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Resumo de todo um curso de Ingls

Present Simple

Positive Verb example Negative Verb example


I I dont (do not)
You You
We work. We
They They work.
He He doesnt (does
She works. She not)
It It

Question Verb example Short answer


I Yes, I do.
you you
Do dont.
we No, we
they they
work? Yes, does.
he he
Does she she
No, doesnt.
it it

Use Examples
Long-term situations I live in Madrid.
Where does she work?
Habits and routines I travel to work by car.
How often do you play golf?
Feelings and opinions She doesnt like her work.
I agree with you.
Facts The journey takes 30 minutes.
It costs $ 15.

Question words

Where do you live? In Rome.


What do you do at weekends? I usually play golf.
When do they take their holiday? In July or August.
Which magazine does James write for? Wine and Dine.
How do you travel to work? By car.
How often do you make business trips? About twice a month.
Whose book is this? Its mine.
Who (*Whom) do you visit in London? I visit my sister.
Who arrives at work first? Anna does.

* Whom is very formal, and is not used very often.

Present Continuous

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Verb
Positive Verb example Negative
example
I m (am) I m not (am
not)
He s (is) He isnt (is not)
She She
It working. working.
It
You re (are) You arent (are not)
We We
They They

Positive Verb example Short answer


Am I Yes, am.
I
Is he No, m not.
she Yes, he is.
it No, she isnt.
working?
Are you it
we Yes, you are.
they No, we arent.
they

Use Examples
Actions happening now Hes talking on the phone at the moment.
Theyre having lunch with a customer.
Temporary situations or actions Jeans are selling well this season.
Im not travelling on business this month.
Which hotel are you staying at?

- A dictionary tells you when the final consonant doubles (travel, travelling), and
when we leave out the final e (make, making).

Past Simple

Positive Negative
I I
You You
He He
started didnt (did Start
She yesterday She yesterday.
rang* not) ring*
It It
We We
They They

Question Short answer


I I
You Yes, You did.
He He
Did She start ring* yesterday? She
It It
No, didnt.
We We
They They
* See the list of irregular verbs on page 16.

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Use Examples
Finished situations and actions in the past I lived in Rome for two years.
He flew to America last week.
They didnt come to the party.
Where did you spend your last holiday?

- We often use the Past Simple with finished time phrases like yesterday, last week, an
hour ago.
- Regular verbs in the Past Simple end in ed. A dictionary tells you when the
consonant doubles (Group 3), and when the y changes to I (Group 4).

Work Play Wait


Group 1
worked played waited
Live Smile Close
Group 2
lived smiled closed
Stop Travel Plan
Group 3
stopped travelled planned
Study Worry Try
Group 4
studied worried tried

- When the infinitive ends in a / d / or a / t / sound, we pronounce the ed ending as /


id /
See Grammar timelines on page 36.

Comparative and superlative adjectives

Form Adjective Comparative Superlative


long longer longest
One
few fewer the fewest
syllable
hot hotter hottest
Two
syllables easy easier easiest
the
Ending in happy happier happiest
y
Two or famous famous famous
more crowded more crowded the most crowded
syllables expensive expensive expensive
good better best
bad worse worst
Irregular
much/many more the most
Adjectives
little less least
far farther / further farthest / furthest

Use Examples

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We use than after a comparative adjective. London is bigger than Paris.


Much can come before the comparative to He is much younger than his brother.
add emphasis. Tokyo is much more expensive than Rome.
We use the before a superlative adjective. Camary Wharf is the tallest building in
London.
As as shows something is the same or Greece is as sunny as Spain.
equal. I am as happy as you are.
Not as as shows something isnt the Italy isnt as big as France.
same or equal.

- One syllable adjectives ending with one vowel and a consonant double the
consonant:

Adjective Comparative Superlative


Big Bigger Biggest
Fat Fatter fattest

- This doesnt happen when the consonant is w or y:

Adjective Comparative Superlative


New Newer Newest
Grey Greyer greyest

Mass and Count nouns

Mass nouns

Use Examples
Mass nouns have no plural form. They want some information.
We do not use a or an with them. I dont like music
We use them with a singular verb form. This machinery is expensive.

Count nouns

Use Examples
Count nouns have a singular and plural form. This machine is expensive.
We use them with a and an. Did you have a good trip?
We use them with singular and plural verb forms. These machines are expensive.
Some nouns are both mass and count.

Mass / Count nouns

Use Examples
Mass (general meaning) James writes about wine.
She has a lot of experience of the travel industry.

Count (specific meaning) Hes writing a book about the wines of Italy.
I had some amusing experiences on my last holiday.

some, any, a lot of, much, many

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some

Use Examples
With mass and count nouns in positive I bought some tea.
sentences She made some appointments.
In offers and requests Would you like some coffee?
Could I have some information?

any

Use Examples
With mass and count nouns in negative I didnt buy any apples.
sentences in questions He didnt spend any money.
Did they give you any help?
Do you have any questions?

a lot of / lots of

Use Examples
With mass and count nouns in positive Theres a lot of traffic today.
sentences There are a lot of cars in the city centre.
Lots of people go jogging in the park.

much

Use Examples
With mass nouns in negative sentences, We havent got much luggage.
and in questions I dont have much time.
How much paper do you need?

many

Use Examples
With count nouns in negative sentences, We havent got many suitcases.
and in questions She didnt have many meetings.
How many people did you invite?
In positive sentences Many people are on holiday this week.

- In positive sentences, a lot of / lots of is more common than many.

- We can use a lot of / lots of in negative sentences and in questions.

- Lots of is mostly used in informal spoken English.

Present Perfect Simple

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Verb Verb
Positive Negative
examples examples
I I
You You havent
We ve (have) We
arrived. (have not) arrived.
They begun. They begun.
He He
hasnt (has
She s (has) She
not)
It It

Question Verb Short answer Verb


examples examples
I Yes, I have.
you you
Have we No, we havent.
they arrived? they
begun?
he Yes, he has.
Has she she
it No, it hasnt.

Use Examples
Finished experiences in your life up to Shes lived in China and Japan.
now Hes had experience of marketing
Have you ever been to Brazil?
Recent situations and actions in a time up Weve reduced prices.
to now Corporate business has increased
significantly.
Have you had a holiday this year?
Situations that started in the past and still Hes been an architect since 1992.
continue Shes had a translation agency for ten
years.
How long have you known her?
Past actions in a time up to now where we Shes designed a lot of fashion items for
give the quantity Burberrys.
How many letters have you written?

- gone to or been to?


Anns gone to New York, means shes in New York now, or shes on her way there.
Anns been to New York, means shes not in New York now. Her visit is over.

- contracted forms
In spoken English, we usually say Ive, youre, hes, etc.
In formal, written English we normally use I have, you have, he has, etc.

- For information on yet, just, already, see page 33.


See Grammar timelines on page 36.

Present Perfect Continuous

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Positive Negative
I I
You You havent
ve (have)
We We (have not)
been been
They They
working. working.
He He
hasnt (has
She s (has) She
not)
It It

Question Short answer


I Yes, I have.
you you
Have we we
been No, havent.
they they
working?
Has he Yes, he has.
she No, she hasnt.
it it

Use Examples
Actions that began in the past and Weve been producing pens since the 1980s.
continue to the present Hes been living here for five years.
How long have you been learning English?
Actions that began in the past and have You look very tired. Have you been working?
just stopped Im hot because Ive been running.

- The Present Perfect Continuous and Simple are similar in meaning. The form we use
often depends on whether we are more interested in the action or its result.
Ive been fixing the car. (My hands are dirty.)
Ive fixed the car. (Now I can drive to work.)

- We use the Present Perfect Continuous to say how long.


Theyve been interviewing people since 10 a.m.
Shes been writing letters all morning.
We use the Present Perfect Simple to say how many.
Theyve interviewed nine people. Shes written five letters.

for and since

Use Examples Use Examples


With a period of For three days, With a point in time Since Tuesday,
time five hours, a month, 8 August, 4 oclock,
ten minutes, ages last summer, 1982...

Future: going to

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Positive Negative
I I m not (am
m (am)
not)
He He
She s (is)
going to She isnt (is not) going to
It
You begin. It begin.
We You
They re (are) arent (are
We
not)
They

Question Short answer


I Yes, am.
Am I
he No, m not.
Is she
it going to Yes, he is.
begin? No, she isnt.
you it
Are we Yes, you are.
they No, we arent.
they

Use Examples
Future plans, intentions, and decisions Were going to buy a new car soon.
When are you going to have a holiday?
Im not going to have lunch today.
Future actions we feel certain about The skys very dark. Im sure its going to
because of what we can see now. rain.
Look out! That cars going to hit you!

- With come and go, we usually use the Present Continuous.


Im going on holiday soon.
Are they coming by car on Saturday?

Future: Present Continuous

For Present Continuous form see page 02.

Use Examples
Fixed future arrangements Im flying to Tokyo at 10 a.m. tomorrow.
When is the President arriving?
Im not playing golf this weekend.

Future: will

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Positive Verb example Negative Verb example


I I
You You
He He
wont
She ll (will) arrive. She arrive.
(will not)
It It
We We
They They

Question Verb example Short answer Verb example


I I
You Yes, You will.
He He
Will She arrive? She
It It wont (will
We No, We not).
They They

Use Examples
Future facts and predictions The new hotel will cost $ 10 million.
The construction work wont start until next
year.
How many jobs will there be?
Decisions made at the time of speaking Ill give you the report today.
Hold on a minute. Ill write down your phone
number.

Zero Conditional

If + Present Simple + Present Simple

Positive Negative
If I read too much, I get a headache If I didnt read too much, I didnt get a
headache.

Question Negative
You get a headache if you read too much? Yes, I get.
No, I dont get.

1st Conditional

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If + Present Simple + will + infinitive (without to)

Positive Negative
If they offer me the job, Ill accept it. If you dont study more, youll fail your
exam.
Well have a lot of work if we get the They wont visit us if theyre very busy.
contract. If they dont leave now, they wont arrive
on time.

Question Negative
Will you buy a new car if you have the money? Yes, I will.
If you ask him, will he tell you? No, he wont.
What will he do if his plane arrives late? -

Use Examples
Future possibilities and their results If the proposal becomes a reality, it will
revolutionize train travel in Europe.
If the weather is bad, the train will arrive before
the plane.

- The if clause can come before or after the main clause. When the if clause comes
first, we usually put a comma between it and the main clause.
If the meeting is successful, well sign the contract.
Well sign the contract if the meeting is successful.

- For things we are certain will happen, we use when nor if.
When he returns from the USA, hell contact you. (We know he will return.)
Well leave when we finish the work. (We know we will finish the work.)

2nd Conditional

If + Past Simple + would + infinitive (without to)

Positive Negative
If I had more time, I'd travel more. If he didnt earn so much, he wouldn't
spend so much.
He'd understand the reason if you I wouldn't invest in that company if I were
explained it. you.

Question Negative
Would you stop work if you won $ 1 million? Yes, I would.
Would he work abroad if he got the chance? No, he wouldn't.
If you had six months off work, how would you -
spend the time?

Use Examples

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Unlikely or unreal situations and If public transport were free, there would be
their probable results fewer cars in the city centres.
If I were the Transport Minister, I would increase
petrol prices.

- The if clause can come before or after the main clause. When the if clause comes
first, we usually put a comma between it and the main clause.
If I won a lot of money, I'd buy a Ferrari.
I'd buy a Ferrari if I won a lot of money.

- With I, he, and she, we can use was instead of were in the if clause, especially in a
more informal style.
If it was less expensive, he would buy it.

- Could is both the Past and the Conditional of can.


When she lived in Paris, she could visit the Louvre at any time. (Past)
We could make some of the money if we charged motorists. (Conditional)

- The Past tense does not refer to past time in a conditional sentence. If refers to an
unreal situation.
If I were the Transport Minister... (but I'm not).

3rd Conditional

If + Past Perfect + would have + Past Participle

Positive Negative
If I had studied, I would have passed the If I had known that day we had a test, I
exam. wouldnt have spent the night drinking.

Question Negative
Would you have passed the exam if you Yes, I would have.
had studied? No, I wouldnt have.

Use Examples
Criticizing people, pointing out their If I had known, I would have gone to visit
mistakes or expressing regret about the you.
past.

Modal verbs

Can Could May Might Shall Should Will would Must Mustn't Needn't

Modal verbs add extra meaning to the main verb.

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Use Examples

Necessity He must have a visa.

Prohibition He mustn't leave without paying.

No necessity You needn't make an appointment.

Advice You should always be punctual.


You shouldn't use first names.

Possibility Paperwork can take a long time.


Your host may invite you to his home.
I might be late.

Use Examples

Permission Can I use your phone?


Could I interrupt you for a moment?
May I borrow your car?

Ability Can you speak Spanish?


She could swim when she was three.

Requests Could you repeat that, please?


Will you post this letter for me?
Would you type this letter, please?

Offers Would you like a drink?


Shall I call a taxi for you?

- The form of a modal verb is the same for all persons. We don't add -s to the 3 rd
person singular of a modal verb.
I/You/He/She/It/We/They may arrive late.
He can speak German.

- We don't use to after modal verbs.


I must to go now.

- To make the negative of a modal verb, we add not or n't. We don't use don't and
doesn't.
He can't/cannot speak Japanese.
You mustn't/must not drive on the right in the UK.
She may not arrive before you leave.

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- We can't add -n't to may.


She mayn't arrive before you leave.

- We put the modal verb before I/you/he, etc. to make a question.


Should I confirm the booking by letter?

- With I and we, we use shall for offers, and when asking for and making suggestions.
Shall I close the door?
What shall we do?
Shall we go to the park?

- We can use have to for necessity.


I have to work overtime sometimes.
We can use don't have to when there is no necessity.
I don't have to work on Saturdays.

The Passive

Be (is/was/have been, etc.) + past participle (produced/built/grown, etc.)

Positive Negative
Coffee is grown in Brazil. Cigarette advertising isn't allowed in
The company was founded in 1970. cinemas.
Vines have been grown in this area for Prices weren't increased last year.
over 2000 years. A decision hasnt been made yet.

Question Short answer


Are Peugeot cars made in France? Yes, they are.
Were the goods delivered on time? No, they weren't.
Has the factory been built yet? Yes, it has.
How is champagne produced? -
When will it be finished? -
How long has this method been used? -

Use Examples

We use the Passive when the person or Active


thing that does the action isn't important, or The architect IM Pei designed the Louvre
when we don't know who does it. If we Pyramid in Paris.
want to say who does or did the action we
use by. Passive
The Louvre Pyramid in Paris was designed
by IM Pei.

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Prepositions of time

Month/season/year/century
June
Winter
In
1996
The 21st century

Part of the day


The morning
In The afternoon
The evening

Day/date

Tuesday
6 December
Easter Monday
On
Christmas Day
Friday morning
Wednesday evenings.

Time/meal time

Six o'clock
At Lunch time
Midnight

Period of two or three days

The weekend
At Christmas
Easter

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Prepositions of place and direction

preposition use Examples


above higher than sth. The picture hangs above my bed.
from one side to the You mustn't go across this road here.
across
other side There isn't a bridge across the river.
The cat ran after the dog.
after one follows the other
After you.
against directed towards sth. The bird flew against the window.
in a line; from one point
along They're walking along the beach.
to another
among in a group I like being among people.
around in a circular way We're sitting around the campfire.
behind at the back of Our house is behind the supermarket.
below lower than sth. Death Valley is 86 metres below sea level.
beside next to Our house is beside the supermarket.
Our house is between the supermarket and the
between sth./sb. is on each side
school.
by near He lives in the house by the river.
close to near Our house is close to the supermarket.
down from high to low He came down the hill.
from the place where it starts Do you come from Tokyo?
the part that is in the
in front of Our house is in front of the supermarket.
direction it faces
inside opposite of outside You shouldn't stay inside the castle.
into entering sth. You shouldn't go into the castle.
near close to Our house is near the supermarket.
next to beside Our house is next to the supermarket.
off away from sth. The cat jumped off the roof.
onto moving to a place The cat jumped onto the roof.
opposite on the other side Our house is opposite the supermarket.
out of leaving sth. The cat jumped out of the window.
outside opposite of inside Can you wait outside?
over above sth./sb. The cat jumped over the wall.

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past going near sth./sb. Go past the post office.


round in a circle We're sitting round the campfire.
going from one point to
through You shouldn't walk through the forest.
the other point

I like going to Australia.


to towards sth./sb. Can you come to me?
I've never been to Africa.
towards in the direction of sth. They walk towards the castle.
under below sth. The cat is under the table.
up from low to high He went up the hill.

Irregular verbs

Present Past Past Participle


awake awoke awoken
be was, were been
bear bore born
beat beat beat
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
beset beset beset
bet bet bet
bid bid/bade bid/bidden
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burned/burnt burned/burnt
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept

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cut cut cut


deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dive dived/dove dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt
drive drove driven
drink drank drunk
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit fit fit
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
forego
(forgo) forewent foregone
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
get got gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
knit knit knit
know knew know
lay laid laid
lead led led
leap leaped/lept leaped/lept
learn learned/learnt learned/learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let

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lie lay lain


light lighted/lit lighted
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
misspell misspelled/misspelt misspelled/misspelt
mistake mistook mistaken
mow mowed mowed/mown
overcome overcame overcome
overdo overdid overdone
overtake overtook overtaken
overthrow overthrew overthrown
pay paid paid
plead pled pled
prove proved proved/proven
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw sawed sawed/sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewed/sewn
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaved/shaven
shear shore shorn
shed shed shed
shine shone shone
shoe shoed shoed/shod
shoot shot shot
show showed showed/shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slay slew slain

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slide slid slid


sling slung slung
slit slit slit
smite smote smitten
sow sowed sowed/sown
speak spoke spoken
speed sped sped
spend spent spent
spill spilled/spilt spilled/spilt
spin spun spun
spit spit/spat spit
split split split
spread spread spread
spring sprang/sprung sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
stride strod stridden
strike struck struck
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swelled/swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
thrive thrived/throve thrived
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden
understand understood understood
uphold upheld upheld
upset upset upset
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
weave weaved/wove weaved/woven
wed wed wed
weep wept wept
wind wound wound
win won won
withhold withheld withheld

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withstand withstood withstood


wring wrung wrung
write wrote written

SOCIAL ENGLISH

Meeting people

Introductions

May/Can I introduce myself?


My name's... (James Turner for example).
I'm... (Monique Bresson).

May/Can I introduce a good friend of mine?


This is... (Roberto Angelini).

Excuse me, are you... (Duncan Ross)?


Hello, you must be... (Luigi Bastini).

I'd like to/let me introduce you to... (Tony White).

How do you do. How do you do.


Pleased to meet you. Pleased to meet you, too.
Please call me... (Luigi). Then you must call me... (Monique).

Greetings

Hello,... (Roberto).
Good/Nice to see you again.

How are you? Fine, thanks. And you?


How are things? Not too bad, thanks.
How's the family? Very well, thank you.

Good morning/afternoon/evening.

- We only say Good night when we are leaving. We don't use it as a greeting.

Goodbyes

I must go now.
We really must leave now.
I must be off.

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It was very nice meeting you. I really enjoyed meeting you, too.
Have a good trip/journey/flight. Thank you... (and the same to you).
I hope to see you again. I hope so, too.

I look forward to... (seeing you again).


I'm looking forward to... (our next meeting).

See you on the (first July)/next week/soon.


Have a good... trip back/flight back.

Telephoning

Making contact

Hello. This is... (James Turner)

Is that... (Monique Bresson)? Yes, speaking.


I'd like to speak to... (Mr. Brown). Who's calling, please?
Could I speak to... (Manfred Weiss)? May I know who's calling, please?

I'm calling about... (the letter I sent you).

Hold the line, please.

I'm sorry... (Mr Weiss) is in a meeting at the moment.


I'm afraid... (he)'s busy at present.
I'm afraid... (she) isn't here.

Leaving a message

Can I... take a message?


Can I... leave a message?

Could you take a message?


Could you ask... (her) to call... (Luigi Bastini)?
Could you tell... (him) that... (Duncan Ross) called?

Could you spell... (your name), please?


What's your number, please?

Welcoming a visitor

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Did you have a good journey?


How was your flight?
The journey here Did you have any problems finding us?
How did you get here?
Are you here on business?

What do you do?


Work Where do you work?
What are you working on currently?

The weather What was the weather like in... (London)?

Do you travel a lot?


Travel and holidays Which countries do you visit?
Where did you spend... (your last holiday)?

Where do you live?


The visitor
Which part of the country/city is that?

What do you think of... (the new airport)?


First impressions Is this your first visit to... (Barcelona)?
How long are you here for?

What do you do at the weekends?


Sports and leisure
Do you play any sports?

What's the latest news on... (the election)?


News
Is there any news about... (the conference)?

Staying at a hotel

Booking a hotel

I'd like to book a singe/double room for 4 April.

Arriving at a hotel

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I have a reservation.

Making requests

I'd like a room, please.


Could I have an early morning call, at 6.30?
Could I have my bill, please?
Can I pay by credit card?

At a restaurant

Recommending
What do you recommend?
The... (seafood) is usually excellent here.
I recommend the... (chicken).

Ordering
I'll/We'll have... (smoked Scottish salmon).

I'd/We'd like... (the roast Normandy pork).

Could we have... (a bottle of mineral water)?

Offering
Do have some more... (prawns).
What about... (dessert)?
How about... (some strawberries)?
Would you like... (a coffee)?

Accepting
Yes, I'd like that.
Yes, that would be very nice.

Declining
Thank you, but I couldn't eat any more.
No, thank you.

Thanking and responding

Thank you for a really excellent meal. Don't mention it.


Thank you for a lovely evening. I enjoyed it very much, too.

Making arrangements

Making an appointment

would be convenient for you?


When could we meet?
What time are you free?
would suit you?

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Shall we say... (next Tuesday)? Yes,... (Tuesday) suits me fine.


Is... (9.30) possible for you? Yes, that's fine.
How about... (Friday)? Yes, I can make it on... (Friday).
What about... (the afternoon)? No, I'm afraid I've got another appointment
then.

I look forward to meeting you on... (Wednesday).


See you... (next week).

Changing an appointment
I'm very sorry I have to cancel the appointment on... (Friday).
I'm afraid I can't manage our meeting... (tomorrow).
Could we arrange another time?

Opinions and suggestions

What do you think about... (the design)?


Asking for opinions What's your opinion of... (the quality)?
How do you feel about... (the price)?

I agree.
Agreeing I certainly agree with that.
I agree completely.

Do you have any suggestions for... (the


agenda)?
Asking for suggestions
Any ideas on... (the parking problem)?

I suggest... (we meet at the hotel).


How about... (going by plane)?
What about... (giving a talk)?
Making suggestions
Why don't we... (have a meeting)?
Why not... (finish with a party)?
We could... (arrange a tennis tournament).

In my opinion... (it's excellent).


Giving opinions
I think... (it's rather expensive).

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I'm afraid I don't agree.


Disagreeing
I'm sorry, but I disagree.

Yes, that's a good idea.


Accepting suggestions
Yes, let's do that.

Yes, but... (it's too far away).


Rejecting Suggestions I'm not sure about that.
I'm afraid I don't like that idea.

Invitations

I'd like to invite you to... (have dinner with me).


Would you join us... (for a game of tennis)?
Inviting Would you like to... (come swimming)?
Why don't you... (have lunch with us)?
How about... (joining us)?

Thank you. I'm delighted to accept.


Accepting Thank you. I'd love to.
Thank you. I'd enjoy that.

I'd love to, but... (I'm afraid I can't).


Declining
Thanks a lot but... (I've made another arrangement).

Offers

Shall I... (open the window)?


Do you want me to... (post the letter for you)?
Offering
If you like, I can... (give you some help).
Would you like me to... (arrange a meeting)?

Yes, please.
Thank you.
Accepting
That's very kind of you.
Thank you. I'd appreciate that.

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Thanks, but please don't bother.


Declining Thanks, but that won't be necessary.
That's very kind of you, but... (I can manage).

Requests

Can you... (come tomorrow)?


Could you... (write her a letter)?
Would you... (book the hotel)?
Requesting
Do you think you could... (check it)?
Would you mind... (checking it)?
Do you mind... (checking it)?

Yes, of course.
Yes, certainly.
Agreeing
Not at all.
No, of course not.

I think that will be difficult... (there isn't enough time).


I'm afraid not... (I'm very busy).
Refusing
I'm sorry, but that's not possible... (I'm leaving now).
I'm afraid not.

Asking for information

I'd like some information about... (fights to Paris).


I'd like to know... (how long it takes).
Asking
Do you know... (when the train arrives)?
Can/could you tell me... (how often the trains leave)?

I see.
Showing understanding Right, I've got that.
So,... (the next train's in half an hour)

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Let me check.
Checking
I'll look that up.

Could you repeat that, please?


Asking for repetition
Could you say that again?

I'm afraid I don't have any information about... (domestic


Apologizing flights).

Social responses

Thanking

Thanks for all your help. Don't mention it.


Thank you for your advice. Not at all.
You're welcome. (US)

Apologizing

Sorry I'm late. It doesn't matter.


I'm sorry. I've broken a glass. Don't worry.
Never mind.

Asking for repetition

Sorry?
Pardon?
Could you repeat that, please?
I'm sorry, I didn't catch... (your name).

Asking and giving permission

May I sit here? Yes, of course.


Could I use your phone? Please do.
Yes, certainly.
Do you mind if I open the window? No, not at all.

Refusing permission

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Could I borrow your car? Sorry, but I need it.


Do you mind if I smoke? Well, I'd rather you didn't.

Giving and passing things

Have you got the tickets? Yes, here they are.


Could you pass the bread, please? Yes, here you are.

Expressing surprise

Theyve got six children now. Really!

Responding to good news

I've passed my final exams! Congratulations!


That's great!

Responding to bad news

I failed my driving test. Oh, I'm sorry to hear that.

Responding to good wishes

Have a good weekend. Thanks. You too.


I hope you enjoy your holiday. Thanks, and the same to you.

Saying goodbye

Thanking for hospitality

Thank you for inviting us. We've had a wonderful time.


for everything. It was really enjoyable.
very much for your hospitality. I really appreciate it.
Everything was great.

Thanks a lot.

Responding to thanks

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I'm glad you could come.


enjoyed it.
found it interesting.
like it.

Asking for help

Sorry, I don't understand.


I don't know what... (currently) means.
What does... (working knowledge) mean?
What do you call this in English?
How do you say... (je voudrais une chambre) in English?
Could you say that again, please?
Could you repeat that, please?
Could you speak more slowly, please?
Could you spell that, please?
Could you write that down, please?

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OTHER USEFUL INFORMATION

Business correspondence

CUNNINGHAM ASSOCIATES
26, Trent Rd, Bicester, Oxon OX6 8RN
Tel: 0861 204950 Fax: 0861 204900

22 February 1996

Jean Paul Leclerc


ZigZag SA
74, rue Jules Ferry
75116 Paris

Dear Mr Lederc

Thank you for your letter of 15 January. I apologize for not replying sooner.

I am writing to inform you that I am coming to Paris on 7 March.

I would be delighted to meet you to discuss the fashion show, as you suggested.

Unfortunately, as I am flying to Rome in the afternoon, I will not be able to visit your
factory, and cannot attend your company dinner in the evening.

I would be grateful if you could send me your catalogue and price list as soon as
possible, as I would like to show your Summer Collection to the fashion buyers at our
monthly meeting next week.

I am enclosing a copy of an excellent magazine article about fashion retailers in this


country. I hope you find it interesting.

I look forward to meeting you next month. Please let me know if you would like any
further information.

Yours sincerely

David Cunningham

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President

Opening

Dear Sir
Madam
Mr... Murphy
Mrs... Hobbs
Miss... Young
Ms... White
.... George
Dr... Green

- When you don't know the receiver's name, use Sir or Madam.
For a man, use the receiver's family name with Mr.
For a married woman, use the receiver's family name with Mrs. or Ms.
For an unmarried woman, use the receiver's family name with Miss or Ms.
For a close business contact or friend, use the receiver's first name.
For a doctor, us Dr. and the family name.

- Ms can replace Mrs and Miss. It doesn't indicate whether a woman is married.

Making reference

Thank you for your telephone call today.

With reference to your letter of 8 January...

Further to Your letter of 30 August,...

Apologizing

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I apologize for the delay.


not replying sooner.

I am sorry that I am not able to help you.

Explaining the reason for writing

I am writing to ask you...


enquire about...
inform you that...
confirm...

Agreeing to requests

I would be Delighted to...


pleased to...

Giving bad news

I am afraid that...
Unfortunately...

Requesting

I would be grateful if you could...


We would appreciate it if you could...
Could you possibly...?

Enclosing documents

I have pleasure in enclosing...


I am enclosing...
I enclose...

Referring to future contact

meeting you next month.


I look forward to receiving your reply.
hearing from you soon.

Finishing

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Please let me know if you have any questions.


Please contact us again if we can help in any way.
you would like further information.

Closing

Yours faithfully
sincerely

Best wishes

- When you open the letter with Dear Sir or Dear Madam, use Yours faithfully.
When you open the letter with the receiver's family name, use Yours sincerely.
For a close business contact or friend, use Best wishes.

American English

This section describes some differences between American and British English. The
differences are not very great, and they may vary between regions across the USA.

have/have got
To express possession, British people often say have got.

British British/American

I've got a German car. Yes, I have. I have an Italian car. Yes, I do.
Have you got a fax machine? No, I haven't. Do you have any children? No, I don't.

The difference is only in the Present Simple. There is no difference in other tenses.
When we use the verb have for an action, there is no difference between American
and British English.

British/American

I have an English lesson every week. Yes, I do.


Do you have coffee for breakfast? No, I don't.

Present Perfect/Past Simple

Where British English uses the Present Perfect, American English often uses the Past
Simple.

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British American

I've just finished the report. I just finished the report.


Have you seen her yet? Did you see her yet?
I haven't finished the work yet. I didn't finish the work yet.
We're already met. We already met.

Dates (written)

British American

2.11.94 2 November 1994 11/2/94 November 2 1994

Dates (spoken)

British American

She started work on the second of She started work on November second,
November, nineteen ninety-four. nineteen ninety-four.
Prepositions

British American

at the weekend on the weekend


five minutes past two five minutes past/after two
ten minutes to six ten minutes to/of six
write to me write me
meet someone meet with someone
stay at home stay home
Tuesday to Saturday Tuesday through Saturday
Visit somebody visit with somebody

Vocabulary

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British American

Flat Apartment
car automobile
taxi cab
chemist's drug store
lift elevator
autumn fall
tap faucet
ground floor first floor
motorway freeway
petrol gas
post mail
cinema movie theater
trousers pants
wallet pocketbook
railway railroad
toilet rest room
return ticket round trip ticket
pavement sidewalk
tube / underground subway
holiday vacation

Mathematical terms

+ 3+5=8 Three plus five is eight

- 71=6 Seven minus one is six

/ 20 / 2 = 10 Twenty divided by two is ten.

x 3x3=9 Three times/multiplied by three is nine.

= 1+4=5 One plus four is/equals five.

% 75% Seventy five per cent.

1/4 A quarter

1/3 A third

1/2 A half

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+ 3+5=8 Three plus five is eight

1 1/2 One and a half

Countries and nationalities

Country Nationality Country Nationality

America (the USA) American India Indian

Australia Australian Ireland Irish

Austria Austrian Italy Italian

Belgium Belgian Japan Japanese

Brazil Brazilian The Netherlands Dutch

Canada Canadian Norway Norwegian

China Chinese Poland Polish

The Czech Republic Czech Portugal Portuguese

Denmark Danish Romania Romanian

Finland Finnish Russia Russian

France French Slovakia Slovak

Germany German Spain Spanish

Great Britain (UK) British Sweden Swedish

Greece Greek Switzerland Swiss

Hungary Hungarian Turkey Turkish

Grammar timelines

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Phrasal Verbs

Many verbs in English are followed by an adverb or a preposition (also called a


particle), and these two-part verbs, also called phrasal verbs, are different from verbs
with helpers. The particle that follows the verb changes the meaning of the phrasal
verb in idiomatic ways:

VERB MEANING EXAMPLE


drop off decline gradually The hill dropped off near the river.
While doing his homework, he
drop off(2) fall asleep
dropped off.
stop and give something to Would you drop this off at the post
drop off(3)
someone office?
After two laps, the runner dropped
drop out cease to participate
out.
Some particles can be separated from the verb so that a noun and pronoun can be
inserted, and some particles can't be separated from the verb. In addition, some
phrases are intransitive, meaning they cannot take a direct object.

add up (meaning:
Separable Correct: She added up the total on her calculator.
to add)
Correct: She added it up on her calculator.
get around
Inseparable (meaning: to Correct: She always gets around the rules.
evade)
Incorrect: She always gets the rules around (This
construction makes no sense in English.)
catch on (meaning: Correct: After I explained the math problem, she began
Intransitive
to understand) to catch on.
Incorrect: She began to catch on the math problem.
(catch on cannot take a direct object in this meaning.)
Correct: She began to catch on to the math problem.
(the word to makes the math problem an indirect

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object, which is acceptable in this meaning.)

Unfortunately, there is usually no indicator whether an idiomatic phrase is separable,


inseparable, or intransitive. In most cases the phrases must simply be memorized.
Below is a partial list of each kind of phrase.

Separable

add up - add
back up - cause to move backwards; support; blow up; cause to explode; destroy by
explosives
break down - analyze; list the parts of separately
break into - go into a house or room forcibly; suddenly; begin; bring about - cause to
happen
bring off - accomplish
bring on - cause
bring out - publish; emphasize
bring over - bring
bring to - revive
bring up - raise; care for from childhood
brush out - brush the inside of
burn down - destroy by burning
burn up - consume by fire
buy out - by the other person's share of a business
buy up - buy the whole supply of
call off - cancel; order away
call up - telephone; summon for military service
calm down - become calm
carry on - continue
carry out - fulfill; complete; accomplish; perform
carry over - carry; continue at another time or place
cheer up - cause to become cheerful
chew up - chew thoroughly
chop up - chop into small pieces
clean off - clean the surface of
clean out - clean the inside of
clean up - clarify; tidy
clear out - clear the surface of
clear up - clear the inside of
close down - close permanently
close up - close temporarily
count in - include
count out - exclude
count up - calculate; count; add to a total
cross out - eliminate
cut off - interrupt; sever; amputate
cut out - eliminate; delete
cut down - reduce in quantity
draw up - write; compose (a document)
dress up - put clothes on; adorn
dust out - dust the inside of

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eat up - eat completely


figure out - interpret; understand
figure up - compute
fill in - complete (a printed form)
fill out - complete (a printed form)
fill up - fill completely (a container)
find out - discover
fix up - repair; arrange in a suitable manner
get across - cause to be understood
give back - return
give out - distribute; announce
give up - surrender something
hand down - deliver; pronounce formally; leave as an inheritance
hand over - yield control of
hang up - suspend
have on - be dressed in
have over - entertain someone informally at one's home
hold off - delay; restrain
hold up - delay; rob; threaten with a weapon
keep up - continue; keep the same pace
leave out - omit
let down - disappoint
let out - release from confinement; make larger (in sewing)
light up - light; illuminate thoroughly
live down - live in such a way as to cause something to be forgotten
make over - remake
move over - move to the side
pass out - distribute
pass up - not take advantage of (as an opportunity)
pass on - transmit
pay back - repay
pay off - discharge a debt completely; give someone his final pay
pick up - come to meet an escort; lift with hands or fingers; learn casually;
initiate an association publicly
play down - minimize
play up - emphasize
point out - indicate
pull down - pull in a downward direction; raze
push across - cause to be understood or accepted
put off - postpone
put on - dress in; deceive or fool
put up - preserve (food); receive as an overnight guest
quiet down - be quiet
ring up - the telephone
rinse off - rinse the surface of
rinse out - rinse the inside of
rule out - eliminate
run down - trace; disparage; hit with a vehicle
run off - cause to depart; reproduce mechanically
save up - accumulate
see through - complete; in spite of difficulties

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see off - accompany someone to the beginning of a trip


send back - send to a place where formerly located
send over - send to where someone is
set up - arrange
show off - exhibit ostentatiously
shut off - cause to cease functioning
slow up - cause to move more slowly
spell out - enumerate; state in detail
stand up - fail to keep an appointment with
sweep out - sweep the inside of
take back - return; retract a statement
take down - remove from a high position; write from dictation
take in - understood; fool; deceive; make smaller (in sewing)
take over - take; assume command of
tear down - destroy
tear up - tear into small pieces
tell off - scold; reprimand
think over - consider
think through - consider from beginning to end
think up - create; invent
throw away - discard
throw over - reject
tie up - tie securely or tight
tire out - cause to be exhausted
touch up - repair
try on - put on a garment to verify the fit
try out - test
turn down - refuse; lower the volume
turn out - produce; force into exile, extinguish (a light)
wash off - wash the surface of
wash out - wash the inside of
wear out - use until no longer usable; tire greatly
wind up - finish, tighten the spring of a watch or machine
wipe off - wipe the surface of
wipe out - wipe the inside of; decimate
work out - solve
write down - record
write out - write down every detail; spell out
write up - compose; prepare (a document)

Inseparable

back out of - desert; fail to keep a promise


bear down on - lean on; browbeat
bear on - have to do with
bear up under - endure
break in on - interrupt
break into - interrupt
call for - come to get; require
care for - like; guard; supervise; maintain
carry on with - continue

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catch up with - cover the distance between oneself and


check up on - examine; verify
come across - find accidentally
come along with - accompany; make progress
come by - find accidentally
come down with - become ill with
come out with - utter; produce
come up with - utter; produce
count on - rely on
cut in on - interrupt
disagree with - cause illness or discomfort to
do away with - abolish
do without - deprive oneself of
drop in at/on - visit casually without planning
drop out of - leave; quit
face up to - acknowledge
fall behind in - lag; not progress at required pace
fall back on - use for emergency purpose
fall out with - quarrel with
fill in for - substitute for
get ahead of - surpass; beat
get around - evade; avoid
get away with - do without being caught or punished
get by with - manage with a minimum of effort
get down to - become serious about; consider
get in - enter (a vehicle)
get off - descend from; leave
get on - enter (a vehicle); mount
get on with - proceed with
get through with - terminate, finish
go back on - desert; fail to keep (a promise)
go for - like a great deal
go in for - be interested in; participate in
go on with - continue
go over - review
go with - harmonize with; look pleasing together
go without - abstain from
hang around - remain idly in the vicinity of
hear from - receive a communication from
hear of - learn about (sometimes accidentally)
hit on - discover accidentally
hold on to - grasp tightly
hold out against - resist
keep at - persevere at
keep to - persist in; continue
keep up with - maintain the pace of
lie down on - evade; fail to do
live on - support or sustain oneself by means of
live up to - maintain the standard demanded of
look after - take care of
look back on - remember nostalgically

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look down on - feel superior to


look forward to - anticipate
look up to - respect; admire
make up for - compensate for
pass on - transmit
pick on - tease; bully
play up to - flatter for personal advantage
put up with - tolerate
read up on - search out information on
run against - compete against in an election
run away with - leave; escape from
run for - campaign for
see about - consider; arrange
see to - arrange; supervise
settle on - decide on; choose
stand for - represent; permit
stand up for - support; demand
stand up to - resist
stick to - persist
stick up for - support; defend
take after - resemble
talk back to - answer impolitely
talk over - discuss
tell on - report misbehavior to authority
touch on - mention briefly
turn into - become
wait on - serve
wait up for - not go to bed while waiting for
watch out for - be careful for
Intransitive
back down - retreat from a position in an argument
back out - desert; fail to keep a promise
back up - move backwards
bear up - endure
blow in - drop in to visit unexpectedly
blow over - pass without doing harm
blow up - explode; lose one's temper
call up - telephone
calm down - become calm
carry on - continue as before; misbehave
catch on - understand
catch up - cover the distance between oneself and a moving goal
check up - investigate
check out - leave; pay one's bill
cheer up - become cheerful
clear out - leave
clear up - become clear
close down - close permanently
close up - close temporarily
came about - happen
come along - accompany; make progress

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come back - return


come by - visit someone in his home
come out - appear; make a social debut
come over - come to someone's house, to where someone is
come through - succeed
come to - regain consciousness
cut in - interrupt
die away - fade; diminish
die down - fade; diminish
die off/out - disappear; become extinct
dress up - don fancy or unusual clothes
drive back - return by car
drop in - visit someone casually without planning
drop out - abandon some organized activity; leave; quit
drop over - visit someone casually
fall behind - not progress at required pace
fall off - decrease; lose weight
fall through - fail; not be accomplished
fill in - substitute
find out - learn
fly back - return by air
fly over - fly to where someone is
get ahead - make progress
get along - have a friendly relationship
get around - circulate; move about
get away - escape
get by - manage; either just barely or with a minimum of effort
get in - enter
get off - descend from leave
get on - enter (a vehicle); mount (a horse, etc.)
get on/along - progress; be compatible
get up - rise
get through - finish
give out - become exhausted
give up - surrender; fail to finish
go back - return
go off - explode
go on - happen; continue
go out - stop burning; leave one's residence
go over - go; succeed
grow up - mature
hang around - remain idly; dawdle
hang up - replace a telephone receive on its hook
hold on - grasp tightly; persevere; wait while telephoning
hold out - continue to resist; persevere; persist
keep on - continue
keep up - maintain the required pace or standard; continue
let up - diminish in intensity
lie down - recline
look on - be a spectator
make out - progress; succeed

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make up - become reconciled


move over - move to the side
pan out - turn out well; be successful
pass out - become unconscious
pass on - die
pick up - grow; increase
pull in - arrive
pull out - deport
pull through - survive (barely)
ride over - ride to where someone is
run away - escape; leave; leave quickly without permission
run down - slowly lose power so as to stop functioning
run off - depart running; drain
sell out - sell the ownership or responsibility
settle up - pay one's bills or debts
show off - boast by words or actions
show up - arrive; appear unexpectedly
shut up - stop talking
slow up - reduce speed
stand by - wait; be prepared to assist
stand up - stand; rise from sitting; last; endure
stay over - remain at someone's house overnight or longer
step aside - move to one side
take off - leave the ground
take over - assume command
talk back - answer impolitely
throw up - vomit
turn around - turn so that one is facing another direction
turn in - go to bed
turn out - succeed; come; appear, as at a public meeting
turn up - arrive; be found unexpectedly
wait up - remain awake in anticipation
wake up - awaken
walk back - return on foot to where one was
walk over - walk to where someone is
wash out - fade or disappear from washing
watch out - be careful
wear off - fade; disappear through use or time
wear out - become unusable through use; become used up
work out - be successful

The Lords prayer

Our father who art in heaven, hollowed be thy name thy kingdom come.
Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven give us, this day, our daily bread and
forgive our trespasses as we forgive them that trespass against us and lead us not into
temptation but deliver us from evil. Amen

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