos , r sin , ) = cos , sin , 0
r r

T = = (r cos , r sin , ) = r sin , r cos , 1

The normal vector is their cross product:
 
 i j k   
 
n = Tr T =  cos sin 0  = (sin )i (cos )j + r cos2 + r sin2 k

 r sin r cos 1 

## We compute the length of n:

 
n = sin2 + cos2 + r 2 = 1 + r 2

Step 2. Calculate the surface integral. The surface integral is computed by the following double integral:
   2  1  
f (x, y, z) d S = f ((r, )) n dr d = r 2 cos2 + r 2 sin2 1 + r 2 dr d
S D 0 0
 2  1     1 
2 1 
= r 1 + r dr d =
2 1 d r 1 + r dr = 2
2 r 1 + r 2 dr
0 0 0 0 0

## We compute the integral using the substitution t = 1 + r 2 , dt = 2r dr . We get:

 
  2 2 2 2 1
1 1/2
f (x, y, z) d S = 2 t dt =
S 1 2 3

23. x 2 + y 2 = 4, 0 z 4; f (x, y, z) = ez
SOLUTION The cylinder has the following parametrization in cylindrical coordinates:

## ( , z) = (2 cos , 2 sin , z), 0 2 , 0 z 4

Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. The tangent vectors are the partial derivatives:

T = = (2 cos , 2 sin , z) = 2 sin , 2 cos , 0

Tz = (2 cos , 2 sin , z) = 0, 0, 1
z
The normal vector is their cross product:
 
 i j k 
 
n( , z) = T Tz =  2 sin 2 cos 0  = (2 cos )i + (2 sin )j = 2 cos , 2 sin , 0

 0 0 1 

## The length of the normal vector is thus

   
n( , z) = (2 cos )2 + (2 sin )2 + 0 = 4 cos2 + sin2 = 4 = 2

Step 2. Calculate the surface integral. The surface integral equals the following double integral:
   2  4
f (x, y, z) d S = f (( , z)) n d dz = ez 2 d dz
S D 0 0
  
2 4   4  
= 2 d ez dz = 4 ez  = 4 1 e4
0 0 0

24. z = 4 x 2 y 2 , z 0; f (x, y, z) = z
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1121

## SOLUTION We use the surface integral over a graph:

  
f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, y, g(x, y)) 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y (1)
S D

## Since z = g(x, y) = 4 x 2 y 2 , we have:

 
f (x, y, g(x, y)) = z = 4 x 2 y 2 = 4 x 2 + y 2
    
1 + gx2 + g 2y = 1 + (2x)2 + (2y)2 = 1 + 4 x 2 + y 2

## The domain of integration D is determined by the inequality:

z = 4 x 2 y2 0 x 2 + y2 4
y

x
2

## Substituting in (1) gives:

       
f (x, y, z) d S = 4 x 2 + y2 1 + 4 x 2 + y2 d x d y
S D
We convert the integral to polar coordinates, x = r cos and y = r sin . We get:
  2  2  
f (x, y, z) d S = 4 r2 1 + 4r 2 r dr d
S 0 0
  2 
2 
= 2 4r 1 + 4r 2 dr r 3 1 + 4r 2 dr (2)
0 0

We compute the integrals using the (somewhat unusual) substitution u = 1 + 4r 2 , du = 4r
u dr . We get:
 2   
2 u 3  17
17 17 17 1
4r 1 + 4r 2 dr = u du = =
0 1 3 1 3
 2   2   17 2  17 4
u 1 u u u2
r 3 1 + 4r 2 dr = r 2 1 + 4r 2 r dr = u du = du
0 0 1 4 4 1 16

5 3  17
1 u u 391 17 + 1
=  =
16 5 3  120
u=1

## Substituting the integrals in (2) we obtain:

  
17 17 1 391 17 + 1 289 17 41
f (x, y, z) d S = 2 = 60.244
S 3 120 60

## 25. z = 4 x 2 y 2 , z 0; f (x, y, z) = z(x 2 + y 2 )

SOLUTION We use the formula for the surface integral over a graph:
  
f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, y, g(x, y)) 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y (1)
S D

## Since z = g(x, y) = 4 x 2 y 2 , we have:

       
f (x, y, g(x, y)) = 4 x 2 y 2 x 2 + y 2 = 4 x 2 + y 2 x 2 + y2
1122 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

    
1 + gx2 + g 2y = 1 + (2x)2 + (2y)2 = 1 + 4 x 2 + y 2

## The domain of integration D is determined by the inequality:

D : z = 4 x 2 y2 0 x 2 + y2 4
y
2

D
x
2 0 2

By (1) we obtain:
    
f (x, y, z) d S = 4 (x 2 + y 2 ) (x 2 + y 2 ) 1 + 4(x 2 + y 2 ) d x d y
S D
We convert the integral to polar coordinates x = r cos , y = r sin to obtain:
  2  2   
f (x, y, z) d S = 4 r 2 r 2 1 + 4r 2 r dr d
S 0 0
  2 
2 
= 2 4r 3 1 + 4r 2 dr r 5 1 + 4r 2 dr (2)
0 0

We compute the integrals using the (somewhat unusual) substitution u = 1 + 4r 2 , du = 4r
u dr . This gives:
 2  2  
 17 u 2 1
4r 3 1 + 4r 2 dr = r 2 1 + 4r 2 4r dr = u 2 du
0 0 1 4
 17 4 
u u2 1 u5 u 3  17 391 17 + 1
= du = =
1 4 4 5 3 1 30

 2
 2   2   u2 1  17  
17 u2 1
r 5 1 + 4r 2 dr = r 4 1 + 4r 2 r dr = du = u 6 2u 4 + u 2 du
0 0 1 16 4 64 1
17
1 u7 2u 5 u 3  7769 17 1
= +  =
64 7 5 3 840
1

## Substituting the integrals in (2) gives:

  
391 17 + 1 7769 17 1 3179 17 + 29
f (x, y, z) d S = 2 = 98.26
S 30 840 420

26. y = 9 z 2 , 0 x z 3; f (x, y, z) = 1
SOLUTION We use the formula for the surface integral over a graph y = g(x, z):
  
f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, g(x, z), z) 1 + gx2 + gz2 d x dz (1)
S D

## Since y = g(x, z) = 9 z 2 we have gx = 0, gz = 2z, hence:

 
1 + gx2 + gz2 = 1 + 4z 2

The domain of integration D is the triangle in the x z-plane shown in the figure.
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1123

D
z=x

x
O

By (1) we get:
    3 z
f (x, y, z) d S = 1 + 4z 2 d x dz = 1 + 4z 2 d x dz
S D 0 0
 3 z  3

= 1 + 4z 2 x  dz = 1 + 4z 2 z dz
0 x=0 0

## We compute the integral using the substitution u = 1 + 4z 2 , du = 8zdz. This gives:

  3  37 1/2
u 37 37 1
f (x, y, z) d S = 1 + 4z 2 z dz = du = 18.672
S 0 1 8 12

27. y = 9 z 2 , 0 x, z 3; f (x, y, z) = z
SOLUTION We use the formula for the surface integral over a graph y = g(x, z):
  
f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, g(x, z), z) 1 + gx2 + gz2 d x dz (1)
S D

## Since y = g(x, z) = 9 z 2 , we have gx = 0, gz = 2z, hence:

 
1 + gx2 + gz2 = 1 + 4z 2
f (x, g(x, z), z) = z

The domain of integration is the square [0, 3] [0, 3] in the x z-plane. By (1) we get:
  3 3     3 
3 3 
f (x, y, z) d S = z 1 + 4z 2 dz d x = 1 dx z 1 + 4z 2 dz = 3 z 1 + 4z 2 dz
S 0 0 0 0 0

## We use the substitution u = 1 + 4z 2 , du = 8z dz to compute the integral. This gives:

  3   37 1/2
u 37 37 1
f (x, y, z) d S = 3 z 1 + 4z 2 dz = 3 du = 56
S 0 1 8 4

## 28. (u, v) = (u, v 3 , u + v), 0 u, v 1; f (x, y, z) = y

SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have:
  
Tu = = u, v 3 , u + v = 1, 0, 1
u u
    
Tv = = u, v 3 , u + v = 0, 3v 2 , 1
v v
The normal vector is their cross product:
 
 i j k       
 
n = Tu Tv =  1 0 1  = 3v 2 i j + 3v 2 k = 3v 2 , 1, 3v 2

 0 3v 2 1 

## The length of the normal vector is, thus:

 
n = 9v 4 + 1 + 9v 4 = 1 + 18v 4

Step 2. Calculate the surface integral. We express f (x, y, z) = y in terms of the parameters:

f ((u, v)) = v 3
1124 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## We compute the surface integral by the following double integral:

  1 1  1 1 
f (x, y, z) d S = f ((u, v)) n dv du = v 3 1 + 18v 4 dv du
S 0 0 0 0
   1
1 1  
= du v 3 1 + 18v 4 dv = v 3 1 + 18v 4 dv
0 0 0

## We compute the integral using the substitution t = 1 + 18v 4 , dt = 72v 3 dv . We get:

  1  19 1/2
3 t 19 19 1
f (x, y, z) d S = 1 + 18v v dv =
4 dt = 0.758
S 0 1 72 108

## 29. Part of the plane x + y + z = 1, where x, y, z 0; f (x, y, z) = z

SOLUTION We let z = g(x, y) = 1 x y and use the formula for the surface integral over the graph of z = g(x, y),
where D is the parameter domain in the x y-plane. That is:
  
f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, y, g(x, y)) 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y (1)
S D
We have, gx = 1 and g y = 1 therefore:
 
1 + gx2 + g 2y = 1 + (1)2 + (1)2 = 3

## f (x, y, g(x, y)) = z = 1 x y

The domain of integration is the triangle D in the x y-plane shown in the figure.
z

x+y=1

y D

x x
S: x + y + z = 1, x 0, y 0, z 0 0 1

By (1) we get:
  1  1y 1y
 1 x2 
f (x, y, z) d S = (1 x y) 3 d x d y = 3 x yx  dy
S 0 0 0 2 x=0
 
 1 2 (1 y)2 3 1 
= 3 (1 y) dy = 1 2y + y 2 d y
0 2 2 0

3 y 3 1 3
= y y2 + =
2 3 0 6

## 30. Region in the plane x + y + z = 0 contained in the cylinder x 2 + y 2 = 1; f (x, y, z) = x z

SOLUTION Let z = g(x, y) = x y. The projection of the surface onto the x y-plane is:

D : x 2 + y2 1
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1125

We use the surface integral over a graph to write the surface integral as the following double integral:
  
f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, y, g(x, y)) 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y (1)
S D

D
x
1

We have:
 
gx = 1, g y = 1 1 + gx2 + g 2y = 1 + (1)2 + (1)2 = 3

## We substitute in (1) to obtain:

   
f (x, y, z) d S = x 2 x y 3 dx dy
S D
We convert the double integral to polar coordinates x = r cos , y = r sin :
  2  1  
f (x, y, z) d S = r 2 cos2 (r cos )(r sin ) 3r dr d
S 0 0
   
 2  1 3 sin 2  2 r 4 sin 2 1
= 3 r cos2 + dr d = 3 cos2 +  d
0 0 2 0 4 2 r =0
    
3 2 2 sin 2 3 sin 2 cos 2 2
= cos d = + 
4 0 2 4 2 4 4 0
 
3 1 1 3
= + =
4 4 4 4

## 31. Part of the surface x = z 3 , where 0 x, y 1; f (x, y, z) = x

SOLUTION We let z = g(x, y) = x 1/3 and use the formula for the surface integral over a graph:
  
f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, y, g(x, y)) 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y (1)
S D
where D is the square [0, 1] [0, 1] in the x y-plane. We compute the integrand in (1):

1 2/3 1
gx = x , gy = 0 1 + gx + g y = 1 + x 4/3
2 2
3 9
1126 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## Substituting in (1) we get:

  1 1   1
1 4/3 1
f (x, y, z) d S = x 1+ x dx dy = x 1 + x 4/3 d x
S 0 0 9 0 9

## We compute the integral using the substitution 13 x 2/3 = tan . Then:

1 4/3  1
1+ x = 1 + tan2 =
9 cos

8/3 d = 1 cos d
2 1 9 1 2
x 5/3 d x = d x dx = x
9 cos2 2 cos2 18 sin4
Hence:

1 4/3 1 cos
1+ x x dx = d
9 18 sin4
We obtain the following integral, which we compute by substituting u = sin , du = cos d :

10
1
()
tan1
1
3
3

 
  tan1 1  sin tan1 1 = 1
3 1 cos 1 3 10 1
f (x, y, z) d S = d = du
S /2 18 sin
4 18 1 u4

1 1 1/( 10) 1  
= 3 = 10 10 1 0.567
54 u 1 54

32. Part of the unit sphere centered at the origin, where x 0 and |y| x; f (x, y, z) = x
SOLUTION We parametrize the surface as follows:

( , ) = (cos sin , sin sin , cos ), , 0
4 4
y

x
y=

p
q= 4
x
p 1
q = 4

y=
x

## The function expressed in terms of the parameters is:

 
f ( , ) = x = cos sin

## We obtain the following integral:

    /4
 
f (x, y, z) d S = f ( , ) n d d = (cos sin ) sin d d
S D 0 /4
  /4    /4
= cos sin2 d d = sin2 d cos d
0 /4 0 /4
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1127
  
sin 2   /4

=  sin = = 2=
2 4 =0 4 2 2

33. Let S be the sphere of radius R centered at the origin. Explain the following equalities using symmetry:
  
(a) x dS = y dS = z dS = 0
 S  S S
(b) x2 d S = y2 d S = z2 d S
S S S 
4
Then show, by adding the three integrals in part (b), that x 2 d S = R4 .
S 3
SOLUTION
(a) Since the sphere is symmetric with respect to the yz-plane, the surface integrals of x over the hemispheres on the
two sides of the plane cancel each other and the result is zero. The two other integrals are zero due to the symmetry of
the sphere with respect to the x z and x y-planes.
(b)
 Since the sphere is symmetric with respect to the x y, x z and yz-planes,
 2 interchanging x and  y in2 the integral for
x 2 d S does not change the value of the integral and the result is y d S. The equality for
S S S z d S is explained
similarly.
On the sphere, we have x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 so, using properties of integrals, the integral for surface area, and the
surface area of the sphere of radius R we obtain:
      
x2 d S + y2 d S + z2 d S = x 2 + y 2 + z2 d S = R2 1 dS
S S S S S

= R 2 Area(S) = R 2 4 R 2 = 4 R 4

Combining with (b) we conclude that the value of each of the integrals is 43 R 4 . That is:
  
4
x2 d S = y2 d S = z2 d S = R4 .
S S S 3

34. Calculate (x y + e z ) d S, where S is the triangle in Figure 18 with vertices (0, 0, 3), (1, 0, 2), and (0, 4, 1). Hint:
S
Find the equation of the plane containing the triangle.

(0, 0, 3)

(1, 0, 2)

(0, 4, 1)
1
x 4 y

FIGURE 18

SOLUTION We find the equation of the plane through the points A = (0, 0, 3), B = (0, 4, 1) and C = (1, 0, 2).

A = (0, 0, 3)

C = (1, 0, 2)
B = (0, 4, 1)
y
4

x 1

## A normal to the plane is the cross product:

 
 i j k 
 
AB AC = 0, 4, 2 1, 0, 1 =  0 4 2  = 4i 2j 4k = 2 2, 1, 2

 1 0 1 

The equation of the plane passing through A = (0, 0, 3) and perpendicular to the vector 2, 1, 2 is:

x 0, y 0, z 3 2, 1, 2 = 0
2x + y + 2(z 3) = 0
1128 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

2x + y + 2z = 6

or
1
z = g(x, y) = x y+3
2
We compute the surface integral of f (x, y, z) = x y + e z over the triangle ABC using the formula for the surface integral
over a graph. The parameter domain D is the projection of the triangle ABC onto the x y-plane (see figure).
y

(0, 4)

2
y = 4x + 4

x
O (1, 0) 2

We have:
 
 
f (x, y, z) d S = f x, y, g(x, y) 1 + gx2 + gz2 d x d y (1)
S D

## We compute the functions in the integrand. Since z = g(x, y) = x 2y + 3, we have:


  
1 1 2 3
gx = 1, g y = 1 + gx2 + gz2 = 1 + (1)2 + =
2 2 2
  y
f x, y, g(x, y, z) = x y + e z = x y + ex 2 +3

## Substituting in (1) gives:

  1  4x+4   3  1 4x+4
3x y 2 
f (x, y, z) d S = x y + exy/2+3 d y d x = 3exy/2+3  dx
S 0 0 2 0 4 y=0
 1
3x(4x + 4)2 x(4x+4)/2+3 x+3
= 3e + 3e dx
0 4
 1  1

= 12x 3 24x 2 + 12x 3e x+1 + 3ex+3 4 3 2
d x = 3x 8x + 6x 3e x+1 3e x+3 

0 0

## = (1 3e2 3e2 ) (3e 3e3 ) = 3e3 6e2 + 3e + 1 25.08

35. Find the area of the portion of the plane 2x + 3y + 4z = 28 lying above the rectangle 1 x 3, 2 y 5 in the
x y-plane.
SOLUTION We rewrite the equation of the plane as:
x 3
z = g(x, y) = y+7 (1)
2 4
The domain of the parameters is the rectangle D = [1, 3] [2, 5] in the x y-plane. Using the integral for surface area and
the surface integral over a graph we have:
  
Area(S) = 1 dS = 1 + gx2 + gz2 d x d y (2)
S D
y
5

x
0 1 3
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1129

By (1) we have:

1 3 2 2 1 9 29
gx = , g y = 1 + g x + gz = 1 + + =
2 4 4 16 4
We substitute in (2) to obtain:
 
29 29 29 29 3 29
Area(S) = dx dy = 1 dx dy = Area(D) = 32=
D 4 4 D 4 4 2

36. What is the area of the portion of the plane 2x + 3y + 4z = 28 lying above the domain D in the x y-plane in Figure
19 if Area(D) = 5?

FIGURE 19

## SOLUTION We rewrite the equation of the plane as:

x 3
z = g(x, y) = y+7
2 4
Hence:

    
1 2 3 2 29
1 + gx2 + g 2y = 1+ + =
2 4 4
We use the integral for surface area and the surface integral over a graph to write:
   
29
Area(S) = 1 dS = 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y =
dx dy
S D D 4

29 29 29 5 29
= 1 dx dy = Area(D) = 5= 6.73
4 D 4 4 4

37. Compute the integral of f (x, y, z) = z 2 (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )1 over the cap of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4 defined by
z 1.
SOLUTION We use spherical coordinates to parametrize the cap S.

## ( , ) = (2 cos sin , 2 sin sin , 2 cos )

D : 0 2 , 0 0

The angle 0 is determined by cos 0 = 12 , that is, 0 = 3 . The length of the normal vector in spherical coordinates is:

## n = R 2 sin = 4 sin

 1
We express the function f (x, y, z) = z 2 x 2 + y 2 + z 2 in terms of the parameters:
 
f ( , ) = (2 cos )2 41 = cos2

## Using the theorem on computing the surface integral we get:

   2  /3  
 
f (x, y, z) d S = f ( , ) n d d = cos2 4 sin d d
S D 0 0
   
2 /3 cos  /3
= 4 d cos2 sin d = 8 
0 0 3 0
   
1 1 1 7 7
= 8 = 8 =
8 6 3 24 3
1130 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

38. Calculate f (x, y, z) = z(x 2 + y 2 ) d S, where S is the hemisphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 , z 0.
S
SOLUTION We parametrize the hemisphere, using spherical coordinates, by

( , ) = (R cos sin , R sin sin , R cos ), 0 2 , 0
2
For this parametrization, the length of the normal vector is:

n = R 2 sin
 
We express the function f (x, y, z) = z x 2 + y 2 in terms of the parameters:
   
f ( , ) = R cos R 2 cos2 sin2 + R 2 sin2 sin2
 
= R cos R 2 sin2 cos2 + sin2 = R 3 sin2 cos

## The surface integral is computed by the following double integral:

   2  /2  
 
f (x, y, z) d S = f ( , ) n d d = R 3 sin2 cos R 2 sin d d
S D 0 0
   /2
2 /2
= R5 d sin3 cos d = 2 R 5 sin3 cos d
0 0 0

## We compute the integral using the substitution u = sin , du = cos d . We get:

  1 1
5 3 5 u 4  R5
f (x, y, z) d S = 2 R u du = 2 R  =
S 0 4  2
0

39. Let S be the portion of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9, where 1 x 2 + y 2 4 and z 0 (Figure 20). Find a
parametrization of S in polar coordinates and use it to compute:

(a) The area of S (b) z 1 d S
S

1 2
y

FIGURE 20

SOLUTION

D
x
1 2 3

D : 0 2 , 0 1

## The angles 0 and 1 are determined by,

1 1
sin 0 = 0 = sin1
3 3
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1131

2 2
sin 1 = 1 = sin1
3 3
z

f1
f0

x
y

## (a) Using the integral for the surface area we have,

  2  sin1 (2/3)  
2 sin1 (2/3)
Area(S) = n d d = 9 sin d d = 9 d sin d
D 0 sin1 (1/3) 0 sin1 (1/3)

1 =sin1 (2/3)  
 5 8
= 18 cos  1
= 18 + = 6 8 5 11.166
0 =sin (1/3) 3 3

3
2
3
1
f1 f0

5 8

## (b) We express the function f (x, y, z) = z 1 in the terms of the parameters:

  sec
f ( , ) = (3 cos )1 =
3
Using the surface integral as a double integral we obtain:
   2  1  2  1
  sec
z 1 d S = f ( , ) n d d = 9 sin d d = 3 tan d d
S D 0 0 3 0 0
  1 =sin1 (2/3)
2 1 
= 3 d tan d = 6 ln(sec )
0 0 1 0 =sin (1/3)
 
3 3 8
= 6 ln ln = 6 ln = 3 ln 1.6 4.43
5 8 5

40. Find the surface area of the part of the cone x 2 + y 2 = z 2 between the planes z = 2 and z = 5.
SOLUTION

y
x

## (u, v) = (u cos v, u sin v, u)

D : 0 v 2 , 2 u 5
1132 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have,

Tu = = (u cos v, u sin v, u) = cos v, sin v, 1
u u

Tv = = (u cos v, u sin v, u) = u sin v, u cos v, 0
v v
The normal vector is their cross product:
 
 i j k   
 
n = Tu Tv =  cos v sin v 1  = (u cos v)i (u sin v)j + u cos2 v + u sin2 v k

 u sin v u cos v 0 

## We compute the length of n:

    
n = u cos v + u sin v + u = u 2 cos2 v + sin2 v + u 2 = 2u 2 = u 2
2 2 2 2 2

Step 2. Calculate the surface area. Using the formula for the surface area as a double integral gives:
  2  5  
2 5
Area(S) = n du dv = 2u du dv = 2 dv u du
D 0 2 0 2

u 2 5 25 4
= 2 2 = 2 2 = 21 2 93.3
2 2 2

41. Find the surface area of the portion S of the cone z 2 = x 2 + y 2 , where z 0, contained within the cylinder
y 2 + z 2 1.

SOLUTION We rewrite the equation of the cone as x = z 2 y 2 . The projection of the cone onto the yz-plane is
obtained by setting x = 0 in the equation of the cone, that is,

x = 0 = z 2 y 2 z = y

Since on S, z 0, we get z = |y|. We conclude that the projection of the upper part of the cone x 2 + y 2 = z 2 onto the
yz-plane is the region between the lines z = y and z = y on the upper part of the yz-plane. Therefore, the projection
D of S onto the yz-plane is the region shown in the figure:
z

y2 + z2 =1 z= 1 y2

z = y z=y

y
1 1
2 2

## The area of S is the surface integral:


Area(S) = dS
S

We compute the integral using a surface integral over a graph. Since x = g(y, z) = z 2 y 2 we have,
z y
gz =  , gy = 
z2 y2 z2 y2
Hence, (notice that z 0 on S):
 

z2 y2 2z 2 z 2
1 + g 2y + gz2 = 1+ 2 + 2 = = 
z y 2 z y2 z2 y2 z2 y2
We obtain the following integral:
  
z 2
Area(S) = 1 + g 2y + gz2 d y dz =  dz d y
D D z2 y2
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1133

## Using symmetry gives:

 1/(2)  1y 2
 1/( 2)  1y 2

z 2 z dz
Area(S) = 2  dz d y = 2 2  dy (1)
0 y z2 y2 0 y z2 y2

We compute the inner integral using the substitution u = z 2 y 2 , du = uz dz. We get:
 1y 2  1y 2  12y 2 
z dz u du
 = = du = 1 2y 2
y z2 y2 0 u 0

We substitute in (1) and compute the resulting integral using the substitution t = 2y. We get:

 1/( 2)   1 dt
 1

Area(S) = 1 2y 2 d y = 2 2 1 t2 = 2 1 t 2 dt = 2 =
0 0 2 0 4 2

42. Find the integral of e2x+yz over the following faces of the cube of side 2 in Figure 21.
(a) The top face (b) The face PQRS

2
Q

O R
P
y
2
x S

FIGURE 21

SOLUTION
(a) The top face is the part of the plane z = g(x, y) = 2 lying over the domain D = [0, 2] [0, 2] in the x y-plane. We
compute the surface integral using the formula for the surface integral over a graph. That is,
  
f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, y, g(x, y)) 1 + gx2 + g 2y d x d y (1)
S S

## We compute the functions in the integrand:


1 + gx2 + g 2y = 1+0+0=1

## Substituting in (1) gives:

  2 2  
2 2
f (x, y, z) d S = e2x+2y 1 d x d y = e2x d x e2y d y
S 0 0 0 0

2   2
 2
1 2x 2 1 4 e4 1
= e  = e 1 = 718.2
2 x=0 2 4

(b) The face P Q RS is the part of the plane y = g(x, z) = 2 lying over the domain D = [0, 2] [0, 2] in the x z-plane.
We use the surface integral over a graph to write:
  
f (x, y, z) d S = f (x, g(x, z), z) 1 + gx2 + gz2 d x dz (2)
S S

## We compute the function in the integrand:


1 + gx2 + gz2 = 1 + 0 + 0 = 1

## f (x, g(x, z), z) = e2x+2z

Substituting in (2) we obtain an integral that is equal to the integral computed in part (a). That is,
 2
  2 2 e4 1
f (x, y, z) d S = e2x+2z d x dz = 718.2
S 0 0 4
1134 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

43. Prove a famous result of Archimedes: The surface area of the portion of the sphere of radius r between two horizontal
planes z = a and z = b is equal to the surface area of the corresponding portion of the circumscribed cylinder (Figure
22).

b
a

FIGURE 22

SOLUTION We compute the area of the portion of the sphere between the planes a and b. The portion S1 of the sphere
has the parametrization,

## ( , ) = (r cos sin , r sin sin , r cos )

where,

D1 : 0 2 , 0 1

If we assume 0 < a < b, then the angles 0 and 1 are determined by,
b b
cos 0 = 0 = cos1
r r
a 1 a
cos 1 = 1 = cos
r r

b r a r
f1
f0

The length of the normal vector is n = r 2 sin . We obtain the following integral:
    
2 1 2 2
Area (S1 ) = nd d = r 2 sin d d = r 2d sin d
D1 0 0 0 1
cos1 a  
 r a b
= 2 r 2 cos  = 2 r 2 + = 2 r (b a)
=cos1 br r r

The area of the part S2 of the cylinder of radius r between the planes z = a and z = b is:

Area (S2 ) = 2 r (b a)

## Further Insights and Challenges

44. Surfaces of Revolution Let S be the surface formed by revolving the region underneath the graph z = g(y) in the
yz-plane for c y d about the z-axis (Figure 23). Assume that c 0.
(a) Show that the circle generated by rotating a point (0, a, b) about the z-axis is parametrized by

## (a cos , a sin , b), 0 2

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1135

## (y, ) = (y cos , y sin , g(y)) 12

for c y d, 0 2 .
(c) Show that
 d 
Area(S) = 2 y 1 + g (y)2 d y 13
c

z z

## (a cos , a sin , b) z = g(y)

(0, y, g(y))
b
(0, a, b)

a y y
x
(a cos , a sin , 0) x (y cos , y sin , g(y))
FIGURE 23

SOLUTION
(a) The circle generated by rotating a point (0, a, b) about the z-axis is a circle of radius a centered at the point (0, 0, b)
on the z-axis. Therefore it is parametrized by,

## (a cos , a sin , b), 0 2

(b) An arbitrary point (x, y, g(y)) on the surface S lies on the circle generated by rotating the point (0, y, g(y)) about
the z-axis. Using part (a), a parametrization of this circle is:

## (y, ) = (y cos , y sin , g(y)) , 0 2 , c y d.

(c) To compute the area of S we first find the tangent and normal vectors. We have:
  
Ty = = (y cos , y sin , g(y)) = cos , sin , g (y)
y y

T = = (y cos , y sin , g(y)) = y sin , y cos , 0

The normal vector is their cross product:
 
 i j k 

n = T y T =  cos sin g (y) 
 y sin y cos 0 
     
= y cos g (y) i y sin g (y) j + y cos2 + y sin2 k
 
= y cos g (y), sin g (y), 1

## We compute the length of n:

    
n = |y| cos2 g (y)2 + sin2 g (y)2 + 1 = |y| g (y)2 cos2 + sin2 + 1 = |y| 1 + g (y)2

## We obtain the following integral for the surface area:

   2  d 
Area(S) = 1 dS = n d y d = |y| 1 + g (y)2 d y d
D D 0 c
    d 
2 d
= 1 d
|y| 1 + g (y) d y = 2
2 |y| 1 + g (y)2 d y
0 c c

45. Use Eq. (13) to compute the surface area of z = 4 y 2 for 0 y 2 rotated about the z-axis.
1136 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

SOLUTION Since g(y) = 4 y 2 , we have g (y) = 2y. By Eq. (13) we obtain the following integral,
 2   2 
Area(S) = 2 |y| 1 + (2y)2 d y = 2 y 1 + 4y 2 d y
0 0

## We compute the integral using the substitution u = 1 + 4y 2 , du = 8y d y. We get:

 17 
du 2 u 3/2 17  
Area(S) = 2 u 1/2 = 2  = 17 17 1 36.18
1 8 3 8 1 6

46. Describe the upper half of the cone x 2 + y 2 = z 2 for 0 z d as a surface of revolution (Figure 2) and use
Eq. (13) to compute its surface area.
SOLUTION We find the graph z = g(y) in the (yz)-plane that when revolved about the z-axis describes the upper part
of the cone. Substituting x = 0 in the equation of the cone we have,

02 + y 2 = z 2 z = y

The generating curve is z = g(y) = y for 0 y d. Therefore g (y) = 1 and Eq. (13) gives:
 d  d  
  d y 2 d
Area(S) = 2 |y| 1 + g (y)2 d y = 2 y 1 + 12 d y = 2 2 y d y = 2 2  = 2 d 2
0 0 0 2 0

z=y
y
d

47. Area of a Torus Let T be the torus obtained by rotating the circle in the yz-plane of radius a centered at (0, b, 0)
about the z-axis (Figure 24). We assume that b > a > 0.
(a) Use Eq. (13) to show that
 b+a
ay
Area(T) = 4  dy
ba a (b y)2
2

z z

ba
b+a

b y
y

x x
FIGURE 24 The torus obtained by rotating a circle of radius a.

(b) Show that Area(T) = 4 2 ab. Hint: Rewrite the integral using substitution.
SOLUTION
(a) Using symmetry, the area of the surface obtained by rotating the upper part of the circle is half the area of the torus.
z

ba
b+a

b
y

x
S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1137

The rotated graph is z = g(y) = a 2 (y b)2 , b a y b + a. So, we have,

2(y b) yb
g (y) =  = 
2 a 2 (y b)2 a 2 (y b)2
 

(y b)2 a 2 (y b)2 + (y b)2 a
1 + g (y)2 = 1 + = = 
a (y b)
2 2 a (y b)
2 2
a 2 (y b)2

We now use symmetry and Eq. (13) to obtain the following area of the torus (we assume that b a > 0, hence y > 0):
 b+a   b+a
ay
Area (T) = 2 2 |y| 1 + g (y)2 d y = 4  dy (1)
ba ba a 2 (y b)2

## (b) We compute the integral using the substitution u = yb 1

a , du = a d y. We get:
 b+a  1  1 2  1  1
ay a 2 u + ab a u + ab a2 u ab
 dy =  a du =  du =  du +  du
ba a 2 (y b) 2 1 a a u
2 2 2 1 1u 2 1 1u 2 1 1 u2

The first integral is zero since the integrand is an odd function. We get:
 b+a  1 1  
ay ab 
 dy = 2  du = 2ab sin1 u  = 2ab 0 = ab
ba 1 u2 2
a 2 (y b)2 0 0

## Substituting in (1) gives the following area:

Area (T) = 4 ab = 4 2 ab

48. Pappuss Theorem Also called Guldins Rule, Pappuss Theorem states that the area of a surface of revolution S
is equal to the length L of the generating curve times the distance traversed by the center of mass. Use Eq. (13) to prove
Pappuss Theorem. If C is the graph z = g(y) for c y d, then the center of mass is defined as the point (y, z) with
 
1 1
y= y ds, z= z ds
L C L C

SOLUTION We may assume that the generating curve z = g(y) lies in the region y 0 (otherwise we translate the
axes so that this condition is satisfied). The curve z = g(y), c y d is parametrized by:

## C : c(y) = (y, g(y)) , cyd

Hence,

 
c (y) = 1, g (y) c (y) = 1 + g (y)2

## Using the theorem on computing scalar line integrals, we obtain:

  d  d 
y ds = yc (y) d y = y 1 + g (y)2 d y (1)
C c c

The center of mass (y, z) of the generating curve traverses a circle of radius y. Therefore the distance traversed by the
center of mass is 2 y. The length L of the generating curve, times the distance traversed by the center of mass, is:
 
1
L 2 y = L 2 y ds = 2 y ds
L C C
Combining with (1) we get:
 d 
L 2 y = 2 y 1 + g (y)2 d y
c

Since y 0, the right hand-side is the area of the surface of revolution S, as stated in Eq. (13). Therefore we get:

L 2 y = Area(S)

## This proves Pappus Theorem.

49. Compute the surface area of the torus in Exercise 47 using Pappuss Theorem.
1138 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

SOLUTION The generating curve is the circle of radius a in the (y, z)-plane centered at the point (0, b, 0). The length
of the generating curve is L = a.
z

2b
L = 2b
ba
b b+a
y

The center of mass of the circle is at the center (y, z) = (b, 0), and it traverses a circle of radius b centered at the origin.
Therefore, the center of mass makes a distance of 2 b. Using Pappus Theorem, the area of the torus is:

L 2 a = 2 a 2 b = 4 2 ab.

50. Potential due to a Uniform Sphere Let S be a hollow sphere of radius R with center at the origin with
a uniform mass distribution of total mass m [since S has surface area 4 R 2 , the mass density is = m/(4 R 2 )]. The
gravitational potential (P) due to S at a point P = (a, b, c) is equal to

dS
G 
S (x a) + (y b)2 + (z c)2
2

(a) Use symmetry to conclude that the potential depends only on the distance r from P to the center of the sphere.
Therefore, it suffices to compute (P) for a point P = (0, 0, r ) on the z-axis (with r  = R).
(b) Use spherical coordinates to show that (0, 0, r ) is equal to
 
Gm 2 sin d d

4 0 0 R + r 2 2Rr cos
2

## (c) Use the substitution u = R 2 + r 2 2Rr cos to show that

mG  
(0, 0, r ) = |R + r | |R r |
2Rr
(d) Verify formula (11) for .
SOLUTION
(a) The gravitational potential due to S at a point P = (a, b, c) is given by:

dS
(P) = G 
S (x a)2 + (y b)2 + (z c)2

Due to the symmetry of the sphere, the sum of the distances of a point P = (a, b, c) from the points Q = (x, y, z) on
the
 sphere is equal for all the points P located at the same distance r from the center of the sphere. That is, the integral
d S depends only on r . Since is constant, the integral for (P) also depends only on r . Thus, we might as
S |QP| 
well assume that P is on the z-axis at the point (0, 0, r ), with r being a 2 + b2 + c2 .
(b) For a = b = 0, and c = r we have,

dS
(0, 0, r ) = G  (1)
S x 2 + y 2 + (z r )2

n = R 2 sin

## = R 2 sin2 + R 2 cos2 2Rr cos + r 2 = R 2 2Rr cos + r 2

S E C T I O N 17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals (ET Section 16.4) 1139

## The surface integral in (1) is equal to the following double integral:

  2   2 m R 2 sin d d
n d d
4 R
2
(0, 0, r ) = G  = G
0 0 R 2 2Rr cos + r 2 0 0 R 2 2Rr cos + r 2
 
Gm 2 sin d d
= 
4 0 0 R 2 2Rr cos + r 2

(c) We compute the double integral for (0, 0, r ). Since the integrand does not depend on , we have,
 
Gm sin d Gm sin d
(0, 0, r ) = 2  = 
4 0 R 2 + r 2 2Rr cos 2 0 R 2 + r 2 2Rr cos

We compute the integral using the substitution u = R 2 + r 2 2Rr cos , du = 2Rr sin d . We obtain:
  (R+r )2
Gm (R+r ) 2Rr Gm (R+r ) 1/2
2 du 2
Gm 
(0, 0, r ) = = u du = 2u 1/2 
2 (Rr )2 u 4Rr (Rr )2 4Rr u=(Rr )2
    
Gm 1/2 1/2 Gm
= (R + r )2 (R r )2 = (|R + r | |R r |)
2Rr 2Rr
(d) For r > R:

|R + r | |R r | = R + r (r R) = 2R

Thus,
Gm Gm
(0, 0, r ) = 2R = .
2Rr r
Similarly, for r < R we obtain,
Gm Gm
(0, 0, r ) = 2r = .
2Rr R

51. Calculate the gravitational potential for a hemisphere of radius R with uniform mass distribution.
SOLUTION In Exercise 50(b) we expressed the potential for a sphere of radius R. To find the potential for a hemi-
sphere of radius R, we need only to modify the limits of the angle to 0 2 . This gives the following integral:
   /2
Gm /2 2 sin d d Gm sin d
(0, 0, r ) = (r ) =  = 2 
4 0 0 R + r 2Rr cos
2 2 4 0 R + r 2 2Rr cos
2


Gm /2 sin d
= 
4 0 R + r 2 2Rr cos
2

We compute the integral using the substitution u = R 2 + r 2 2Rr cos , du = 2Rr sin d . We obtain:
 2 2 du  2 2  R 2 +r 2
Gm R +r 2Rr Gm R +r 1/2 Gm 
(r ) = = u du = 2u 1/2 
2 (Rr )2 u 4Rr (Rr )2 4Rr u=(Rr )2
      
Gm 1/2 1/2 Gm
= R2 + r 2 (R r )2 = R 2 + r 2 |R r |
2Rr 2Rr

52. The surface of a cylinder of radius R and length L has a uniform mass distribution (the top and bottom of the
cylinder are excluded). Use Eq. (10) to find the gravitational potential at a point P located along the axis of the cylinder.
SOLUTION By Eq. (10) the gravitational potential at a point P = (0, 0, c) along the axis of the cylinder is:

dS
(0, 0, c) = G 
S x 2 + y 2 + (z c)2
1140 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

z
P = (0, 0, c)

y
R

## We compute the tangent and normal vectors:


T = = R sin , R cos , 0


Tz = = 0, 0, 1
z
Hence,
 
 i j k 
 
n = T Tz =  R sin R cos 0  = (R cos )i + (R sin )j = R cos , sin , 0

 0 0 1 

Hence,

n = R cos2 + sin2 = R

## We express the function in the integrand in terms of the parameters:

  
x 2 + y 2 + (z c)2 = R 2 cos2 + R 2 sin2 + (z c)2 = R 2 + (z c)2

## We obtain the following integral:

 2  L  2  L  2  L
n dz d R dz d dz d
(0, 0, c) = G  = G  = G R 
0 0 R + (z c)
2 2 0 0 R + (z c)
2 2 0 0 R + (z c)2
2

 L    L
dz  
= G R 2  = 2G R ln z c + (z c) + R  
 2 2
0 R 2 + (z c)2 z=0
      
= 2G R ln L c + (L c)2 + R 2 ln c + c2 + R 2

L c+ (L c)2 + R 2
= 2G R ln 
c + c2 + R 2

53. Let S be the part of the graph z = g(x, y) lying over a domain D in the x y-plane. Let = (x, y) be the angle
between the normal to S and the vertical. Prove the formula

dA
Area(S) =
D | cos |

SOLUTION

z
n
f = f(x, y)
S
(x, y, g(x, y))

D y

x
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1141

## Using the Surface Integral over a Graph we have:

  
Area(S) = 1 dS = 1 + gx2 + g 2y d A (1)
S D
In parametrizing the surface by (x, y) = (x, y, g(x, y)), (x, y) = D, we have:

Tx = = 1, 0, gx 
x
  
Ty = = 0, 1, g y
y
Hence,
 
 i j k 
   
n = Tx T y =  1 0 gx  = gx i g y j + k = gx , g y , 1
 0 1 gy 

n = gx2 + g 2y + 1

k n

There are two adjacent angles between the normal n and the vertical, and the cosines of these angles are opposite numbers.
Therefore we take the absolute value of cos to obtain a positive value for Area(S). Using the Formula for the cosine of
the angle between two vectors we get:
 
|n k| | gx , g y , 1 0, 0, 1 | 1
| cos | = =  = 
nk 2
1+g +g 1 2 1 + g2 + g2
x y x y


dA
Area(S) =
D | cos |

## 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5)

Preliminary Questions
1. Let F be a vector field and (u, v) a parametrization of a surface S, and set n = Tu Tv . Which of the following
is the normal component of F?
(a) F n (b) F en
SOLUTION The normal component of F is F en rather than F n.

2. The vector surface integral F dS is equal to the scalar surface integral of the function (choose the correct
S
(a) F
(b) F n, where n is a normal vector
(c) F en , where en is the unit normal vector

SOLUTION The vector surface integral
 S F 
dS is defined as the scalar surface integral of the normal component of
F on the oriented surface. That is, S F dS = S (F en ) d S as stated in (c).

3. F dS is zero if (choose the correct answer):
S
(a) F is tangent to S at every point.
(b) F is perpendicular to S at every point.

SOLUTION Since S F dS is equal to the scalar surface integral of the normal component of F on S, this integral is
zero when the normal component is zero at every point, that is, when F is tangent to S at every point as stated in (a).
1142 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

4. If F(P) = en (P) at each point on S, then F dS is equal to (choose the correct answer):
S
(a) Zero (b) Area(S) (c) Neither
SOLUTION If F(P) = en (P) at each point on S, then,:
   
F dS = (en en ) d S = en 2 d S = 1 d S = Area(S)
S S S S

## Therefore, (b) is the correct answer.


5. Let S be the disk x 2 + y 2 1 in the x y-plane oriented with normal in the positive z-direction. Determine F dS
S
for each of the following vector constant fields:
(a) F = 1, 0, 0
(b) F = 0, 0, 1
(c) F = 1, 1, 1
SOLUTION The unit normal vector to the oriented disk is en = 0, 0, 1.
 Since F en = 1, 0, 0 0, 0, 1 = 0, F is perpendicular to the unit normal vector at every point on S, therefore
(a)
S F dS = 0.
(b) Since F = en at every point on S, we have:
   
F dS = (en en ) d S = en 2 d S = 1 d S = Area(S) =
S S S S

## (c) For F = 1, 1, 1 we have:

   
F dS = (F en ) d S = 1, 1, 1 0, 0, 1 d S = 1 d S = Area(S) =
S S S S

6. Estimate F dS, where S is a tiny oriented surface of area 0.05 and the value of F at a sample point in S is a
S
vector of length 2 making an angle 4 with the normal to the surface.
SOLUTION

en F

S
4
P

Since S is a tiny surface, we may assume that the dot product F en on S is equal to the dot product at the sample point.
This gives the following approximation:
   
F dS = (F en ) dS (F(P) en (P)) dS = F(P) en (P) 1dS = F(P) en Area(S)
S S S S

That is,

F dS F(P) en (P)Area(S) (1)
S

## We are given that Area(S) = 0.05. We compute the dot product:

1
F(P) en (P) = F(P)en (P) cos =21 = 2
4 2
Combining with (1) gives the following estimation:

F dS 0.05 2 0.0707.
S

7. A small surface S is divided into three pieces of area 0.2. Estimate F dS if F is a unit vector field making
S
angles of 85, 90, and 95 with the normal at sample points in these three pieces.
SOLUTION
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1143

F en
en F en
F

P1 P3
P2
S1 S3

S2

## We estimate the vector surface integral by the following sum:


F dS = F (P1 ) en (P1 ) Area (S1 ) + F (P2 ) en (P2 ) Area (S2 ) + F (P3 ) en (P3 ) Area (S3 )
S
= 0.2 (F (P1 ) en (P1 ) + F (P2 ) en (P2 ) + F (P3 ) en (P3 ))

We compute the dot product. Since F and en are unit vectors, we have:

## F (P1 ) en (P1 ) = cos 85 0.0872

F (P2 ) en (P2 ) = cos 90 = 0
F (P3 ) en (P3 ) = cos 95 0.0872

## Substituting gives the following estimation:


F dS 0.2(0.0872 + 0 0.0872) = 0.
S

Exercises
1. Let F = y, z, x and let S be the oriented surface parametrized by (u, v) = (u 2 v, u + v, v 2 ) for 0 u 2,
1 v 1. Calculate:
(a) n and F n as functions of u and v
(b) The normal component of F to the surface at P = (3, 3, 1) = (2, 1)

(c) F dS
S
SOLUTION
(a) The tangent vectors are,
  2 
Tu = = u v, u + v, v 2 = 2u, 1, 0
u u
  2 
Tv = = u v, u + v, v 2 = 1, 1, 2v
v v
The normal vector is their cross product:
 
 i j k 
 
n = Tu Tv =  2u 1 0  = (2v)i (4uv)j + (2u + 1)k = 2v, 4uv, 2u + 1

 1 1 2v 

## We write F = y, z, x in terms of the parameters x = u 2 v, y = u + v, z = v 2 and then compute F n:

 
F ((u, v)) = y, z, x = u + v, v 2 , u 2 v
 
F ((u, v)) n(u, v) = u + v, v 2 , u 2 v 2v, 4uv, 2u + 1
 
= 2v(u + v) 4uv v 2 + (2u + 1) u 2 v

= 2u 3 4uv 3 + 2v 2 + u 2 v

## (b) At the point P = (3, 3, 1) = (2, 1) we have:

F(P) = 3, 1, 3
n(P) = 2 1, 4 2 1, 2 2 + 1 = 2, 8, 5
n(P) 2, 8, 5 1
en (P) = = = 2, 8, 5
n(P) 4 + 64 + 25 93
1144 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## Hence, the normal component of F to the surface at P is the dot product:

1 1 13
F(P) en (P) = 3, 1, 3 2, 8, 5 = (6 8 + 15) =
93 93 93
(c) Using the definition of the vector surface integral and the dot product in part (a), we have:
   2 1  
 
F dS = F (u, v) n(u, v) du dv = 2u 3 4uv 3 + 2v 2 + u 2 v dv du
S D 0 1
 2 
2 1 1
= 2u 3 v uv 4 + v 3 + u 2 v v 2  du
0 3 2 v=1
 2   
2 1 2 1
= 2u 3 u +
+ u2 2u 3 u u 2 du
0 3 2 3 2
 2  
3 2 4 4 2 3 4u 2
= 4u + 2u + du = u + u + = 24
0 3 3 3 0

2. Compute the surface integral of the vector field F = x, y, x + y over the portion S of the paraboloid z = x 2 + y 2
lying over the disk x 2 + y 2 1.
SOLUTION
Step 1. Find a parametrization. We use x and y as parameters and parametrize the surface by,
 
(x, y) = x, y, x 2 + y 2

with the parameter domain D = (x, y) : x 2 + y 2 1 .
Step 2. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have,
  
Tx = = x, y, x 2 + y 2 = 1, 0, 2x
x x
  
Ty = = x, y, x 2 + y 2 = 0, 1, 2y
y y
 
 i j k 
 
n = Tx T y =  1 0 2x  = (2x)i (2y)j + k = 2x, 2y, 1
 0 1 2y 

## F ((x, y)) n = x, y, x + y 2x, 2y, 1 = 2x 2 2y 2 + x + y

Step 4. Compute the surface integral. Using the definition of vector surface integral gives:
      
F dS = F ((x, y)) n(x, y) d x d y = 2 x 2 + y 2 + x + y d x d y
S D D
We compute the double integral by converting it to polar coordinates. We get:
  2  1    2  1  
F dS = 2r 2 + r (cos + sin ) r dr d = 2r 3 + r 2 (cos + sin ) dr d
S 0 0 0 0
 2 1  2  
1 r3  1 1
= r 4 + (cos + sin ) d = + (cos + sin ) d
0 2 3 r =0 0 2 3
 2 & ' & '
1  1 1
= + (sin cos ) = + (0 1) (0 1) =
2 3 0 3 3

3. Let S be the square in the x y-plane shown in Figure 13, oriented with the normal pointing in the positive z-direction.
Estimate

F dS
S
where F is a vector field whose values at the labeled points are

## F( A) = 2, 6, 4, F(B) = 1, 1, 7

F(C) = 3, 3, 3, F(D) = 0, 1, 8
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1145


SOLUTION The unit normal vector to S is en = 0, 0, 1. We estimate the vector surface integral S F dS using the
division and sample points given in Figure 12.
y

A B

C D
x
1

## Each subsquare has area 14 , therefore we obtain the following estimation:


1
F dS (F( A) en + F(B) en + F(C) en + F(D) en )
S 4
1
= (2, 6, 4 0, 0, 1 + 1, 1, 7 0, 0, 1 + 3, 3, 3 0, 0, 1 + 0, 1, 8 0, 0, 1)
4
1
= (4 + 7 3 + 8) =4
4

4. Suppose that S is a surface in R3 with a parametrization  whose domain D is the square in Figure 13. The values
of a function f , a vector field F, and the normal vector n = Tu Tv at (P) are given for the four sample points in D
in the following table. Estimate the surface integrals of f and F over S.

Point
P in D f F n
A 3 2, 6, 4 1, 1, 1
B 1 1, 1, 7 1, 1, 0
C 2 3, 3, 3 1, 0, 1
D 5 0, 1, 8 2, 1, 0

A B

C D
x
1
FIGURE 13

SOLUTION The area of each subrectangle is 14 . We estimate the surface integral of f over S by the following sum:

1
f (x, y, z) d S = ( f ( A)n( A) + f (B)n(B) + f (C)n(C) + f (D)n(D)) (1)
S 4
We use the given data to compute the length of the normal vectors:

n( A) =  1, 1, 1  = 3

n(B) =  1, 1, 0  = 2

n(C) =  1, 0, 1  = 2

n(D) =  2, 1, 0  = 5

## Substituting the values in (1) we obtain the following estimation:

 
 1 3 3+3 2+5 5
f (x, y, z) d S = 3 3 + 1 2 + 2 2 + 5 5 = 5.155
S 4 4

We now estimate the vector surface integral S F dS by the following sum:

1
F dS = (F( A) n + F(B) n + F(C) n + F(D) n)
S 4
1146 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1
= (2, 6, 4 1, 1, 1 + 1, 1, 7 1, 1, 0 + 3, 3, 3 1, 0, 1 + 0, 1, 8 2, 1, 0)
4
1 21
= (12 + 2 + 6 + 1) =
4 4

In Exercises 517, compute the surface integral over the given oriented surface.

## 5. F = y, z, x, plane 3x 4y + z = 1,

0 x, y 1, upward-pointing normal
SOLUTION We rewrite the equation of the plane as z = 1 3x + 4y, and parametrize the plane by:

## Here, the parameter domain is the square D = {(x, y) : 0 x, y 1} in the x y-plane.

Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.

Tx = = (x, y, 1 3x + 4y) = 1, 0, 3
x x

Ty = = (x, y, 1 3x + 4y) = 0, 1, 4
y y
 
 i j k 

Tx T y =  1 0 3  = 3i 4j + k = 3, 4, 1
 0 1 4 

Since the plane is oriented with upward pointing normal, the normal vector n is:

n = 3, 4, 1

## F ((x, y)) n = y, 1 3x + 4y, x 3, 4, 1 = 3y 4(1 3x + 4y) + x = 13x 13y 4

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
   1 1
F dS = F ((x, y)) n(x, y) d x d y = (13x 13y 4) d x d y
S D 0 0
 1 1  1  
13x 2  13 5y 13y 2 1
= 13yx 4x  dy = 13y 4 d y = = 4
0 2 x=0 0 2 2 2 0
 
6. F = e z , z, x , (r, s) = (r s, r + s, r ),
0 r 1, 0 s 1, oriented by Tr Ts
SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have:

Tr = = (r s, r + s, r ) = s, 1, 1
r r

Ts = = (r s, r + s, r ) = r, 1, 0
s s
 
 i j k 

n = Tr Ts =  s 1 1  = i + r j + (s r )k = 1, r, s r 
 r 1 0 

## Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We write F in terms of the parameters x = r s, y = r + s, z = r :

     
F (r, s) = e z , z, x = er , r, r s

## We compute the dot product F n:

   
F (r, s) n(r, s) = er , r, r s 1, r, s r  = er + r 2 + r s(s r ) = er + r 2 (1 s) + r s 2
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1147

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
   1 1 
F dS = F ((r, s)) n(r, s) dr ds = er + r 2 (1 s) + r s 2 dr ds
S D 0 0
 1   1
r 3 (1 s) r 2 s 2 1
 1s s2
= er + + ds = e + + + 1 ds
0 3 2 r =0 0 3 2
2 
s s2 s 3 1 1 1 4
= (1 e)s + +  = 1 e + + = e 1.385
3 6 0 6 6 3

 
7. F = 0, 3, x 2 , hemisphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9,
z 0, outward-pointing normal
SOLUTION We parametrize the hemisphere S by:

( , ) = (3 cos sin , 3 sin sin , 3 cos ), 0 2 , 0
2
Step 1. Compute the normal vector. As seen in the text, the normal vector that points to the outside of the hemisphere is:
 
n = T T = sin cos sin , sin sin , cos

For 0 2 we have sin cos 0, therefore n points to the outside of the hemisphere.

Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We express the vector field in terms of the parameters:
     
F ( , ) = 0, 3, x 2 = 0, 3, 9 cos2 sin2

Hence:
     
F ( , ) n( , ) = 0, 3, 9 cos2 sin2 sin cos sin , sin sin , cos
 
= sin 3 sin sin + 9 cos2 sin2 cos

## = 3 sin sin2 + 9 cos2 sin3 cos

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
 
 
F dS = F ( , ) n( , ) d d
S D
 /2  2  
= 3 sin sin2 + 9 cos2 sin3 cos d d
0 0
 /2  2  /2  2
= 3 sin sin2 d d + 9 cos2 sin3 cos d d
0 0 0 0
   
/2 2 /2 2
= sin2 d 3 sin d + 9 sin3 cos d cos2 d
0 0 0 0


 4  /2  2
sin 2  /2 
 9 sin  sin 2 

=  3 cos | =0 +
2
 +
2 4 =0 4  2 4  =0
=0

9 9
=0+ =
4 4
1148 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1 3
8. F = x, y, z, part of sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, where z , inward-pointing normal
2 2
SOLUTION

y
x

D : 0 2 , 0 1

3
2
1

f0

## The angles 0 and 1 are determined by:

3
cos 0 = 0 =
2 6
1
cos 1 = 1 =
2 3

1
2 1
f1

Step 1. Determine the normal vector. The normal vector pointing to the outside of the sphere is:
 
n = T T = sin cos sin , sin sin , cos

(Notice that for 6 3 , sin cos > 0, therefore the z-component is positive and the normal points to the outside
of the sphere).
Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We express F in terms of the parameters:
 
F ( , ) = x, y, z = (cos sin , sin sin , cos )

Hence:
     
F ( , ) n( , ) = cos sin , sin sin , cos sin cos sin , sin sin , cos
 
= sin cos2 sin2 + sin2 sin2 + cos2

= sin 1 = sin

## Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. We have:

   2  /3  /3
 
F dS = F ( , ) n( , ) d d = sin d d = 2 sin d
S D 0 /6 /6
 /3
   1 3  
= 2 ( cos ) = 2 cos + cos = 2 + = 3 1 2.3
= /6 3 6 2 2
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1149

 
9. F = e z , z, x , z = 9 x 2 y 2 , z 0, upward-pointing normal
SOLUTION
Step 1. Find a parametrization. We use x and y as parameters and parametrize the surface by:
 
(x, y) = x, y, 9 x 2 y 2

## The parameter domain D is determined by the condition z = 9 x 2 y 2 0, or x 2 + y 2 9. That is:

D = (x, y) : x 2 + y 2 9

## Step 2. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have:

  
Tx = = x, y, 9 x 2 y 2 = 1, 0, 2x
x x
  
Ty = = x, y, 9 x 2 y 2 = 0, 1, 2y
y y
We compute the cross product of the tangent vectors:
 
 i j k 
 
Tx T y =  1 0 2x  = (2x)i + (2y)j + k = 2x, 2y, 1

 0 1 2y 

Since the z-component is positive, the vector points upward, and we have:

n = 2x, 2y, 1

Step 3. Evaluate the dot product F n. We first express the vector field in terms of the parameters x and y, by setting
z = 9 x 2 y 2 . We get:
   
F ((x, y)) = e z , z, x = e9x y , 9 x 2 y 2 , x
2 2

## We now compute the dot product:

 
F ((x, y)) n(x, y) = e9x y , 9 x 2 y 2 , x 2x, 2y, 1 = 2xe9x y + 2y(9 x 2 y 2 ) + x
2 2 2 2

y

x
3

## The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

      
2xe9(x +y ) + 2y 9 (x 2 + y 2 ) + x d x d y
2 2
F dS = F ((x, y)) n(x, y) d x d y =
S D D
We convert the integral to polar coordinates to obtain:
  3  2  
2
F dS = 2r cos e9r + 2r sin (9 r 2 ) + r cos r d dr
S 0 0
 3   2  3

2r 2 e9r + r 2 sin 2r 2 (9 r 2 ) cos 
2
= dr = 0 dr = 0
0 =0 0

10. F = sin y, sin z, yz, rectangle 0 y 2, 0 z 3 in the (y, z)-plane, normal pointing in negative x-direction
SOLUTION
1150 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

z
n
3

2
x y

The surface is the plane x = 0 over the rectangle 0 y 2, 0 z 3 in the (y, z)-plane, hence it is parametrized by:

## Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have:


Ty = = (0, y, z) = 0, 1, 0 = j
y y

Tz = = (0, y, z) = 0, 0, 1 = k
z z
T y Tz = j k = i = 1, 0, 0

Since the normal points to the negative x-direction, the x-component must be negative. Hence:

n = 1, 0, 0

## F ((y, z)) n = sin y, sin z, yz 1, 0, 0 = sin y

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
   2  2 3
F dS = F ((y, z)) n d y dz = int03 ( sin y) d y dz = sin y dz d y
S D 0 0 0
 2 2

=3 ( sin y) d y = 3 cos y  = 3(cos 2 1) 4.25
0 0

SOLUTION

n
S

1 y
1
x

## using the parameter domain D shown in the figure.

y

x
0 1
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1151

## Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have:


Tx = = (x, y, 1 x y) = 1, 0, 1
x x

Ty = = (x, y, 1 y) = 0, 1, 1
y y
 
 i j k 

Tx T y =  1 0 1  = i + j + k = 1, 1, 1
 0 1 1 

Since the normal points downward, the z-component must be negative, hence:

n = 1, 1, 1

y

0x1y

x
0 1

## We compute the dot product:

 
F ((x, y)) n = y 2 , 2, x 1, 1, 1 = y 2 2 + x

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
   1  1y 
  1 
x 2 1y
F dS = F ((x, y)) n d x d y = y 2 2 + x d x d y = y 2 x 2x + dy
S D 0 0 0 2 x=0
 1  1
2 (1 y)2 3 2 (y 1)2
= y (1 y) 2(1 y) + dy = y y + 2(y 1) + dy
0 2 0 2
    
y4 y3 (y 1)3 1 1 1 1 11
= + (y 1)2 +  = 1 =
4 3 6 0 4 3 6 12
 
12. F = x, y, e z , cylinder x 2 + y 2 = 4, 1 z 5, outward-pointing normal
SOLUTION We parametrize the surface by

( , z) = (2 cos , 2 sin , z)

D : 0 2 , 1 z 5

## For this parametrization it holds that:

T Tz = 2 cos , 2 sin , 0
z

y
x
1152 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

This vector is horizontal and points out of the cylinder (this can be verified by setting = 0; the vector 2, 0, 0 points
out of the cylinder). Therefore:

n = 2 cos , 2 sin , 0

## We compute the dot product F n:

 
F (( , z)) n( , z) = 2 cos , 2 sin , e z 2 cos , 2 sin , 0 = 4 cos2 + 4 sin2 = 4
z

1
q
2p

## The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

  
F dS = F (( , z)) n( , z) dz d = 4 dz d = 4Area(D) = 4 4 2 = 32
S D D
 
13. F = x z, yz, z 1 , disk of radius 3 at height 4 parallel to the x y-plane, upward-pointing normal
SOLUTION

z
n

3
4

## We parametrize the surface S by:

( , r ) = (r cos , r sin , 4)

## with the parameter domain:

D = {( , r ) : 0 2 , 0 r 3}

## Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have:


T = = (r cos , r sin , 4) = r sin , r cos , 0


Tr = = (r cos , r sin , 4) = cos , sin , 0
r r
 
 i j k   

T Tr =  r sin r cos 0  = r sin2 r cos2 k = r k = 0, 0, r 
 cos sin 0 
Since the orientation of S is with an upward pointing normal, the z-coordinate of n must be positive. Hence:

n = 0, 0, r 

Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We first express F in terms of the parameters:
     1

F (( , r )) = x z, yz, z 1 = r cos 4, r sin 4, 41 = 4r cos , 4r sin ,
4
We now compute the dot product:
 
1 r
F (( , r )) n( , r ) = 4r cos , 4r sin , 0, 0, r  =
4 4
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1153

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
   2  3  3 
r r r 2 3 9
F dS = F (( , r )) n( , r ) dr d = dr d = 2 dr = 2  =
S D 0 0 4 0 4 8 0 4

## 14. F = x y, y, 0, cone z 2 = x 2 + y 2 , x 2 + y 2 4, z 0, downward-pointing normal

SOLUTION We parametrize the surface S by:

( , t) = (t cos , t sin , t)

## with the parameter domain:

D = {( , t) : 0 2 , 0 t 2}
y

x
2

## In this parametrization it holds that (see Example 4 in Section 17.4).

T Tt = t cos , t sin , t

Since the normal is pointing downward, the z-coordinate must be negative. Therefore the normal is:

n = t cos , t sin , t

We express F in terms of the parameters and then compute the dot product F n. We obtain:
 
F (( , t)) = x y, y, 0 = (t cos )(t sin ), t sin , 0 = t 2 cos sin , t sin , 0
 
F (( , t)) n( , t) = t sin t cos , 1, 0 t cos , sin , 1 = t 2 sin t cos2 + sin

## The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

   2  2  
F dS = F (( , t)) n( , t) dt d = t 3 cos2 sin + t 2 sin2 dt d
S D 0 0
   
2 2 2 2
= t 3 dt cos2 sin d + t 2 dt sin2 d
0 0 0 0
  
4 2 3 2 3 2 
t  cos  + t  sin 2 2 8 8
=   =40+ =
4 3  3 2 4  =0 3 3
t=0 =0 t=0

 
15. F = 0, 0, e y+z , boundary of unit cube 0 x, y, z 1, outward-pointing normal
SOLUTION

F
D
G

O
A y
C
x
B
1154 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## S1 = Face O ABC S2 = Face DG E F S3 = Face ABG F

S4 = Face OC D E S5 = Face BC DG S6 = Face O AF E
On S1

1 (x, y) = (x, y, 0)

## and n1 = 0, 0, 1. Thus,

 
F (1 (x, y)) n1 = 0, 0, e y 0, 0, 1 = e y

On S2

2 (x, y) = (x, y, 1)

## and n2 = 0, 0, 1. Thus,

 
F (2 (x, y)) n2 = 0, 0, e y+1 0, 0, 1 = e y+1

## because the z-component of ni = 0 and the x, y components of F equal 0. Thus,

    1 1  1 1
F dS = F dS + F dS = e y d x d y + e y+1 d x d y
S S1 S2 0 0 0 0
 1 1   1 
= e y+1 e y d x d y = e y+1 e y d y
0 0 0
 1 1

= e (e 1) d y = (e 1)e  = (e 1)2
y y
0 0

 
16. F = 0, 0, z 2 , (u, v) = (u cos v, u sin v, v), 0 u 1, 0 v 2 , upward-pointing normal
SOLUTION For this parametrization it holds that (see Example 3 in Section 17.4):

Tu Tv = sin v, cos v, u

## Since u 0, the upward pointing normal is,

n = sin v, cos v, u

## We express F in terms of the parameters and then compute F n we get:

   
F ((u, v)) = 0, 0, z 2 = 0, 0, v 2
 
F ((u, v)) n(u, v) = 0, 0, v 2 sin v, cos v, u = v 2 u

## The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:

   2  1  
2 1
F dS = F ((u, v)) n(u, v) du dv = v 2 u du dv = v 2 dv u du
S D 0 0 0 0
 
v 3 2 u 2 1 8 3 1 4 3
=   = =
3 v=0 2 u=0 3 2 3

## 17. F = y, z, 0, (u, v) = (u 3 v, u + v, v 2 ), 0 u 2, 0 v 3, downward-pointing normal

SOLUTION
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1155

## Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have,

    
Tu = = u 3 v, u + v, v 2 = 3u 2 , 1, 0
u u
  
Tv = = u 3 v, u + v, v 2 = 1, 1, 2v
v v
 
 i j k       
 
Tu Tv =  3u 2 1 0  = (2v)i 6u 2 v j + 3u 2 + 1 k = 2v, 6u 2 v, 3u 2 + 1

 1 1 2v 

## Since the normal is pointing downward, the z-coordinate is negative, hence,

 
n = 2v, 6u 2 v, 3u 2 1

Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We first express F in terms of the parameters:
 
F ((u, v)) = y, z, 0 = u + v, v 2 , 0

## We compute the dot product:

   
F ((u, v)) n(u, v) = u + v, v 2 , 0 2v, 6u 2 v, 3u 2 1

= 2v(u + v) + 6u 2 v v 2 + 0 = 2vu 2v 2 + 6u 2 v 3

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
   3 2 
F dS = F ((u, v)) n(u, v) du dv = 2uv 2v 2 + 6u 2 v 3 du dv
S D 0 0
 3 2  3  3
 4 
= u 2 v 2v 2 u + 2u 3 v 3  dv = 16v 3 4v 2 4v dv = 4v 4 v 3 2v 2  = 270
0 u=0 0 3 0

18. Let S be the oriented half-cylinder in Figure 14. In (a)(f), determine whether F dS is positive, neg-
S
ative, or zero. Explain your reasoning.
(a) F = i (b) F = j
(c) F = k (d) F = yi
(e) F = yj (f) F = xj

x
FIGURE 14

SOLUTION
1156 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

n 1

1 y

S is parametrized by:

( , z) = (cos , sin , z), 0 z 3,
2 2
Hence,

T = =  sin , cos , 0


Tz = = 0, 0, 1
z
 
 i j k 

T Tz =  sin cos 0  = (cos )i + (sin )j = cos , sin , 0
 0 0 1 

The normal to S is pointing in the outward direction, hence the x-coordinate of n is positive. Since 2 2 , we
have cos 0, hence,

n = cos , sin , 0


F dS > 0.
S

## F n = 0, 1, 0 cos , sin , 0 = sin

The part of the surface integral for 2 0 is cancelled by the part for 0 2 , therefore the surface integral is
zero.
(c) The normal vector n is horizontal at each point on S, therefore it is orthogonal to the field F = k. We conclude that
the surface integral is zero.
(d) We compute the dot product:

## F n = y, 0, 0 cos , sin , 0 = sin , 0, 0 cos , sin , 0 = sin cos

The surface integral over the part of S where 2 0 is cancelled by the integral over the part where 0 2 ,
hence the surface integral over S is zero.
(e) We have,

## Since the dot product is nonpositive, the surface integral is negative.

(f) We compute the dot product:

## F n = 0, x, 0 cos , sin , 0 = 0, cos , 0 cos , sin , 0 = cos sin

The surface integral is zero by the same reasoning given in part (d).

19. Let er be the unit radial vector and r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 . Calculate the integral of F = er er over:
(a) The upper-hemisphere of x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9, outward-pointing normal
(b) The octant x, y, z 0 of the unit sphere centered at the origin
SOLUTION
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1157

## with the parameter domain:

D = ( , ) : 0 < 2 , 0 <
2
The outward pointing normal is (see Eq. (4) in sec. 17.4):

n = 9 sin er

## We obtain the following integral:

   2  /2
F dS = (F n) d d = 9e3 sin d d
S D 0 0
 /2  /2

= 18 e3 sin d = 18 e3 cos  = 18 e3
0 0

## with the parameter domain:

D = ( , ) : 0 < , 0 <
2 2
The outward pointing normal is (as seen above):

n = 1 sin er

## We obtain the following integral:

   /2  /2
F dS = (F n) d d = e1 sin d d
S D 0 0
  /2
1 /2 1 
= e sin d = e cos  = e1
2 0 2 0 2

er
20. Show that the flux of F = 2 through a sphere centered at the origin does not depend on the radius of the sphere.
r
SOLUTION We parametrize the sphere of radius R centered at the origin by,

n = R 2 sin er

## We compute the product F n on the sphere. On the sphere r = R, therefore we get:

er er
F n = 2 R 2 sin er = 2 R 2 sin er = (sin )er er = sin
r R
hence,
   2 
F dS = (F n) d d = (sin )d d
S D 0 0
   
= 2 sin d = 2 cos 0 = 4
0
We see that the surface integral of F does not depend on the radius R of the sphere.
1158 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

er
21. The electric field due to a point charge located at the origin is E = k 2 , where k is a constant. Calculate the flux of
r
E through the disk D of radius 2 parallel to the x y-plane with center (0, 0, 3).
 
SOLUTION Let r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 and r = x 2 + y 2 . We parametrize the disc by:

## (r, ) = (r cos , r sin , 3)


= cos , sin , 0
Tr =
r
  
T = = r sin , r cos , 0

 
 i j k  
 
n = Tr T =  cos sin 0  = 0, 0, r
 r sin r cos 0 

Now,
er   k r zk r
E n = k 2 0, 0, r = 3 x, y, z 0, 0, 1 = 3
r r r
Since on the disk z = 3, we get:

r 
E n = 3k 3 and r = r 2 + 9
r

so E n = 3k  r 3 .
r 2 +9

  2  3  3
3k r r
E dS =  3/2 d r d = 6 k   d r
D 0 0 r 2 + 9 0 r 2 + 9 3/2

Substituting u = r 2 + 9 we get:
   
1 1 
E dS = 6 k = 2 2 k
P 3 18

 x 2  y 2  z 2
22. Let S be the ellipsoid + = 1. Calculate the flux of F = z, 1, 0 over the portion of S where
+
4 3 2
x, y, z 0 with upward-pointing normal. Hint: Parametrize S using a modified form of spherical coordinates ( , ).
SOLUTION We parametrize the ellipsoid by a modified form of spherical coordinates. That is,

## with the parameter domain

( )
3
D = ( , ) : < , <
2 2

x
4
D

One can easily verify that (u, v) satisfies the equation of the ellipsoid.
Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have,
  
T = = 4 sin sin , 3 cos sin , 0

  
T = = 4 cos cos , 3 sin cos , 2 sin

S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1159
 
 i j k 
 

T T =  4 sin sin 3 cos sin 0 

 4 cos cos 3 sin cos 2 sin 
     
= 6 cos sin2 i 8 sin sin2 j 12 sin2 cos sin + 12 cos2 cos sin k
 
= 6 cos sin2 , 8 sin sin2 , 12 cos sin

In D, 2 < hence cos sin 0. The outward pointing normal on this portion of the ellipse is pointing
downwards, hence the z-coordinate is negative. Therefore,
   
n = 6 cos sin2 , 8 sin sin2 , 12 cos sin = 2 sin 3 cos sin , 4 sin sin , 6 cos

Step 2. Compute the dot product F n. We first express F in terms of the parameters:
   
F ( , ) = z, 1, 0 = 2 cos , 1, 0

Hence,
 
F ( , ) n( , ) = 2 sin (6 cos sin cos + 4 sin sin )

## = 4 sin2 (3 cos cos + 2 sin )

Step 3. Calculate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
   3 /2   
 
F dS = F ( , ) n( , ) d d = 12 sin2 cos cos + 8 sin2 sin d d
S D /2
     
3 /2 3 /2
= 12 cos d sin2 cos d 8 sin d sin2 d
/2 /2
3 /2 3 
3 /2 
 sin   sin 2 
= 12 sin  
+ 8 cos 
= 3  = /2 = 2 4  = /2
  
1 
= 12 +8 = 4 + 2 2.283
3 2 4
 
23. Let v = x, 0, z be the velocity field (in ft/s) of a fluid in R3 . Calculate the flow rate (in ft3 /s) through the upper
hemisphere of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 (z 0).
SOLUTION We use the spherical coordinates:

## with the parameter domain

0 < 2 , 0
2
The normal vector is (see Eq. (4) in Section 17.4):
 
n = T T = sin cos sin , sin sin , cos

## We express the function in terms of the parameters:

 
v = x, 0, z = cos sin , 0, cos

Hence,
     
v n = cos sin , 0, cos sin cos sin , sin sin , cos = sin cos2 sin2 + cos2

The flow rate of the fluid through the upper hemisphere S is equal to the flux of the velocity vector through S. That is,
  /2  2  
v dS = cos2 sin3 + sin cos2 d d
S 0 0
   /2
2 /2
= cos2 d sin3 d + 2 sin cos2 d
0 0 0
 
1 2 3
= 0 + 2 = ft /s
3 3
1160 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

24. Calculate the flow rate through the upper hemisphere of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 (z 0) for v as in Exercise
23.
SOLUTION We use the parametrization,

## ( , ) = (R cos sin , R sin sin , R cos )

where,

0 < 2 , 0
2
The normal vector is (see Eq. (4) in Section 17.4):
 
n = T T = R 2 sin cos sin , sin sin , cos

## We write the velocity field in terms of the parameters:

     
v = x 2 + y 2 , 0, z 2 = R 2 cos2 sin2 + R 2 sin2 sin2 , 0, R 2 cos = R 2 sin2 , 0, cos

Hence,
 
v n = R 4 sin sin3 cos + cos2 = R 4 sin4 cos + R 4 cos2 sin

The flow rate through the upper hemisphere S is equal to the flux of the velocity vector across S. That is,
  /2  2  
v dS = R 4 sin4 cos + R 4 cos2 sin d d
S 0 0
 2   /2
/2
= R4 cos d sin4 d + R 4 2 cos2 sin d
0 0 0

4  /2  
= 2 R 4 0 + 1 = R ft3 /s
4
cos 
= 0 + 2 R 2 
4  4 2
=0

 
25. Calculate the flow rate of a fluid with velocity field v = x, y, x 2 y (in ft/s) through the portion of the ellipse
 x 2  y 2
+ = 1 in the x y-plane, where x, y 0, oriented with the normal in the positive z-direction.
2 3
SOLUTION We use the following parametrization for the surface (see remark at the end of the solution):

 : x = 2r cos , y = 3r sin , z = 0

0 , 0r 1 (1)
2
z

3 y
2
x

## Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have,


Tr = = (2r cos , 3r sin , 0) = 2 cos , 3 sin , 0
r r

T = = (2r cos , 3r sin , 0) = 2r sin , 3r cos , 0

 
 i j k   

Tr T =  2 cos 3 sin 0  = 6r cos2 + 6r sin2 k = 6r k
 2r sin 3r cos 0 

Since the normal points to the positive z-direction, the normal vector is,

n = 6r k = 0, 0, 6r 
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1161

Step 2. Compute the dot product v n. We write the velocity vector in terms of the parameters:
   
v = x, y, x 2 y = 2r cos , 3r sin , 4r 2 cos2 3r sin
 
= 2r cos , 3r sin , 12r 3 cos2 sin

Hence,

## v n = 12r 3 cos2 sin 6r = 72r 4 cos2 sin

Step 3. Compute the flux. The flow rate of the fluid is the flux of the velocity vector through S. That is,
    
/2 1 1 /2
v dS = 72r 4 cos2 sin dr d = 72r 4 dr cos2 sin d
S 0 0 0 0
   
72 5 1 cos3  /2 72 1 24
= r   = 0 + = = 4.8 ft3 /s
5 0 3 =0 5 3 5

Remark: We explain why (1) parametrizes the given portion of the ellipse. At any point (x, y) which satisfies (1) we
have,
 x 2  y 3
+ = r 2 cos2 + r 2 sin2 = r 2 1
2 3
 2  2
Therefore (x, y) is inside the ellipse x2 + 2y = 1. The limits of determine the part of the region inside the ellipse

In Exercises 2627, let T be the triangular region with vertices (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), and (0, 0, 1) oriented with upward-
pointing normal vector (Figure 15). Assume distances are in meters.

## 26. A fluid flows with constant velocity field v = 2k (m/s). Calculate:

(a) The flow rate through T
(b) The flow rate through the projection of T onto the x y-plane [the triangle with vertices (0, 0, 0), (1, 0, 0), and
(0, 1, 0)]
SOLUTION

z y

(0, 0, 1)
(0, 1, 0)

(0, 1, 0) D
(1, 0, 0) y
T
x
x (0, 0, 0) (1, 0, 0)

The equation of the plane through the three vertices is x + y + z = 1, hence the upward pointing normal vector is:

n = 1, 1, 1

## and the unit normal is:

 
1 1 1
en = , ,
3 3 3
We compute the dot product v en :
 
1 1 1 2
v en = 0, 0, 2 , , =
3 3 3 3
The flow rate through T is equal to the flux of v through T . That is,
   
2 2 2
v dS = (v en ) d S = dS = 1 d S = Area(S)
S S S 3 3 S 3
 2
2 3
The area of the equilateral triangle T is = 3
4 2 . Therefore,

2 3
v dS = =1
S 3 2
1162 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Let D denote the projection of T onto the x y-plane. Then the upward pointing normal is n = 0, 0, 1. We compute the
dot product v n:

v n = 0, 0, 2 0, 0, 1 = 2

The flow rate through D is equal to the flux of v through D. That is,
   
11
v dS = (v n) d S = 2 dS = 2 1 d S = 2 Area(D) = 2 =1
D D D D 2

## 27. Calculate the flow rate through T if v = j m/s.

(0, 0, 1)

v = 2k

(0, 1, 0)
y
(1, 0, 0)
x
FIGURE 15
 
SOLUTION We compute the flow rate through T . Since the unit normal vector is en = 1 , 1 , 1 we have,
3 3 3
 
1 1 1 1
v en = 0, 1, 0 , , =
3 3 3 3
Therefore, the flow rate through T is the following flux:
  
1 3 1 1
v dS = (v en ) d S = d S = Area(S)/ 3 = =
S S S 3 2 3 2
The upward pointing normal to the projection D of T onto the x y-plane is n = 0, 0, 1. Since v = 0, 1, 0 is
orthogonal to n, the flux of v through D is zero.
28. Prove that if S is the part of a graph z = g(x, y) lying over a domain D in the x y-plane, then
   
g g
F dS = F1 F2 + F3 d x d y
S D x y

SOLUTION
Step 1. Find a parametrization. We parametrize the surface by

## Step 2. Compute the tangent and normal vectors. We have,

 
 g
Tx = = (x, y, g(x, y)) = 1, 0,
x x x
 
 g
Ty = = (x, y, g(x, y)) = 0, 1,
y y y
 
 i j k   
 g g g g
 g 
n = Tx T y =  1 0 x  = i j + k = , ,1
  x x x y
 0 1 g y


## Step 3. Evaluate the dot product F n.

 
g g g g
F n = F1 , F2 , F3  , , 1 = F1 F2 + F3
x y x y
Step 4. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
    
g g
F dS = (F n) d x d y = F1 F2 + F3 d x d y
S D D x y
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1163

In Exercises 2930, a varying current i(t) flows through a long straight wire in the x y-plane as in Example 5. The
i
current produces a magnetic field B whose magnitude at a distance r from the wire is B = 0 T, where 0 =
2 r
4 107 T-m/A. Furthermore, B points into the page at points P in the x y-plane.
29. Assume that i(t) = t (12 t) A (t in seconds). Calculate the flux (t), at time t, of B through a rectangle of
dimensions L H = 3 2 m, whose top and bottom edges are parallel to the wire and whose bottom edge is located
d = 0.5 m above the wire (similar to Figure 11). Then use Faradays Law to determine the voltage drop around the
rectangular loop (the boundary of the rectangle) at time t.
SOLUTION

y
L=3m Loop C
Rectangle R

H=2m
P = (x, y)

0.5 m
x
Wire

We choose the coordinate system as shown in the figure. Therefore the rectangle R is the region:

## R = {(x, y) : 0 x 3, 0.5 y 2.5}

Since the magnetic field points into the page and R is oriented with normal vector pointing out of the page (as in Example
5) we have B = Bk and n = en = k. Hence:
i
B n = B (k) k = B = 0
2 r
i
The distance from P = (x, y) in R to the wire is r = y, hence, B n = 20 y . We now compute the flux (t) of B
through the rectangle R, by evaluating the following double integral:
   3  2.5  
i i 3 2.5 1
(t) = B dS = B n dy dx = 0 dy dx = 0 dy dx
R R 0 0.5 2 y 2 0 0.5 y

3 i 2.5 d y 3 i 3 i 2.5
= 0 = 0 (ln 2.5 ln 0.5) = 0 ln
2 0.5 y 2 2 0.5
3 4 107 ln 5
= t (12 t) = 9.65 107 t (12 t) T/m2
2
We now use Faradays Law to determine the voltage drop around the boundary C of the rectangle. By Faradays Law,
the voltage drop around C, when C is oriented according to the orientation of R and the Right Hand Rule (that is,
counterclockwise) is,

d d  
E dS = = 9.65 107 t (12 t) = 9.65 107 2(6 t) = 1.93 106 (6 t) volts
C dt dt

C
R

30. Assume that i = 10e0.1t A (t in seconds). Calculate the flux (t), at time t, of B through the isosceles triangle of
base 12 cm and height 6 cm, whose bottom edge is 3 cm from the wire, as in Figure 16. Assume the triangle is oriented
with normal vector pointing out of the page. Use Faradays Law to determine the voltage drop around the triangular loop
(the boundary of the triangle) at time t.

Triangular wire 6

P
B
Volt meter 3
12

i B
B
FIGURE 16
1164 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

i
SOLUTION The magnetic field is B = 20r k and the unit normal on the triangle points out of the page, hence n =
en = k.
y

Triangular 9
wire
Loop C
R

3 P = (x, y)
x
i 6 6

## Also, the distance from a point P = (x, y) in R to the wire is r = y. Hence:

0 i 0 i
Bn= kk=
2 y 2 y
The flux (t) of B through R is the following integral:
 
0 i 1
(t) = B n dx dy = dx dy
R 2 R y
y

9 y=9x
0x9y

3 (6, 3)

x
6

## Using symmetry we have:

    
0 i 9 9y 1 0 i 9 x 9y 0 i 9 9 y
(t) = dx dy =  dy = dy
3 0 y 3 y x=0 3 y
   9
0 i 9 9 0 i  0 i
= 1 dy = 9 ln y y  = ((9 ln 9 9) (9 ln 3 3))
3 y y=3

0 i 4 107
= (9 ln 3 6) = (9 ln 3 6)i = 1.56 106 i = 1.56 105 e0.1t

Using Faradays Law, the voltage drop around the triangular loop C (oriented counterclockwise):

d d  
E dS = = 1.56 105 e0.1t = 1.56 106 e0.1t Volts
C dt dt

## Further Insights and Challenges

er
31. A point mass m is located at the origin. Let Q be the flux of the gravitational field F = Gm 2 through the cylinder
r
x 2 + y 2 = R 2 for a z b, including the top and bottom (Figure 17). Show that Q = 4 Gm if a < 0 < b (m lies
inside the cylinder) and Q = 0 if 0 < a < b (m lies outside the cylinder).

b R

m
y

x a

FIGURE 17

SOLUTION Let the surface be oriented with normal vector pointing outward.
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1165

n z

b R

m
y
n

x a

We denote by S1 , S2 and S3 the cylinder, the top and the bottom respectively. These surfaces are parametrized by:
S1 :

S2 :

S3 :

## Using properties of integrals we have,

   
Q= F dS = F dS + F dS + F dS (1)
S S1 S2 S3

Let us assume that a < 0. We compute the integrals over each part of the surface S separately.
S1 : On S1 , we have:

er Gm
F (1 ( , z)) = Gm 2 =  3/2 R cos , R sin , z
r R2 + z2

Hence,

Gm Gm R 2
F (1 ( , z)) n( , z) =  3/2 R cos , R sin , z R cos , sin , 0 =  3/2
R2 + z2 R2 + z2

## We obtain the following integral:

  2  b  b
Gm R 2 2 dz
F dS =  3/2 dz d = 2 Gm R  3/2
S1 0 a R +z
2 2 a R + z2
2

## We compute the integral using the substitution z = R tan t. This gives:

  tan1 b tan1 b
R cos t  R
F dS = 2 Gm R 2 dt = 2 Gm sin t 
1 a R 2 
S1 tan R t=tan1 Ra

b a
= 2 Gm   (2)
b2 + R 2 a2 + R2

b2 + R2
b

a
R

(
sin tan1
b
R
= ) b
b2 + R2
1166 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

S2 :

er Gm
F (2 ( , r )) = Gm 2 =  3/2 r cos , r sin , b
r r + b2
2

Hence,
Gm Gmbr
F (2 ( , r )) n( , r ) =  3/2 r cos , r sin , b 0, 0, r  =  3/2
r 2 + b2 r 2 + b2

## We obtain the following integral:

  2  R  R
Gmbr r dr
F dS =  3/2 dr d = 2 Gmb  3/2
S2 0 0 r +b
2 2 0 r + b2
2

## We compute the integral using the substitution t = r 2 + b2 , dt = 2r dr , and we get:

  R 2 +b2  2 2
dt 1  R +b 1 1
F dS = Gmb = 2 Gmb  = 2 Gmb  (3)
S2 b2 t 3/2 t t=b2 b2 + R 2 b

S3 :

er Gm
F (3 ( , r )) = Gm 2 =  3/2 r cos , r sin , a
r r + a2
2

Gm Gmar
F (3 ( , r )) n( , r ) =  3/2 r cos , r sin , a 0, 0, r  =  3/2
r 2 + a2 r 2 + a2

Hence, by the same computation as for S2 we get (notice that since a < 0, we have a 2 = a):
  2  R  2 2
Gmar 1  R +a
F dS =  3/2 dr d = 2 Gma
S3 0 0 r 2 + a2 t t=a 2

1 1 1 1
= 2 Gma  = 2 Gma  + (4)
R2 + a2 a2 R2 + a2 a

## Substituting (2), (3), and (4) in (1) we get:

b a 1 1 1 1
Q = 2 Gm   + 2 Gmb  2 Gma  +
b2 + R 2 a2 + R2 b2 + R 2 b R2 + a2 a
= 2 Gm 2 Gm = 4 Gm

If 0 < a < b the only difference is in the integral in (4). In this case a = a therefore,

1 1 1 1
F dS = 2 Gma  = 2 Gma  .
S3 R2 + a2 a2 R2 + a2 a

## Therefore, adding the integrals gives:

b a 1 1 1 1
Q = 2 Gm   + 2 Gmb  2 Gma 
b2 + R 2 a2 + R2 b2 + R 2 b R2 + a2 a
= 2 Gm + 2 Gm = 0

## In Exercises 3233, let S be the surface with parametrization

 u  u u
(u, v) = 1 + v cos cos u, 1 + v cos sin u, v sin
2 2 2

for 0 u 2 , 12 v 12 .

## 32. Use a computer algebra system.

(a) Plot S and confirm visually that S is a Mobius strip.
S E C T I O N 17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields (ET Section 16.5) 1167

(b) The intersection of S with the x y-plane is the unit circle (u, 0) = (cos u, sin u, 0). Verify that the normal vector
along this circle is
 u u u
n(u, 0) = cos u sin , sin u sin , cos
2 2 2
(c) As u varies from 0 to 2 , the point (u, 0) moves once around the unit circle, beginning and ending at (0, 0) =
(2 , 0) = (1, 0, 0). Verify that n(u, 0) is a unit vector which varies continuously but that n(2 , 0) = n(0, 0). This
shows that S is not orientable, that is, it is not possible to choose a nonzero normal vector at each point on S in a
continuously varying manner (if it were possible, the unit normal vector returns to itself rather than its negative when
carried around the circle).
SOLUTION
(a) We use a computer algebra system to graph the plot of S, and it is indeed a Mobius strip.
(b) To find the normal vector along the unit circle, we use our computer to first find the cross product n n
u v and
simplify, we get the very ugly expression
  u    u 
n n 1 3u
n(u, v) = = v cos + 2 cos u + v cos sin ,
u v 2 2 2 2
 u    
1 3u
v + 2 cos + 2v cos(u) 2 cos v cos(2u) ,
4 2 2
u   u 
cos 1 + v cos
2 2
(Different computer algebra systems may produce different simplifications.) When we replace v with 0 and simplify, we
find that:
   
u 1 u 3u u
n(u, 0) = cos u sin , cos cos , cos
2 2 2 2 2
This is almost, but not quite, what we want. Lets examine that middle term a bit more.
 
1 u 3u 1 u u u  1 u u
cos cos = cos (cos u cos sin u sin ) = cos (1 cos u) + sin u sin
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 u u u  1 u  u u 
= cos 2 sin2 + sin u sin = sin 2 sin cos + sin u
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 u u
= sin (sin u + sin u) = sin u sin
2 2 2
which is what we expect. Thus, we see that
 u u u
n(u, 0) = cos u sin , sin u sin , cos
2 2 2
(c) To verify that n(u, 0) is a unit vector, we note that

u 2  u 2  u 2
n(u, 0) = cos u sin + sin u sin + cos
2 2 2

u u u u u
= cos2 u sin2 + sin2 u sin2 + cos2 = sin2 + cos2 = 1 = 1
2 2 2 2 2
It is clear that n(u, 0) varies continuously with u, as each of its three components are non-constant continuous functions
of u. Finally, we note that n(0, 0) = 0, 0, 1 but n(2 , 0) = 0, 0, 1, so indeed n(2 , 0) = n(0, 0).
33. It is not possible to integrate a vector field over S because S is not orientable. However, it is possible to
integrate functions over S. Using a computer algebra system:
(a) Verify that
3 u 1
n(u, v)2 = 1 + v 2 + 2v cos + v 2 cos u
4 2 2
(b) Compute the surface area of S to four decimal places.

(c) Compute (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) d S to four decimal places.
S
SOLUTION
1168 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## (a) Using a CAS, we discover that

  u    u 
n n 1 3u
n(u, v) = = v cos + 2 cos u + v cos sin ,
u v 2 2 2 2
   
1 3u
v + 2 cos(u/2) + 2v cos(u) 2 cos v cos(2u) ,
4 2
u   u 
cos 1 + v cos
2 2
and after taking the norm of this, we find that
3 u 1
n(u, v)2 = 1 + v 2 + 2v cos + v 2 cos u
4 2 2
(b) We calculate the area of S as follows:
   1/2  2
3 u 1
A(S) = n(u, v) du dv = 1 + v 2 + 2v cos + v 2 cos u du dv 6.3533
1/2 0 4 2 2
(c) We proceed as follows. Since
 u 2  u 2  u 2
x 2 + y2 + z2 = 1 + v cos cos u + 1 + v cos sin u + v sin
2 2 2
and

3 u 1
n(u, v) = 1 + v 2 + 2v cos + v 2 cos u
4 2 2
 
S (x + y + z ) d S
2 2 2 = S (x
then, substituting these expressions into the double integral 2 + y2 +
1 1
z 2 )n(u, v) dudv, and integrating over 0 u 2 , 2 v 2 , we find that

(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) d S 7.4003
S

## CHAPTER REVIEW EXERCISES

1. Compute the vector assigned to the point P = (3, 5) by the vector field:
(a) F = x y, y x
(b) F = 4,
 8 
(c) F = 3x+y , log2 (x + y)
SOLUTION
(a) Substituting x = 3, y = 5 in F = x y, y x we obtain:

F = 3 5, 5 (3) = 15, 8
(b) The constant vector field F = 4, 8 assigns the vector 4, 8 to all the vectors. Thus:

F(3, 5) = 4, 8
 x+y 
(c) Substituting x = 3, y = 5 in F = 3 , log2 (x + y) we obtain
   
F = 33+5 , log2 (3 + 5) = 32 , log2 (2) = 9, 1

2. Find a vector field F in the plane such that F(x, y) = 1 and F(x, y) is orthogonal to G(x, y) = x, y for all x, y.
SOLUTION The vector field y, x is orthogonal to G(x, y) = x, y since the dot product of the two vectors is zero.
y, x x, y = yx x y = 0

## We now normalize the vector y, x to obtain a unit vector orthogonal to G:

 
y, x y, x y x
F(x, y) = =  =  ,
 y, x  x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2
y 2 + (x)2

However, this is only for (x, y)  = (0, 0)! We can assign any unit vector for F(0, 0), as since G(0, 0) = 0, 0, then
anything is perpendicular to G(0, 0). So, lets define F to be as above for (x, y)  = (0, 0), and lets define F(0, 0) to be,
say, 1, 0. Now we have a vector field F such that F(x, y) is always a unit vector and always perpendicular to G(x, y).
Chapter Review Exercises 1169

## In Exercises 36, sketch the vector field.

3. F(x, y) = y, 1
SOLUTION Notice that the vector field is constant along horizontal lines.
y

F = y, 1

4. F(x, y) = 4, 1
SOLUTION F is the constant field 4, 1 shown in the figure.
y

F = 4, 1

5. , where (x, y) = x 2 y
SOLUTION The gradient of (x, y) = x 2 y is the following vector:
 

F(x, y) = , = 2x, 1
x y
This vector is sketched in the following figure:
y

j = 2x, 1

 
4y x
6. F(x, y) =  ,
x 2 + 16y 2 x 2 + 16y 2
Hint: Show that F is a unit vector field tangent to the family of ellipses x 2 + 4y 2 = c2 .
SOLUTION First, F is a unit vector since:
2 2
4y x 16y 2 x2
F(x, y)2 =  +  = 2 +
x 2 + 16y 2 x 2 + 16y 2 x + 16y 2 x 2 + 16y 2

16y 2 + x 2
= 2 =1 F(x, y) = 1
x + 16y 2

Next, we show that F is tangent to the ellipses x 2 + 4y 2 = c2 . We find dd xy using implicit differentiation of x 2 + 4y 2 = c2 :

dy dy x
2x + 8y =0 =
dx dx 4y
1170 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

Therefore the vector 4y, x is tangent to the ellipses. Since F(x, y) is a scalar multiple of this vector, i.e, F(x, y) =
1 4y, x, F is parallel to 4y, x hence F is tangent to the ellipses x 2 + 4y 2 = c2 . We find that F can be
x 2 +16y 2
sketched by first sketching ellipses in the family x 2 + 4y 2 = c2 , and then sketching the unit tangents at points on the
ellipses. The field F(x, y) is shown in the figure:

In Exercises 714, determine whether or not the vector field is conservative and, if so, find a potential function.
 
7. F(x, y, z) = sin x, e y , z
SOLUTION We examine the cross partials of F. Since F1 = sin x, F2 = e y , F3 = z we have:

F1 F2 F3
=0 =0 =0
y z x F1 F2 F2 F3 F3 F1
= , = , =
F2 F3 F1 y x z y x z
=0 =0 =0
x y z
Since the cross partials are equal, F is conservative. We denote the potential field by (x, y, z). So we have:

x = sin x y = e y z = z

By integrating we get:

(x, y, z) = sin x d x = cos x + C(y, z)

y = C y = e y C(y, z) = e y + D(z)
(x, y, z) = cos x + e y + D(z)
z2
z = Dz = z D(z) =
2
2
We conclude that (x, y, z) = cos x + e y + z2 . Indeed:
 
 
= , , = sin x, e y , z = F
x y z
 
8. F(x, y, z) = 2, 4, e z
SOLUTION We examine the cross partials of F. We have, F1 = 2, F2 = 4, F3 = e z hence:

F1
=0
y F1 F2
=
F2 y x
=0
x
F2
=0
z F2 F3
=
F3 z y
=0
y
F3
=0
x F3 F1
=
F1 x z
=0
z
Since the cross-partials are equal, F is conservative. We denote the potential field by (x, y, z). We have:

x = 2 y = 4 z = e z
Chapter Review Exercises 1171

By integrating we get:

(x, y, z) = 2 d x = 2x + C(y, z)

y = C y = 4 C(y, z) = 4y + D(z)
(x, y, z) = 2x + 4y + D(z)
z = Dz = e z D = ez
We conclude that (x, y, z) = 2x + 4y + e z . We verify:
 
 
= , , = 2, 4, e z = F
x y z
 
9. F(x, y, z) = x yz, 12 x 2 z, 2z 2 y
SOLUTION No. We show that the cross partials for x and z are not equal. Since the equality of the cross partials is a
necessary condition for a field to be a gradient vector field, we conclude that F is not a gradient field. We have:
F1
= (x yz) = x y
z z F1 F3
=
F3 z x
= (2z 2 y) = 0
x x
Therefore the cross partials condition is not satisfied, hence F is not a gradient vector field.
 
10. F(x, y, z) = x y 2 z, x 2 yz, 12 x 2 y 2
SOLUTION Yes. We find by guessing that (x, y) = 12 x 2 y 2 z is a potential function for F. Indeed,
   
1
= , , = x y 2 z, x 2 yz, x 2 y 2 = F
x y z 2

The potential function is determined up to an additive constant, therefore the functions 12 x 2 y 2 z + C are potential func-
tions for F as well.
 
y 1
11. F(x, y, z) = , tan x, 2z
1 + x2
SOLUTION We examine the cross partials of F. Since F1 =
y 1 x, F = 2z we have:
2 , F2 = tan
1+x 3

F1 1
=
y 1 + x2 F1 F2
=
F2 1 y x
=
x 1 + x2
F2
=0
z F2 F3
=
F3 z y
=0
y
F3
=0
x F3 F1
=
F1 x z
=0
z
Since the cross partials are equal, F is conservative. We denote the potential field by (x, y, z). We have:
y
x = , y = tan1 (x), z = 2z
1 + x2
By integrating we get:

y
(x, y, z) = d x = y tan1 (x) + c(y, z)
1 + x2
y = tan1 (x) + c y (y, z) = tan1 (x) c y (y, z) = 0 c(y, z) = c(z)

Hence (x, y, z) = y tan1 (x) + c(z). z = c (z) = 2z c(z) = z 2 . We conclude that (x, y, z) = y tan1 (x) + z 2 .
Indeed:
   
y 1
= , , = , tan x, 2z = F
x y z 1 + x2
1172 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

 
12. F(x, y) = x 2 y, y 2 x
SOLUTION If F is conservative, the cross partials must be equal. We compute the cross partials:

F1  2 
= x y = x2
y y
F2  2 
= y x = y2
x x
Since the cross-partials are not equal, F is not conservative.
 
13. F(x, y, z) = xe2x , ye2z , ze2y
SOLUTION We have:

F3  2y 
= ze = 2ze2y
y y
F2  2z 
= ye = 2ye2y
z z

Since Fy3  = z
F2
, the cross-partials condition is not satisfied , hence F is not conservative.
 4 3 4 3
14. F(x, y) = y x , x y
SOLUTION YES. We examine the cross-partials of F:

F1  4 3
= y x = 4y 3 x 3
y y
F2  4 3
= y x = 4y 3 x 3
x x
Since the cross-partials are equal, F is conservative. We compute the potential function (x, y) of F.

Step 1. Use the condition x = F1 . Since is an antiderivative of F1 = y 4 x 3 when y is fixed, we have:

x4
(x, y) = y 4 x 3 d x = y 4 + g(y) (1)
4

Step 2. Use the condition y = F2 . Differentiating with respect to y gives:

x4
4y 3 + g (y) = F2 = x 4 y 3
4
y 3 x 4 + g (y) = x 4 x 3
g (y) = 0 g(y) = c

1 4 4
(x, y) = x y +c
4

## Choosing c = 0, we obtain one of the potential functions, which is (x, y) = 14 x 4 y 4 .


15. Calculate ds, where (x, y, z) = x 4 y 3 z 2 and c(t) = (t 2 , 1 + t, t 1 ) for 1 t 3.
c
SOLUTION The initial point P and the terminal point Q are the following points:
 
P = c(1) = 12 , 1 + 1, 11 = (1, 2, 1)
   1

Q = c(3) = 32 , 1 + 3, 31 = 9, 4,
3
Using the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields we obtain:
  2
1
ds = (Q) (P) = 94 43 14 23 12 = 46,648
c 3

16. Find a gradient vector field of the form F = g(y), h(x) such that F(0, 0) = 1, 1, where g(y) and h(x) are
differentiable functions. Determine all such vector fields.
Chapter Review Exercises 1173

SOLUTION We need to find the scalar functions (x, y) such that F = . That is:

= g(y) (1)
x

= h(x) (2)
y
Integrating (1) with respect to x, treating y as a constant, we get:

## (x, y) = xg(y) + f (y) (3)

We differentiate (x, y) with respect to y and equate with (2). This gives:

= xg (y) + f (y) = h(x)
y
This equation can hold only when g (y) and f (y) are constants. That is, g (y) = c1 and f (y) = c2 , yielding g(y) =
c1 y + d1 and f (y) = c2 y + d2 . Substituting in (3) gives:

(x, y) = x(c1 y + d1 ) + c2 y + d2

Or

(x, y) = d1 x + c2 y + c1 x y + d2 = d1 + c1 y, c2 + c1 x

We conclude that F = g(y), h(x) are gradient vector fields if and only if g(y) = a + by and h(x) = c + bx for any
constants a, b, c. That is:

F = a + by, c + bx

## F(0, 0) = a, c = 1, 1 a=c=1

Therefore, all the gradient field of the form F = g(y), h(x) such that F(0, 0) = 1, 1 are:

F = 1 + by, 1 + bx

In Exercises 1720, compute the line integral f (x, y) ds for the given function and path or curve.
C
17. f (x, y) = x y, the path c(t) = (t, 2t 1) for 0 t 1
SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute ds = c (t) dt. We differentiate c(t) = (t, 2t 1) and compute the length of the derivative vector:

c (t) = 1, 2 c (t) = 12 + 22 = 5

Hence,

ds = c (t) dt = 5 dt

Step 2. Write out f (c(t)) and evaluate the line integral. We have:

f (c(t)) = x y = t (2t 1) = 2t 2 t

## Using the Theorem on Scalar Line Integral we have:

  1  1     
2 3 1 2 1 2 1 5
f (x, y) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = 2
2t t 5 dt = 5 
t t  = 5 =
0 0 3 2 0 3 2 6
C

## 18. f (x, y) = x y, the unit semicircle x 2 + y 2 = 1, y 0

SOLUTION

x
1174 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## The semi unit circle above the x-axis is parametrized by:

( ) = (cos , sin ), 0

## Step 1. Compute ds = c ( ) d . We have:

d
c ( ) =cos , sin  =  sin , cos 
d

c ( ) = ( sin )2 + cos2 = 1

Hence:

ds = c ( ) d = d

## We use the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals to obtain:

  
f (x, y) ds = f (c( )) c ( ) dt = (cos sin ) d
C 0 0


= sin + cos  = (0 1) (0 + 1) = 2
0

y  
19. f (x, y, z) = e x , the path c(t) = ln t, 2t, 12 t 2 for 1 t 2
2 2z
SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute ds = c (t) dt. We have:
   
d 1 1
c (t) = ln t, 2t, t 2 = , 2, t
dt 2 t
  
 2    2
1 2 1 1 1
c (t) = + 2 +t =2
2
+ 2 + t 2 = + t = +t
t t t t

Hence:
 
1
ds = c (t) dt = t + dt
t
Step 2. Write out f (c(t)) and evaluate the integral.

y 2t 1
f (c(t)) = e x = eln t 1 = t
2 2z 2 2 2 t2 t

We use the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals to compute the line integral:
  2  2  
1 1
f (x, y) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = t t+ dt
1 1 t t
C
 2  2    
1 t3 1  8 1 1 11
= t2 2 dt = +  = + +1 =
1 t 3 t 3 2 3 6
1

## 20. f (x, y, z) = x + 2y + z, the helix c(t) = (cos t, sin t, t) for 1 t 3

SOLUTION We have:

d
c (t) = cos t, sin t, t =  sin t, cos t, 1
dt

c (t) = ( sin t)2 + cos2 t + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2

## f (c(t)) = x + 2y + z = cos t + 2 sin t + t

Chapter Review Exercises 1175

## The scalar Line Integral is the following integral:

  3  3
f (x, y, z) ds = f (c(t)) c (t) dt = (cos t + 2 sin t + t) 2 dt
C 1 1

3 t2
= 2 sin t 2 cos t + 
2 1
   
9 1
= 2 sin 3 2 cos 3 + sin(1) 2 cos(1) +
2 2

= 2(sin 3 2 cos 3 + sin 1 + 2 cos 1 + 4) 11.375

21. Find the total mass of an L-shaped rod consisting of the segments (2t, 2) and (2, 2 2t) for 0 t 1 (length in
centimeters) with mass density (x, y) = x 2 y g/cm.
SOLUTION

A = (0, 2) B = (2, 2)

x
C = (2, 0)

## The total mass of the rod is the following sum:

 
M= x 2 y ds + x 2 y ds (1)
AB BC

and

and

## f (c2 (t)) = x 2 y = 22 (2 2t) = 8 8t.

Using these values, the Theorem on Scalar Line Integrals and (1) we get:
 1  1  1
16t 3 1 
2  = 40 = 13 1
M= 8t 2 2 dt + (8 8t) 2 dt =  + 16t 8t 
0 0 3 0 0 3 3

22. Calculate F = , where (x, y, z) = x ye z , and compute F ds, where
C
(a) C is any curve from (1, 1, 0) to (3, e, 1).
(b) C is the boundary of the square 0 x, y 1 oriented counterclockwise.
SOLUTION The gradient of (x, y, z) = x ye z is the following vector:
 
 
F= , , = ye z , xe z , x ye z
x y z
(a) By the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Fields, we have:
 
F ds = ds = (3, e, 1) (1, 1, 0) = 3 e e1 1 1e0 = 3 1 = 2
C C
(b) Since F is the gradient of a function, F is conservative. That is, the line integral of F over any closed curve is zero.
Therefore, the line integral C F ds is zero, where C is the boundary of a square.
1176 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

23. Calculate y 3 d x + x 2 y d y, where C1 is the oriented curve in Figure 1(A).
C1

y y

3 3 C2
C1

x x
3 3
(A) (B)
FIGURE 1

SOLUTION We compute the line integral as the sum of the line integrals over the segments AO, O B and the circular
arc BA.
y
A
3

B
x
0 3
 
The vector field is F = y 3 , x 2 y . We have:
   
F ds = F ds + F ds + F ds (1)
C1 AO OB arc B A

## We compute each integral separately.

The line integral over AO. The segment AO is parametrized by c(t) = (0, t), 3 t 0 . Hence:
   
F (c(t)) = y 3 , x 2 y = t 3 , 0

c (t) = 0, 1
 
F (c(t)) c (t) = t 3 , 0 0, 1 = 0

Therefore:
  0
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 0 (2)
AO 3

The line integral over O B. We parametrize the segment O B by c(t) = (t, 0), 0 t 3 . Hence:
 
F (c(t)) = y 3 , x 2 y = 0, 0

c (t) = 1, 0
F (c(t)) c (t) = 0

Therefore:
  3
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = 0 (3)
OB 0

The line integral over the circular arc B A. We parametrize the circular arc by c(t) = (3 cos t, 3 sin t), 0 t .
    2
Then c (t) = 3 sin t, 3 cos t and F (c(t)) = y 3 , x 2 y = 27 sin3 t, 27 cos2 t sin t . We compute the dot product:
   
F (c(t)) c (t) = 27 sin3 t, cos2 t sin t 3 sin t, 3 cos t = 81 sin4 t + cos3 t sin t

## We obtain the integral:

  /2  
F ds = 81 sin4 t + cos3 t sin t dt
arc B A 0
   /2
sin3 t cos t cos4 t 
3 t sin 2t 
= 81 
4 4 2 4 4 
t=0
Chapter Review Exercises 1177
 
3 1 243 1
= 81 + = + 20 (4)
44 4 16 4
Combining (1), (2), (3), and (4) gives:

243
F ds = 0 + 0 + 20.25 27.463
C1 16

 
24. Let F(x, y) = 9y y 3 , e y (x 2 3x) and let C2 be the oriented curve in Figure 1(B).
(a) Show that F is not conservative.
(b) Show that F ds = 0 without explicitly computing the integral. Hint: Consider the direction of F along the edges
C2
of the square.
SOLUTION
  
(a) We show that the cross-partials of F(x, y) = 9y y 3 , e y x 2 3x are not equal.

C = (0, 3) B = (3, 3)

C2

x
0 A = (3, 0)

 
We have F1 = 9y y 3 and F2 = e y x 2 3x , therefore:

F1
= 9 3y 2
y
F2
= e y (2x 3)
x
The cross-partials are not equal, hence F is not conservative.
(b) On O A, y = 0 hence
 
F = F(x, 0) = 0, x 2 3x .

Therefore the tangential component of F along the segment O A is zero, resulting in O A F ds = 0. On AB, x = 3
hence
    
F(3, y) = 9y y 3 , e y 32 3 3 = 9y y 3 , 0 .

We see that F is orthogonal to the segment AB, resulting in AB F ds = 0. On BC, y = 3 hence
     
F(x, 3) = 9 3 33 , e 3 x 2 3x = 0, e 3 x 2 3x .

We see that F is orthogonal to the segment BC, therefore BC F ds = 0. Finally, on C O we have x = 0, hence
 
F(0, y) = 9y y 3 , 0 . It follows that F is orthogonal to the segment C O, therefore the tangential component of F

along C O is zero. We conclude that C O F ds = 0. Combining these integrals we conclude that:
    
F ds = F ds + F ds + F ds + F ds = 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0
C2 OA AB BC CO


In Exercises 2528, compute the line integral F ds. for the given vector field and path.
c
 
2y x
25. F(x, y) = , ,
x 2 + 4y 2 x 2 + 4y 2
 
the path c(t) = cos t, 12 sin t for 0 t 2

SOLUTION
1178 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## Step 1. Calculate the integral F (c(t)) c (t).

 
1
c(t) = cos t, sin t
2
   
2y x 2 12 sin t cos t
F (c(t)) = 2 , = ,
x + 4y 2 x 2 + 4y 2 cos2 t + 4 14 sin2 t cos2 t + 4 14 sin2 t
 
sin t cos t
= , = sin t, cos t
cos2 t + sin2 t cos2 t + sin2 t
 
1
c (t) = sin t, cos t
2
The integral is the dot product:
 
1 1 1 1
F (c(t)) c (t) = sin t, cos t sin t, cos t = sin2 t + cos2 t = cos 2t sin2 t
2 2 2 2
Step 2. Evaluate the line integral.
  2  2   
1 1 2 sin 2t t sin 2t 2
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = cos 2t sin t dt = +  =
0 0 2 2 4 4 8 0 2
C

 
26. F(x, y) = 2x y, x 2 + y 2 , the part of the unit circle in the first quadrant oriented counterclockwise.
SOLUTION

## The path is parametrized by:

c( ) = (cos , sin ), 0
2
Step 1. Calculate the integrand F (c( )) c ( ).

c ( ) =  sin , cos 
   
F (c( )) = 2x y, x 2 + y 2 = 2 cos sin , cos2 + sin2 = 2 cos sin , 1

## F (c( )) c ( ) = 2 cos sin , 1  sin , cos  = 2 cos sin2 + cos

Step 2. Evaluate the line integral. The vector line integral is:
  /2  /2  
F ds = F (c( )) c ( ) d = 2 cos sin2 + cos d
0 0
C
 /2  /2   /2
2 sin3  /2 
 2 1
= 2 sin2 cos d + cos d =  + sin  = +1=
0 0 3 0 0 3 3
   
27. F(x, y) = x 2 y, y 2 z, z 2 x , the path c(t) = et , e2t , e3t for 0 t <
SOLUTION
Step 1. Calculate the integrand F (c(t)) c (t).
 
c(t) = et , e2t , e3t
 
c (t) = et , 2e2t , 3e3t
     
F (c(t)) = x 2 y, y 2 z, z 2 x = e2t e2t , e4t e3t , e6t et = e4t , e7t , e7t
Chapter Review Exercises 1179

## The integrand is the dot product:

   
F (c(t)) c (t) = e4t , e7t , e7t et , 2e2t , 3e3t = e5t 2e9t 3e10t

## Step 2. Evaluate the line integral.

    
F ds = F (c(t)) c (t) dt = e5t 2e9t 3e10t dt
0 0
C
   
1 5R 2 9R 3 1 2 3 13 13
= lim e + e + e10R + + =0 =
R 5 9 10 5 9 10 18 18
 
28. F = , where (x, y, z) = 4x 2 ln(1 + y 4 + z 2 ), the path c(t) = t 3 , ln(1 + t 2 ), et for 0 t 1
SOLUTION We use the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient Vector Field to write:

ds = (c(1)) (c(0)) (1)
c

## We compute the values on the right-hand side:

   
c(1) = 13 , ln 1 + 12 , e1 = (1, ln 2, e)
   
c(0) = 03 , ln 1 + 02 , e0 = (0, 0, 1)

Hence:
   
(c(1)) = 4 12 ln 1 + ln4 2 + e2 = 4 ln 1 + e2 + ln4 2 8.616

(c(0)) = 0
Combining with (1) gives:

ds = 8.616
c

29. Consider the line integrals F ds for the vector fields F and paths c in Figure 2. Which two of the line integrals
c
appear to have a value of zero? Which of the other two is negative?
y y

x x
(A) (B)

y y
Q
P

P Q

x x
(C) (D)
FIGURE 2

SOLUTION In (A), the line integral around the ellipse appears to be positive, because the negative tangential compo-
nents from the lower part of the curve appears to be smaller than the positive contribution of the tangential components
from the upper part.
In (B), the line integral around the ellipse appears to be zero, since F is orthogonal to the ellipse at all points except
for two points where the tangential components of F cancel each other.
In (C), F is orthogonal to the path, hence the tangential component is zero at all points on the curve. Therefore the
line integral C F ds is zero.
In (D), the direction of F is opposite to the direction of the curve. Therefore the dot product F T is negative at each
point along the curve, resulting in a negative line integral.
1180 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

30. Calculate the work required to move an object from P = (1, 1, 1) to Q =  (3, 4, 2) against the force field
F(x, y, z) = 12r 4 x, y, z (distance in meters, force in Newtons), where r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 . Hint: Find a potential
function for F.
SOLUTION The work performed against F is given by the line integral:

W = F ds (1)
PQ

12 6
We notice that F =  2 x, y, z is the gradient of the function (x, y, z) = 2 2 2 since:
x 2 +y 2 +z 2 x +y +z

   
6 (2x) 6 (2y) 6 (2z)
= , , =  2 ,  2 ,  2
x y z x 2 + y2 + z2 x 2 + y2 + z2 x 2 + y2 + z2
12
=  2 x, y, z = F
x 2 + y2 + z2

We now use the Fundamental Theorem for Gradient vector Field to compute the line integral (1):
 
   
W = F ds = ds = (Q) (P) = (3, 4, 2) (1, 1, 1)
PQ PQ
 
6 6 52
= = 1.79
9 + 16 + 4 1 + 1 + 1 29

## 31. Find constants a, b, c such that

(u, v) = (u + av, bu + v, 2u c)

## parametrizes the plane 3x 4y + z = 5. Calculate Tu , Tv , and n(u, v).

SOLUTION We substitute x = u + av, y = bu + v and z = 2u c in the equation of the plane 3x 4y + z = 5, to
obtain:

or

## (5 4b)u + (3a 4)v (5 + c) = 0

This equation must be satisfied for all u and v, therefore the following must hold:
5
5 4b = 0 b=
4
4
3a 4 = 0 a =
3
5+c =0 c = 5

## We obtain the following parametrization for the plane 3x 4y + z = 5:

 
4 5
(u, v) = u + v, u + v, 2u + 5
3 4
We compute the tangent vectors Tu and Tv :
   
5 4
Tu = = 1, , 2 ; Tv = = , 1, 0
u 4 v 3
The normal vector is their cross product:
   
 i j k   5     1 5 
   2   1 2  
n = Tu Tv =  1 5 2 = 4 i  4 j+ 4 4  k
4   1 0   0   3 1 
 4 1 0  3
3
   
8 5 8 2
= 2i + j + 1 k = 2, ,
3 3 3 3

32. Calculate the integral of f (x, y, z) = e zy over the portion of the plane 6x + 4y + z = 24, where x, y, z 0.
Chapter Review Exercises 1181

## (x, y) = x, y, 24 6x 4y

The parameter domain D is determined by the inequalities x 0, y 0, z 0. We identify this domain and sketch it
by writing the corresponding inequalities for x and y:

x 0 x 0
y0 y0
24 6x 4y 0 3x + 2y 12

3x + 2y = 12
D
x
4

## Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.


Tx = = x, y, 24 6x 4y = 1, 0, 6
x x

Ty = = x, y, 24 6x 4y = 0, 1, 4
y y
n = Tx T y = (i 6k) (j 4k) = k + 4j + 6i = 6, 4, 1

## The normal vector has length:


n = 62 + 42 + 12 = 53

Step 2. Calculate the surface integral. We express f (x, y, z) = e zy in terms of the parameters x and y:

## f ((x, y)) = e zy = e(246x4y)y = e246x5y

Then:
   4  6 3x
2
f (x, y, z) d S = f ((x, y)) n d x d y = e246x5y 53 d y d x
S D 0 0
6 3x   
 4 1 246x5y  2 53 4 246x5 6 3x2 246x
= 53 e  dx = e e dx
0 5  5 0 y=0
 
53 4  3x 2 6+ 3x 
1 246x 4 53
= e6+ 2 e246x
e 2 + e
 dx =
5 0 3 6 x=0 5
     
53 2 1 2 6 1 24 53 5 1 24 2 6
= + e + e = e e
5 3 6 3 6 5 6 6 3

## 33. Let S be the surface parametrized by

 v v 
(u, v) = 2u sin , 2u cos , 3v
2 2
for 0 u 1 and 0 v 2 .
(a) Calculate the tangent vectors Tu and Tv , and normal vector n(u, v) at P = (1, 3 ).
(b) Find the equation of the tangent plane at P.
(c) Compute the surface area of S.
SOLUTION
(a) The tangent vectors are the partial derivatives:
 v v   v v 
Tu = = 2u sin , 2u cos , 3v = 2 sin , 2 cos , 0
u u 2 2 2 2
1182 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

 v v   v v 
Tv = = 2u sin , 2u cos , 3v = u cos , u sin , 3
v v 2 2 2 2
The normal vector is their cross-product:
 
 i j k       
 v v 2 cos v2 0   2 sin v 0   2 sin v 2 cos v2 
n = Tu Tv =  2 sin 2 2 cos 2 0  =  v i  2
v
 j +  2
 u cos v k
 u cos v u sin v 3  u sin 2 3   u cos 2 3 
2 u sin v2 
2 2
 v  v  v v
= 6 cos i 6 sin j + 2u sin2 2u cos2 k
2 2 2 2
 v  v  v v 
= 6 cos i 6 sin j 2uk = 6 cos , 6 sin , 2u
2 2 2 2
 
At the point P =  1, 3 , u = 1 and v = 3 . The tangents and the normal vector at this point are,
     
Tu 1, = 2 sin , 2 cos , 0 = 1, 3, 0
3 6 6
 
    3 1
Tv 1, = 1 cos , 1 sin , 3 = , ,3
3 6 6 2 2
     
n 1, = 6 cos , 6 sin , 2 1 = 3 3, 3, 2
3 6 6
   
(b) A normal to the plane is n 1, 3 = 3 3, 3, 2 found in part (a). We find the tangency point:
     
P = 1, = 2 1 sin , 2 1 cos , 3 = 1, 3,
3 6 6 3
The equation of the tangent plane is, thus,
   
x 1, y 3, z 3 3, 3, 2 = 0

or
 
3 3(x 1) 3 y 3 2(z ) = 0

3 3x 3y 2z + 2 = 0

## (c) In part (a) we found the normal vector:

 v v 
n = 6 cos , 6 sin , 2u
2 2
We compute the length of n:
 
v v
n = 36 cos2 + 36 sin2 + 4u 2 = 36 + 4u 2 = 2 9 + u 2
2 2
Using the Integral for the Surface Area we get:
  2  1   1
Area(S) = n(u, v) du dv = 2 9 + u 2 du dv = 4 9 + u 2 du
D 0 0 0

u 2 9    1 
1 9   9

= 4 u + 9 + ln u + 9 + u 2  = 4 10 + ln 1 + 10 ln 3
2 2 u=0 2 2 2

 1 + 10
= 2 10 + 18 ln 1 + 10 18 ln 3 = 2 10 + 18 ln 38.4
3

## (u, v) = (u + 4v, 2u v, 5uv)

for 1 v 1, 1 u 1. Express the surface area as a double integral and use a computer algebra system to
compute the area numerically.
SOLUTION The surface is shown in the following plot:
Chapter Review Exercises 1183

y
x

We compute the area of the surface, using the Integral for the surface Area. We find the tangent and normal vectors:

=
Tu = u + 4v, 2u v, 5uv = 1, 2, 5v
u u

Tv = = u + 4v, 2u v, 5uv = 4, 1, 5u
v v
 
 i j k       
 2 5v   1 5v   2 
n = Tu Tv =  1 2 5v  =  i  j +  1 k
1 5u   4 5u   4 1 
 4 1 5u 

## Next, we calculate the length of the normal vector:


n = (10u + 5v)2 + (5u + 20v)2 + (9)2

= 100u 2 + 100uv + 25v 2 + 25u 2 200uv + 400v 2 + 81

= 125u 2 100uv + 425v 2 + 81

## We obtain the following integral, which we compute by a CAS:

  1  1 
Area(S) = n(u, v) du dv = 125u 2 100uv + 425v 2 + 81 du dv = 62.911
D 1 1

## 35. Express the surface area of the surface z = 10 x 2 y 2 , 1 x 1, 3 y 3 as a double integral.

Evaluate the integral numerically using a CAS.
SOLUTION We use the Surface Integral over a graph. Let g(x, y) = 10 x 2 y 2 . Then g x = 2x, g y = 2y hence
 
1 + gx 2 + g y 2 = 1 + 4x 2 + 4y 2 . The area at the surface is the following integral which we compute using a CAS:
   3  1 
Area(S) = 1 + gx 2 + g y 2 d x d y = 1 + 4x 2 + 4y 2 d x d y 41.8525
D 3 1


36. Evaluate x 2 y d S, where S is the surface z =
3x + y 2 , 1 x 1, 0 y 1.
S

SOLUTION We use the Surface Integral over a Graph with g(x, y) = 3x + y 2 . The partial derivatives are g x = 3
and g y = 2y. Therefore
   
 2
2 2
1 + gx + g y = 1 + 3 + (2y)2 = 4 + 4y 2 = 2 1 + y 2

## We obtain the following integral:

    1 1    
1 1
x2 y d S = x2 y 2 2
1 + gx + g y d x d y = 2
x y 2 1 + y dx dy =
2 2
x dx 1 + y 2y d y
2
S D 0 1 1 0
    
x 3 1 1 2 1
= 1 + y 2 2y d y = 1 + y 2 2y d y
3 x=1 0 3 0

## We compute the integral using the substitution u = 1 + y 2 , du = 2y d y. We get:

  2
2 2 1/2 2 2  4  3/2  4 
x2 y d S = u du = u 3/2  = 2 1 = 2 21
S 3 1 3 3 1 9 9
1184 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)
  
37. Calculate x 2 + y 2 ez d S, where S is the cylinder with equation x 2 + y 2 = 9 for 0 z 10.
S
SOLUTION We parametrize the cylinder S by,

( , z) = (3 cos , 3 sin , z)

0 2 , 0 z 10.

## We compute the tangent and normal vectors:

T = = 3 cos , 3 sin , z = 3 sin , 3 cos , 0

Tz = = 3 cos , 3 sin , z = 0, 0, 1

The normal vector is their cross product:
 
 i j k       
   3 cos 0   3 sin 0   3 sin 3 cos 
n = T Tz =  3 sin 3 cos 0 =
   i 
  j + 
 k
  0 1 0 1 0 0
0 0 1
= (3 cos )i + (3 sin )j = 3 cos , sin , 0

## We compute the length of the normal vector:


n = 3 cos2 + sin2 + 0 = 3
 
We now express the function f (x, y, z) = x 2 + y 2 ez in terms of the parameters:
     
f ( , z) = x 2 + y 2 ez = 9 cos2 + 9 sin2 ez = 9ez

## Using the Theorem on Surface Integrals, we obtain:

    10  2  10 
  10
x 2 + y 2 ez d S = 9ez 3 d dz = 27 2 ez dz = 54 ez 
S 0 0 0 z=0
 
= 54 e10 + 1 54

2 2 2
 Let S be the upper hemisphere x + y + z = 1, z 0. For each of the functions (a)(d), determine whether
38.

f d S is positive, zero, or negative (without evaluating the integral). Explain your reasoning.
S
(a) f (x, y, z) = y 3 (b) f (x, y, z) = z 3
(c) f (x, y, z) = x yz (d) f (x, y, z) = z 2 2
SOLUTION
(a) Since f (x, y, z) = y 3 is an odd function of y, and the upper hemisphere is symmetric with respect to the (x, z)-
plane, the surface integrals over the parts where y 0 and y 0 cancel each other. Therefore the surface integral is
zero.
(b) The function f (x, y, z) = z 3 is non-negative on S, hence the surface integral is positive.
(c) Since f (x, y, z) = x yz = f (x, y, z) and since the upper hemisphere is symmetric with respect to (y, z)-plane,
the surface integrals over the parts of S where x 0 and x 0 cancel each other to obtain a zero surface integral.
(d) On S we have z 2 = 1 x 2 y 2 1, hence z 2 2 < 0. That is, f (x, y, z) = z 2 2 is negative on S, therefore
the surface integral is negative.
39. Let S be a small patch of surface with a parametrization (u, v) for 0 u, v 0.1 such that the normal vector
n(u, v) for (u, v) = (0, 0) is n = 2, 2, 4. Use Eq. (1) in Section 17.4 to estimate the surface area of S.
SOLUTION

n(0, 0)

S
0.1
P = (0, 0)
R
u x
(0, 0) 0.1
Chapter Review Exercises 1185

 
We use Eq. (1) in section 17.4 with u i j , vi j = (0, 0), Ri j = R = [0, 0.1] [0, 0.1] in the (u, v)-plane and Si j =
S = (R), in the (x, y)-plane to obtain the following estimation for the area of S:

## Area(S) n(0, 0)Area(R)

That is:

Area(S)  2, 2, 4 0.12 = 22 + (2)2 + 42 (0.1)2 = 0.02 6 0.049

40. Let S be the upper hemisphere of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9 and let (r, ) = (r cos , r sin , 9 r 2 ) be its
parametrization by cylindrical coordinates (Figure 3).
(a) Calculate the normal vector n = Tr T at the point (2, 3 ).
(b) Use Eq. (1) in Section 17.4 to estimate the surface area of (R), where R is the small domain defined by

2 r 2.1, + 0.05
3 3

(P0 )
3

r 3 y
3

x
( 3)
P0 = 2,

FIGURE 3

SOLUTION
(a) We first find the tangent vectors at the given point:
   
T = = r cos , r sin , 9 r 2 = r sin , r cos , 0

     
T 2, = 2 sin , 2 cos , 0 = 3, 1, 0
3 3 3
 
    r
Tr = = r cos , r sin , 9 r = cos , sin , 
2
r r 9 r2
   
  2 1 3 2
Tr 2, = cos , sin ,  = , ,
3 3 3 9 22 2 2 5
The normal vector is the cross product:
 
 i j 
k    
 
 3  2 2 3 1 3 2 2 3
n = Tr T =  12 2  = i + j + + k = , ,2
 2 5  5 5 2 2 5 5
 3 1 0 
 
(b) We use Eq. (1) with the sample point (u, v) = 2, 3 .
y

n 2,( )3

+ 0.05 S
3
R
P = (R)
3
r x
2 2.1
  
In part (a) we found that the normal to (R) at this point is n = 2 , 2 3 , 2 . Therefore, n = 45 + 12 6
5 + 4 = 5.
5 5
We get:
  
  6 0.03
Area((R)) n 2,  Area(R) = 0.1 0.05 = 0.0134
3 5 5
1186 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

In Exercises 4146, compute F dS for the given oriented surface or parametrized surface.
S
 
41. F(x, y, z) = y, x 2 y, e x z , x 2 + y 2 = 9, 3 z 3,
outward-pointing normal
SOLUTION The part of the cylinder is parametrized by:

z

3 3

y
3
x

## Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.


T = = 3 cos , 3 sin , z = 3 sin , 3 cos , 0


Tz = = 3 cos , 3 sin , z = 0, 0, 1
z z
We compute the cross product:

## The outward pointing normal is (when = 0, the x-component must be positive):

n = 3 cos , 3 sin , 0
 
Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We write F(x, y, z) = y, x 2 y, e x z in terms of the parameters by substituting
x = 3 cos , y = 3 sin . We get:
   
F (( , z)) = 3 sin , 9 cos2 3 sin , e3z cos = 3 sin , 27 cos2 sin , e3z cos

Hence:
 
F (( , z)) n = 3 sin , 27 cos2 sin , e3z cos 3 cos , 3 sin , 0

## = 9 sin cos + 81 cos2 sin2

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral (we use the trigono-
metric identities sin cos = sin22 and sin2 2 = 12 (1 cos 4 )):
  2  3  2  3  
F dS = F (( , z)) n( , z) dz d = 9 sin cos + 81 cos2 sin2 d
S 0 3 0 3
 2  2  
9 sin 2 6 9 2 6 81 2
=6 sin 2 + 81 d = sin 2 d + (1 cos 4 ) d
0 2 2 2 0 8 0
   2   2
cos 2  
=
54
 + 243 sin 4  = 243 2 = 243 381.7
2 2  4 4  4 2
0 0

42. F(x, y, z) = y, z, x, (u, v) = (u + 3v, v 2u, 2v + 5), 0 u, v 1, upward-pointing normal
SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.

Tu = = u + 3v, v 2u, 2v + 5 = 1, 2, 0
u u

Tv = = u + 3v, v 2u, 2v + 5 = 3, 1, 2
v v
Chapter Review Exercises 1187
 
 i j k       
   2 0   1 0   1 2 
Tu Tv =  1 2 0 =
  1 i  j +  k = 4i 2j + 7k = 4, 2, 7
 3  2  3 2  3 1 
1 2

Since the normal is pointing upward, the z-component is positive. Therefore the normal vector is n = 4, 2, 7.
Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We write F in terms of the parameters. Since
x = u + 3v, y = v 2u, z = 2v + 5 , we have:

## F ((u, v)) n = 2u v, 2v + 5, u 3v 4, 2, 7

= 4(2u v) 2(2v + 5) + 7(u 3v) = 15 21v 10

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
   1 1
F ds = F ((u, v)) n du dv = (15u 21v 10) du dv
S D 0 0
 1  1 
15u 2 1 35
= 21vu 10u  u=0 dv = 21v dv
0 2 0 2
35v 21v 2 1 35 21
= = = 28
2 2 0 2 2
 
43. F(x, y, z) = x 2 , y 2 , x 2 + y 2 , x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4, z 0, outward-pointing normal
SOLUTION The upper hemisphere is parametrized by:

( , ) = (2 cos sin , 2 sin sin , 2 cos ), 0 2 , 0
2
As seen in section 17.4, since 0 2 then the outward-pointing normal is:
 
n = 4 sin cos sin , sin sin , cos

## We express F in terms of the parameters:

      
F ( , ) = x 2 , y 2 , x 2 + y 2 = 4 cos2 sin2 , 4 sin2 sin2 , 4 sin2 cos2 + sin2
 
= 4 cos2 sin2 , 4 sin2 sin2 , 4 sin2

## The dot product F n is thus

   
F ( , ) n( , ) = 4 sin 4 cos3 sin3 + 4 sin3 sin3 + 4 sin2 cos
 
= 16 cos3 sin4 + sin3 sin4 + sin3 cos

## We obtain the following integral:

 
 
F ds = F ( , ) n( , ) d d
S D
 /2  2  
= 16 cos3 sin4 + sin3 sin4 + sin3 cos d d
0 0
 
2 /2
= 16 cos3 d sin4 d
0 0
   /2
2 /2
+ 16 sin3 d sin4 d + 32 sin3 cos v d
0 0 0
 
Since 02 cos3 d = 02 sin3 d = 0, we get:
  /2  
sin4  /2 10
F ds = 32 sin3 cos d = 32 = 32 = 8
S 0 4 =0 4
1188 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

 
44. F(x, y, z) = z, 0, z 2 , (u, v) = (v cosh u, v sinh u, v), 0 u, v 1, upward-pointing normal
SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.

Tu = = v cosh(u), v sinh(u), v = v sinh(u), v cosh(u), 0
u u

Tv = = v cosh(u), v sinh(u), v = cosh(u), sinh(u), 1
v v
 
 i j k 

Tu Tv =  v sinh(u) v cosh(u) 0 
 cosh(u) sinh(u) 1 
     
 v cosh(u) 0   v sinh(u) 0   v sinh(u) v cosh(u) 
=   i  j +  k
sinh(u) 1  cosh(u) 1  cosh(u) sinh(u) 
 
= (v cosh(u)) i (v sinh(u)) j + vsinh2 (u) vcosh2 (u) k

= v cosh(u), v sinh(u), v

Since the normal points upward, the z-component is positive. Therefore the normal vector is, (notice that v 0):

n = v cosh(u), v sinh(u), v

## Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We write F in terms of the parameters:

   
F ((u, v)) = z, 0, z 2 = v, 0, v 2

Hence:
 
F ((u, v)) n(u, v) = v, 0, v 2 v cosh(u), v sinh(u), v = v 2 cosh(u) + v 3

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
   1 1 
F ds = F ((u, v)) n du dv = v 2 cosh(u) + v 3 du dv
S D 0 0
 1 1  1 1    1
1 1
= v 2 cosh(u) du dv + v 3 du dv = v 2 dv cosh(u) du + v 3 dv
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 
v 3 1  v 4 1 1 1
= v=0 sinh(u) + sinh(1) + 0.1417
3 u=0 4 v=0 3 4

 
45. F(x, y, z) = 0, 0, x ze x y , z = x y, 0 x, y 1,
upward-pointing normal
SOLUTION We parametrize the surface by:

(x, y) = (x, y, x y)

## Where the parameter domain is the square:

D = {(x, y) : 0 x 1, 0 y 1}

## Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.


Tx = = x, y, x y = 1, 0, y
x x

Ty = = x, y, x y = 0, 1, x
y y
 
 i j k       
   0 y   y   1 0 
Tx T y =  1 0 y  =  i  1 j +  k = yi xj + k = y, x, 1
1 x   0 x   0 1 
 0 1 x 

Since the normal points upwards, the z-coordinate is positive. Therefore the normal vector is:

n = y, x, 1
Chapter Review Exercises 1189

## Step 2. Evaluate the dot product F n. We express F in terms of x and y:

     
F ((x, y)) = 0, 0, x ze x y = 0, 0, x(x y)e x y = 0, 0, x 2 ye x y

Hence:
 
F ((x, y)) n(x, y) = 0, 0, x 2 ye x y y, x, 1 = x 2 ye x y

Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
 
F ds = F ((x, y)) n(x, y) d x d y
S D
 1 1  1 
1
= x 2 ye x y d y d x = x2 ye x y d y dx (1)
0 0 0 0

## We evaluate the inner integral using integration by parts:

 1  1 1
y x y 1 1 xy ex 1  ex 1  
ye x y d y = e y=0 e dy = 2 e x y  = 2 ex 1
0 x 0 x x x y=0 x x

## Substituting this integral in (1) gives:

  1  1  1
 x  x   x 
F ds = xe e 1 d x = xe x d x e 1 dx
0 0 0
S
 1   1
  1
= xe x d x e x x  = xe x d x (e 2)
0 0 0

## Using integration by parts we have:

 1

F d S = xe e  (e 2) = 1 (e 2) = 3 e
x x
S 0

## 46. F(x, y, z) = 0, 0, z, 3x 2 + 2y 2 + z 2 = 1, z 0,

upward-pointing normal
SOLUTION We use modified spherical coordinates to parametrize the ellipsoid:
 
1 1
( , ) = cos sin , sin sin , cos
3 2
where the parameter domain is:

D = ( , ) : 0 2 , 0
2
Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.
 
 1 1
T = = sin sin , cos sin , 0
3 2
 
 1 1
T = = cos cos , sin cos , sin
3 2
 
 i j k 
 
 sin sin cos sin
1 1 0 
T T =  3 2 
 1 
 cos cos sin cos sin 
1
3 2
     
1 1 1 1
= cos sin2 i sin sin2 j sin2 sin cos + cos2 sin cos k
2 3 6 6
     
1 1 1
= cos sin2 i sin sin2 j sin cos k
2 3 6
Since the normal points upward, the z-component is positive. For 0 2 , sin cos 0 therefore the normal vector
is:
 
1 1 1
n = cos sin2 , sin sin2 , sin cos
2 3 6
1190 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

## Step 2. Compute the dot product F n. We have:

 
    1 1 1 1
F ( , ) = 0, 0, cos cos sin , sin sin , sin cos = sin cos2
2 2
2 3 6 6
Step 3. Evaluate the surface integral. The surface integral is equal to the following double integral:
   2  /2
  1
F ds = F ( , ) n( , ) d d = sin cos2 d d
S D 0 0 6
 /2  
2 2 2 cos3  /2 2 0 + 1 2 2
= cos sin d = =0 = = =
6 0 6 3 6 3 3 6 3 3

## 47. Calculate the total charge on the cylinder

x 2 + y 2 = R2 , 0zH

## if the charge density in cylindrical coordinates is ( , z) = K z 2 cos2 , where K is a constant.


SOLUTION The total change on the surface S is S d S. We parametrize the surface by,

( , z) = (R cos , R sin , H z)

0 2 , 0 z 1.

## We compute the tangent and normal vectors:


T = = R cos , R sin , H z = R sin , R cos , 0


Tz = = R cos , R sin , H z = 0, 0, H 
z z
The normal vector is their cross product:
 
 i j k 

n = T Tz =  R sin R cos 0 
 0 0 H 
     
 R cos 0   0   R sin R cos 
=   i  R sin j + 
0 H   0 H   0 0 k

## We find the length of n:


n = R H cos2 + sin2 = R H

## Using the Theorem on Surface Integrals we obtain:

   2  1
dS = (( , z)) n( , z) dz d = K H 2 z 2 cos2 H R dz d
S D 0 0
   
1 2 K H 3 Rz 3 1 sin 2 2
= K H 3 Rz 2 dz cos2 d =  +
0 0 3 0 2 4 0

K H3R
= = K H3R
3 3

48. Find the flow rate of a fluid with velocity field v = 2x, y, x y m/s across the part of the cylinder x 2 + y 2 = 9
where x, y 0, and 0 z 4 (distance in meters).
SOLUTION The flow rate of a fluid with velocity field v through the part S of the cylinder is the surface integral:
Chapter Review Exercises 1191

3 3 y


v dS (1)
S
We parametrize S by,

( , z) = (3 cos , 3 sin , z), 0 , 0 z 4.
2
y

x
0 3
0
2

## Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.


T = = 3 cos , 3 sin , z = 3 sin , 3 cos , 0 = (3 sin ) i + (3 cos )j


Tz = = 3 cos , 3 sin , z = 0, 0, 1 = k
z z
n = T Tz = ((3 sin )i + (3 cos )j) k = (3 sin )j + (3 cos )i = 3 cos , 3 sin , 0

## v (( , z)) n = 2 3 cos , 3 sin , 9 cos sin  3 cos , 3 sin , 0

 
= 18 cos2 + 9 sin2 = 9 cos2 + sin2 + 9 cos2 = 9 cos2 + 9

Step 3. Evaluate the flux of v. The flux of v in (1) is equal to the following double integral (we use the equality cos2 =
1 + 1 cos 2 ):
2 2
   4  /2  
v dS = v (( , z)) n d dz = 9 cos2 + 9 d dz
S D 0 0
 /2    /2  
=4 9 cos2 + 9 d = 36 cos2 + 1 d
0 0
 /2     /2
3 1 3 1 
= 36 + cos 2 d = 36 + sin 2  = 27
0 2 2 2 4 =0

x2
49. With v as in Exercise 48, calculate the flow rate across the part of the elliptic cylinder + y 2 = 1 where x, y 0,
4
and 0 z 4.
SOLUTION The flow rate of a fluid with velocity field v = 2x, y, x y through the elliptic cylinder S is the surface
integral:

v dS (1)
S
1192 C H A P T E R 17 L I N E A N D S U R FA C E I N T E G R A L S (ET CHAPTER 16)

1 y
2

## To compute this integral, we parametrize S by,

( , z) = (2 cos , sin , z), 0 , 0z4
2
y

x
0 /2

## Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.


T = = 2 cos , sin , z = 2 sin , cos , 0


Tz = = 2 cos , sin , z = 0, 0, 1
z z
 
 i j k 

n = T Tz =  2 sin cos 0  = (cos )i + (2 sin )j = cos , 2 sin , 0
 0 0 1 

## Step 2. Compute the dot product v n

v (( , z)) n = 4 cos , sin , 2 cos sin  cos , 2 sin , 0 = 4 cos2 + 2 sin2
 
= 2 cos2 + 2 cos2 + sin2 = 2 cos2 + 2

Step 3. Evaluate the flux of v. The flux of v in (1) is equal to the following double integral (we use the equality 2 cos2 =
1 + cos 2 in our calculation):
   4  /2  
v dS = v (( , z)) n d dz = 2 cos2 + 2 d dz
S D 0 0
 /2   /2 
 sin 2  /2
=4 2
2 cos + 2 d = 4 (3 + cos 2 ) d = 4 3 + = 6
0 0 2  =0

50. Calculate the flux of the vector field E(x, y, z) = x, 0, z through the part of the ellipsoid

4x 2 + 9y 2 + z 2 = 36

## where z 3. Hint: Use the parametrization

  
(r, ) = 3r cos , 2r sin , 6 1 r 2

SOLUTION The flux of the vector field E through the part S of the ellipsoid is the surface integral:

E dS (1)
S
We use the following parametrization for S:
  
( , r ) = 3r cos , 2r sin , 6 1 r 2

## With the parameter domain:

* +
3
D = ( , r ) : 0 2 , 0 r
2
Chapter Review Exercises 1193


We justify this parametrization. First, we verify that x = 3r cos , y = 2r sin and z = 6 1 r 2 satisfy the equation
of the ellipsoid 4x 2 + 9y 2 + z 2 = 36.
  2  
4x 2 + 9y 2 + z 2 = 4(3r cos )2 + 9(2r sin )2 + 6 1 r 2 = 36r 2 cos2 + 36r 2 sin2 + 36 1 r 2
 
= 36r 2 cos2 + sin2 + 36 36r 2 = 36r 2 + 36 36r 2 = 36

Next, the part z 3 of the ellipsoid corresponds to the values of r such that 6 1 r 2 3. We solve for r 0:
 
1 2 1 2 3 3
6 1r 3
2 1r 2 1r r 0r
2 4 4 2
Step 1. Compute the tangent and normal vectors.
   
T = = 3r cos , 2r sin , 6 1 r 2 = 3r sin , 2r cos , 0

 
    6r
Tr = = 3r cos , 2r sin , 6 1 r 2 = 3 cos , 2 sin , 
r r 1 r2
The outward pointing normal is:

6r
n = T Tr = ((3r sin )i (2r cos )j) (3 cos )i + (2 sin )j  k
1 r2
18r 2 sin   12r 2 cos 12r 2 cos 18r 2 sin
= 6r sin2 k +  j + 6r cos2 k +  i=  i+  j + 6r k
1 r2 1 r2 1 r2 1 r2
Step 2. Compute the dot product E n.
 
   12r 2 cos 18r 2 sin 36r 3 cos2 
E (( , r )) n = 3r cos , 0, 6 1 r 2  ,  , 6r =  + 36r 1 r 2
1 r2 1 r2 1 r2

Step 3. Evaluate the flux of E. The flux of E in (1) is equal to the following double integral:
   2  3/2 

36r 3 cos2
E dS = E (( , r )) n dr d =  + 36r 1 r 2 dr d
S D 0 0 1 r2
   
2 3/2 36r 3 2 3/2 
= 2
cos d  dr + 1 d 36r 1 r dr
2
0 0 1 r2 0 0
 3/2  3/2 
36r 3
=  dr + 72 r 1 r 2 dr (2)
0 1 r2 0

We evaluate the second integral using the substitution u = 1 r 2 , du = r udr . We get:
 3/2   1/2  1 
u 3 1 7
r 1 r 2 dr = (u 2 ) du = u 2 du =  = (3)
0 1 1/2 3 1/2 24

We evaluate the first integral in (2) using the same substitution u = 1 r 2 . Then r 2 = 1 u 2 , r dr = u du .
We obtain:
 
 3/2  3/2  1/2 36 1 u 2 (u du)
36r 3 36r 2 r dr
 dr =  =
0 1 r2 0 1 r2 1 u
 1 
  u 3 1
= 2
36 1 u du = 36 u = 7.5 (4)
1/2 3 u=1/2

## Combining (2), (3), and (4) we obtain the solution:


7
E dS = 7.5 + 72 = 28.5 89.54
S 24